Base 1 + seru / saseru [L22]

These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. In English we fortunately have three different words which allow us to easily adjust the meaning to the one we want to convey. Accordingly, "I'll let him go to the store," "I'll have him go to the store," and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. In Japanese, however, seru, for yodan verbs, and saseru, for the others, are used for all of these. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings, or feelings, as in "let him" vs. "make him," can be conveyed. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru, like this:

Obaa-san wa kodomotachi ni soto de asobaseru. (Grandma lets the children play outside.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day.)

And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru:

Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. (I'll have John decide by next week.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. (I'll have him come tomorrow.)

With suru verbs, suru is simply replaced with saseru:

Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. (Dad will make Bob study.) Kanojo ni saseru. (I'll have her do it.)


As you can see, in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object, which is signified by adding ni after it. One tricky thing is that there are some verbs which already have a "set form" to convey this meaning, and do not follow the above rules. A good example is miseru, which means "to show" or "to let see," as in:

Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. (He lets them watch TV every day.)

So, although miru is an ichidan verb, you won't hear or see "misaseru." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions, you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own set forms which are used instead. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru end in eru, they can be conjugated further like any other ichidan verb, making it easy to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons in order to make them negative, past tense, polite, and etc. For example:
• • • • •

Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni ame o tabesasemasen. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. (I want to have Kenji study English.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. (Let's have John go to the store.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?)

These examples all use Base 2 final endings. Please review any you may have forgotten.

Base 3 + tsumori [L46]

Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention:

Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. (I plan to be back by three o'clock.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori da to omou. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada.)


) In case you're wondering. You will. (We have to wait until Bob calls.htm] This one is very easy. Base 3 + made [L33] [http://www." used a lot. so please be careful not to confuse them.) • • 3 . build up. which means "to accumulate.timwerx. technically speaking. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. (It's two weeks until summer vacation. however. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University.) Natsu yasumi made. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. or seasons: • Yuushoku made machinasai. ato ni shuu kan desu. While sounding alike. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • Yukiko ga kuru made taberu koto wa dekimasen.) • • As in English.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.• Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. their meanings are completely different. (I won't let you watch TV until your homework is finished. yes. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. Made means "until.) Bob ga denwa suru made matanakereba hear the other verb tsumoru. periods. (Wait until dinner.

I became able to eat sushi. huh? I hope the literal translations give you a sense of why the example sentences mean what they do. 毎日、肉を食べるようになった。 It seems like I started eating meat everyday. Let's take this opportunity to get some potential conjugation practice in.. 海外に行くことにした。 I decided I will go abroad. (lit: It became the event of going abroad. Pretty clever. For example. (lit: I did toward the event of going abroad.) You can modify a verb with 「 な る 」 or 「 す る 」 by first making it into a noun clause and then treating it just like a regular noun. it's really only a target towards acting in a certain manner. 日本に来て、寿司が食べられるようになった。 After coming to Japan.Using 「なる」 and 「する」with verbs [http://www. in (4)「 ~ よ う に す る 」 translates into "to make an effort toward. that's why the 「 を 」 particle couldn't be used).." but in Japanese. In this case. (lit: I will do toward the manner of eating meat everyday. 毎日、肉を食べるようにする。 I will try to eat meat everyday. (lit: It became the appearance of eating meat everyday. they allow us to describe verbs in the same manner as nouns. 1.html#part4] You may be wondering how to use 「なる」 and 「する」 with verbs since there's no way to directly modify a verb with another verb. it is often used in conjunction with 「 ~ よ う に な る 」 to describe a change in manner to a state of feasibility. 4 .) 3. Since potential verbs describe a state of feasibility rather than an action (remember. 海外に行くことになった。 It's been decided that I will go 4. Here are some examples of how to use these generic nouns with 「する」 and 「なる」. These nouns don't refer to anything specific and are used to describe something else.) 2. 1. The simple solution is to add a generic noun such as a generic event: こ と ( 事 ) or an appearance/manner: よう (様).

For example. I can see several things which need to be explained — things I'd like to explain. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train — watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: WA indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence." GA indicates a subject within a phrase. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above." and who in "There's the man who I saw in the station yesterday. Continuing with the above example. For a quick review. But. as I sit here and look at these four phrases." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. And. that's another story. a "sub-subject. 一年間練習したから、ピアノが弾 る よ う になった。 け Because I practiced for one year. 3. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. For example.. a time. to make matters worse. ga tells us who will take the train. to offer very general.2. respectively. and is handled by the final verb. but hopefully sufficient for the present. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. Base 3 + (any noun) [L36] [http://www. Fuji-san became not visible." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. which are examples involving a thing. there are no "relative pronouns. densha (train) is the main subject.. I became able to play the piano. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English." you might say.) In this sentence. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. explanations. and a person.htm] In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns: words that connect a noun to an action. or a noun which needs emphasis. 地下に入って、富士山が見えなくなった。 After going underground. 5 . (My train leaves at eight o'clock.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. a place. they are like which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present." In Japanese.timwerx. but can't without going off on a tangent which would require a completely new and lengthy

The problem is that the rules are totally different for each language. semi-accurate rule. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my little brother's birthday present. let's translate one of the examples used at the beginning of the lesson: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. (Spring is the season that brings new life. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. As you can see. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. Kobe is a place.) This one is pretty straightforward. and should not be too difficult. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. to get back to the lesson. here is one last example: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. the watashi (I) telling who will buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. and vice versa. so tokoro is used after the verb. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something unnecessary can be omitted. a truer English translation would be.) In this one.NO is often used in place of ga. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. and therefore omitted.) 1 Now. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. 6 . "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. Now let's do another example: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. As a general. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). Finally. (That is Kimiko's umbrella.) Since this is natural Japanese. As you may have noticed. you must forget all the rules of the other. and when trying to make sense of one." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English." as a relative pronoun. the English "where. automatically designates a place. Ga or no could be used here. especially in informal spoken Japanese. and so it would most likely be omitted. they do not mean the same thing. a substitute noun must be used. since he or she will surely be hearing both. but since Japanese has no equivalent. like our ['s]. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum".

Everything here applies to both true and quasi-adjectives. A. yori can be placed after the subject in structures that follow other finalized statements: • • Shizuka no inu wa ookii desu ga. but they say it's going to be hotter tomorrow. and are in the realm of mid.I hope this lesson was clear enough.) Kyou no shiken wa kinou no yori kantan datta. It's completely optional and does not change the meaning of the sentence. Comparatives In sentences where an adjective is used to compare two things.but how it comes before other objects which are not a part of the subject: • Watashi wa yakisoba yori yakimeshi ga suki.) Please come back regularly to review as necessary. (Ken's dog is bigger than Shizuka's dog.) Kyou wa atsukatta kedo. (Shizuka's dog is big. Ken no inu wa yori ookii. use yori after the object which is used for comparison. Note how the compared object (underlined) sits between the subject and adjective of the main idea: • Ken no inu wa Shizuka no inu yori ookii. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult.. Practice makes perfect! Adjective modifiers [L10] [http://www.timwerx. 7 . but Ken's dog is bigger.) Note: Mo is sometimes added to yori — yorimo. (Today was hot. (I like fried rice more than fried noodles. (Today's exam was easier than yesterday's.) • .to high-intermediate Japanese.htm] In this last lesson we will look at the bits and pieces needed to adjust the meaning of adjectives so they convey exactly what we want. ashita wa yori atsukunaru sou desu.

Mottomo or the well-known ichiban (number one) can be placed before adjectives to make them superlative.) Kinou no shiken wa kyou no hodo kantan dewa nakatta. there is no equivalent to the least. which means "to the extent of. Let's do this to the first two examples used in the Comparatives section above. You must also make the adjective negative. There are two other handy modifiers I'll mention here because they're used a lot: toku ni and amari. as in: • • Kore wa mottomo warui. Here's how they're used: 8 . just use an adjective with that meaning. (Today was hot.) Superlatives B." after the object of comparison. Nakajima makes is the best!) Negative Comparatives and Superlatives C. but they say it's going to be hotter tomorrow. but Ken's dog is bigger. and could be used to replace yori in the last set of examples above: • • Shizuka no inu wa ookii desu ga. In fact.Another popular way to compare things is to use motto. (This is the worst. Ichiban without an adjective can be used to simply mean "the best": • • • Kore wa kono mise no mottomo yasui pasokon desu. or make the adjective negative. Toku ni means "especially" and amari means about the opposite of that.) Kyou wa atsukatta kedo. Note how the subject and compared object change places in order to convey the same meaning: • • Shizuka no inu wa Ken no inu hodo ookikunai. To convey something in a negative superlative way.) Nakajima-san no ramen wa ichiban! (The ramen Ms. (Yesterday's exam wasn't as easy as today's. (Shizuka's dog is big. (Shizuka's dog isn't as big as Ken's dog.) Sore wa boku no ichiban suki na hon desu. you can put hodo. It is placed directly before the adjective it modifies. (This is the cheapest computer in this store. Ken no inu wa motto ookii.) Two More D.) For negative comparatives where "less" is implied. ashita wa motto atsukunaru sou desu.) (This is the least delicious. Kore wa ichiban oishikunai. (That's my favorite book. which is roughly the equivalent of "more" in English. Negative comparatives and superlatives are not used that much in Japanese.

Oboete imasen ka. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) • And here are a few more variations that are often used: Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka.) Ano eiga wa amari omoshirokunai. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. Because itadaku is a very polite word. (Today was especially busy. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) • Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. (May I please have your name?) • Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. (Today's not that hot. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. is it. as covered in Lesson 55.) Kyou wa amari atsukunai ne. (Kenji's grades are particularly bad.) As in English. (Would you please call Mr. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. 9 . The Te Form + itadaku ending can be used like Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. please see About You and Name Suffixes. meaning something like "I humbly partake.htm] Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal.• • • • Kyou wa toku ni isogashikatta. Johnson?) • O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. Don't you remember?) • (Concerning name use and suffixes. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu (That movie is not really that interesting.) Kenji no seiseki wa toku ni warui. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) • Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka.timwerx. [with dropping intonation]) Te form + itadaku / morau [L61] [http://www. Here are some examples. (Please review Lesson 51 if necessary.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request.

Also. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. but since we can't do that here. (I'm doing homework now. adding a masu ending makes it polite.) As you can see. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. Get Ken to go." With itadakimasu. Morau is okay when referring to other things. While kudasai and itadakimasu and their various forms are often interchangeable. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. Let's look at a slightly different conversation: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. but not quite as polite — not as "respectful" — as itadakimasu. No particular reservations are needed here. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. it's just plain. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. With kudasai.I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. As usual. Traditionally. (Ken's not here now. even when the giver is not present. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. It can. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. however. However. morau is the one to use when talking about a third party.) Mom: Kimiko: This is the same family. itadakimasu is always used with food. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. this would be the best way to go. Make no mistake: morau is not impolite. this is a family situation. I'll get Grandpa to go. (I'm doing homework now. and it can be at times. 10 . (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. use morau instead of itadaku." When there's no need to be very polite.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. Ken ni itte moratte.

this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. Kimiko. company. If Grandpa wants to ask Kimiko if she got one. Suzuki-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. As the customers take the pens they might say arigatou (thank you) or itadakimasu (I humbly receive). if a different salesclerk offers another pen to Kimiko and she wanted to say that she already got one. and these two are being courteous. I got one).Mom: Everyone: Gohan yo! Tabemashou! (Dinner's ready! Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (Let's eat! [Literally.]) Itadakimasu is always used with food. Here's another good example situation: Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they are handing out free pens. which would be the most polite and adult thing to say since the salesclerk represents the giver (the store) here. (I had Ms. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. just like anywhere else. office. which would be more polite. Keep in mind that. (May I please have your name?) Hai. your age and relationship with the other(s). and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. The salesclerks would say agemasu as they give the pens out (and up) to their customers. To say moratta could sound rude or juvenile. (Shall I go to the bank?) Tanaka-san: Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. It would be impossible to cover all the subtle language possibilities and nuances here regarding giving and receiving in Japan. even if all you're taking is a potato chip.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. each home. being in the same situation as her grandfather as a receiver. Now. They probably don't see each other every day. (Sure. However. Murai go. and other variables. she would say itadakimashita (I already received one). 11 . he'd probably use moratta ka (Did you get one?) or maybe moraimashita ka.) This is at the office. The words and wording will change according to your position as giver or receiver. moratta or moraimashita (Yes. would naturally use the same verb and say hai. I/we humbly receive this.

timwerx. This one takes the place of the final i in true adjectives. and is often used as a simple exclamation: 12 . doesn't he?) Thanks to various unwritten rules. In the first sou outlined above. (I hear that book's expensive. (I hear that the new store is in an inconvenient location. It doesn't need desu or da.) Kare wa ganko sou na ojii-san desu ne. (That bicycle looks expensive. just like the other sou: • • • Oishisou! (Sounds delicious!) Sono jitensha wa takasou. Here's how they work: Sou (I hear that [something] is [adjective]) is basically used to report hearsay or the reports of others without the involvement of your personal senses or opinion.) • • The other sou ([something] looks/sounds/seems [adjective]) is used to express your own impression of something based on hearsay. and said with at least a little excitement if it's describing something good. (I hear that that university's entrance exam is difficult. I've noticed that native speakers will usually add desu or da after Ano atarashii mise no basho wa fuben sou desu.Adjectives with sou and sugiru [L9] [http://www. seeing a picture. (He seems like a hard-headed old man. sou is said without stress. in a matterof-fact kind of way. these two sous are fairly easy to keep straight.) Sono hon wa takai sou desu. etc. Also. and is added after quasis.) The second sou is stressed and drawn out.htm] This lesson should clarify sou (I hear that [something] is [adjective]) and sou ([something] looks/sounds/seems [adjective]). It is added after both true and quasi-adjectives with no change to the adjective itself: • Ano daigaku no nyuugaku shiken wa muzukashii sou desu. (That's why I added desu in the examples.

timwerx." and is also used a lot. Look at these examples: 13 . for example: yoi (good) + nai = yokunai (not good) + sou = yokunasasou (doesn't sound good). Sugiru means "too (much of something).htm] Do you remember koto. (Today's test was too difficult. tomodachi ga inai.) Kore wa kantan sugiru! (This is too easy!) • • Kanojo wa kechi sugiru kara.) Base 3 + no wa [L39] [ Wa is the subject indicator. You need to add sa first: yosasou (sounds good). which was introduced back in Lesson 31? The no in no wa plays the same role.• • Tanoshisou! Samusou! Mazusou! Kantan sou! (Sounds fun!) (Looks cold! [as one might say while watching a (Sounds nasty! [not good to eat]) (Looks easy!) program about Alaska]) • • • Raku sou! (Looks comfortable!) Note: The adjective yoi is an exception with this sou. (She doesn't have any friends because she's too stingy. is how you add sou to the negative nai as well. meaning it replaces the final i of true adjectives: • • • Kono o-cha wa atsusugiru! Ano hako wa omosugiru! (This tea is too hot!) (That box is too heavy!) Kyou no shiken wa muzukashisugita. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). It works like the second sou above. by the way. This.

) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) • • • • Please remember that there are other no's.) 14 . (Speaking Japanese is easy. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. With true adjectives.timwerx. like our ['s].) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu.• Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. just replace the final i with ku before adding the verb. With quasis.) The verb naru (to become) is often used with adverbs: • Shinpai shinaide! Dandan jouzu ni naru yo. mainly the one used for possessives. (Don't worry! You'll gradually become better at it. mine is red. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. (It really was a problem-free trip. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi (Jim's dictionary is blue.) and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something.) (Do it quickly!) (Kazuya can draw pictures well. just add ni : • • • • Ojii-san wa itsumo osoku taberu. (Reading is enjoyable.htm] Making adverbs from adjectives is quite easy.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. Hayaku shinasai! Kazuya wa e o jouzu ni kakeru. (You'll be able to do this job easily. (Grampa always eats slowly.) Adverbial forms [L5] [http://www.) Kono shigoto wa kantan ni dekiru yo. boku no wa aka desu.

(Bob went to John's house without calling first. that's a tad confusing.) Lisa wa kaigai kara kaeru to. (Lisa always gets sick after returning from overseas. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : (Would you make it bigger?) (I'll make it warmer for you. 2. AH. (Today Shizuka came to school without her textbook. Base 1 + zu ni [L23] [http://www.timwerx.• Mai toshi boku no shigoto wa muzukashiku narimasu. (We must make it safe. (My job gets more difficult every year.) Bob wa maemotte denwa sezu ni John no ie ni ikimashita.) Watashitachi wa anzen ni shinakereba naranai. a as in father EE. itsumo byouki ni naru. Yes.htm] Use zu ni with Base 1 to say that someone did something without doing something else which was expected. especially when no particular emphasis needs to be applied. I think it's about time to start on Base 4.) • • Please note that in some cases the ni after the zu may be omitted.) • Use suru with descriptive adverbs for "to make": • • • Ookiku shite kureru? Atatakaku shite but these examples should make it clear: • Kare wa yuushoku o tabezu ni nemashita.) Kyou Shizuka wa kyoukasho o motazu ni gakkou ni kimashita.timwerx. Base 4 + ba [L48] [http://www. (He went to bed without eating dinner. e as in see 15 .htm] After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms.

Notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. Also notice that this time the "bases" are in numerical order. u as in mule EH. of each verb corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. 4. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other add-ons as necessary. Now. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars. however. let's borrow the tables from Lesson 17 and add a Base 4 column. 5. e as in red OH. Yodan verbs: Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 kawa kai kau kae aruka aruki aruku aruke isoga isogi isogu isoge kasa kashi kasu kase mata machi matsu mate shina shini shinu shine asoba asobi asobu asobe yoma yomi yomu yome kaera kaeri kaeru kaere Ichidan verbs: Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe tabe taberu tabere oboe oboe oboeru oboere kime kime kimeru kimere de de deru dere kari kari kariru karire mi mi miru mire Irregular verbs: Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 ko ki kuru kure shi shi suru sure 16 .3. or vowel sound." or "dictionary form. and that the last letter. OO. o as in mode and that the verb changes to end with the vowel sound of the "base" it's in before anything is added to it. it's where you start.

converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • Isogeba. or that something is not likely to happen: • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.) Very handy. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. B: Sureba? her]?) • • (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) (I want to call Grandma.) Ame ga fureba. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekiru Yuki wa furanai deshou.Now that we know how to make Base 4. Here are example sentences from Lesson 35. Here. Base 4 + ba gives you similar results while being shorter and simpler. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. Another use for this is to suggest doing something.timwerx. shiai o enki shinakereba naranai. (If it rains we'll have to put off the game.htm] Here's an easy one. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. they probably won't eat dinner.. however.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something..) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Base 1 + nai deshou [L18] [http://www. (If the kids eat a snack now.?": Kyoto ni ikeba? Shichiji han ni dereba? • A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai.) • • 17 . (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella.) (Why don't you [go ahead and call This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. covered in Lesson 35? Well. (It probably won't snow.

deshou is a handy add-on that also works with plain positive (Base 3) verbs.htm] There are two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) for you / Let me do (something) for you. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones.htm] Sometimes it is written masho with a line above the o. (Sachiko will probably come.timwerx. Tabemashou.) (Let's take a break.timwerx. (I'll fix your bicycle.) 1 (to a pet) Esa o Bill wa ika o taberu deshou. (Let's go. (Grandpa will probably return soon. We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences back in Lessons 2 and 3. (Bill will probably eat the squid. (I'll carry this / these [for you]. Yasumimashou. but either way this one is easy to remember. as in: • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. It simply means "let's (do something).) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.) (Let's (Let's get you some food. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: 18 .) As in English.) • • Base 3 + no desu [L37] [http://www." For example: • • • Ikimashou. / I'll help you fix your bicycle." as in: • Watashi ga hakobimashou.) • • Base 2 + mashou [L9] [http://www.Actually.

as in: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. need. if you want to emphasize something. bland tone.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu: • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. If not. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. and etc. like this: • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. 19 .) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. stomping around. you put stress on the verb before no desu. (I tell you. However.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). (Grandpa will return soon. writhing. it IS going to rain tomorrow. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. please review them.) As in any other language. (Grandpa will return soon.) • • The meanings are the same as Base 2 + masu as long as they're said in a regular. (Jim will read a comic book. or habits of the speaker. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. fist pounding. (Jim will read a comic book.) • • Remember these? I hope so. as well as supporting body language like hand waving.• Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.

Base 3 + no ni [L38] [http://www. Ta form + rashii [L77] [http://www.timwerx.. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group." which we will cover later but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu... a look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen.. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. except that instead of being found at the end of a • • Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru.htm] Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 47). meaning "in spite of. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo." etc. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji.htm] No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). meaning "It seems that.. As usual.) 20 . These are easy to keep straight when used in context. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 42). Takada's quitting. There is nothing really tricky about it. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni." "I hear that. (I heard that Mr.timwerx.

Yes. According to the books. 21 . you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. but I personally have never heard it. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. making it more formal than rashii.) • • That's all there is to it. desu can added after rashii to make it polite.) Desu is usually used after sou. Takada's quitting. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. (I heard that Mr. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. Now that all the explaining is out of the way.• Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.

in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university.) Notes 1. to set a deadline: by 5:00. "rain" is also ame. etc. by tomorrow. to join (a club. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. 22 .VOCABULARY ON GRAMMAR Base 1 + seru / saseru [L22] sensei: gakusei: mainichi: shinbun: yuushoku: taberu: raishuu: kuru: made ni: teacher student(s) every day newspaper dinner to eat next week to come by benkyou suru: to study kanojo: karera: ame: mise: iku: eigo: she. Yes. to enter or enroll in (a school). Always use daigaku for university. church.) Base 3 + tsumori [L46] sanji: made ni: daigaku: three o'clock by university 2 hairu: to go inside (a room. but it uses a different kanji. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. them candy. etc. sweets 1 a store. etc. her they. 2. Unlike in the U. a shop to go the English language kimeru: kare: ashita: to decide he. him tomorrow (a time or date. S. The word ame for sweets is usually written in hiragana.).

Base 3 + made [L33] matsu: shukudai: owaru: miseru: (something) yuushoku: dinner to wait homework to end to show. a week-long (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. in two a week. depart time to meet customer. Purezento is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English. guest younger atarashii: inochi: motarasu: produce. to let natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: ni: shuu kan: period haru: spring after. kisetsu: haru: ukeru: to receive.") (someone) see. 23 . to take a test (the season of) spring new life to bring about. watch Base 3 + (any noun) [L36] tokoro: deru: jikan: au: kyaku: otouto: brother tanjoubi: purezento: shiken: birthday a present 2 examination a place to leave. to cause to happen season Notes 1. For more see Japanese Particles 2.

customers. the greatest.prefix is used with strangers. enjoyable hanasu: kantan: tokidoki: muzukashii: kasei: sumu: mada: fukanou: to speak. in advance to telephone (sn) house. the best dictionary the color blue red real(ly) problem. to have school saikou: jisho: ao: aka: hontou (ni): mondai: nai: tabi: great. still not not possible. talk easy sometimes hard. home Base 2 + mashou [L9] 24 . difficult Mars to live not yet.) oshieru: shorui: kinyuu suru: to teach. to fill out (forms) documents. paperwork Base 3 + no wa [L39] tanoshii: fun. question to not be. to not exist trip maemotte: denwa suru: ie: beforehand. tell forms. etc.Te form + itadaku / morau [L61] o-namae: name senshuu: ginkou: oboeru: mise: shukudai: ima: last week bank remember store homework now (The honorific o. impossible Base 1 + zu ni [L23] neru: to sleep kyoukasho: motsu: gakkou: textbook to hold.

2. use ochiru.kau: to buy yuki: snow Notes furu: to fall from the sky 1 ika: squid 1. snow. Care must be taken with anta because it is used when talking down to someone and will be considered rude in most non-familiar situations. to take or have a day off 1. or hail. the object (as well as the subect) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. Furu means "to fall down from the sky. Base 3 + no ni [L38] 25 . Please see About You and Name Suffixes. In this example. Base 3 + no desu [L37] anta: sashimi: katsu: to win familiar form of "you" 1 specially prepared raw fish chiimu: bokutachi: masculine familiar form meaning "we" or "us” (boku + tachi) team (wasei eigo) Notes 1. to take a to carry pet food break." like rain. even hakobimashou alone would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. Base 2 + mashou [L9] iku: to go yasumu: hakobu: esa: Notes ageru: anata: jitensha: naosu: to give you 2 bicycle to repair to rest. For falling objects. In Japanese.

) densha: train noru: to ride. specifically. Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. remember daibun (or daibu): quite.kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osakayuki. essential kanji: Chinese characters. to board (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. to cost (money) 1 Notes 1. to a great degree futoru: atarashii: to gain weight new 26 . etc. Please consult a dictionary for more. Ta form + rashii [L77] daibun: considerably. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. Takamatsu-yuki. rather.

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