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AE1303 AERODYNAMICS - II

OBJECTIVE 3 0 0 100

To understand the behaviour of airflow both internal and external in compressible flow

regime with particular emphasis on supersonic flows.

1. ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 7

Energy, Momentum, continuity and state equations, velocity of sound, Adiabatic steady

state flow equations, Flow through converging, diverging passages, Performance under

various back pressures.

2. NORMAL, OBLIQUE SHOCKS AND EXPANSION WAVES 15

Prandtl equation and Rankine – Hugonoit relation, Normal shock equations, Pitot static

tube, corrections for subsonic and supersonic flows, oblique shocks and corresponding

equations, Hodograph and pressure turning angle, shock polars, flow past wedges and

concave corners, strong, weak and detached shocks, Rayleigh and fanno Flow. Flow past

convex corners, Expansion hodograph, Reflection and interaction of shocks and

expansion, waves, Families of shocks, Methods of characteristics, Two-dimensional

supersonic nozzle contours.

3. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR STEADY COMPRESSIBLE

FLOWS 9

Small perturbation potential theory, solutions for supersonic flows, Mach waves and

Mach angles, Prandtl-Glauert affined transformation relations for subsonic flows,

Linerised two-dimensional supersonic flowtheory. Lift, drag, pitching moment and center

of pressure of supersonic profiles.

4. AIRFOIL IN HIGH SPEED FLOWS 6

Lower and upper critical Mach numbers, Lift and drag divergence, shock induced

separation, Characteristics of swept wings, Effects of thickness, camber and aspect ratio

of wings, Transonic area rule, Tip effects.

5. HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNELS 8

Blow down, in draft and induction tunnel layouts and their design features, Transonic,

supersonic and hypersonic tunnels and their peculiarities, Helium and gun tunnels, Shock

tubes, Optical methods of flow visualization.

Text Book:

1. Radhakrishnan, E., “Gas Dynamics”, Prentice Hall of India, 2003.

References:

1. Shapiro, A.H., “ Dynamics and Thermodynamics of compressible Fluid Flow”, Ronold

Press, 1982.

2. Zucrow, M.J. and Anderson, J.D., “Elements of gas dynamics”, McGraw-Hill Book

Co., New York, 1989.

3. Mc Cornick.W., “ Aerodynamics, Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics”, John Wiley,

New York, 1979.

4. Anderson Jr., D., “Modern compressible flows”, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,

1999.

MOHAMED SATHAK ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KILAKARAI.

DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

QUESTION BANK

PART - A

2. What do you understand by the term Gas Dynamics?

3. Differentiate between compressible and incompressible flow

4. Write the Bernoulli’s equation for incompressible flow.

5. Write the adiabatic relation between temperature, pressure and density.

6. What is meant by Mach angle?

7. Draw the propagation of disturbance waves for subsonic and supersonic condition.

8. Draw the flow around a wedge for subsonic and supersonic flow.

9. What is meant by Mach cone?

10. Define (i)Zone of action (ii) Zone of silence (iii) Mach Waves (or) Mach lines.

11. Classify the flow regimes interms of Mach number.

12. What is meant by Transonic and supersonic flow?

13. State the First Law of Thermodynamics.

14. Define (i) Adiabatic process (ii) Reversible process (iii) Isentropic process

15. What is meant by System and Surrounding?

16. Differentiate between open system and closed system.

17. State the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

18. Define Thermal and calorical properties.

19. What are the limitations of air consider as perfect gas.

20. What is meant by barotropic fluids?

21. How velocity of the flow varies in convergent and divergent ducts for subsonic and

supersonic condition.

22. What is meant by ‘De Laval Nozzle’?

23. Write the Area Mach number relation?

24. Define the following terms:

(i) Static pressure (ii) Dynamic pressure (iii) Total pressure (iv) Pitot pressure (v)

Geometric pressure.

25. Define Pressure Coefficient.

26. Write the Bernoulli’s equation for compressible flow.

28. Write the shock relation of the perfect gas?

29. Write the Hugoniot equation and explain each terms involved in it.

30. Define (i) Wave Motion (ii) Wave Speed (iii) Plane waves

31. What is meant by shock tube?

32. What are the applications of shock tube?

33. Define Oblique shock?

34. Differentiate between shock wave and expansion wave.

35. Draw the flow pattern of supersonic flow over corners.

).θ ) and Flow deflection angle (β 36. Define Shock angle (

).θ ) and Flow deflection angle (β 37. Write the relation between Shock angle (

38. What is meant by Shock Polar?

39. Define Sonic circle.

40. What is meant by Detached shock?

41. Define Mach Reflection.

42. Write the Prandtl relation of Normal shock wave.

43. Define Hodograph Plane.

44. Draw the shock polar for different Mach numbers.

45. What is meant by Reflection and Intersection of Shocks and Expansion waves?

46. Define Simple and Non-simple regions.

47. Distinguish between Like and Unlike reflection of shock wave.

48. What is meant by Diamond wave pattern in Supersonic nozzle?

49. Define Prandtl – Meyer Expansion

50. Define Wave Drag.

COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

52. Write the Prandtl Glauret Rule.

53. Write the Geothert’s Rule.

54. Define Mach waves.

55. Define Mach angles.

56. What is perturbation potential function?

57. How is flow over a cone different from flow over a wedge?

58. Write down the critical pressure coefficient from the Prandtl-Glauret rule.

59. What are the assumptions of small perturbation potential theory?

60. What is meant by linearised two-dimensional supersonic theory?

61. What are the assumptions used in linearised two-dimensional supersonic theory?

62. What are the practical application of Prandtl-Glauert Rule?

63. What is importance of the Geotherts rule?

64. List out the practical application of linearised two-dimensional supersonic theory.

65. Explain how lift and drag produced in supersonic profiles.

66. Define center of pressure.

67. Draw the pithching moment curve for supersonic profiles.

68. How pithching moment and center of pressure varies with angle of attack for a

supersonic profile?

69. Draw the various supersonic profiles.

70. How lift and drag varies with angle of attack for a supersonic profile?

72. Explain how supersonic airfoil profiles are fundamentally different from subsonic

airfoil profiles

73. Define Critical Mach number.

74. Distinguish between Lower Critical Mach number and Upper Critical Mach number.

75. What is meant by lift and drag divergence?

76. What is the cause of the Lift and drag divergence over airfoil in high speed flows?

77. What is meant by shock induced separation?

78. List out the characteristics of swept wings?

79. What is the effect of thickness over the performance of wings?

80. What is the effect of camber over the performance of wings?

81. Define Aspect ratio.

82. What is the effect of aspect ratio over the performance of wings?

83. What is meant by Transonic area rule?

84. What is meant by Sonic barrier?

85. Why drag increases drastically over sonic speed?

86. How the drag coefficient (CD) varies with Mach number (M)?

87. What is meant by tip effects?

88. Name some transonic area ruled aircraft.

90. What are the salient features of Hypersonic wind tunnels?

91. What is a wind tunnel and classify the wind tunnels?

92. What instruments are used to measure the fluctuating pressures on the models?

93. What are the characteristic features of Hypersonic wind tunnels?

94. What is shock tube and what is its application?

95. What is meant by Blow down tunnel?

96. Distinguish between indraft and induction tunnel?

97. What are the components on the Transonic wind tunnel?

98. List out the calibration carried out in the Transonic wind tunnel.

99. What are the components on the supersonic wind tunnel?

100. List out the calibration carried out in the supersonic wind tunnel.

101. What are the components on the hypersonic wind tunnel?

102. List out the calibration carried out in the hypersonic wind tunnel.

103. What is meant by helium tunnels?

104. What is meant by gun tunnel?

105. What are the application of gun tunnels?

106. What is meant by Shock tube?

107. What are the applications of Shock tube?

108. What is meant by flow visualizations?

109. What are the data we can get from the flow visualization?

110. List out the various flow visualization methods.

111. What are the optical flow visualization methods?

112. Draw the shadowgraph flow visualization setup?

113. Draw the Schlieren flow visualization setup?

PART - B

2. Explain Quasi-one dimensional flow and area velocity relation.

3. Define De Laval Nozzle and derive the Area Mach number relation.

4. With neat sketch briefly explain the flow in a Convergent-divergent nozzle.

5. Write short notes on

6. Pitot Pressure Probe (ii) Static Pressure Probe (iii) Pitot – static probe.

7. Derive the expression for Pressure coefficient with and without compressibility

correction.

8. For an aircraft flying at a speed of 1000kmph, find the variation of speed of sound a,

and Mach number M, with sea level and 11km altitude.

9. During a flight, a fighter aircraft attains its cruise speed of 600 m/s at 10km altitude

after taking off at 150 m/s from sea level. Assuming the speed to have increased linearly

with altitude during the climb, compute the Mach number variation with altitude.

10. A fighter aircraft attains its maximum speed of 2160 kmph at an altitude of 12 km.

The take-off speed at sea level is 270 kmph. If the flight speed increases linearly with

altitude, compute the variation of stagnation temperature with altitude for a climb up to

the maximum speed.

11. Air flows through a duct. The pressure and temperature at station 1 are P1 = 0.7 atm

and T1 = 300C, respectively. At a second station, the pressure is 0.5 atm. Calculate the

temperature and density at the second station. Assume the flow to be isentropic.

12. Air is allowed to expand from an initial state A (where PA = 2.068 x 105 N/m2 and

TA = 333K) to state B (where PB = 1.034 x 105 N/m2 and TB = 305 K). Calculate the

change in the specific entropy of the air, and show that the change in entropy is the same

for (a) an isobaric process from A to some intermediate state C followed by an

isovolumetric change from C to B, and (b) an isothermal change from A to some

intermediate state D followed by an isentropic change from D to B.

13. A storage chamber of a compressor is maintained at 1.8 atmospheres absolute and

200C. The surrounding ambient pressure is 1 atm. Calculate (a) the velocity with which

airflow will take place from the chamber to the outside through a unit area hole, (b) the

mass flow rate per unit area. Assume air as a perfect gas.

14. A ramjet flies at 11 km altitude with a flight mach number of 0.9. In the inlet diffuser,

the air is brought to the stagnation condition so that it is stationary just before the

combustion chamber. Combustion takes place at constant pressure and a temperature

increase of 15000C results. The combustion products are then ejected through the nozzle.

(a) Calculate the stagnation pressure and =α temperature. (b) What will be the nozzle

exit velocity? ( At inlet P = 213 K, at exit Pexit = 0.3 atm).α 0.3 atm and T

15. A De Laval Nozzle has to be designed for an exit Mach number of 1.5 with exit

diameter of 200mm. Find the ratio of throat area to exit area necessary. The reservoir

conditions are given as P0 = 1 atm; T0 = 200C. Find also the maximum mass flow rate

through the nozzle. What will be the exit pressure and temperature?

16. (i) Derive the equation of motion for a Normal shock wave.

(ii) Derive the Prandtl Normal Shock relation for a Perfect gas.

17. Derive the Hugoniot equation and explain the Hugoniot Curve.

18. Briefly explain the Shock tube and its applications.

).θ ) and Flow deflection angle (β 19. Derive the Relation between Shock angle (

20. Briefly explain the Shock Polar.

21. Briefly explain the functions of Pitot static tube and list out the corrections needed for

subsonic and supersonic flows.

22. How Oblique shock forms? And explain its properties in detail.

23. Briefly explain the characteristic of flow over wedges and concave corners.

24. Briefly explain the features of two dimensional supersonic nozzle contours.

25. Write short notes on:

(i) Weak and detached shocks

(ii) Rayleigh Flow

(iii) Fanno flow

26. Briefly explain the Reflection and Intersection of Shock wave and Expansion wave.

27. With neat sketches explain the Supersonic shock expansion theory.

28. The flow Mach number, pressure, and temperature ahead of a normal shock are given

as 2.0, 0.5 atm and 300 K respectively. Determine M2, P2 , T2, and V2 behind the wave.

29. A re-entry vehicle (RV) is at an altitude of 15,000 m and has a velocity of 1850 m/s.

A bow shock wave envelops the RV. Neglecting dissociation, determine the stagnation

pressure and temperature just behind the shock wave on the RV center line where the

shock wave may be treated as normal shock.. Assume that = 1.4 and R = 287 J/kg-

K.γ the air behaves as perfect gas, with

30. A normal shock moves in a constant area tube as shown in figure. In region 1, V1 =

100 m/s, T1 = 300C and P1 = 0.7 atm. Shock speed CS with respect to a fixed coordinate

system is 600 m/s. Find fluid properties in region 2.

V2 2 1 V1

CS

P2 T2 P1 T1

(i) Supersonic flow over a wedge

(ii) Weak Oblique shocks

(iii) Supersonic Compression

(iv) Supersonic Expansion by Turning

COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

33. Write short notes on.

(i) Mach waves

(ii) Mach angles

(iii) Solutions for Supersonic flows.

34. Derive the Linearised two-dimensional supersonic flow theory.

35. Derive the Prandtl Glauret affine transformation relations for subsonic flows.

36. Briefly explain the lift, drag, pitching momemt and center of pressure of supersonic

profiles.

37. Write short notes on:

(i) Shock Expansion method

(ii) Small perturbation equation for compressible flows

38. (i) Explain with a neat sketches, swept wing, swing wing and Ogee planform (8)

(ii) What is a critical Mach number and explain from P-G rule (Prandtl Glauert) (8)

39. (i) What is the main application of small pertubation equation for compressible

flows? Given an example with a neat sketch. (8)

(ii) Explain Prandtl-Glauert compressibility correction for compressible flows. What are

the other methods for compressibility correction? (8)

(iii) What is Area Rule? (8)

40. Explain the rules, wing fuselage combinations designs for the Transonic

configurations and supersonic configurations.

41. Briefly explain the characteristics features of the lower critical mach number and

upper critical mach number.

42. Explain in detail about lift and drag divergence.

43. Explain with neat sketch about the shock induced separation.

44. Briefly explain the characteristics features of swept wings.

45. Briefly explain the effects of thickness, camber and aspect ratio over the performance

of wings in high speed flows.

46. Briefly explain the need and characteristic features of Transonic area rule.

47. Explain the following;

(iii) Disadvantages of Swept wings

(iv) Delta wing

49. (i) Sketch a typical shock tunnel and explain its principle of operation. What are the

advantages and limitations of shock tunnel? (8)

(ii) Explain how measurements of pressure, velocity and Mach number can be done in a

supersonic wind tunnel. (8)

50. Draw a neat sketch of a supersonic wind tunnel circuit and explain the function of

each component.

51. Draw a neat sketch of a transonic wind tunnel circuit and explain the function of each

component.

52. Draw a neat sketch of a hypersonic wind tunnel circuit and explain the function of

each component.

53. Briefly explain the Blow down, indraft and induction tunnel layouts and their design

features.

54. Explain in detail about the various calibration of supersonic wind tunnel.

55. Explain in detail about the various calibration of transonic wind tunnel.

56. Explain in detail about the various calibration of hypersonic wind tunnel.

57. Briefly explain the Helium and gun tunnels and its applications.

58. What is meant by ‘Shock tube’? Explain in detail its working principle and

characteristics and list out its application.

59. Briefly explain the various optical methods of flow visualization.

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