LUDMILA CIUMAC

ENGLISH
(From

beginners or false beginners to intermediates)

CHIŞINĂU 2001

INTRODUCTIONS IN PHONETICS Introducere in fonetica
Engleza este o limba germanica si are semne conventionale din alfabetul latin. Totusi cu timpul, Engleza s-a transformat dintr-o limba fonetica, pronutarea careia a devenit o problema reala pentru straini. Venind in ajutor studentului in pronuntarea corecta a cuvintelor, mai intai vom descrie sunetele, iar apoi, cuvintele vor fi descrise in Sistema Internationala de Semne, cunoscuta deasemenea ca Alfabetul Fonetic. Toate vocalele insotite de /:/ arata lungimea vocalei respective.

Rules of Reading
In limba engleza sunt 26 de litere si 44 de sunete. Aceasta se explica prin faptul ca vocalele a, e, i, o, u, y se citesc diferit in pozitii diferite. Tabelul de mai jos va va ajuta sa sistematizati si sa memorizati citirea lor.

2

Vocală

Silabă
(se termină în vocală)

Silabă
(se termină în consoană)

Vocala
a+r

Vocal Excepţii
a + re

A

[ei]
cake [keik] plate [pleit] take [teik] make [meik]

[æ]
bag [bæg] man [m æn] can [k æn] map [m æp]

[a:]
car [ka:] bar [ba:] part [pa:t] card [ka:d]

[εә]

many

care [k εә] have [hævi] hare [h εә] fare [f εә] rare [r εә]

E

[i:]
he [hi:] she [∫i:] we [wi:] be [bi:]

[e]
egg [eg] pen [pen] hen [hen] lesson [lesn]

[ ә:]
her [hә:] Berlin [b ә:lin] perfect[pә:fikt] term [tә:m]

[ i ә]
here [hiә] mere [miә] English seven [sevn]

I/Y

[ai]
I [ai] nine [nain] pine [pain] my [mai] fly [flai]

[I]
pig [pig]
sick [sik] tip [tip] fix [fiks] system [sistәm] myth [mi θ]

[ ә:]
bird [ bә:d]
girl [gә:l]

live [liv] give [giv]

circle [sә:kl] kirk [kә:k](biserica scot)

O

[ou]
rose [rouz] close [klouz] nose [nouz] open [oupn]

[ ә]
box [boks] fox [foks] clock [klok] cock [kok]

[ ә:]
fork [fo:k] horse [ho:s] pork [po:k] form [fo:m]

do [du:] son [sΛn] who [hu:] two [tu:] one [wΛn] you [ju:]

U

[ju:]

[Λ]

[ ә:]

-

3

fată. son [sΛn] .om/barbat .insa/dar/ci nut [nΛt] .fata .pisica .scop/intentie .nuca [a:] rostit din fundul gurii: ba.fiu but [bΛt] . o summer [sΛmэ] .pupil [pju:pl] music [mju:zik] pure [pju:ә] mute [mju:t] student [stju:dnt] cup [kΛp] duck [dΛk] duster[dΛstә] plus [plΛs] cut [kΛt] fur [fә:] turn [t ә:n] burn [bә:n] curl [kә: l] purpose [pә:pәz] put [put] VOWELS [vauэlz] – description and pronunciation (descrierea si pronuntarea) “A” [э] as ‘ă’ ca in limba romana: casă. mac. mamă. romana: tac. are. zac.primul/prima .apartament [Λ] ca in l.un. a [э] .sora [з:] ca ‘aa’ romanesc girl [gз:l] first [fз:st] purpose [pз:pэs] [æ] ca ‘a/e’: bere man [mæn] cat [cæt] flat [flæt] .vara sister [sistэ] . 4 .

nume stay [stei] .lectie .a sta/a locui 5 .zi name [neim] . cu ultimele doua elemente foarte scurte: flower tower sour “E” [e] ca in l. cu ultimele doua elemente foarte scurte.a inchiria [auэ] rostit aprox. romana: tei.automobil .vaca buy [bai] .a cumpara mouse [maus] .floare .soarece [aiэ] numai in triftongi rostit aprox.ochi cow [cau] .acru [ei] ca in l.eu now [nau] .departe [ai] [au] ca in l.foc tired [taiэd] .. day [dei] . romana: vers. ca aoă. cred. vrei. romana: cai sau.acum eye [ai] .pat [flauэ] [tauэ] [sauэ] . pen lesson bed [pen] [lesn] [bed] . fire [faiэ] . neg.car aunt far [ka:] [a:nt] [fa:] . I [ai] . lei.turn . Ca aca.obosit hire [haiэ] .matusa .stilou .

romana: alcool. romana: vin.par fair [feэ] . [i:] rostit ca doi de‘i’ eat [i:t] meet [mi:t] niece [ni:s] .furtuna 6 .ceata [o:] ca in l.a manca . near [niэ] .pumn it [it] . not [not] .rar care [keэ] . etc. co-operativa. fenomene.nepoata [iэ] rostit ca ‘i’ si ‘ă’romanesc impreuna ‘iă’. pity [piti] .rugaciune .langa/aproape dear [diэ] .strat [eэ] o prelungire a lui ‘e’ in ‘ă’ hair [heэ] . plin.a /se/ intalni/ a face cunostinta .teama/spaima/risc “O” [o] rostit scurt si deschis. floor [flo:] .mila/compatimire fist [fist] . putin nazal.[eiэ] in triftongi player [pleiэ] prayer [preiэ] layer [leiэ] .oala/vas/cratita/ghiveci fog [fog] .blond/targ/onest/corect bear [beэ] .draga/scumpa fear [fiэ] .etaj/podea storm [sto:m] .el/ea pentru obiecte.grija/atentie “I” [i] ca in l.nu pot [pot] .a purta/a suporta/urs rare [reэ] . lin.jucator/actor .

tur/vizitarea unui oras hour [auэ] . n. z. t .amiaza spoon [spu:n] . O. cum. t. [b] ball bell big [bo:l] [bel] [big] . romana: căus băut. v.door [do:] . baie/WC boy [boi] . r.nu CONSONANTS [konsэnэnts] . g. SEMIVOWELS [semivaulz] (semivocale) j.minge .lingura [uэ] ca romaneste ’u’ si ‘ă’ rostite impreuna poor [puэ] .curand /indata noon [nu:n] . s.vechi/batran no [nou] . l and UNVOICED [Λnvoist] (surde) p. fum.toaleta. romana: oi. k. d.mare 7 .ora [ou] [эu] ambele sunt rostite in acelas mod ca in l.a gati/bucatar book [buk] . toilet [toilit] . noi.usa [oi] ca in l. f.clopotel . doi. open [oupn] . n.carte put [put] . .baiat toy [toi] . m.a pune [u:] ca romaneste: vacuum soon [su:n] .biet/sarman/sarac tour [tuэ] .descriptions and pronunciations (descrierea si pronuntarea) Consonants are divided into two main groups (Consoanele sunt divizate in doua grupe principale): VOICED [voist] (sonore) b. h.a deschide old [ould] . cook [cuk] . w. tău.jucarie “U” [u] ca romaneste: drum.

partid/petrecere .adanc .a locui .face .placinta .voce .fermoar .murdar .a trebui .nebun .lumina .aur .caine .foarte .gasca .a iubi .ecran 8 .noapte .[d] dog dirty deep [g] goose gold good [v] very voice have [z] zip zoo does [m] money maybe must [n] nose night nice [l] live love light [p] party pillow pie [r] crazy red screen [dog] [dэ:ti] [di:p] [gu:s] [gould] [gud] [veri] [vois] [hæv] [zip] [zu:] [dΛz] [mΛni] [meibi] [mΛst] [nouz] [nait] [nais] [liv] [lΛv] [lait] [pa:ti] [pilou] [pai] [creizi] [red] [skri:n] .rosu .bun/a/ .gradina zoologica .frumos .probabil .nas .perna .bani .a avea .

lingura sing [siŋ] .ceai .a simti .ori/timp/ora .oras .tablou teach [ti:t∫э] .repede .pragitura .el [hu:] .a zbura .fel/amabil .scaun [ŋ] ca ‘n’ din langa.cine [hΛzbэnd] .inalt . fish [fi∫] .ciuperci [t∫] ca in cuvantul cinci: trecerea de la “t∫” la oarecare dintre vocale face fara intermediul lui “I” sa “e”. sunetul “t” poate fi final (ca in “zici”) picture [pikt∫э] .peşte/a pescui mushroom [mΛ∫ru:m] .a vedea .a preda chair [t∫εэ] .a canta 9 .fecior [hi:] . ca in l.[t] time tea tall [k] cake kind cold f] fly fast feel [s] see city son [h] he who husbund [taim] [ti:] [to:l] [keik] [kaind] [kould] [flai] [fast] [fi:l] [si:] [siti] [sΛn] .frig .sot SPECIAL PHONETIC SYMBOLS CORRESPONDING TO GROUPS OF CONSONANTS (Simboluri special fonetice corespunzatoare grupurilor de consoane) [∫] ca ‘s’ romanesc: şal. romana. şarpe.

iarba.song bring [soŋ] [briŋ] . (‘s’ sau ‘t ‘rostit cu varful limbii intre dinti) thanks [θænks] thick [θik] think [θink] .frate [θ] stands for letters ‘th’ and is pronounced as if imitating the sound of snake: No similitudes between this sound and any Romanian sound.gros .gem joy . yesterday [jestэdi] . (‘z’ sau ‘d’ rostit cu varful limbii intre dinti) mother [mΛðэ] .bucurie [зэ] ca ‘j’’ romanesc: jar. jaf.tata brother [brΛðэ] . pleasure [pleзэ] .mama father [fa:ðэ] .a aduce [dз] ca ‘g ‘ sau ‘j ‘ romanesc (gi).cantec .da [ð] stands for letters ‘th’ and is pronounced as if having a singing bee on the tip of the tongue.[dзæm] .ieri yellow [jelou] . John [dзon] .masura [j] ca ‘i ‘romanesc din: ieri.a gandi Citirea imbinarilor de litere 10 . No similitudes between this sound and any their Romanian sound.multumiri . iarna.comoara measure [meзэ] .galben yes [jes] .Ion jam .placere treasure [treзэ] . jale.[dзoi] .

soup [su:p] oo 11 .ee [i:] see green feed teach meet ai [ei] main pain chain faint lain coat coal soap boat float [si:] [gri:n] [fi:d] [ti:t∫э] [mi:t] ea eo sea [si:] meal mean speech meat ay people [pi:pl] [mi:l] [mi:n] [spi:t∫] [mi:t] [mein] [pein] [t∫ein] [feint] [lein] oa [ou] [kout] [koul] [soup] [bout] [flout] ou clay say may pay day [dei] [klei] [sei] [mei] [pei] [au] sound count south pound [saund] [kaunt] [sauθ] [paund] [Λ] young country cousin touch [jΛng] [kΛntri] [kΛzn] [tΛt∫] oo BUT: group [gru:p].

‘k’ is pronounced [u] ([oo] inainte de ‘d’ si ‘k’ este rostit [u] scurt). cow [kau].[u] book cook good mood took [buk] [kuk] [gud] [mud] [tuk] [u:] too fool spoon cool moon [tu:] [fu:l] [spu:n] [ku:l] [mu:n] NOTE: [oo] before ‘d’. ow [au] brown [braun] crown [kraun] down [daun] crowd [kraud] [ou] low crow yellow fellow [lou] [krou] [jelou] [felou] ew [ju:] ng new [nju:] few [fju:] dew [dju:] chew [t∫ju:] Except now [nau]. how [hau]. ng [ŋ] ring [riŋ] sing [siŋ] thing [θiŋ] long [loŋ] th [ð] this [ðis] these [ði:z] that [ðæt] [θ] thank [θænk] bath [ba:θ] breath [breθ] 12 .

(WH rostit [w] inaintea tuturor vocalelor cu exceptia lui ‘o’). pe cine.those [ðouz] clothes [klouðz] wh [w] when where what which why [wen] [wεэ] [wot] [wit∫] [wai] teeth [ti:θ] cloth [kloθ] wa [wo] was [woz] wash [wo∫] watch [wot∫] want [wont] wander [wondэ] NOTE: WH is pronounced [w] before all the vowels except the vowel ‘o’. whose [hu:z] – al. a. war [wo:] warm war warn ward wardrobe wr [r] wrist write wrong wrinkle wrap ch [rist] [rait] [roŋ] [riŋkl] [ræp] sh [wo:m] [wo:] [wo:n] [wo:d] [wo:droub] wor [wз:] world [wз:ld] word [wз:d] worm [wз:m] worse [wз:s] worth [wз:θ] 13 . ale cui. whom [hu:m] – cui. ai. Example: who [hu:] – cine?.

[t∫] child [t∫aild] chill [t∫il] lunch [l Λnt∫] check [t∫ek] chief [t∫if] [∫] shake [∫eik] shave [∫eiv] shelf [∫elf] fish [fi∫] wash [wo:∫] ture [t∫э] picture structure mixture lecture signature pikt∫э] [strΛ kt∫э] [mikst∫э] [lekt∫э] [signit∫э] sure [зэ] pleasure measure [pleзэ] [meзэ] tion [∫n] (at the end of the word – la sfarsit de cuvant) sion ssion station [stei∫n] tension [ten∫n] session [se∫n] sion [зn] at the end of the word after vowels (la sfarsit de cuvant dupa vocale). Example: television [teliviзn] a + ss [a:s] a + st [a:st] ask [a:sk] fast [fa:st] grass [gra:s] 14 a + ll [o:l] a + lk [o:lk] all [o:l] small [smo:l] talk [to:k] .

nd kind [kaind] mild [maild] bind [baind] mind [maind] [hеэ] [pеэ] [fеэ] [t∫еэ] [eэ] 15 .pass [pa:s] task [ta:sk] ear [iэ] clear dear tear near hear eer [iэ] beer [biэ] deer [di:э] cheer [t∫iэ] qu + vowel quite question quiet queen [kwait] [kwest∫n] [kwaiэt] [kwi:n] [o:] four [fo:] your [jo:] [kliэ] [diэ] [tiэ] [niэ] [hiэ] walk [wo:k] tall [to:l] air [еэ] hair pair fair chair air our [au] sour [sauэ] flour [flauэ] our [auэ] BUT: hour [auэ] i+ ld.

an egg. a dog – dogs. romana ‘un. Introduce o notiune noua. a European [juэrэpiэn]. Example: There is a new shopping centre in the city. In expresii: as a rule (de regula). an eye. d). to be in a hurry (a se grabi). It is a pity (E pacat). She became a doctor. a university. an’. Inainte de un nume predicativ. c). Exemple: a book – books. Numai cu substantive la singular si dispare odata cu trecerea substantivului respectiv la plural. an item – items. b). a table. a computer – computers. an agency. (In oras exista un nou centru comercial). Example: He is an artist. echivalentul articolului nehotarat din l. a boy. a window. an hour. o carte]. Inaintea consoanelor si sunetelor ‘w’ si ‘j’ “a [э]” a lady. (A devenit medic). an economist. o’ [un om. engleza este ‘a.UNIT 1 Articolul nehotarat [Idefinite Article] din l. (El este artist). 16 . for a time (pentru un timp). Inaintea vocalelor “an [эn]” – an animal. Intrebuintare: a).

hoteluri etc: the British Museum the Savoy (Hotel) g).Carpatii d). masa). .a (tabla.Articolul hotarat (Definite article) din l. fluvii): the Danube . Nume de ape curgatoare (rauri. capuri: the Straits of Dover . Categorii de substantive proprii precedate de articolul hotart: a). romana – ul. Nume de insule (grupe de insule) la plural: The British Isles . daraua).le (peretele. Nume de stramtori. florile) etc.Insulele Britanice e). engleza este “the”. Exista un numar de substantive proprii care se cer precedate de articolul hotarat datorita dezvoltarii istorice a limbii engleze. the university. Nume de vase: 17 . caietele) sau la plutal –ii (pomii. the apple.Golful Biscaia f). Nume de oceane si mari: the Atlantic (ocean) the Black Sea c).Capul Verde the Bay of Biscay . canaluri. golfuri. the egg. Inaintea vocalelor the [ði]: the animal.Dunarea the Thames . merii).Stramtoarea Dover the English Channel .le (femeile.Canalul Manecii the Cape Verde . Nume de intreprinderi. echivalentul articolului hotarat din l. (pomul. Nume de munti si dealuri: the Alps . (Imi place reteta). . Articolu hotarat introduce o notiune cunoscuta sau amintita anterior: I like the recipe. the teacher. the man. omul). . institutii.Tamisa b). the European[juэrэpi:эn].Alpii the Carpathians . ua – (sacaua. Inaintea consoanelor the [ðз]: the lady.

Nume de continente. Dintre exceptii pot fi mentionate: The Ukraine. PRONUMELE PERSONAL (Personal Pronoun) I = eu You = tu . e). Moldova. Monday. ea (pentru nume de animale si obiecte) We = noi 18 . d). the universe etc. the Breeze i). she = el. France. corpuri ceresti etc: Michael. c). orase. aeroporturi. Red Square. a). English. tari. the World. Russian. the Bible. Denumirile lunilor anului. ea (pentru nume de persone) It = el. Rome. the world. ale zilelor saptamanii: March. sate etc: Europe. the Lord. Nume de oameni. Artocolul Zero inaintea unor substantive proprii. the United States. Denumirile limbilor: Romanian. II. John Corbin. piete. Sunday etc. the Hague. Articolul hotarat se refera la un obiect sau lucru considerat de a fi unic: the sun. the sky. metruri: Oxford Street. animle. London Bridge. f). June. Africa. parcuri.the Augustina the Titanic h). constructii. the Smiths. the air. (The Zero Article before certain Proper Nouns). the moon. Cu nume de substantive (in sens general): Oil floats on water. Venus – Venera. Nume de familii la plural: the Browns. b). National Park. Windsor Castle. provincii. Cu nume de strazi. Nume de ziare si reviste engleze si americane: the Times. dumneata He. regiuni.

6. 19 . 2. an): 1. She eats … ice cream. … textbook is old. Put in a. His teacher is … American. 11. 8. … farmer. 5. I like … Coke. My sister has … black cat. 5. 2. 2. He reads … newspaper. Put the or nothing into each gap. … wine in my glass is red. He likes to drink … wine. … worker. … Heathrow is … busiest airport in Europe. Her brother writes … letter. These are … desks. 7. 2. … English car. … nurse. Helen learns … poem. I have … new car. 7.You = voi They = ei. We arrive in … Paris on … third of April. 3. ele I se scrie intotdeaune cu litera mare. … meat is expensive. 1. Nick is … manager. 9. Put in a or an (Adaugati a sau an): 1. 6. 5. an (Completati cu a. 6. 12. … milk in my cup is not hot. 4. A. … engineer. EXERCISES: I. You sit in … armchair. I don’t like … milk. 10. 3. 9. I want … apple. 4. This is … interesting story. 8. 8. We have … nice picture. … teacher: 4. … book. … chair. 7. 9. … doctor. 3.

8. They go to … Travel Agency and book … train tickets. They go to … Black Sea for their holiday. INTERROGATIVE (Interogativ) am I? are you? INTERROGATIVE-NEGATIVE am I not? are you not? etc. … Atlantic lies between … Europe and America. ea este Plural we are (we’re) = noi suntem you are (you’re) = voi sunteti they are (they’re) = ei sunt Verbul to be formeaza interogativul prin inversiune. We visit … United States. 1. 7. Wilson is … professor at … Oxford University. 11. AFFIRMATIVE (Afirmativ) Singular I am (I’m) = eu sunt you are (You’re) = tu esti he/she/it is (he’s/she’s/it’s) = el. 3. This is … nice street. 6. 10. Mr. 20 .10. 12. Brown lives near … Hyde Park. They go to … National Airport. 2. PRESENT SIMPLE of the verb “TO BE” (Timpul present al verbului “to be. … desks are dark brown. I like … tea. D. 4. 11. Put in articles where necessary. She says that she loves … sea. Tom and Bill are … students. 5. … Music Festival will take place in … Moscow next year. … Greens come to London today. It is … Pushkin street. Mr. 9.a fi”).

This is an English book. … is a worker. NEGATIVE (Negativ) I am not (I’m) not You are not (aren’t) He/she/it is not (isn’t) We are not (aren’t) You are not (aren’t) They are not (aren’t) Note: 1. 6. Felix is my cat. Always write a capital letter for I. 5. e. My friend is a teacher. they: 1. … is a dog. … is on the chair. Jane is a girl. it. … is a manager. Mary is a manager. … are at the window. Are you a man? (singular) Are you all students? (plural) 2. The students are in the classroom. Put in I. … are in the classroom.g. 10. … is an English book. 9. 2. 8. 11. Paul is a worker. e. you. Tom and Bill are children. You is singular and plural but the verb with you is always plural. EXERCISES: I. … is a teacher. … are children. 21 . we. she.g. 4. 3. he. 7. The bag is on the chair. My friend and I are at the window. My friends and I are in the garden.is he/she/it? are we? are you? are they? Verbul to be formeaza negativul adaugand cuvantul not (n’t) dupa verb. … is a girl. … is my cat. Toby is a dog.

It is on the desk. 7. 2. 5. She is a singer. 8. It is hot. II. You are doctors. 6. Put in the negative (Treceti la forma negativa). You are near the window. The manager is in the office. She is a good woman.12. They are there. 3. Put in the interrogative (Puneti la forma interogativa): 1. He is a businessman. 8. I am a good friend. 6. We are in the classroom. 10. They are at work. 4. It is summer. 2. Tom is in the classroom. The children are at the door. 5. You are at school. They are here. 7. 3. … are at the door. You are busy. 10. It is on the chair. 4. He is a pilot. III. 22 . 1. He is an economist. 9. 9.

dupa consoane surde: a book .maps a cat .desks a map .cats [z] . [z]. care se citeste [iz]: [s] . sau x adauga es: a match – matches a glass – glasses a church – churches a fox – foxes a peach – peaches a wish – wishes Substantivele terminate in consoana + y schimba la plural y in i si adauga es: a lady – ladies a city – cities an agency – agencies Cele terminate in vocala + y adauga numai s: a day – days a play – plays a ray – rays 23 . care se citeste [s].UNIT 2 The PLURAL OF NOUNS (Pluralul substantivelor) In limba engleza pluralul substantvelor se formeaza de regula adaugand litera ‘s’.books a desk .dupa vocale sau consoane sonore: a pen – pens a girl – girls a dog – dogs a boy – boys [iz] . sau –es.substantive terminate in literele s. ch. sh. tch.

heroes a potato – potatoes a tomato – tomatoes Alte substantive terminate la singular in “o” formeaza pluralul in – s: a photo – photos a piano – pianos a radio – radios a studio – studios Plurale neregulate: .lives a wife – wives 24 .Cele care au mutatie vocalica: a man – men a woman – women [wimin] a foot – feet a tooth – teeth a mouse – mice [mais] a goose [gu:s] – geese [gi:s] Plural in –en + mutatie vocalica an ox – oxen a child – children Unele substantive terminate la singular in “o “formeaza plural in – es: a hero .sonorizarea consoanei finale: [θ] – [ðz] path [pa:θ] – paths [pa:ðz] bath [ba:θ ] – baths [ba:ðz] mouth [mauθ] – mouths [mauðz] [f] – [vz] a leaf – leaves a half – halves a shelf – shelves a knife – knives a life .

That is a picture. These are books. Ele se asaza de regula inaintea substantivului: A young woman A new flat A handsome man Adjectivele derivate din nume proprii se scriu cu initiala majuscula: Romanian English French IV. it is. Plural De aproape De departe that [ðæt] (acela/aceea/acel/acea) those [ðouz] (aceia/acelea/acei/acele) This [ðis] (acesta/aceasta/acest/aceasta) these [ði:z] (acestea/acestea/acesti/aceste) Examples: This is a book. indeferent de gen sau numar.Plurale straine: a nucleus [nju:kliэs] nucleu – (nuclei) [nju:kliai] (nuclei) a bacterium – bacteria an analysis [э‘nælisis] – analyses [э‘nælisi:z] - The Adjective (Adjectivul) In limba engleza adjectivele au o singura forma. it isn’t. 25 . This is a pencil. They are there. Those are pictures. It’s here. No. Pronumele si adjectivul demonstrativ Numar Sing. Is this a pencil ? Yes.

redus. 26 . 1. No. she is. . de obicei. IV. we are. IN se foloseste cu referire la o zona: It’s in my bag (E in geanta mea) He lives in Paris (Locuieste la Paris). No.PREPOZITII DE LOC.suprafata: Put it on the table (Pune-o pe masa). 2. she is not (isn’t) We are managers. 3. ON se foloseste cu referire la: . la yes da sau no nu. 5.o linie It’s on the edge of the table (Este la marginea mesei) He lives on Oxford Street (Locuieste pe strada Oxford). we are not (aren’t). INTREBARI GENERALE (General Questions) Intrebarile generale presupun un enunt general (o propozitie intreaga) si un raspuns general. Dar in the street (= pe strada). Are we managers ? Yes. BETWEEN exprima pozitia fata de doua elemente My house is between the school and the bank (Casa mea este intre scoala si banca). UNDER : The cat is under the chair. AT se foloseste cu referire la un anumit punct sau pozitie: I’ll meet you at the station (Ne vom intalni la gara). Is she a doctor ? Yes. Example: She is a doctor. 4.

La interogativ is si are sunt accentuate. There is are forma prescurtata there’s La viteza normala de vorbire there is si there are sunt neaccentuate si contin de regula forme slabe. = Iata-i. exista. se gaseste. there is. there isn’t. No. There they are. It’s dark. There’s a child’s picture but there aren’t any plants. There are flowers in this picture. exista. There is a man at the door. It’s very modern. There is a cat in the picture. There is a computer in the office. Is there a train in the station? Yes. Are there flowers in this picture? Yes. = Iata-l. Are there cups on the table? No. There it is. and Mrs. EXAMPLES There is a teacher at the table. Stevens.The Construction “THERE IS/ARE” There is = este. si “it” cand descriem detaliile. Folosim there is. There are = sunt. Deseori folosim “there” cand vorbim despre ceva pentru prima data. 27 . inseamna tot iata. se afla. iar there are forma tare. there are. pentru distanta: There is the bus = Iata autobusul. se afla. there is. Iata-i pe d-na si dl. se gasesc. There are Mr. There is a good office. there are de a denumi lucruri care exista sau nu exista. there aren’t. ‘Is there a cup of tea for me too? ‘Are there many books on the table? There is si there are cu accentul pe there. Stevens. Is there a cat in the pictureYes.

a box. 1. 6. 1. 9. a girl. nu-i asa? EXERCISES: 1. 11. 20. 4. a wife. a radio. This is a desk. aren’t there? Yes. 18. Give the plural of these words: 1. a pound. there are. Those are maps. 19. It’s yellow. 8. there is not (there isn’t. 14. nu-i asa? There isn’t much water in the cup. there are. That is a teacher. a mountain. (red) 3. a man. 10. That is a tree. This is a boy.Intrebari disjunctive la propozitiile continand there is (there’s). a bench. a star. 12. 5. 9. an eye. 3. a knife. 5. Nu este multa apa in ceasca. there are not (there aren’t) sunt: There are some books on the desk. (yellow) This coat isn’t green. (small) 28 . 3. That is a pencil. a peach. Put these sentences in the plural (Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la plural) Model: This is a book. (new) 2. 15. an airplane. 8. 7. 2. is there? No. 17. 7. 2.That is a bed. This is a table. there’s not). a woman. These are books. a tree. That car is old. 3. 16. 13. That is an armchair. These hats are black. 4. That is a map. This is a window. This is a chair. a waiter. 2. a city. there isn’t. Model: This coat is green. 6. This apple is big. a tomato. Sunt cateva carti pe masa. a brush. an address. Exprimati dezacordul dumneavoastra (Express your discord). 10.

she. 3. The man is in the car. The plate is on the table. 12. 2. Use he. 10. This is an umbrella. 7. 5. 14. 8. (difficult) That office is bad. 1. 5. Make these sentences interrogative: 1. The cat is under the table. 3. 6. 7. The cigarette is on the desk. (light) This cat is white. 7. Those are planes. 6. The pictures are on the wall. it or they in the answers: Is this a pencil? Is this a train? Is that a window? Are the students in the classroom? Are the children in the garden? Is the woman a mother? Is a table a thing? 29 . (good) This tie is nice. The window is open. 4. 15. Those texts are easy. 2. It is a cat. 5. (thick) That room is dark. 5. 13. (plain) These books are thin. They are waiters. 11. That is a clock. That is a door. 9. This is a train. The train is in the station. 8. (black) Those days are good. 6. 4.4. 9. Answer these questions affirmatively (with yes). 11. (bad) 4. That egg is bad.

Este el in masina? 10. Este ea sub masa? 5. Baiatul este la masa. Are the books on the shelf? 9. 8. Is the computer under the desk? 6. Peter is … the blackboard. 4. Use he. 7. between. They aren’t … school.Answer these questions negatively (with no). 3. 7. Ei sunt ingineri. este. at or under: Tom and Mary are … home. 2. Lectia este interesanta. in. 3. it. she. Are the girls in the office? 5. El si ea sunt medici. Father sits … an armchair. 3. Is this a tree? 2. Cestile sunt pe masa. Omul acela este sofer. Automobilul este nou. Are these trees? 3. Textul nu este mare. 4. 30 . The institute is … hospital and the school. Acea geanta este neagra. Sunt ei medici? 11. The mouse is … the floor. It is … the floor. 9. The doctor is … the hospital. 5. Is the piano in the corner of the room? 10. 2. 8. Este lampa pe masa? Da. Ei nu sunt medici. Is that a book? 4. 7. 12. 8. Are the flowers on the table? 7. Translate into English 1. 6. or they in the answers: 1. 1. Bill sits … a chair. 6. Is the door open? 8. Ei nu sunt la lectie. Is the boy near the door? 6. Put in on. Camera este mare.

larg TEXT: In the classroom This is a classroom. fotografie.Vocabulary: picture tablou. This is a nice picture. They are in the boxes. it is. These are desks. film door usa to close a inchide window fereastra clock ceas (de perete) wall perete table masa near langa boy baiat pen pix pencil creion desk banca. There are flowers on the table. The teacher is near the table. There is a table in the classroom. pictura. That is a teacher and these are students. That is a map on the wall. 31 . One window is open. dragut large mare. The pens and the pencils are on the desks. Those are windows. Is the clock big? Yes. masa de scris. birou. The door is closed. That is the door.) casa pay at the desk platiti la casa box cutie thick gros thin subtire big mare nice placut. The clock is on the wall. Are they thick? The pencils and the pens are thin. The classroom is large. (ec.

UNIT 3 The verb to have/ to have got (Present Tense) Affirmative I have / have got = eu am You have / have got = tu ai He has / has got = el are She has / has got = ea are It has /has got = el/ea are (pentru animale. she. formelor verbului “to have” li se adauga got fara nici o modificare a sensului. 32 . she. it hasn’t got We haven’t got You haven’t got They haven’t got Have I got? Have you got? Has he got? Has she got? Has it got? Have we got? Have you got? Have they got? Note: In stilul vorbit. it doesn’t have We don’t have You don’t have They don’t have I haven’t got You haven’t got He. obiecte) We have /have got = noi avem You have / have got = voi aveti They have / have got = ei au Interrogative Do I have? Do you have? Does he have? Does she have? Does it have? Do we have? Do you have? Do they have? Negative I don’t have You don’t have He.

III. Give them these books. Pronumele personale la cazurile nominativ si obiectiv: Nominative Objective I me (mie. I see him every day. pe voi) They them (lor. pe ea) We us (noua. pe ea) It it (le el. 33 . pe noi) You you (voua. (Il vad pe el in fiecare zi). Nominative Verb Objective Objective I know him and I write You know me and you write He knows her and he writes She knows us and she writes We know them and we write They know you and they write Preposition to to to to to to him me her us them you E.g. Help me! = (Ajuta-ma). pe ei) NOTE: La cazul nominativ pronumele personale se folosesc numai in rolul de subiect: E. pe tine) He him (lui. La cazul obiectiv (acuzativ) aceste pronume se folosesc in rolul de complement a unui verb.II. dupa prepozitie.g. Ordinea obisnuita a cuvintelor in propozitie. pe mine) You you (tie. We are students. pe el) She her (ei. Pozitia subiectului si predicatului Subiectul este asezat inaintea predicatului: E. Dan has a new car. (Dati-le lor cartile acestea.). (Dan are o masina noua).g.

or The train is. se numesc speciale. he is. The word what is for things. care se incep cu un verb se numesc generale. Does Dan have a new car? (Are Dan o masina noua?) Is he a teacher? (Este el profesor?) Intrebarile. Is he a student? Yes. or The train.g.g. or The students are. Intrebarile. E. The word who is for people. No. What is he? He is a driver. What is in the station? The train is in the station. The students are in the classroom. What is Bill? (Ce este Bill?) He is an economist. (El este economist). (Ea este Jane). 34 . they have. Note: Who is he? He is Mr. She is Jane. Who are in the classroom? The students are in the classroom. cate?). Where are the students? They are in the classroom. how much? (cati. they haven’t. Who is she? (Cine este ea?). No.In propozitia interogativa verbul totdeauna preceda subiectul: E.g.: E. what? (ce?). how old? (ce varsta ai?) what kind of? etc. cate?). Have they got good marks? Yes. how? (cum?). The train is in the station. they are. Ele se rostesc cu un ton ascendent si raspunsul este scurt afirmativ si negativ. Are the students in the classroom? Yes. X. where? (unde?). how many? (cati. or The students. he isn’t. care incep cu cuvintele interogative ca: who? (cine?).

twelve [twelv] twelfth [twelfθ] 12th 13.sixty [siksti] sixtieth [sikstiiθ] 60th 70.second [sekэnd] 2nd 3 three [θri:] third [θЗ:d] 3rd 4 four [fo:] fourth [fo:θ] 4th 5 five [faiv] fifth [fifθ] 5th 6 six [siks] sixth [sikθ] 6th 7 seven [sevn] seventh [sevnθ] 7th 8 eight [eit] eighth [eitθ] 8th 9 nine [nain] ninth [nainθ] 9th 10 .nineteen [nainti:n] nineteenth [nainti:nθ] 19th 20.fifteen [fifti:n] fifteenth [fifti:nθ] 15th 16.fifty [fifti] fiftieth [fiftiiθ] 50th 60.twenty [twenti] twentieth [twentiiθ] 20th 21.eighteen [ei’ti:n] eighteenth [eiti:nθ] 18th 19.one (a) hundred and one (the) hundred and first 101st 1000.thirty [θз:ti] thirtieth [θз:ti:θ] 30th 40.nought/zero [no:t] [zirou] 1 one [wΛn] the first [fз:st] 1st 2 two [tu:] -“.ten [ten] tenth [tenθ] 10th 11.eighty [eiti] eightieth [eitiiθ] 80th 90.twenty-one [twenti wΛn] twenty first 21st 30.seventeen [sevnti:n] seventeenth [sevnti:nθ]17th 18.fourteen [fo:ti:n] fourteenth [fo:ti:nθ] 14th 15.eleven [ilэvn] eleventh [ilэvn] 11th 12.sixteen [siksti:n] sixteenth [siksti:nθ ]16th 17.one (a) thousand [θauznd] thousandth [θauzndθ] 1000th 1000000 – one (a) million [miliэn] the millionth [miljэnθ] 1000000th 35 .seventy [seventi] seventieth [seventiiθ] 70th 80.ninety [nainti] ninetieth [naintiiθ] 90th 100-one (a) hundred [h Λndrэd] hundredth [h Λndrэdθ] 100th 101.forty [fo:ti] fortieth [fo:tiiθ] 40th 50.thirteen [θз:ti:n] thirteenth [θз:ti:nθ] 13th 14.NUMERALS (Cardinal Numerals) (Ordinal Numerals) 0.

5. 14. 4. 2. Peter has bad pronunciation. cu ajutorul sufixului -th: Grupul de litere ve din five si twelve devine f in numeralele corespunzatoare (the fifth. We … a new company. 13. You … a little cat. (2) negative: I. Vocala e din nine cade (the ninth). 3. nineteen ninety nine. 9. se formeaza din numeralele cardinale corespunzatoare. he has. 2. They … a new chief. Dan … an interesting book. 1999 – September the twelfth. Miss Helen has a reading book. 12th September. 16. Put in have or has (Completati cu have sau has). I have bad pronunciation. You have a lot of money. Give true answers (Dati raspusuri adevarate): Model: Has Tom got a little dog?Has your father got an English book? Yes. You have an exercise book. 8. 1. he hasn’t. 12. 3. I … an English book. Eight primeste doar un h (the eighth). I have a book. 36 . 11. Exercises: 1. She … a nice dress. She was born on the 12th of September. The students on my left have a computer.Numeralele ordinale. 8. 6. No. Exprimarea datei: September 12. The children have funny toys. She has a nice picture. 1999 – the 12th of September. nineteen ninety nine. Mr. la care se adauga th. Make these sentences (I) interrogative. 7. Ea s-a nascut la 12 septembrie. Corbin has a new car. 15. 10. y se transforma in ie. They … a clean house. De la twenty la ninety. cu exceptia primelor trei. He … a little dog. the twelfth).

2. 2. us). and (we. Do they have good friends? 8. 3. 5. she). her) in the office and she sees (me. We go home after lessons. and Bill goes with (her. 6. Do these sums (Faceti aceste adunari): Model: 3 + 5 = 8 Three and five is eight. Has your teacher got a new bag? blouse? 3. and they know (we. I see (she. I have an old car. Do you have you a new pencil? 2. Smith has a new team.I write to (he. Do you have a cat? 4. us) speak English to (he. Cross out the wrong pronoun (Stergeti pronumele gresit): 1. 3. He telephones (she. 8+4= 2+5= 4+3= 3+9= 1 10 5 6 + 11 = + 1= + 5= + 3= 4+7= 2+8= 7+1= 6+6= 37 . 6. Has Tom got a big flat? 4. 6. her) every day and tells the news. 5. They help (me. Does your sister have a red 7. Mr. they) very well. I). him) and you write (I.1. 5. Does your father have a new hat? 6. 4. we). You have five French books. Make special questions (Puneti intrebari speciale la cuvintele evidentiate): 1. He speaks English to (we. Has Mary got a big family? 5. me). He is a good father.We know (them. 8. I). Tom has two sisters and one brother. 4. He teaches (us. 7. us). him). Mary goes to a dance.

Cati copii au ei? Ei nu au copii. Translate into English Aceasta este familia mea. surori? Da. Ei nu sunt prea invarsta. Tatal meu este inalt. El este doctor. Ea este invatatoare. Cati ani au ei? Noi suntem nepotii lui. Ei locuesc nu departe de noi.7. Aveti frati. am doi frati si trei surori. Cati ani are tatal tau? Mama mea este tanara si frumoasa. Aceastea sunt parintii mei. Vocabulary family average husband wife parents father mother grandparents grandfather grandmother children school-children son daughter sister brother grandson granddaughter uncle aunt nephew [nefju:] niece [ni:s] cousin godfather godmother bride familie medie sot sotie parinti tata mama bunici bunel bunica copii elevi fecior fiica sora frate nepot (de bunic) nepoata (de bunic) unchi matusa nepot (de unchi) nepoata (de unchi) verisor(a) nas nasa mireasa 38 . Ea este mare. Avem un unchi si o matusa. Fratii sunt studenti si surorile eleve. Bunelul este muncitor si bunica contabil. Cine sunt aceia? Acei sunt bunei mei.

Brown’s son is a school-boy.bridegroom wedding parents-in-law subject to work to play summer farmer usually nursery every friend in-laws mire cununie socri obiect de studiu a lucra a se juca vara fermier. Paul works in a company. the dog and Felix. Mr. How old is he? He is thirty. Jane has two little friends: Toby. She is twenty. they haven’t. His father is a farmer and his mother is a housewife. too. the cat. What’s his job? He is an engineer. They are farmers. His name is Paul Brown. Mr.nine. agricultor de obicei cresa fiecare prieten cuscri Text: My friend’s family My friend has an average family. He takes a lot of subjects at school. They aren’t very old. He has got a wife and two children. He has an uncle and an aunt. Brown has parents. Mr. His wife’s name is Mary and his children’s names are Jane and Nick. They live in the village. Her father takes her to a nursery school every morning. He is ten. Nick has many friends. Brown has parents-in-law. Brown’s family is very friendly. 39 . Paul’s wife usually takes the children to the country in summer to stay with their grandfather and grandmother. They live in the country. He lives in London. They love their grandchildren very much. Mr. His daughter Jane is five. Mary is a young woman. Have they got children? No. He likes playing tennis. She’s a doctor in a hospital.

El este ….MEETING PEOPLE How do you do! Hello! Who are you? I am …/My name is… Glad/Nice to meet you! She is …. my wife. He is …. 40 . Buna ziua Noroc/Salut! Cum va numiti?/Cum te numesti? Sunt…/Ma numesc … Sunt incantat de cunostinta! Ea este …. sotul meu. my husband. sotia mea.

41 . iar o parte din ele si pentru trecut. He may be handsome.Formeaza negativul prin adaugarea lui not: Cannot forma prescurtata can’t Must not May not mustn’t may not Sensurile verbelor modale: Can – a putea. need sunt verbe defectiv-modale. O fi el frumos. must. a se putea.Nu pot fi conjugate la toate modurile si timpurile. a fi posibil. she. it can They can Formeaza predicatul numai insotite de alt verb (la infinitiv fara to). No. Formeaza interogativul prin inversare: Can I ? Can we? Can you? Can you? Can he? Can they? Can she? Can it? . but he is not clever. dar destept nu e. . Modal verbs: can. I can’t. May – a putea (a-i fi permis).Au aceeasi forma la toate persoanele: I can We can You can You can He.UNIT 4 1. Poate sa fie adevarat. “poate ca” May I open the window? Pot sa deschid fereastra? It may be true. a sti sa Can you help me? Yes. I can. I can’t swim. cu urmatoarele caracteristici: . Au o forma pentru present. may.

iar cel negativ cu needn’t. cativa. “este cazul”. catva. nici o: I haven’t any chocolates on the table. Need – forma de present. no) Some – unii. vreunele. 2. you needn’t. there is (some). niste. nici un. La intrebarile cu need. cateva. unii. not any. you must. You needn’t ask him. ceva. Any se foloseste in propozitii negative si se traduce prin nu. (Nu e nevoie/nu e cazul sa-l rogi/intrebi). Some poate fi folosit in propozitii interogative cand intrebarea nu se refera la some: May I have some water? Pot sa beau putina apa? Yes. Any – ceva. Comparati cu: Is there any sugar in the cup? Yes. vreo. oarecare – Se foloseste in propozitii afirmative: Some houses are high and some are low. cativa. catava. Need I repeat that? E nevoie/trebuie sa repet asta) Yes. unele. “este necesar”. you may. se foloseste numai in propozitiile interogative.Must – a trebui You must go home. unele. catva. Indefinite Pronouns (Pronumele nehotarate) (some. putin(a) – Se foloseste in propozitii interogative in locul lui some: Are there any books on the table? Is there any milk in the bottle? Se foloseste in propozitii afirmative cu sensul de oarecare: You may take any of these books. No. 42 . vreun(ul). negative si are sensul de “este nevoie”. Poti lua oarecare din aceste carti. Tu trebuie sa mergi acasa. vreunii. any. “trebuie”. vreuna. raspunsul afirmativ se formeaza cu must. cateva.

little. prea putin. . Many cars/computers/desks/books/lamps/dictionaries. There are many books in the library. No inlocuieste pe not … any. Alternative Questions (Intrebari alternative) Intrebarile de tipul: Is he a teacher or a doctor? (Este el profesor sau medic?) se numesc alternative. putina. Many [meni] multi. There are a lot of flowers in the garden. There is no mistake in my work. Few – (prea) putini. lots of. mai deloc au conotatii negative: I’m afraid I have little time for reading. Se formeaza cu ajutorul conjuctiei or 43 . niste (pentru plural) au conotatii pozitive: I have a little time. a little. few a little – putin. (prea) putine. I haven’t got much time. multa – se foloseste cu singularul. a few. Au ramas (foarte) putin e pasari in Moldova.Nu am (prea) mult timp. cateva. There are few birds left in Moldova. (Nu exista nici o greseala in lucrarea mea). In propozitiile afirmative se prefera folosirea expresiei a lot of (mai familiar lots of). 4. multe – se foloseste cu pluralul. 4. Little – putin. mai deloc. a lot of. Dispun de oarecare timp. Ma tem ca am prea putin timp pentru citit. Much. many. Avem cativa prieteni in acest oras.There isn’t any mistake in my work. 3. There are lots of trees in the park. Am putin (ceva) timp. niste (pentru singular) a few – cativa. Much [mΛ t∫] mult. Much water/ sugar/information/tea/coffee/milk/work/rice/money/time. ceva. We have a few friends in this town.

We will see you in the summer. care se pune la intreaga propozitie. I can drink… milk. 4. Cand ne referim la un anotimp dintr-un anume an. 5. 44 . etc. Se spune in winter. in autumn . 6. (Iarna copacii sunt golasi). anotimpurile nu primesc articolul hotarat: In Moldova summer is a warm season. folosim articolul hotarat: In the spring of 1999. He can play… football. You can write… on the blackboard. si se rostesc cu urmatoarea intonatie: prima parte a intrebarii (pana la conjunctia “or”) se rosteste cu un ton ascendent. We can study… English. She can read… a book. (In primavara anului 1999).) What can they do? Put in the verbs: 1. 3. cand exprimam o generalitate: In winter the trees are bare. intrebarea alternativa se pune la diferite parti ale propozitiei: Is he a doctor or is she? (la subiect) Is he an engineer or manager? (la predicativ) Is he in London or in Paris? (la complement circumstantial de loc) Is the competition in summer or in spring? (la complement circumstantial de timp) The Seasons of the Year. (Te vom vedea la vara. iar partea care urmeaza dupa “or” cu un ton descendent: Is this a ‘table or a ‘desk? Spre deosebire de intrebarea generala.[o:] – sau. 2. They can play… in the park. (Anotimpurile) Spring [spriŋ] primavara Summer [sΛmэ] vara Autumn [o:tm] toamna Winter [wintэ] iarna Ca subiect.

The rivers and lakes freeze and we can go skating and skiing. It’s a very nice season. (exercise 5) Text: The Seasons in Moldova Winter. 1. (tennis) I can play football. May are spring months.The weather is fine and it is warm. The weather is changeable. December. We can read books. He can draw my dining-room. October. The weather is cold. It is hot or warm. The days are short and the nights are long. The days are long and the nights are short. I can write exercise 3. Usually it snows. The days become shorter and the nights longer. January and February are winter months. (rugby) 3. You can see yellow. spring. 45 . July and August are summer months. There are many green trees and nice flowers in the parks in summer. June. but I can’t play tennis. March. You can clean the blackboard. summer and autumn are the seasons of the year.Make sentences: Model: I can play football. He can open the door. (classroom) 7. (novels) 4. November are autumn months. She can speak Romanian. I can drink tea. (the window) 8. April. (English) 6. It is time for gathering harvest. September. (milk) 2.It is cool. Sometimes it rains but as usually the sun shines brightly. red and brown leaves everywhere. It often rains. (the window) 5. You can see snow everywhere. They can play chess. There are many green trees in the streets and in the parks.

4. You … eat breakfast in the morning. 8. She types … letters every day. 2. 5. 7. 6. You …sit on the table. You … do your homework. He … smoke in the office. There are not … books on the desk. I want … coffee. We … learn our lessons. Mr. 5. Have they many children? Is there much or little coffee in your cup? There is a little tea in her cup. There are … students at the lesson. Put in many. 3. Brown receives very … visitors on Tuesday. 6. They … answer these questions. Children … run in the street. 2. 3. 8. There are a lot of English and French books in the university library. little. 7. a little and a lot of. 5. much. There are a few books on the shelf. Put in must or mustn’t 1. a few. 2. 6. There is not … bread at home. please. 7. There are … students in the canteen. 4.Exercises: 1. 3. Peter has few friends at the university. 3. 1. We … read in bed. Read and translate these sentences. He usually has a lot of work to do in his office. 1. 2. 4. few. 8. (Cititi si traduceti aceste propozitii) I have very little sugar at home. I have … cigarettes at home. 46 .

She is a good manager. Make up alternative questions 1.4. The bag is under the table. 6. They have many friends. Dining room 3. Dormitorul bed pat carpet covor wardrobe sifonier window fereastra curtain perdea. 4. Paris is the capital of France. He is a worker. I have much work. Drawing room 2. Bed room 1. Sufragerie table masa stool taburet lamp lampa buffet bufet glass-case vitrina 47 . draperie dressing-table masa de toaleta 2. Vocabulary Drawing room/living room/sitting room camera de zi Bed room dormitor Bath room baie Dining room sufragerie Kitchen bucatarie Balcony balcon Entrance hall hol de intrare 1. 5. 3. Camera de zi sofa canapea armchair fotoliu chair scaun TV-set televizor picture tablou door usa furniture mobila mirror oglinda piano pian 3. 2.

(Camera de)baie chiuveta closet. Holul de intrare cuier imbracaminte cheie tapet 7. Bathroom basin water-closet soap towel Verbs to open to shut/close to eat to drink to sit to watch to look (at) to dry to wash to dress to make-up to go to bed to get up to sleep to cook 4. Camera perete dusumea/podea tavan jaluzele 6. Kitchen oven/cooker/stove fridge cupboard sink vacuum-cleaner 5. Room wall floor ceiling blinds 6. Bucatarie aragaz frigider dulap chiuveta aspirator 5. WC sapun prosop Verbe a deschide a inchide a manca a bea a sedea a privi a privi (la) a (se) sterge a (se) spala a (se) imbraca a (se) machia a merge la culcare a se scula a dormi a gati 48 .4. Entrance hall peg clothes key wallpaper 7.

There are ten floors in our house. a telephone. Our house has all modern conveniences such as: central heating. The living room is large and light. There are two arm-chairs and a standard-lamp in the corner. There are four rooms in it: a dining room. There is a green carpet on the floor. It’s a nice bedroom. There is a large writing-table in front of the window. 49 . There are some books on it. We sit down in the armchairs and watch TV. too and the blinds are green. The walls are white. a table. She loves music. There is a window and on the sill I have many flower pots. There is a vase of flowers on it. and a telephone. In the bed room we have a bed near the window and a wardrobe near the door. The study is large. a wardrobe and a mirror. the curtains are white. In the middle of it there is a big round table and some chairs. dinner and supper. The kitchen is not very large. The bedroom is not large. In the kitchen we have breakfast. I like my flat very much. a bed room. There are many things in it. There is also a piano in the room. electricity. The ceiling is white and the floor is brown. running water.to come in to go out/to leave to live to put a intra in a iesi/a pleca a locui/a trai a pune Text: My Flat I have a large flat in a new block of flats. There are a cupboard. The walls in this room are yellow. My sister plays the piano very well. a sink and a fridge. Our dining room is a large room. There is a square table in the middle of the room. To the right of the piano there is a writing-table. a bath room and a kitchen. There are two beds. a night table (commode). Our flat is very confortable. some stools. There is a lamp above the bed. There are a sofa and a bookcase in the corner. gas.

My flat is not large but comfortable. My mother cooks in the kitchen and we eat in the dining-room. Take your time ang get it right. Ted: Do you eat in the living-room? John: No. a dining-room. Mary: Is the fridge in the dining room or in the kitchen? John: The fridge and the freezer are in the kitchen near the window. John? John: Yes. not very large. Ted: How many rooms do you have. a bathroom and a living-room. but surely. Mary: Is the entrance-hall large? John: Well. Better slowly.Dialogue Ted: Do you have a nice flat. a kitchen. I do. we don’t. John? John: I have two bedrooms. 50 . Ted: Thank you.

usually – de obicei. He goes to the theatre twice a month – El merge la teatru de doua ori pe luna. Eu niciodata nu beau lapte. vesnic. Exemplu: I never drink milk.UNIT 5 The Present Indefinite (Prezent simplu) The Present Indefinite exprima actiuni obisnuite. de ex. always [‘olweiz. La interogativ-negativ: Don’t you ever read detective stories? (Nu citesti niciodata romane politiste?) O propozitie englezeasca neputand contine doua negatii.: She is a very good doctor. Adverbele de timp nedefinit si frecventa se asaza de regula intre subiect si predicat. mereu. never – niciodata. once a week – odata pe saptamana/saptamanal. Aceasta repetare este indicata prin adverbele de frecventa si imbinari de cuvinte ca: often – deseori. He reads very quickly. La interogativ: Do you often go to concerts? (Mergi des la concerte?) La negativ: I don’t always enjoy his plays. repetate nu neaparat legate de momentul vorbirii. (Helen este intotdeauna bine imbracata) Kathy is never late for school. in exemplul de mai sus never a fost inlocuit cu ever. They often forget to brush their teeth. 51 . I always get up early. They seldom come to the lessons. rarely – rar. They like to travel. every day – in fiecare zi. Acest tip de propozitii include adesea informatia despre anumite capacitati (calitati). Exceptie: Intre verbul to be si numele predicativ: Helen is always dressed well. every year – in fiecare an. Tom speaks French fluently. olwэz]-intotdeauna. seldom –rar.

Terminatia Prezentului Indefinit la persoana a 3-a singular se conduce dupa aceleasi reguli ortografice si fonetice ca si pluralul substantivelor. -x = es: She teaches. baths. descriobes. p.Sometimes – uneori. e. -tch. bathes. t.s dupa consoanele sueratoare – iz: rises [raiziz] – se redica. -s. cateodata are loc variabil in propozitie: I sometimes have news from him. sh. calls.s dupa consoane surde = f. l . He fixes He watches. it washes. comes. changes [t∫eidзiz]. d. rouges [ru:зiz] – rujeaza. she plays. Verbele to go si to do = es: she goes [gouz]. She passes. Cele terminate in y precedat de o consoana formeaza persoana a 3-a singular in –ies: To cry-cries. ch. he does [dΛz] Terminatia –s sau –es a persoanei a 3-a singular se pronunta –z – dupa vocale si dupa consoane sonore = b. hopes.n. adauga terminatia –s: he knows. learns. cooks. Verbele terminate in consoana. says [sez]. 52 . k. . g. reads. Cele trminate in –ss. w sau y precedate de o vocala (e vorba de litere). to fly-flies. . to hurry-hurries. v . ŋ. Plays. lives. meets. θ: laughs [la:fs]. She says sometimes that she loves him. m. she forgets.ð. it changes. (Uneori ea spune ca-l iubeste). Sometimes we go for a walk.

Where do you work? (Unde lucrezi?) When do you go home? (Cand mergi acasa?) Daca intrebarea este adresata subiectului propozitiei.she.(it) knows We know You know They know Interrogative Do I know? Do you know? Does he. she. atunci verbul auxiliar nu se intrebuinteaza: Who works in the garden? (Cine lucreaza in gradina?) Cand in calitate de predicat se foloseste verbul to be. cu sensul de a face. formele interogativa si negativa nu include auxiliarul do: He is a farmer. it doesn’t know We don’t know You don’t know They don’t know Interogativul Prezentului Nedefinit se formeaza exclusiv cu ajutorul auxiliarului do urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat.Affirmative I know You know He. se conjuga cu el insusi ca auxiliar pentru a forma interogativul: What do you do? (Ce faci?) What does he do? (Ce face el?) How do you do? (formula de salut). Is he a farmer? 53 .it know? Do we know? Do you know? Do they know? Negative I don’t know You don’t know He. she. He is not a farmer. Ca auxiliar verbul to do isi pierde total sensul de a face: Do you know me? Does he know English? Does she know how to cook? (Se pricepe sa gateasca?) Verbul to do.

Wednesday – provine de la Odin. Tuesday – provine de la Tiu. Expresii in legatura cu zilele saptamanii: (on) Monday – luni last Thursday . Thursday – Zeul Thor era venerat joia. adica zeul lunii. numit in engleza Odin sau Woden. Friday – provine de la Zeita Frei sau Frigg. Pentru a spune: (in ziua de) luni sau (in ziua de) marti. Monday – provine din anglosaxonul day of the moon. cand fiecare zi era consacrata unui zeu sau unui eveniment sacru. Sunday – provine de la anglosaxonul day of the Sun.joia trecuta next Sunday – duminica viitoare on Fridays – vinerea. Saturday – provine de la Saturn. de ex. In limba engleza zilele saptamanii se scriu cu litera mare.The Days of the Week (Zilele saptamanii) Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday [mΛ ndei] [tju:zdei] [wenzdei] [θз:zdei] [fraidei] [sætэdei] [sΛndei] luni marti miercuri joi vineri sambata duminica Denumirile zilelor saptamanii provin din timpurile vechilor credinte.: on Monday. se foloseste particula on. fiul Zeului Odin. on Tuesday. adica Ziua Soarelui. vinerile (on) Wednesday morning – miercuri de dimineata on Saturday afternoon – intr-o dupa ameaza de sambata The Meals of the Day Mesele zilei: Breakfast micul dejun 54 .

Make sentences: 55 . masa de pranz 2. cina 2. dineu 1. The Months of the Year. masa de seara 3. Cina este o masa usoara.Lunch luncheon tea dinner 1. Masa (principala a zilei) 2. supeu supper In mod obisnuit. mesele zilei nu se articuleaza: We have dinner at 2 o’clock in the afternoon. What time is breakfast? Supper is a light meal. gustarea de pranz dejun ceaiul (de dupa-ameaza) 1. (Lunile anului) January [‘dзænjuэri] July [dзulai] February [‘februэri] August [‘o:gэst] March [ma:t∫] September [sep’tembэ] April [‘eiprl] October [ok’toubэ] May [mei] November [nou’vembэ] June [dзu:n] December [di’sembэ] The 1st of January sau January the 1st The 8th of March sau March the 8th Exercises: 1.

night. She (speak) English very well. (Deschideti parantezele si folositi verbul respectiv la forma corecta). He (watch) TV in the evening.gets up He She washes goes to school watches TV plays in the park goes to bed in the mornig. 5. She has English on… Monday and Friday. Sunday. 3. We (get up) at 6 o’clock. at or in: Nick goes to the university on…in the morning. Monday. He (like) coffee. 10. 6. 1. Thursday. Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct form. We (study) very much. 1. the afternoon. 4. 7. Model: He opens the window in the morning. He goes for a walk on… Sunday. Put in on. He has dinner at… seven o’clock. 5. 56 . 4. Peter (walk) very fast. This pen (write) well. Change these sentences. 7. They (work) hard. noon. He does his homework in… the afternoon. 8. He goes to bed at… night. 3. 6. 4. 2. (always) He always opens the window in the morning. He has lunch at… noon. He (read) many books. 2. the evening. 9. She (drink) tea. at on 2. eight o’clock. 3.

Tom often reads books in the evening. 8. “Does he often watch TV on Friday?” “Yes. We sometimes go for a walk at weekends. 5. (sometimes) He goes to the cinema on Saturday. 3. You like French very much.” 1. 4. 2. 3. 6. (seldom) He runs in the park every morning. Nick doesn’t do his homework every week. (often) Peter has tea in the morning. (never) My friend and I play chess on Sunday. 2. 4. (often) She listens to the music in the evening. My sister goes to college every day. My brother works very much. I always have dinner at home. 2. 7. 7. 57 . 8. 3. 5.(usually) She watches TV in the afternoon. 5.) Model: He often watches TV on Friday. Her grandparents live in the country. They seldom write letters to her mother on Friday. 6. 4. She sometimes has dinner at seven o’clock in the evening. I usually get up at 6 o’clock in the morning. 5. 6. She usually has lunch on Sunday. Dati raspunsuri scurte la intrebari. He often has English class on Tuesday. We usually play chess in the morning. he does. 1. 7. 8. Give short answers to the questions. Transform these sentences into negative. I have coffee in the morning. 6. (usually) Mother cleans the rooms every Saturday. Our father washes his car every week. (Transformati aceste propozitiile. He is busy all day. Model: Nick does his homework every week. (always) Trasform these sentences.1. He meets me every day.

Translate into English 1. We have … two-room flat in … new block of flats. 2. Copiii nu merg la scoala. 3. 7. (who. big company. 4. what kind of. There is a… nice picture on the… wall. (who. They have a three-room flat in a new house in the centre of London. El nu locuieste in Chisinau.7. 5. where. Vocabulary to walk [wo:k] week [wi:k] to receive [ri’si:v] to stay [stei] a merge (pe jos) saptamana a primi (in vizita) a sta. when) 8. Put in the interrogative: He goes to work every day. 2. what. Duminica noi ne plimbam in parc. Cine va preda limba engleza? 11. 6.In Washington sunt multi studenti. Complete these sentences with respective articles. what. 8. El este managerul unei mari companii. Our flat is on the… ninth floor. 4. Duminica parintii nu lucreaza. Ei citesc multe carti. 3. what kind of) 4. Studentii universitatilor lucreaza intens. what) She has two brothers and three sisters. 6. where. 7.(who. there are a lot of studets in Washington. 1. 12. what. the… things are good. 9. He comes to the factory at eight o’clock in the morning. a ramane 58 . how many) My parents live in a small town near Paris. (who. 8. 5. There are many things in their flat. (who. 9. He works in a. Dumneata faci studii la Universitate? 10. where) 5. 1. (Completati golurile din urmatoarele propozitii cu articolul respectiv) He is a… student. Ei isi fac studiile in universitati si colegii. They study at the… University. when. what. Feciorului meu ii place sa se plimbe cu mine. where. el locuieste in Londra. We live in a… good flat. Unde locuieste d-l Smith? 12.. how many. They study at universities and coledgies 3. 2.

He only works five days a week. After classes he returns home. a boy and a girl. He lives near the company. She goes to a nursery. His wife is a student at the University. 59 . Mr. He works hard at his French.) to discuss [diskΛs] to return [ritз:n] hard [ha:d] after [a:ftэ] questions [kwest∫nz] to read [ri:d] home [houm] newspaper [nju:speipэ] university [ju:nivз:siti] a dori. He often receives visitors from factories in the afternoon. Fellows has a family. Thursday. He has a wife and two children. He works on Monday. They discuss a lot of questions with him. She is very young. a se duce bait fata fabrica a asculta la. The boy goes to school. The girl doesn’t go to school. He doesn’t work on Saturday and Sunday. She wants to be a doctor. catre a discuta a se intoarce intens dupa intrebari a citi acasa ziar universitate Text: Rob Fellows Rob Fellows works in a company. a pleca. He usually finishes work at six o’clock in the evening. He sometimes stays in the office after work for his French lessons. Rob learns French. spre.to want [wont] to study [stΛdi] only [ounli] to rest [rest] young [jΛŋ] to go [gou] boy [boi] girl [gз:l] factory [fæktori] to listen [lisn] to to [tu:] (prep. a vrea a studia numai a se odihni tanar(a) a merge. She works very hard every day. His family is not large. Tuesday. He usually walks there. She is only three. Wednesday. and Friday.

They play and we read some newspapers. On Sundays we rest from work. The children go to bed at 9 o’clock. but it’s worth trying. It’s hard. but we don’t. We walk in the park with our children. We go home at 7 o’clock. We watch TV and listen to the radio. lunch and dinner for our family. 60 .On Saturday we clean the house and cook breakfast.

/The waiter’s gloves are white. (Manusele chelnerului sunt albe) Don’t forget to give a tip to the waiter. Bill and Jane’s parents. (Parintii comuni ai celor trei copii. te rog) The Genitive Case Genitivul in limba engleza se exprima cu prepozitia “of” pentru lucruri si cu “s”.UNIT 6 The form of the Possessive/Genitive Case (cazul posesiv/genitivul in ‘s) The declension of nouns (Declinarea substantivelor) Nominativ (the/a) Genitiv (of the/a) ‘s Dativ (to the/a) Acuzativ (the/a) Vocativ (-) The waiter wears white gloves. apostroful se asaza dupa s: The boys’ books – cartile baietilor. numai cu apostrof in general pentru persoane si alte fiinte: The boy’s name – numele baiatului Tom’s father – tatal lui Tom. In cazul acesta ‘s se asaza dupa fiecare substantiv la genetiv. 61 . La plural. Mike and Mary’s children. (Parintii fiecaruia in parte). please. Elena’s and Jerry’s parents. (Sa chemam chelnerul) Waiter! The bill. se adauga ‘s: The men’s club – clubul barbatilor The children’s parents – parintii copiilor.) Tom. (Nu uita sa-i dai chelnerului un bacsis) Let’s call the waiter. Daca pluralul substanivelor (neregulate) nu se termina in s. (Chelner! Nota. (Chelnerul poarta manusi albe) The gloves of the waiter are white. (Copiii amandurora.) In cazul acesta ‘s se aseaza numai dupa ultimul substantiv la genetiv.

sau cu substantive ce exprima timpul.a month’s holiday – (o vacanta de o luna. A 3 pound cake (Am. spatiul sau greutatea .Genitivul sinteticse foloseste de asemenea: (the) baker’s (shop) – brutarie butcher’s – macelarie florist’s – florarie grocer’s – bacanie greengrocer’s – zarzavagerie tobacconist’s .cu substantive comune: the colour of the sky – culoarea cerului the author of the book. 62 .tonight’s programme (propramul din aceasta seara) . durata si greutatea: A mile’s walk – cale de o mila pe jos.v. ca: today.) Genetivul analitic “of” Se foloseste: . yesterday.cu denumiri geografice: the city of London – orasul Londra.autorul cartii the difficulty of the problem.tutungerie doctor’s. tonight. A two hours’ journey – o calatorie de 2 ore. dentist’s (office) mother’s (house) Let’s go to mother’s tonight. A three pounds’ cake – un tort de trei lire.yesterday’s newspaper (ziarul de ieri) . .) Cu adverbe.dificultatea problemei. Pentru a exprima distanta.

atunci ultimul este precedat de prepozitia “to”. El ii da ei multe materiale. El i-a dat ei multe materiale. Mine is on the desk. Smith has got a car. isn’t he? Mr. (Locul complementului direct si indirect in propozitie): In limba engleza complementul indirect. de obicei. hasn’t he? 63 . devenind complement prepozitional: He gives many materials to her. Daca complementul direct il preceda oe cel indirect. preceda pe cel direct: He gives her many materials. This is his car. The place of direct and indirect object in the sentence. That is hers. Disjunctive Questions (Intrebari disjunctive) - Se traduce in limba romana prin “nu-i asa?” sau “Nu?” sau “Asai?” Dupa o propozitie afirmativa.Personal Pronouns (Pronumele personale) I You He She It We You They Pronumele Posesive (Pronumele posesive) Dependente my your his her its our your their Independente mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs This is my book. intrebarea disjunctiva are forma interogativ-negativa: Fred is a student.

there are. does. don’t you? You don’t know me. is he? She can’t speak English. don’t. can she? In intrebarile disjunctive se folosesc pronumele personale si. do you? She goes to bed early. there are not (there aren’t) sunt: There are some flowers in the garden. aren’t there? There isn’t much time left. is there? (n-a mai ramas mult timp. de regula. doesn’t she? She doesn’t go to bed late. - Intrebarile disjunctive la propozitiile continand there is (there’s). does she? The Adjective (Adjectivul) In limba engleza adjectivele au o singura forma.Dupa o propozitie negativa. formele prescurtate ale verbelor. intrebarea disjunctiva are forma interogativa simpla: He is not a student. there’s not). nu-i asa?) Intrebarile disjunctive la propozitiile continand Prezentul Nedefinit se formeaza dupa regulile cunoscute. Ele se asaza de regula inaintea substantivului: A young woman A new flat A handsome man Adjectivele derivate din nume proprii se sriu cu initiala majuscula: Romanian English French 64 . indeferent de gen sau numar. there is not (there isn’t. cu precizarea ca verbul notional nu apare in asemenea intrebari ci este inlocuit cu do. doesn’t: You know me.

The teacher’s book is good Mr. He sends the letter to her. 8. Put in the plural: Model: The student’s composition is interesting. . Is that coat …? “Yes. 8. They show us 65 . The man has a blue uniform. Where is …? 6. The girl’s hair is nice. 9. 2. How old is … father? 10. 4.” 5. The pupil has a clean notebook. show me …. Sylvia lives in London with her… parents. 4. Our house is new. 6. Robinson has a new car. The boy has an old computer. 3. The woman has a new dress. 3. 5. but …is a woman. 2. (Completati propozitiile de mai jos cu pronumele posesive respective: 1. 3. 2. Your pipe is in … place. Model: The teacher has a good book. The girl’s blouse is beautiful. 3. (Schimbati cu locurile complementele direct si indirect): 1. Change the places of direct and indirect objects. The students’ compositions are interesting. Don’t show me … report. 5. 4. … mother is at home. The doctor’s room is clean. but … is old. We have a new TV set in … bedroom. 7.Exercises: 1. 7. Mike and … wife are at the theatre. … brother’s teacher is a man. Our ather has a white shirt. He lends me his pen. Jeff and Tom are at the cinema with … sister. The boy’s shirt is white. 1. 1. 6. 3. 4. His brother has a dirty suit. Complete the sentences with possessive pronouns. The teacher’s pen is black. My sister has a new bag. it is … . The student’s problem is difficult. 2. 2.

don’t you? 7. Lectia profesorului. and Mrs.Lee are your parents. … …? 3. Sally is your sister. … … ? 4. 4. 1. Noi cumparam paine de la bacanie. There are ten students in the classroom. You have got a car. 11. There is an English newspaper on the desk. She can’t work. 2. She brings me a cup of coffee. Mr. aren’t there? 5. doesn’t he? 2. 15. Usa camerii lui Bill si Jane. 14. can’t they? 5. Your friend’s family isn’t large. He demonstrates his project to them. Ti-ai cumparat carti noi. 6. hasn’t he? 10. Culoare cerului. 8. He has coffee in the morning. John has some friends at school. hasn’t he? 3. Apartamentul prietenului meu este foarte confortabil. Eu nu pot sa merg la petrecere in seara aceasta. … … ? 9. Primele capitole ale romanului. You always listen to the radio in the evening. 3. Marca acestui automobil. 10. There aren’t any pictures on the walls.Tu ai multe greseli. … … ? 7. 16. His brothers don’t play chess every weekend. Read these disjunctive questions and answer them. You aren’t very busy. They can speak English very well. 13. … …? 5. Numele strazii noastre. nu-i asa? 6. Completati spatiile goale cu corespondentul romanesc al lui “nu-i asa?” 1. … … ? 8. 5. Profesoarea de pian a lui Tom. Noua prietena a Lizei. do they? 9. … … ? 6. Peter goes to the cinema.their new car. … … ? 10. 5. doesn’t he? 8. Pot sa deschid fereastra? 9. She watches TV. … … ? 7. nu-i asa?. 17. 12. Vocabulary capital old city huge capitala vechi oras (mare) urias. 7. Numarul casei lor. 4. are there? 6. Aceasta este cartea mea. 1. He opens the window every day. Translate into English. imens 66 . It isn’t late. … …? 2. is it? 4. He isn’t happy. It’s a tasty cake. Ei trebuie sa traduca acest text. da aceea a ta.

There are many offices. London is not only the capital of the country.v) nice pod peste rau ingust trotuar. There are many cars and buses. 67 . The City of London is the oldest part of London. There are many museums. It is a very old city. It is two thousand years old. The City of London is the financial centre of the United Kingdom. There are many sights in the West End. the East End. London is situated on both banks of the Thames. You can see narrow streets and pavements there. There are 17 bridges across the river. They are. London has three parts: the City of London. it is a huge port.bridge across river narrow pavements financial sights bell to weigh residence queen cars buses tube (underground) /subway (Am. The population of London is about 9 million people. The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. libraries and galleries in London.5 tons. firms and banks in this part of London. It weighs 13. There is a tube (an underground) in London. for example. It is a nice one. the West End. The West End is the centre of London. too. pavaj financiar punct turistic de atractie clopot a cantari residenta regina automobile autobuse metrou frumos TEXT: LONDON London is the capital of Great Britain. the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben which is the biggest clock bell in Britain.

UNIT 7 The Present Participle (Participiul prezent)
The Present Participle, in general, are un sens activ, ex: I see him painting. Functii: 1. Impreuna cu verbul auxiliar “to be”, formeaza aspectul continuu la diferite timpuri. 2. Are o valoare adjectivala, determinand un substantiv. Poate fi folosit atat atributiv (ex.: an interesting story = o poveste interesanta), cat si predicativ (ex.:The story is interesting = Povestea este interesanta.) The Present Participle se formeaza cu ajutorul sufixului –ing, care se ataseaza la infinitivul verbului fara partica “to”: to read – reading, to stay - staying, to take –taking, to get – getting.

The Present Continuous Tense (Prezentul continuu)
The Present Continuous se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar “to be” la Presentul Simplu si Participiul I al verbului de conjugat. Affirmative I am (I’m) reading a book You are (You’re) reading a book He is (He’s) reading a book She is (She’s) reading a book We are (We’re) reading a book You are (You’re) reading a book They are (They’re) reading a book

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Interrogative Am I reading ? Are you reading a book ? Is he reading a book ? Is she reading a book ? Are we reading a book ? Are you reading a book ? Are they reading a book ? Negative I am not (I’m) not reading a book You are not (aren’t) reading a book He is not (isn’t) reading a book She is not (isn’t) reading a book We are not (aren’t) reading a book You are not (aren’t) reading a book They are not (aren’t) reading a book The Present Continuous exprima: a). – o actiune, care se petrece in momentul vorbirii: Ex.: Look! It’s raining. (Priveste! Ploua) b). – o actiune, care are loc pentru o perioada limitata de timp in prezent: Ex.: What are you reading these days? I’m taking driving lessons. (Iau lectii de conducere auto) c) - poate avea o valoare de viitor, exprimand o actiune ce va avea loc conform unui program stabilit inainte, si anume verbele, care exprima miscarea, ca to go, to come, to leave denota o actiune care se va efectua in viitorul apropiat: Ex.: He is coming tomorrow. (El vine miine) Unele verbe nu se pot folosi la forma continua: - verbe care exprima o activitate mintala (know, remember, believe, mean, understand, forget, doubt [daut], agree, appreciate, expect, assume, feel (=think), realize, recognize)

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-

verbe care exprima sentimente sau stari sufletesti (love, regret, prefer, want, like, to etc.) verbe care exprima o perceptie senzoriala (see, hear, smell etc) verbe care exprima posesia (have, belong (to) – a apartine, to owna poseda, cat si verbul “to be”) verbe modale (can, must, may )

The Adverb (Adverbul)
Adverbul poate determina un verb (She sings beautifully), un adjectiv (She has an extremely beautiful voice) sau un alt adverb (very late). Modul de formare Majoritatea adverbelor de mod se formeaza prin adaugarea sufuxului –ly la un adjectiv. Ex.: Adjectiv Adverb Useful usefully Easy easily True truly Slow slowly Full fully Adjectivele terminate in –ic primesc terminatia –ally Fantastic fantastically Diplomatic diplomatically Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma cu adjectivele corespunzatoare: Friendly friendly Early early Lovely lovely Fast fast Late late Hard hard Only (singur,unic) only (numai, doar) Tipuri de adverbe:
1.

Adverbe de timp si frecventa: Yesturday (ieri), today (astazi), tomorrow (maine), soon(curand), often (deseori), always (intotdeauna), now (acum)
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Pozitia adverbelor in propozitie Cand in propozitie exista mai multe adverbe. Are they reading now? 1. He looks happy (Pare fericit). (S-a nascut bogat). simply (pur si simplu). de). bravely (cu curaj). 71 . .: He arrives safely in Washington today. (Ea raspunde pe un ton suparat) - 3. Adverbe de mod: Slowly (lent). look. He was born rich. (Noi deseori luam pranzul acasa) 2. The sun is shining. Adverbe de loc: Here (aici).We often have dinner at home. (1) (2) (3) (Ajunge in siguranta la Washington astazi) 1 2 3 Nota: Unele verbe ca become/ turn/keep/remain/stay/. angrily (suparat) .He is working slowly. seem. up (sus) etc. there (acolo). Adverbe care indica gradul: Absolutely/completely (complet).She replies angrily. (Ei sau oprit aici) 4. below (dedesubt). They stop here. Exercises: 1. They aren’t reading now. It’s incredibly boring (E incredibil de plicticos) I absolutely agree (sunt complet de acord). Make sentences negative and interrogative: Model: They are reading now. ordinea este: MOD LOC TIMP Ex.She comes today (Vine astazi) . smell sunt urmate de adjective si nu adverbe (Ex: It smells good = Miroase bine). incredibly (incredibil perfectly (perfect). taste. near (aproape). very (foarte) etc. down (jos).

2. The men and the women are standing. 3. The students are drinking cups of tea. 4. The dog is sleeping. 5. You are playing football. 6. I am staying at that hotel. 7. She is looking for her. 8. We are looking after the children. 9. He is smoking a cigarette. 10.The birds are flying over the sea. 2. Answer these questions using the model: Is Tom reading a book? (watch TV) No, he isn’t. He’s watching TV. 1.Is she opening the window? (to close the window). 2. Is Jane asking questions? (to answer questions). 3. Is he reading text 2? (to read text 3). 4. Are they playing chess? (to watch TV). 5. Is Bill showing his new project to Peter? (to show it to Nick). 6. Are they listening to music ? (to listen to the latest news). 3. Use the present continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. Mary (to arrive) home now. 2. Look, the sun (to rise). It (to rain)? Yes, it (to rain) very hard. 3. The delegation (to leave) Moldova tomorrow. 4. Peter (to smoke) a cigarette. 5. Why you (to speak) so fast. 6. They (not to work), they (to watch) TV. 7. The weather is fine. The sun (to shine) and the birds (to sing). 8. I can’t hear what they (to talk) about. 9. She (not to work), she (swim) in the river. 10.Why Ann (not to wear) her new dress? 11.What Tom (to do) now? He (to clean) his shoes. 11. He (to teach) his boy to ride.

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4. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or present continuous. 1. We (to study) at university. We (to study) English and French there. Now we (to be) in the classroom, we (to read) an English text. We (not make) mistakes. 2. We (to speak) Romanian at home, but we (to speak) English at the university. 3. You (to speak) Romanian now? We (to speak) English because we (to be) at the English lesson. 4. He (to go) to the university in the evening. Where he (to go) now? He always (to go) to the office at 9. 5. Form adverbs from these adjectives and translate them: Occasional, real, bad, fruitful, happy, useful, helpful, beautiful, bright, slow, nice. 6. Complete the sentences. Choose from: 1. Father is tall. He isn’t … 2. My friend Nick is thin. He isn’t … 3. Our office is clean. It isn’t … 4. We get up early. We don’t get up … 5. I like my new dress. I don’t like my … dress. 6. Felix is a white cat. It isn’t … 7. The window of the classroom is open. It isn’t … 8. Tom is a good student. He isn’t … 9. Grandmother is old. She isn’t 10. The grass is wet in the rain. It isn’t … fat short old dirty late bad black young shut dry

7. Put the adverbs of time in the right place: 1. I go to bed late (never). 2. We haven’t English lessons (every day). 3. Let’s go to the theatre (tonight). 4. Do you smoke (ever)? 5. I’m going to mother’s (next Sunday). 6. We see each other (very often). 7. We go for a walk (sometimes). 8. I get up early (always). 9. They comb and brush their hair (seldom). 10. He can tell lies (never). 11. You can tell (never). (Nu se stie nici odata).

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8. Translate into English 1. Cand te duci la culcare? 2. Ce asculti? 3. Unde luati pranzul? 4. Ei va viziteaza des? 5. Unde va petreci vacanta de vara? 6. Ea culege flori. 7. Aceasta floare miroase frumos. 8. El e prietenul tau, nu-i asa ? 9. Imi place painea foarte mult. - 10. Si parintelor mei. 11. Trebuie sa pleci, nu-i asa? 12. Omul acela este fratele cumnatei mele.

Text: At the English lesson
The students are in a classroom. The classroom is a big room. They are in the English class. They are having an English lesson. They are sitting on chairs in front of their desks. The teacher is standing at the blackboard. She is speaking to the students and she is writing the new English words on the blackboard. The students are writing them in their notebooks. They are also repeating the new words. The students are looking at their teacher and they are listening to what she is telling them. She has a pleasant voice. She is teaching them many new words and grammar rules. The students are making good progress in English and say that learning English is a great pleasure for them. They usually do all their exercises and all their homework. They always say that they have too much to do. The students like to learn English and they say that English is not difficult. They work hard and they learn many new English words in every new lesson. They have a lot of work to do at home for their English lessons. They are hard-working students and their teacher likes them.

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you have to fight like a lion. 75 .If you want to attain something.

a aseza – laid [leid] f) Cele terminate in y precedat de o consoana schimba y in i si adauga –ed: 76 . To want – wanted [wontid] To need – needed [ni:did] Verbele terminate in e adauga numai –d: To live – lived [livd] To love – loved [lΛvd] Verbele terminate in y precedat de o vocala adauga –ed: To play –played [pleid] To stay – stayed [steid] b) c) d) e) Nota: Exista numai trei exceptii: To say – a spune. To open – opened [oupnd] To play – played [pleid] Terminatia –ed se pronunta t.said [sed] To pay . a zice . Mare majoritate a verbelor din limba engleza formeaza Trecutul adaugand terminatia –ed: a) Terminatia –ed se pronunta d. To look – looked [lukt] To ask – asked [a:skt] Terminatia –ed se pronunta id.UNIT 8 The Past Simple (Trecutul Simplu) Verbele limbii engleze la Trecutul Simplu se impart in doua grupe: regulate si neregulate.a plati paid [peid] To lay – a pune.

spent.pastrarea formei initiale: to put – put. Conjugarea verbului “to be” la Trecutul Simplu: 77 .(it) play tennis? Did you play tennis ? Did we play tennis ? Did they play tennis ? Negative I did not (didn’t) play tennis You did not (didn’t) play tennis He. (it) did not (didn’t) play tennis We did not (didn’t) play tennis You did not (didn’t) play tennis They did not (didn’t) play tennis Trecutul Simplu al verbelor neregulate se formeaza prin diferite procedee: .To try – tried [traid] To cry – cried [kraid] j) Verbele monosilabice terminate intr-o singura consoana precedata de o singura vocala dubleaza consoana finala inaintea terminatiei – ed: to stop – stopped [stopt] to plan – planned [plænd] Affitmative I played tennis You played tennis He. she.schimbarea vocalei de baza: to get – got. she.she (it) played tennis You played tennis We played tennis They played tennis Interrogative Did I play tennis ? Did you play tennis ? Did he.schimbarea verbului in intregime: to go – went. . . . .schimbarea consoanei finale to spend .pastrarea formei initiale. in rostirea diferita: to read [ri:d] – read [red].

last year (anul trecut). it? Were we. Intrebuintare: Trecutul Simplu exprima o actiune care a avut loc la un moment dat in trecut iar perioada de timp s-a incheiat. she. Aceste pronume se folosesc cand 78 . Verbele la acest timp sunt determinate de adverbe si expresii de timp ca: yesterday (ieri). they were Interrogative Was I. they have? Negative I. You. he.you. he. si propozitia secundara atributiva.they were not(weren’t) Conjugarea verbului “to have” la Trecutul Simplu: Afirmative I. two hours ago (doua ore in urma). did not (didn’t) You. WHOSE se folosesc la stabilirea legaturii dintre propozitia principala. she. he. it. it. it was not(wasn’t) We. she.Afirmative I. two years ago (doi ani in urma). in 1999 (in 1999). they? Negative I. it. she. he. they did not (didn’t) Nota: Formele interogativa si negativa ale verbului to have pot de asemenea fi construite cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do (la trecut did): Did you have free time yesterday? A-ti avut timp liber ieri? She did not (didn’t) enjoy this film. she. he. Ei nu i-a placut acest film. last month (luna trecuta). you. etc. they had Interrogative Did I. you. you. sau un element al acesteia. we. Relative Pronouns (Pronumele Relative) Pronumele relative WHO. we. it was We. WHOM. he. she.

to thank-thanked. este feciorul meu. to pay. to forget. to tell. to drink. Baiatul. The writer whose book you are reading lives in Canada. to make. to snow-snowed. to learn. to watch-watched. to finish-finished. to like-liked. to sit. to pass-passed. a). locuieste in Canada. to sleep. Give the Simple Past Tense form of the following regular verbs. to send. to write. to feel. care se joaca in ograda. to teach. to say. to leave. a carui carte o cititi acum. to help-helped. to wake. Fata. to get. cat si cele animate: I know the young man that you talked to an hour ago. to fall. pe care o citesc. to open-opened. I-l cunosc pe tanarul cu care ai vorbit o ora in urma. insa ea urmeaza atat dupa substantivele inanimate. Scriitorul. to come. to buy. Pronumele relativ WHICH se intrebuinteaza cand substantivul determinat este inanimat: I don’t like the book which you are reading now. to take. Nu-mi place cartea pe care o citesti acum.elementul din propozitia principala determinat de ele este exprimat prin substantiv animat: The boy who is playing in the yard is my son. to live-lived. The girl whom you see in that room is my daughter. to see. to startstarted. The book that I am reading is very interesting. to go. to drive. b) Give the Simple Past Tense form of the following irregular verb. 79 . to hear. to give. Asemenea functie o are si conjunctia THAT. Transcribe and pronounce them. to collect-collected. to know. este foarte interesanta. to stay-stayd.to sing. to translate-translated. este fiica mea. to read. to close-closed. to put. pe care o vezi in odaia ceea. to play-played. Transcribe and pronounce them. to have. to wash-washed. Exercises: 1. to work-worked. Cartea. to listen-listened. to eat. to do. to shave-shaved. to dictate-dictated. to fly. to be. to look-looked. to smoke-smoked. to receive-received. to rain-rained.

He comes to the class every day. Transform these sentences into disjunctive questions and give answers to them. 3. 5. He understood the lesson very well. 5. The artist drew the picture. 9. I know the answer to your question. The students went to the museum yesterday. 2. 80 . 3. She danced from seven o’clock to midnight. The students went to Mr. They saw many interesting things there. Mary played tennis very well. 5. 4. 3. Peter buys his suit this week.His friend lived in London last year. 4. 10. Lucy bought a new coat. Put the following into the past tense: 1. Make the following sentences interrogative: 1. 2. 7. 7. 8. 2. 6. Tom answered all the questions. 4. Model: He stayed at home last Sunday. 8. He watched TV last night. I drank my cup of tea. My mother made breakfast early in the morning. Jane pays ten pounds and she gets a good dress. Peter’s mother taught French to us last year. 9. 6. Make the following negative: 1. The boys and the girls bathed in the sea every day. He was ill last week. The boy took the letter in his hand. You do that work very well. 10. 5. 3. Those letters came to England by airplane. John thinks a lot about his work. Smith’s house yesterday. 4. 8. He likes your picture.We have lunch at 12 o’clock today. 6.2. 7. I believe what you tell me. We speak English every day.

5. They came to see us last night. (5) 6 2. (4) 7 3. Peter wasn’t ill last month. I want to read the book. 5. 4. John dictated a few letters to the secretary yesterday morning. didn’t he? Yes. 9. The bag is on the chair. They studied at the university. 8. He did not know about her. 2. The book is on my desk. He got up at seven o’clock in the morning. My brother had a lot of friends at school. She was here yesterday. We played chess yesterday. 7. The children wanted to go for a walk in the park. (how) 4 6. She was not very tired yesterday. Give me the bag. 6. Combine these two sentences into one sentence.He stayed at home last Sunday. (what time) 2 4. Model: I met a man yesterday. Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers. (where) 3. My friend collected stamps last year. 1. These are the books. Twenty students attended the lesson. 1. 3. I know the man. (how many) 3 5. The man is in the room. I spoke about them. They had no English lessons last year. This is the man who(m) I met yesterday. Make up special questions using the interrogative words from the brackets. This is the man. (when) 2. She went home at noon. 6. The bread and the cakes were fresh yesterday. He went shopping yesterday. (5) 8. (3) 4. 10. 4. 81 . She came to work by car. 1 1. He didn’t wake up in the morning. They attended the conference in Paris last month. he did. (who) 5 7. 1. 3.

7. 6. Va place domnisoara care priveste tabloul? 82 . I teach her children. I want to speak to the woman. Va placut cartea lui noua? Nu. Do you like the girl? The girl is sitting on the sofa and listening to the music. lucreaza seara. 7. 10. Ce fel de reviste ai vrut sa-mi arati seara trecuta? 4. Noi n-am tradus textul acesta saptamana trecuta. 11. Nu. Cum se numeste strada unde locuiti? 9. 2. I always meet the woman at the university. What’s the name of the book? John is reading it. Ei au locuit in Bucuresti doi ani in urma. pe care le frecventez. Noi am luat pranzul la ora doua. The manager wants to study German. The woman is my sister’s brother-in-law. Baitul care lucreaza in oficiu are douazeci de ani. Translate into English 1. Where are the papers? You wanted to show them to me. 8. Vreau sa vorbesc cu domnisoara care mi-a tiparit raportul 8. 5. The manager works at our company. 9. Cursurile. 9. l-am tradus. 3.6. 10.

I even did them very well. dificil bine casa. I was alone and I was not busy. All of my family was in town. I was very happy when I saw that I knew much English now. I repeated the vocabulary and I learnt by heart most of the new words and phrases. The three translation exercises were not at all difficult. I was finishing my homework when my family came home. I read the lesson. As a matter of fact I had a lot of work to do. toate orasel singur ocupat foarte bucuros tema pentru acasa repede pe de rost fraza greu. I copied the texts and I did all the exercises.Vocabulary all town alone busy very glad homework quickly by heart phrase difficult well home at home as a matter of fact toti. I was very glad because I could understand the exercises and I could do them. I did my homework quickly enough. camin acasa de fapt Text: Yesterday in the afternoon Yesterday afternoon I stayed at home. I wrote a short composition and I translated a difficult text from Romanian into English. I was very glad because I could do my homework for the English class. 83 .

verbele modale nu pot fi conjugate la toate modurile si timpurile. I must do it. To be to. (Urmeaza conform celor stabilite) (ca el) sa prezinte raportul luni) Aceste constructii pot fi folosite la trecut. You aren’t allowed to go home. Were you allowed to go home? 84 . (Poti merge acasa) You are allowed to go home. You were allowed to go home yesterday. I am to give a lecture today. to be to. Did I have to do it yesterday? He was to give a lecture yesterday. I couldn’t do it yesterday. (Pot s-o fac acum) I am able to do it. exista in limba engleza inlocuitori ai unora dintre aceste verbe: Can poate fi inlocuit prin to be able to. was to. I wasn’t able to do it yesterday. a trebui sa arata ca actiunea este determinata in conformitate cu un plan sau cu un program stabilit mai inainte: He is to present the report on Monday. were to – a urma (sa). Are you allowed to go home? Past I was able to do it yesterday. I couldn’t do it yesterday. “may” and Dupa cum stim. You might go home yesterday.UNIT 9 Equivalents of Modal “must” Verbs “can”. I don’t have to do it. Pentru a remedia aceasta situatie. (Trebuie s-o fac) I have to do it. Present I can do it now. You may go home. may – to be allowed to. Could you do it yesterday? I had to do it yesterday. must prin to have to.

Comparison of Adjectives (Gradele de comparatie a adjectivelor) In limba engleza adjectivele nu se schimba in dependenta de numar sau de caz. comparativ si superlativ. Positive Long Tall (a) few dear hot nice dry lovely beautiful dramatic Comparative longer taller fewer dearer hotter nicer drier lovelier more beautiful more dramatic Superlative (the) longest (the) tallest (the) fewest (the) dearest (the) hottest (the) nicest (the) driest (the) loveliest (the) most beautiful (the) most dramatic Nota: Articolul hotarat de la superlativ a fost pus la paranteza deoarece el poate fi inlocuit cu un posesiv: The best report … (Cel mai bun raport) Brown’s best report… His best report… 85 . ci numai dupa gradele de comparatie. Exista trei grade de comparatie: pozitiv.

y in pozitie finala. .Mod de Formare Sintetic Pozitiv o silaba: rich (bogat) doua silbe cu accentul ultima:polite[pэ‘lait] (politicos) Comparativde superioritate (mai … decat) richer … (than) pe politer[pэ’laitэ] Superlativ relativ (cel mai …) (the) richest the politest Analitic More… Most… Doua silabe si terminatiile: -y. respectiv –st (fine-finerfinest) doua silabe cu accentul pe prima: cautious (prudent) more cautious Most cautious useful (util) more useful Most useful Trei sau mai multe silabe: important (important) Adj. ow.consoana finala dupa o vocala scurta se dubleaza (big-bigger-biggest) .er. Provenite din participii: interesting (interesant) delighted (incantat) more important most important more interesting more delighted most interesting most delighted 86 . . precedat de o consoana. se schimba in –ie (easyeasier-easiest) .adjectivele terminate in –e primesc doar – r.le precedate de o consoana: Happy (fericit) Clever (destept) Narrow (ingust) Happier Happiest Able (capabil) Cleverer Cleverest Narrower Narrowest Abler Ablest Nota: .

It grows darker and darker (=Se face din ce in ce mai intuneric) . prost (a) little – putin far (indepartat) better worse less (the) best (the) worst the least farther (in spatiu) the farthest further (in spatiu sau timp) the furthest Exemple de folosire a gradelor de comparatie in propozitii: . comparativul poate fi insotit de much.This is the most interesting book (=Aceasta este cartea cea mai interesanta) .This book is most interesting (=Aceasta carte e cat se poate de interesanta) . toate insemnand (cu) mult: His report is far/much better than the others. Ex: Rich = bogat – the rich (=cei bogati) = substantiv plural 87 . Raportul lui este (cu) mult mai bun decat celelalte.He is worse than his friend (=Este mai rau ca prietenul sau) .The slimmer you are the better you look (=Cu cat esti mai slab/a cu atat arati mai bine) Pentru intensificare.He is as good as his friend (=Este la fel de bun ca prietenul sau) . Substantivarea adjectivelor Un adjectiv poate deveni substantiv primind articolul hotarat the.He is not so (not as) good as his friend (=Nu este asa de bun ca prietenul sau) . far sau by far.His friend is the best of all (=Prietenul sau e cel mai bun dintre toti) .Unele adjective formeaza comparativul si superlativul in mod neregulat: much – mult more (the) most many – multi good bad – rau.

quick. fast. hard. dry. handsome. si anume adverbele de mod si cateva adverbe de timp nedefinit: Fast faster (the) fastest Soon sooner (the) soonest Well better (the) best Early earlier (the) earliest Beautifully more beautifully (the) most beautifully Badly worse (the) worst Unele dintre adverbe formeaza feluri: Quickly more quickly Slowly more slowly often more often gradele de comparatie in doua (the) most quickly (the) most slowly (the) most often Exercises: 1. fascinating. than. pretty. than. badly. so.Complete the gaps with as. cosy. Blood is thicker … water. many. Give the comparative and superlative of the following adjectives (Dati comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor adjective): High. thin. carefully. as/so. ill. bad. Give the comparative and superlative of the following adverbs: Slowly. weak. a little. of (Completati spatiile goale cu as.English = englezesc – The English (englezii) = substantiv plural Chinese = chinezesc – the Chinese (chinezul/chinezii) = substantiv la singular sau la plural. yellow. often. beautifully. red. much. The Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs (Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor) Numai o parte dintre advere au grade de comparatie. strong. early. 2. fat. mad. few. well. Better an egg today … a hen tomorrow. 2. 3. so. of): 1. as/so. (In echivalenta: Sangele apa nu se face) 88 . beautiful.

And Ted’s father? 6. And Mary? Model: Does John get up earlier than Ben does? I think he gets up earlier than Ben does. Did you take a taxi for them? (Peter) 89 . Did you book seats for the Opera House? (Mike) 3. And John? John is nicer than Nick. 1. Helen is the youngest … all. His brother is short. During the rush hours the buses are … slow … the taxis. And lesson 4? 4. I don’t like oranges as much as apples. 7. And their team? 5. 1. 6. Respond to these questions according to the model (Raspundeti la aceste intrebari conform modelului): Model: Did you go shopping yesterday? (Peter) No. My father is old. 1. Lesson 5 is easy. Peter did it. Does John speak French as well as Bill does? 3. She is not … lazy … her brothers. 4. 5. I never go to bed later … 11 o’clock. 9. (Transformati aceste propozitii conform modelelor) Model: Nick is nice. Can she speak French as well as English? 5. And Max? 7. His plays are less interesting … his novels. 5. Peter has many English books. 8. Did you show round the university? (Mike) 5. And Dick? 2.3. I’m not delighted … you are. Can he play hockey as well as football? 4. Did John come home as late as Dick did? 2. And Ben’s brother? 3. I didn’t have to. Ben is young.Transform these sentences according to the models. Did you go to the Travel Agency yesterday? (John) 2. Ann has few friends at the university. Did Jane show them round the city? (John) 4. 4. Our team is good. I’m … much interested … you are.

Correct the mistakes. Nu trebuie sa ezitati. 2. Trebuia intr-adevar sa fii inapoi inainte de miezul noptii? 7. Se face din ce in ce mai cald. A trebuit sa plec devreme. 8. E necesar ca tu sa curati bucataria. I think we … pay in advance. I … go to bed early. 5. 1. You really … visit us soon. Could you tell me the time? I must work last Saturday and Sunday. Au putut ei sa vina duminica trecuta? 90 . 7. I’m tired. El urmeaza sa tina miine o lectie. Put in must or have/has (got) to. You … knock before you come into my room. 14. 7. Sunt in stare sa va ajut. 9. 9. Metoda lui este mai putin efectiva ca a mea. He doesn’t has to work hard. 11. 5. 1. 10. 8. 15. 8. 4. 4. 2. Vinul este mai ieftin in Spania decat in Marea Britanie. 10. I don’t can sing. Dictionarul tau este mai folositor decat al meu. 12. We … go to London for a meeting. 6. 4. 5. 3. “This is a great book. 3.” I … read it. 13. Translate into English. El este mai inalt deacat Jim. Nu este la fel de scump ca aici. 2.6. John … go to the university on Saturdays. We … get another dog soon. I … try to spend more time at home. 1. Ea era deja in stare sa vorbeasca engleza. I would like to can travel more. A soldier … obey orders. Poate ea (e in stare) sa faca asta? 3. 6.

Martin Eden was alone in the world: he had no parents or relatives who were interested in his future. and he did not know English grammar. because he could hardly read. but she didn’t want him to become a writer. She was Ruth.Vocabulary to decide to become writer because hardly to study subject relatives alone world to be interested in future to agree to help even to teach/taught language to want mistake a hotari a deveni scriitor fiindca. putin probabil a studia subiect rude singur lume. There was only one person who agreed to help him. But the university did not allow him to become a student. pentru ca abea. limbaj a dori gresala Text: “Martin and Ruth” When Martin Eden decided to become a writer. he had not studied the subjects that every child learns at school. She taught him the English language and English literature. when Martin became one of the most popular writers in America. Besides. She wanted him to go to work in her father’s office. 91 . univers a se interesa in viitor a fi de acord a ajuta chiar a invata. But even she did not believe that Martin would become a writer. a preda grai. his first task was to receive an education. the daughter of a rich businessman. She understood that she had made a mistake only much later.

nu existenta anterior in mintea vorbitorului. I’ll help you… (Ah. . este folosit mai mult in limbajul oficial. fie cererea unui sfat (Where shall I go? = Unde sa merg?) 92 .. De cele mai multe ori se foloseste forma contrasta (‘ll). I sing.I sing. You can’t do it! Wait a minute. si pl. nu poti s-o faci! Asteapta o clipa. Viitorul Simplu exprima anticiparea unei actiuni sau stari. Ex: It will rain tomorrow.Propozitiile cu shall exprima fie o oferta (Shall I go there for you? = Sa ma duc acolo in locul tau?).UNIT 10 The Simple Future (Viitorul Simplu) Modul de formare: Se foloseste infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat precedat de verbul auxiliar will (cateodata shall la pers. Ex: I’ll visit my parents. Ex: Oh.) Affirmative I shall/will go You will go He will go She will go It will go We will go You will go They will go Interrogative Shall/Will I go? Will you go? Will he go? Will she go? Will it go? Will we go? Will you go? Will they go? Negative I shall not (shan’t) go You will not (won’t) go He will not (won’t) go She will not (won’t) go It will not (won’t) go We will not (won’t) go You will not (won’t) go They will not (won’t) go 1. . You’ll not work there. si pl. te voi ajuta…) Nota: Shall.propozitiile interogative cu will la pers. auxiliarul pentru pers. Ex: Will you help me? (Vrei sa ma ajuti?) . in vorbirea curenta preferandu-se will. (Maine va ploua) 2.exprima o intentie in viitor sau o decizie pentru viitor luata in momentul vorbirii. a II-a pot exprima o rugaminte.

4. She must study French. Give short answers to them. He 93 . 2. 2. Transform these sentences into disjunctive (tag) questions and translate them. It isn’t difficult. (Transformati aceste propozitii in intrebari disjunctive si traducetile): Model: He’ll reread the novel next week. - THE IMPERATIVE Modul de formare: Infinitivul scurt (fara to) al verbului: Ex: Cross now! Traverseaza/ti acum!) Ring me tomorrow! (Suna-ma maine!) Don’t + inf. 8. 3. 6. won’t he?” “Yes.1. She won’t look through the papers before lunch. 4. he will. “He’ll reread the novel next week. You have to go to the airport. spune-mi!) pentru a indulci tonul.” 1. 2. You’ll have some free time tomorrow. They can visit Paris. 5. They will come to see us next week. lua-ti loc!) Do come in! (Intra-ti. va rog) Do help yourself! (Serviti-va. It’s all right. 10. 3.) Ex: Let’s cross! (Sa traversam!/ Hai sa traversam) Let’s ring tomorrow! Do + forma afirmativa. I must see a doctor. Transform these sentences into the Simple Future. pentru a suna mai politicos Ex: Do sit down! (Va rog. 7. I’ll go to the lecture next Wednesday. (Treceti propozitiile aceste la viitorul simplu) 1. You like the play. His lecture is very interesting. 6. Can she bring me a few books? 2. Scurt – (pentru a forma un imperativ negativ) Ex: Don’t cross now! (Nu traversa/ti acum!) Don’t ring me tomorrow! Let’s (let us) + infinitiv. I can’t see you tomorrow. 4.: Do take care! (Ai grija!) Do tell me! – (Spune-mi! (Hai te rog. 9. scurt. 3. in unele cazuri: Ex. (pentru persoan I pl. He won’t help them. va rog) Exercises: 1. 5.

You will type this letter next Monday. 3. 4. folosind cuvintele din paranteze): Tom will study French next year. He will teach English next month. We will do our duty. He will be back soon. (what time) She will solve this problem very easily. We will invite them to my birthday party tomorrow. If you want to buy some fruit. 1. 2. Iris won’t be able to practice this afternoon. I will leave for London next week. 9. 5. 5. 94 . Miss Hellen has a small flat … the ground floor. 2. 4. 6. They will not be … home tonight. (Transformati aceste propozitii in negative) 1. 8. They are … the garden. 6. 7. go … the greengrocer’s. Brown. 5. (where) He will not (won’t) go with us because he is ill. They will stay there long. 3. 1.won’t go for a walk in the park next Sunday. 3. (who) 6. You will come to our party. The bag is … the table. Insert prepositions (Completati spatiile goale cu prepozitiile cerute de sens): 1. They will stay home next Friday. 4. when) They will rest in the country. 5. There is a supermarket … this side … the street. (how) He will work in the office next Monday. 3. He’ll help them do their homework next Tuesday. Where can I buy some sugar? … the grocer’s. 7. She is speaking … the telephone. 10. She will go there by bus. 7. I shall have to do the washing up this morning. The post office is a long way … here. (Formati intrebari speciale. Transform these sentences into the negative. 3. He stayed … the library yesterday. 4. 4. 5. 2. 8. 6. 2. (who.Transform these sentences in interrogative. 8. She will return from Paris next month. Make up special questions using the words in parentheses. I shall introduce him to Mr. (why) We shall get up at 7 o’clock in the morning.

Paul and George will go to the mountains for two days. atent. Lectia lui este foarte interesanta. a nelinisti teribil. chalet [∫ælei] to travel [trævl] munti a auzi o multime a schia tot atat de mult exagera. Veti putea veni duminica viitoare? 2. 10 Hai sa mergem la teatru. eu nu voi merge. Ei vor astepta. nu-i asa? 6. Last winter when they went to ski at Busteni. 9. They like to ski and they will ski as much as they can. Translate into English. Alexandra. George overdid it and after the first day he felt very tired and got what people call muscular fever. 12. nuasa? 5. Laura. dupa aceea febra musculara a enerva. He 95 . a intrece masura mai tarziu. he will not repeat that mistake. As usual they are going to go to Sinaya because they have heard on TV that there is plenty of snow there now. Citeste scrisoarea pentru mine.ingrozitor greseala prudent. Nu.7. The next day he had to rest and that annoyed him terribly. 8. El va veni luni. te rog. Vocabulary mountains to hear plenty of to ski as much as overdo/overdid after muscular fever to annoy terribly mistake cautious to want to keep an eye on smb. Now. Cand (trebuie) sa revin? 4./smth. a necaji. (El) va trebui (urmeaza) sa tina miine o lectie. a dori. 7. a vrea a fi cu ochii pe cineva/ceva cabana a calatori Text: My friends’ weekend Next weekend. 1. Lasa-l pe el sa lucreze mai mult. El va trebui sa studieze chineza. 3. Nu vor astepta. 11.

He will have to ski less the first day if he wants to ski again the following day. It seems that I know something. but that’s not enough. As they are going to live in one of the chalets they will have a very nice weekend.will be cautious. So they will travel by bus a lot. So. They will go by bus to Sinaya and they will return by bus too. 96 . let’s keep trying. Paul is going to keep an eye on him to see that he is not going to make the mistake a second time.

Pentru a reda o actiune care se va afla in proces de desfasurare intr-un anumit moment de timp in viitor: The students will be having a seminar tomorrow at 2. they) will not (won’t) be going Adverbe de accentuare a ideii de viitor apropiat Soon curand Right now chiar acum Immediately imediat In no time indata. you. CHIAR ACUM.) 97 .PART II UNIT 11 (eleven) Future Continuous /Near Future (Viitorul apropiat) Acest timp este inexistent in limba romana si. Ex: He’ll be coming soon. they) be going ? Negative I (we) shall not (shan’t) be going He (she. INDATA. (Vine foarte curand/Vine imediat) Afirrmative I (we) shall be going He (she. it. (Studentii vor avea un seminar miine la ora 2. El indica faptul ca actiunea ce urmeaza sa se desfasoare in viitor este foarte apropiata de momentul prezent. they) will be going Interrogative Shal I (we) be reading ? Will he (she. de acea. you. se va traduce cu timpul PRESENT insotit de adverbe de timp ca: IMEDIAT. it. you. cat ai clipi din ochi Intrebuintare: 1.

I am going to be there in time. se va adauga forma invariabila “going” a verbului “to go” si apoi verbul propriu-zis. care va dura o perioada de timp cu granite bine limitate: They will be working in the library from two till six o’clock tomorrow. (Am de gand sa fiu acolo la timp) I am going to go there tonight. trecut sau viitor. 3. “a intentiona…” “Intentia” intra in sfera viitorului chiar daca ea se refera la present. (Intentionez sa-mi cumpar o rochie noua) (trecut) - 98 . trecut. Pentru exprimarea unei actiuni. viiitor. Pentru a exprima doua actiuni paralele care se vor afla in proces de desfasurare: I shall be watching TV while my son will be playing chess with his friend. (Am de gand sa merg acolo asta seara) se va conjuga verbul “to be” la timpurile present. care se va afla in proces de desfasurare cand va avea loc o alta actiune redata prin Prezentul Simplu: She will be writing the report when we come to her office. (Ei vor lucra in biblioteca de la ora 2 pana la 6 miine). (Eu voi privi televizorul in timp ce feciorul meu va juca sah cu prietenul sau. I was going to buy myself a new dress. Formarea: Future of Intention se formeaza cu ajutorul verbelor “TO BE” si “TO GO” – ambele cu valoare auxiliara plus verbul de baza. (Ea va scrie raportul cand vom veni la oficiul ei) 4.2. El se traduce: “a avea de gand sa …”. adica au sens de sine statator. Pentru exprimarea unei actiuni.) FUTURE OF INTENTION (Viitorul de intentie) Acest timp este inexistent in limba romana. Ele nu se traduc decat atunci cand isi recapata valoarea notionala.

isi. va. (Ted s-a silit sa nu stranute) They punished themselves. 99 . iti. imi.I am going to invite her to my birthday party. mai rar. (S-au pedepsit [singuri]) THE EMPHATIC PRONOUN (Pronumele de intarire) Pronumele de intarire are aceleasi forme ca si cel reflexiv. catre subiectul acestuia (fiind. vi They themselves se lor. (Serveste-te cu dulciuri) Ted forced himself not to sneeze. (Se considera fericit) She tried to defend herself. personal. Spune-mi chiar tu (personal).. ti He himself se lui. le. noua. si She herself se ei. Se traduce prin eu insumi/insami. astfel. (A incercat sa se apare. folosite la cazul acuzativ sau dativ): He considered himself happy. We ourselves ne ne. (Intentionez sa o invit la ziua mea de nastere) (prezent) He’ll be going to buy himself a new car. (Mi-am cumparat o palarie foarte frumoasa) Tell him yourself. ei etc.: I bought myself a very beautiful hat.El este intotdeauna accentuat.si It itself (neutru) se lui. (In viitor intentionez (va intentiona) sa-si cumpere o masina noua. ni You yourselves va voua. mie You yourself te tie.) (viitor) REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (Pronumele reflexive) Pronumele reflexibile arata ca actiunea exprimata de verbul de care se ataseaza este indreptata asupra subiectului acestuia sau. si In propozitie pronumele reflexiv este neaccentuat: Help yourself to sweets. li isi.) Pronumele reflexive sunt: acuzativ dativ I myself ma mie. cu accentul pe ultima silaba. chiar eu/tu etc. singur./insati etc. isi.tu insuti.

He will be attending computer programming classes this month. They will be analyzing your report. pronumele de intarire are sensul de “singur”. Will you be calling her up tomorrow? 1. 8. 6. Cand este asezat imediat dupa subiect. pronumele de intarire se asaza de regula la sfirsitul propozitiei. He will be lecturing on English history next year. Nimeni nu a ajutat-o) Nota: Precedat de prepozitia “by”. “singure”: I can do it by myself. “singuri”. 3. Nobody helped her. 3. (who) 2. 1. We shall be learning the new words tonight. 3. 7. “singura”. 4. using the words from the parentheses. He will be examining this group (what) 100 . Transform these sentences according to the model. 2. They will be trying to get a job in this company. 5. They are going to have tea. accentuarea este si mai puternica: I myself will tell him. She’s going to take her children to the theatre. I shall be leaving next week. (whose) 3.Jane opened the tin herself. You will be staying here long. 1. 4. (Jane a deschis singura cutia de conserve. (Chiar eu personal am sa-I spun) EXERCISES: 1. (Pot face asta singur) Observati din exemplele de mai sus. You will be calling her up tomorrow. 5. She will be having lunch in a café. He will be coming to the wedding party. You will write to him again.m. 2. He’ll look through the papers. We shall be discussing this question tomorrow at 9 a. Form special questions. Transform these sentences into negative. You’re going to see your mother next week. 2.

9. This time tomorrow I (to fly) to London. for a couple of hours. What you (to do) at 3 o’clock on Friday? 3. They will be travelling by air. Miss Brown was talking to … . Text: A PLEASANT TRIP Next summer some friends of ours will be going on a trip to Warsaw and Budapest. 4. 12. (when) 5. 3. 6. 10. to Warsaw and by coach to some other towns and places in Poland.4. down the Danube. They made …. 5. 8. (where) 4. 11. Am de gand sa plec pentru cateva zile undeva. This door is opened by …. She cooks all the meals … . She was living by … in a little cottage. 8. Insert reflexive or emphatic pronoun. Noi vom analiza aceste probleme impreuna cu grupa noastra. 6. Pe viitor intentionam sa calatorim pretutindeni in tara. Translate into English 1. She looked at … in the mirror and saw her make-up was not perfect. 4. Can he do it … or shall I help him? 3. Open the parentheses and use the verbs in the Future Continuous. You will be having your next English class next week. He will be staying in this hotel two weeks. We asked … what we could do with our cat. 1. Don’t be so sure of … . From Warsaw they will be travelling by train to Budapest and from there they will be coming back by boat. Ei nu vor pleca la teatru chiar acum. 7. Unde vei avea lectie miine la ora 9? 2. Nu intentionez sa vin la petrecerea de diseara. a sandwich and left in a hurry. Who (to drive) the car when you go to the Black Sea? 5. 7. We know our friend (to wait for) us at the aerport when we arrive. 4. Te vei pregati de examen toata ziua miine? 6. 1. I hurt … when I tried to jump from the chair. 2. 101 . 2. We … prepared for the next holidays. Help … please. We (to look forward) to meeting them at the Conference in Paris. Cine va fregventa lectiile cand voi veti pleca la Londra? 5. 5.

102 . palaces. as we were able to join them when they made a trip about the country a couple of years ago. art gallaries. We are very sorry that we shall not be able to join our friends too.In both foreign countries they will be visiting museums. The trip will last about a fortnight and will not cost much. We may join them too. as we also like such excursions. Some of our friends have decided to go to Berlin and visit also a few other German cities. cathedrals. old castles and plenty of interesting places. we may be going abroad. Next year. We shall be in the Danube Delta at the time when our friends are abroad and we shall be having a pleasant time too. churches.

they) were reading Interrogative Was I (he. 3. it) reading? Were we (you. cat a durat actiuna: They were working in the garden from 9 till 12 o’clock yesterday. she. In timp ce lucram in gradina mi-am ranit piciorul. they) reading? Negative I (he. Constructia cu to be going to va suna la trecut astfel: 103 . were) plus Participiul I al verbului de conjugat (-ing). indicarea perioadei de timp. indicarea precisa a orei: I was reading at 5 o’clock yesterday (Ieri la ora 5 citeam).UNIT 12 (twelve) The Past Continuous Tense (Trecutul Continuu) Trecutul Continuu se formeaza cu trecutul verbului auxiliar to be (was. mancau) Affirmative I (he. indicarea unei alte actiuni exprimate prin Trecutul Simplu: He was listening to the latest news when we came. it) was reading We (you. 2. it) was not reading We (you. Timpul desfasurarii actiunii poate fi redat prin: 1. El asculta ultimele stiri cand noi am venit. she. Ieri ei au lucrat in gradina de la 9 pana la 12. While I was working in the garden. I hurt my leg. she. mergea. they) were not reading Trecutul Continuu exprima o actiune care era in desfasurare intr-un moment in trecut. Acest timp se traduce aproape totdeauna cu imperfectul din limba romana (faceam.

What were you going to do? (Ce aveai de gand sa faci?) Intrebarile disgunctive la propozitiile continand Trecutul Continuu se formeaza dupa regulile cunoscute. prin repetarea auxiliarului (was. were. any. no In propozitii afirmative: Somebody. weren’t): You were working. someone Something Somewhere cineva ceva undeva I bought some sweets for you yesterday. (Ti-am cumparat ceva dulciuri ieri) Somebody/someone must know. (Tocmai aveam de gand sa-ti telefonez). oriunde Is there anybody/anyone at home? (E cineva acasa?) Is there anything in the refrigerator? (E ceva in frigider?) Can you see my glasses anywhere? (Vezi undeva ochelarii mei?) In propozitii afirmative: 104 . were they? I wasn’ t driving so fast. was I? She was working for Sony.I was just going to ring you up. orice undeva. wasn’t. weren’t you? They weren’t doing anything. (Cineva trebuie sa stie) In propozitii interogative: Anybody. anyone Anything Anywhere cineva ceva. wasn’t she? Compusii lui some.

(Oricine poate imprumuta carti de la biblioteca publica. everywhere 105 . nimic. nici o. everyone. She has none. Sau There isn’t anything wrong with the TV set. deloc.) In propozitii negative. (Du-ma oriunde) In propozitii negative. (Orice e mai bun decat untul rancid) Take me anywhere. Everybody. (Copii nu sunt nicaieri) None: acest pronume corespunde adjectivului no: nici un. cu verbul la afirmativ: Nobody/no one nimeni Nothing nimic Nowhere nicaieri Nobody/No one could drink this coffee. everything. (Nu-mi gasesc nicaieri ochelarii. cu verbul la negativ: Anybody/anyone nimeni Anything nimic Anywhere nicaieri I don’t know anybody/anyone in this town (Nu cunosc pe nimeni in acest oras) He can’t understand anything. Anything is better than rancid butter. (Nimeni nu ar putea bea cafeaua aceasta) There’s nothing wrong with the TV set. (Nu poate intelege nimic) I can’t find my glasses anywhere.Anybody/anyone oricine Anything orice Anywhere oriunde Anybody/anyone can borrow books from the public library. None of us did it. nici unul/una dintre noi n-a facut-o. ea nu are nici unul/una. Sau The children aren’t anywhere. (Televizorul nu are nimic) The children are nowhere.

I came into the room because the boys (make) a lot of noise. 6. What John (do) now? He (watch) TV. (Totul are [toate au] un sfarsit. The car hit the tree while it (travel) at 60 miles an hour. I (do) the washing up when it (slip) out of my hand. Bill got off the bus while it (go).Everybody/everyone toti. 8. 4. 2. Tom (take) a photograph of me while I (not/look). We (not/go) out 106 . John and Bill (play) a game of chess when I returned home yesterday. 2. 2. There’s a hockey match on. toate Everywhere peste tot.Open the parentheses and put the verbs in the Present and Past Continuous Tenses. 5. What your brother (do) from seven to nine last night? He (play) basketball. I (break) a plate last night. Who (swim) now? Two swimmers from France and Great Britain. 2. 4. Example: While Tom was cooking (cook) the dinner. 3. What they (talk) about? They (discuss) the football semi-finals. toata lumea Everything tot(ul). 3. the phone rang (ring). Exercises 1. 7. 6. George (fall) off the ladder while he (paint) the ceiling. 5. Put the verb in parentheses into the Past Continuous Tense: 2. 1. 3. pretutindeni Everybody/everyone si everything se acorda cu verbul la singular: Everybody is at home. Everything has an end. 1. 5. I (not/drive) very fast when the accident (happen). 3. What you (do) at eight o’clock last night? I (read) a very interesting article about the Olympic Games in Sydney. Past Continuous or Past Simple. John (walk) home when he saw Ann. Last night I (read) in bed when suddenly I (hear) a scream. Put the verb into the correct form. (you/watch) television when I phoned you? 4. Ann (wait) for me when I (arrive). He is a very good basketball player. Mike hurt his leg while he (play) football.

2. (treiposibilitati: cineva. He was answering a telephone call. (when) 2. 1. Brown’s lecture when he came up to them. They were having dinner at six o’clock yesterday. Let’s go … tonight. 5. (5) 2. ask him to wait for me. 7. 9. Read and translate these sentences. 10. Cine canta la pian cand eram eu acolo? 4. He was translating an article at seven o’clock last night. 1. 6. … must tell me( cineva si nimeni).Cine te urmarea cand te indreptai spre casa? 2. Did Peter tell you anything about his trip? Yes. 6.Ask special questions using the words from parentheses. Mi s-a stricat masina cand mergeam spre gara. anywhere. I hope there is … wrong with our TV set. We were dicussing the problem in the office. nobody/no one. 3. I’m too tired. (why) 7. 3. somewhere. Have you got anything to tell me? 8. … can help you. Is there a department store anywhere near here? 6. I don’t know … about Newton.because it (rain). (who) 3 She was resting because she was tired. You were talking about Mr. 1. What (you/do) at this time yesterday? 10. 4. I won’t go … tonight. When I saw him he was talking to somebody.) 5. 4. something. Translate into English. Put special questions to the underlined words. (how) 7. They were playing football very well. he did. anybody/anyone. (where) 8. I (see) Carol at the party. nothing. (5) 8. There is … at the door. (doua posibilitati: nimic si ceva). No one scored a goal during the match yesterday. nimeni si oricine. He put something on the desk and went out.Fill in the gaps with somebody/someone. (doua posibilitati: cineva si nimeni). 8. 9. 7. Shall we take something to read? 5. If anyone comes to see me. Did you find anything new in the novel? 9. He will do … for you. nowhere: 1. 2. She (wear) a really beautiful dress. 1. 4. (trei posibilitati: ceva. You will find the book somewhere in that bookcase. Is there … I can do for you? 3. 107 . nimic si orice).

9. 13. Ce incercati sa investati? 8. Nu stiu nimic. 5. 7. Este cineva la usa. Nimeni nu poate sti tot. Nimic nu este destul de bun pentru tine. Vocabulary shop store mall market goods food bread sweets pastry vegetables fruit shoes jewels clothes medicine bill counter cash-desk shop-assistant LIST OF USEFUL SHOPS baker’s grocer’s pastry /shop/ greengrocer’s leather /shop/ book-shop 108 magazin magazin universal complex de magazine cu alei si parcaje piata de legume marfuri alimente/hrana paine dulciuri paste fainoase legume fructe incaltaminte bijuterii haine medicamente nota de plata tejghea casa de plata vanzator brutarie bacanie patiserie zarzavagerie marochinarie librarie . Cand ma plimbam prin park am vazut un coleg sezand pe-o banca. 12. Oricine poate vedea aceasta. Poti sa-mi dai ceva de mancare? – Ce de exemplu? – Orice. 6. 10. 11. Vantul sufla usor.Ploua tare cand ati coborat din tren.

perfumer’s tobacconist’s barber’s hairdresser’s haberdasher’s ADJECTIVES fresh stale cheap expensive large tight necessary useful useless VERBS to shop to go shopping to buy to sell to pay to ask to answer to cost to help to need to show to want to like to run short of parfumerie tutungerie frizerie coafura galanterie proaspat vechi/ne-proaspat ieftin scump/costisitor mare/larg stramt necesar folositor nefolositor a targui a merge la cumparaturi a cumpara a vinde a plati a intreba/a cere a raspunde a costa a ajuta a avea nevoie a arata a dori/a vrea a place a ramane fara 109 .

some cakes for lunch. because it is not fresh.Text: Shopping (Cumparaturi) Whenever I run short of food I have to go to buy something. The bread is stale. I go to the butcher’s when I need some fresh meat. 110 . and maybe. because he thinks he is going to have some fresher bread. I make a list of what I need to buy. He tells me to come in the afternoon. I also need to buy some vegetables and fruit. so. First. or to the fishmonger’s when I need some fresh fish. Maybe tomorrow I’m going to go again for some milk and mineral water. I’m going to buy some. then I take a large shopping bag and then I drive to the market. but the baker doesn’t sell it to me. I generally go to the market on Friday and buy food for the next week.

UNIT 13 (thirteen) Present Perfect Simple (Prezentul perfect) Prezentul Perfect se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar have la prezent plus participiul 2 a verbului de conjugat. exprima o stare care a inceput in trecut si care se continua. Affirmative I have written You have written We have written They have written He. she. for three weeks (de trei saptamani) etc. for – de She has studied English for five years. since you came (de cand ai venit). sau since last year (de anul trecut). Ex: We’ve been friends for a long time. Complinirile temporale ce apar in astfel de situatii sunt: for a time (de un timp). (Invata engleza de 5 ani) 111 . (Suntem prieteni de mult) Observati ca propozitia romaneasca echivalenta este la prezent. a). (it) has written Interrogative Have I written? Have you written? Have we written? Have they written? Has he/she written? Negative I have not (haven’t) written You have not (haven’t) written We have not (haven’t) written They have not (haven’t) written He/she has not (hasn’t) written Intrebuintare: Acest timp face legatura intre prezent si trecut.

(Nu te-am vazut in ultimul timp) (Actiune adusa pana in momentul vorbirii) 112 . accentul este pus pe experienta in sine traita prin actiunea respectiva. since yesterday. today. this week. Since din. care sunt legate de prezent prin rezultatele lor exprimate in propozitii continand adverbe ca never (niciodata). (El tocmai a telefonat de la airport) (Actiune recenta) Nota: just. Ex: He has just phoned from the aerport. in the last few days (in ultimele zile). yet (deja). so far (pana acum. de cand I have been here since five o’clock. Just now (chiar acum. this month. (N-am fost niciodata in Anglia) sau: He’s seen a lot of beautiful places in his life. – L-am vazut chiar acum/adineaori. not … yet (nu … inca). – Tocmai l-am vazut. this afternoon. d). (Si-a rupt bratul – are bratul rupt) Un verb la Present Perfect este determinat de un complement circumstantial de timp sau de o temporala care indica un interval deschis: all my life. since I last saw you. I haven’t seen you lately. pentru care momentul cand a avut loc nu prezinta interes. up to the present (pana in prezent). de. always (totdeauna). ever (vreodata). lately (in ultima vreme). already (deja). chiar adineaori) cere Past Tense: I saw him just now. tonight.) c). deocamdata). de la. this year. just (tocmai). dupa cum am spus. (A vazut multe locuri frumoase in viata sa. cere Present Perfect: I’ve just seen him. up to now (pana acum). Ex: I’ve never been to England. exprima o actiune terminata in trecut.For se refera la intreaga perioada dintre momentul inceperii actiunii si momentul vorbirii. Ex: He’s broken his arm. etc. etc. b). pentru actiuni. exprima o actiune trecuta al carei rezultat este vizibil in prezent.

to consider (a considera). precum: to want (a vrea). Dupa verbele to see. Santem prieteni (Prezentul) de cand am absolvit. in functie de contex. care contine un substantiv (sau pronume la cazul acuzativ) si un verb la infinitiv sau participiul I: I want Tom (him) to come to my party. Vreau ca Tom (el) sa vina la serata mea. Nota: 1). Present Perfect se poate traduce cu Perfectul Compus din limba romana. to see (a vedea). to like (a place). Have you eaten yet? (Ai mancat deja?) I’ve always loved you. Consideram ca el este un medic bun. Complementul compus In limba engleza este foarte raspandita constructia “complementul compus”.Sa nu uitam ca. Comparati: We have been friends since we graduated. I’ve met him several times since we graduated. to watch in constructia respectiva se intrebuinteaza sau infinitivul fara “to”. senzatie si activitate mintala. Stiam ca Petru si Suzana (ei) sunt studenti buni. to hear (a auzi). Am vazut cum el a esit din automobil. sau Participiul I: I saw him get (getting) out of the car. Aceasta constructie se intrebuinteaza dupa verbe de perceptie. We consider him to be a good doctor. 2). 113 . to hear. etc. We know Peter and Susan (them) to be good students.You haven’t eaten yet (Nu ai mancat inca). to believe (a crede). (Totdeauna te-am iubit) . L-am intalnit (Perfectul compus) de mai multe ori de cand am absolvit. to know (a stie).

(6) 114 . Please show Mike your coat. Please wake up John. And Mary? (just) 2. She’s seen them today. My brother has bought the new French textbook today. (Bill) 3. Please help Peter do his homework. He’s going to take a shower. And Peter? (just) 4. I have just translated it. They were very busy last week. (already) 2. I’ve already spoken to him. Mr. And Bill? (this week) 3. (already) 5. (4) 3. They came home two hours ago. And Peter? (just) 3. (Tom) 2. They have finished the experiment successfully. Jane has typed a lot of letters today. (Mr. Respond to these statements according to the model. Please take a shower. John has returned from Moscow this week. Smith has already stayed there for a week. I have already closed it. The teacher has written some words on the blackboard. 1. He’s going to read this book. And Mr. I have just waked up him. (just) 4. Please close the window. (he) 6. Green? (this week) 6. And Jane? (today) Jane has bought a new coat today. Please look through these telegrams. too? 1. And John? (already) 5. I have just showed it (just) 3. I have already taken a shower. (you) 4. 1. Please translate this text into Russian. (already) I’ve already helped him. Ann is going to play the piano. (Mary) 4. Respond to these questions according to the model. (already) 2.Exercises: Respond to these requests according to the model. Jane went for a walk an hour ago. Put on special questions to which the underlined words are the answers.Peter has just gone for a walk. My brother has translated two texts into English. Brown stayed there for a week. Helen is going to buy a new coat. (just) 6. 1. I have already looked throught its. (4) 2. Brown) Has Mr. (your friend) 5.

Ea a vazut multe filme. 2. 115 . We have done (do) just exercise five and now we are answering (answer) the teacher’s questions. Am vazut cum el a cumparat ceva si a esit din magazin. 14. I am (be) a student.+? 5. 3. Ti-ai baut cafeaua azi. 6. Rareori poti intalni un om ca tine! 11. They heard how she was speaking on the radio. Simple Past. Ati fost vreodata la familia Ford? 13. Present Continuous and Present Perfect Tense). 12. He have came (come) just to the office. The children like when their mother reads interesting stories to them 6. I want that you should know English well. 2. 9. Am fost in Statele Unite nu numai odata. 6. 5. She (be) ill lately. 5. 2. And when he came (come) to the office yesterday? He came (come) at ten to nine yesterday. I have. Translate into English 1. 5. It’s five minutes to nine. Open the brackets and use the proper tenses (Simple Present. Do you remenber that she worked at our plant? 3. 7. I heard how you said it. You have bought (buy) already fruit and vegetables? Yes. Peter (not to go) to see his mother yesterday. His elder brother Nick (go) just to see her. nu-i asa? 4. 10. I am having (have) an English class now. N-am stiut niciodata sa gatesc la fel de bine ca tine. 7. I saw how she came up to the house. 4. Transform these sentences below in the constructions with “Compound Object” 1. Nu l-am inteles niciodata. Peter (leave) for school fifteen minutes ago but Ann (not to leave) for college yet. El a cumparat doua biciclete. When you ??? (go) shopping? I (go) shopping after lunch yesterday. 3. A si venit? Desi a promis ca vine pana la ora asta. na venit inca. Ai fost in concediu anul acesta? 8. 4. Noi consideram ca aceasta problema este foarte importanta. 7. Nu l-am vazut de loc saptamana aceasta. Ea tocmai si-a cumparat o rochie noua. We never expected that she would stay there so long.

“I have never written such music. He had written wonderful music to his operas but he could not forget the storm in his first opera.” said Haydn. At last Haydn lost his temper. Haydn was afraid.” he said. but the clown could not help him as he had never been to the sea himself. “Go on like that. Kurtz invited Haydn to his room and gave him some verses and asked to write an opera.” Many years had passed since Haydn’s name became famous all over the world. One day Haydn’s friend decided to play a serenade under the window of a well-known clown. He always laughed when he thought of it. Bernardone Kurtz by name. “but I’ll try. “How can I put a storm at sea into music when I have never seen the sea!” said Haydn. and asked Haydn to write the music. Very often he composed the music himself.Text: “HAYDN’S FIRST OPERA” When Haydn was about eighteen years old he sang in a chorus. He began playing the violin in the streets of Vienna and sometimes he played at dances.” He began working and everything went well till he came to a place where there was a storm at sea. He went to Kurtz. 116 . But soon his voice broke and he lost his place as a chorister. When the music was ready they went to the house where Kurtz lived and played it. Kurtz liked the melody so much that he appeared on the balcony and asked: “Who wrote that beautiful music?” “I did. crashed his hands upon the piano and cried out: “Dash the storm!” “That’s it! That’s it!” cried Kurtz jumping up of his chair.

we. they) been looknig for a jog for two weeks? Has he (she. it) has been looking for a job for two weeks Negative I (you. b. delimitata. they) have been looking for a job for two weeks He (she. traducand-se prin perfectul compus. Affirmative I (you. It has been raining since yesterday. in trecut (FOR). it) has not been looking for a job for two weeks Interrogative Have I (we. they) have not been looking for a job for two weeks He (she. Acest timp nu are corespondent in limba romana.UNIT 14 (fourteen) Present Perfect Continuous Continuu) (Prezentul Perfect Se formeaza de la prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been) si Participiul I a verbului de conjugat.it) been looking for a job for two weeks? Ex: I have been speaking for three hours. Intrebarea specifica acestui timp este HOW LONG? (Cat timp?) – durata. actiunea poate incepe intr-un moment definit din trecut (SINCE). Se exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata pana in momentul vorbirii: a.(Ploua incontinuu de ieri) 117 . you. we.(Am vorbit timp de trei ore) She has been working all morning. Actiunea poate indica o perioada de timp.) She has been playing the piano since she was a little girl. (Canta la pian de cand era mica). ( A lucrat toata dimineata.

cineva Another un altul Another. alte: Have you any other ideas? – Mai ai si alte idei? Come another day. iar one another la mai multi. fiecare dintre aceste pronume are intelesuri independente: Each fiecare Other altul One unul. unele pe altele. each other se refera la doi. (Ceilalti studenti sunt inca la facultate. din exemplele de mai sus. intre ei. se traduce prin (un) alt. Separat. celelalte: Where is the other boy? (Unde este celalalt baiat?) The other students are still at the University. Aceste pronume sunt: EACH – OTHER si ONE ANOTHER (unul pe altul. fie prin “prezent” insotit de un adverb de timp care sa indice continuitatea actiunii. (the) others Other. intre ele. (Ne iubim) The boys are fighting with each other. una pe alta. alti. Vino intr-alta zi. acest timp se poate traduce fie prin “perfectul compus”. Precedat de articolul hotarat. (Se uita unul la altul) In principiu. (the) other. reciproc etc. other se traduce prin celalalt. ceilalti. (Ex: s-au sfatuit unul cu celalalt). (Baietii se lupta intre ei) They are looking at one another.Nota: Dupa cum se poate remarca. The Reciprocal Pronoun (Pronumele reciproc) De cele mai multe ori acest pronume nu apare in limba romana. (o) alta. El arata o participare reciproca a persoanelor implicate intr-o actiune sau comunicare.) : We love each other. unii pe altii.) 118 . ca adjectiv nedefinit (urmat de un substantiv). cealalta.

Has it been raining long? It has been raining since early morrning. How long has she been teaching at the university? 1. In aceste exemple. Others will help you if I can’t. Respond to these sentences according to the models. (since early morning) 3. iar others prin altii. 4.Ca pronume nedefinite. He is watching a rugby match on TV. celelalte: Where is the other? (Unde este celalalt/cealalta?) Where are the others? (Unde sunt ceilalti/celelalte?) Mai frecvent se spune: Where is the other one? Where are the other ones? Cu acelasi sens. They are playing football now. (for a year and a half) 2. 119 . She is teaching at Oxford University.Have you been learning English long? I have been learning it for a year and a half. 2. alta. (neurmate de un substantiv). iar the others prin ceilalti. 2. Exercises 1. 6. (Te vor ajuta altii daca eu nu pot) The other se traduce prin celalalt. other a devenit adjectiv nedefinit. She’s reading an article. cealalta. Vast masses of cold air are flowing over the land. another se traduce prin altul. 5. va rog). (Dati-mi altul/alta. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect Continuous or in the Present Perfect. altele: Give me another. They are working hard. Has it been snowing long? (since yesterday) 4. 1. Observati ca la plural nu mai primeste s. a). Have you been staying here long? (for a month) I’ve (I have) been staying here for a month. please. 3. Has he been collecting stamps long? (for five years) b). Peter is waiting for them.

De cat timp lucrezi aici? 4. I want …book (alta). 4. are. El studiaza franceza de trei ani. each. It (to rain) since early morning. 6. 5. Put since or for into each gap. 5. He has been looking for a job … almost a week now. How long your sister (to teach) at college? For fifteen years. 4. etc). Ei se vor ajuta unii pe altii. 7. I (wait) for you since six o’clock in the afternoon. We have been waiting here … almost an hour. 1. 2. 7. one another) or the Reflexive (myself. (cealalta). 6. Try … door. 6. 2. They always write to … . 5. they. We (to work) hard for two hours. Ori de cate ori se intalneau isi vorbeau englezeste. 7. 4. Tom and Bill were smiling at … . 3. 1. Lucrez aici de sapte ani. Try … (pe cealalta). Se intrebau unii pe altii ce se intamplase. They congratulated … . hate. 10. 6. 2. She has been studying English … last September. They have been walking … early morning. I … don’t smoke. The United States has been a republic … 1776. Lucrez aici din 1990. The north wind (to blow) since early morning. Give me … examples (alte). 9. Insert the English equivalent of the word from the bracket. I don’t think I can come … day (alta). another. He (to be) very busy lately. 3. Ploua de o saptamana. to hate. That man has been looking at you … the last ten minutes. Where are … (ceilalti)? 2. This orange is sour. 8. 6. 3. 3. … cups are in the kitchen (Celelalte). How long you (to know) Jane? 4. 6. They are speaking to each other. … will say the same thing (Altii). 2. 1. 7. one. other. 2. 5. 8. 120 . He wrote a letter to … .1. I have been working here … 1999. Put in the order the following words. 5. Paul has been looking for a job … the end of the last month. 7. 4. they. 8. She hates … . 3. 5. Ei se iubesc. Asteptam de o ora si jumatate. to. 3. youself. 8. I (not to meet) the Browns since last year. speaking. Translate into English 1. Complete the gaps with the Reciprocal Pronoun (each other. 1.

S. to represent it in Tokyo. another. He handed them each a copy and began discussing the details. 5. it. we. can’t . He planned to agree to those changes as concessions. It promised big profits. to. 4. next. will. We can’t see each other as it is dark that.S. were. that. other. They spoke about the proposed cooperation between the two companies but they didn’t make any promises. He felt extremely surprised and disappointed. They didn’t discuss the contract at all. After many phone calls between the two parties.3. one. their. about. Before Waller left the United States. He thought his future partners would be satisfied with his work and would be ready to bargain about the details in the contract. Waller then went back to the United States. The Japanese businessmen had never asked him one question about the contract. company chose one of its businessmen. He was pleased with his careful preparation. dark. Mike Waller. The representatives of the Tokyo company did not open their contracts. see. he and the company lawyer worked together to write a detailed contract for the deal. Text: JAPAN AND U. On the day of the meeting in Tokyo. other. Japan.S. Waller left for Japan with the contract. for. He was certain the meetings would result in good negotiations and a quick final agreement. The company found a possible partner based in Tokyo. He had studied their company interests and was sure they would want to change a few conditions in the contract. They will do everything for each other. a decision was made to meet in Tokyo. talking. No agreements or 121 . The Tokyo company seemed to be perfect for the deal. they. CANDY VENTURE A well-known U. each. do. holiday. The U. but instead spoke about general business issues. is. The deal would be advantageous for both companies. He was the company’s most persuasive negotiator. candy company was interested in selling its product overseas. The contract was fifty pages long. as. each. anything. they. Waller entered the boardroom with copies of the contract for the Japanese businessmen at the meeting.

beneficiu a negocia. cedare a da. asociat in strainatate afacere persuasiv. avantaje a fi de acord cu concesie.commitments had been made. He wasn’t even sure if there would be another round of negotiations. obligatii runda de negocieri 122 . convingator avocat. profitabil. a inmana acord depozitii in fata unei comisii. a face o afacere interese. VOCABULARY partner overseas deal persuasive lawyer advantageous profit to bargain interests to agree to concession to hand agreement commitments round of negotiations partener. jurist avantajos. prielnic profit.

) They had never been there before. she. we.UNIT 15 PAST PERFECT (Perfectul Trecut) Past Perfect se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului “to have” la trecutul simplu (had) si Participiul II al verbului de conjugat. we. she.) Didn’t he tell you (that) I had been ill? (Nu ti-am spus ca am fost (fusesem) bolnav?) Past Perfect exprima regretul fata de o actiune trecuta: Ex: I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. it. it. it. (El a terminat de scris exercitiile catre ora 5. they) had worked Interrogative Had I (he. they) had not (hadn’t) worked Past Perfect exprima o actiune sau un eveniment care a avut loc inaintea unui moment trecut./Regret ca am mancat sau: 123 .(pana atunci) He had finished writing the exercises by 5 o’clock. you. you. (As dori sa nu fi mancat atat de mult. before 5 o’clock – inainte de ora 5). (Intotdeauna a locuit in Chisinau inainte de a se muta in Germania acum cativa ani. sau printr-o alta actiune la Trecutul Simplu: She had always lived in Chisinau before she moved to Germany a few years ago. Affirmative I (he.) I had just bought the tickets when I realized that my wallet wasn’t there. Acest moment poate fi marcat prin indicarea timpului precis (by 5 o’clock – catre ora 5. (Tocmai cumparasem biletele cand mi-am dat seama ca nu mai aveam portofelul. you. she. they) worked ? Negative I (he. (Nu fusese niciodata acolo.

she. 3. she. sau a unei actiuni viitoare redate prin Presentul Simplu: I shall have learnt my lessons by Monday./As dori sa ma fi dus …). (it) will have asked We. (Imi voi invata lectiile pana luni. (La anul pe vremea asta imi voi fi terminat studiile.) This time next year I’ll have completed my studies. you. they will have asked Interrogative Shall I (we) have asked ? Will he. (El deja va termina raportul cand tu te vei intoarce. they have asked ? Negative I (we) shall not (shan’t) have asked He. (Pacat ca nu m-am dus acolo. exclusiv in limba scrisa. fiind aproape cu totul absent din exprimarea obisnuita.) He will have finished his report when you return. you. she. dar care se va fi intamplat inainte de un moment in viitor. (it).I wish I’d gone there. they will not (won’t) have asked Future Perfect este un timp folosit rar. (it).) The Interrogative Pronouns (Pronumele interogative) 124 . Exprima o actiune care nu a avut inca loc. you. FUTURE PERFECT (Viitorul anterior nedefinit) Future Perfect este format din viitorul simplu al verbului auxiliar to have si participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat: Affirmative I shall have asked (eu) voi fi intrebat You will have asked He.

la Present Simple si Past Simple interogativul si negativul se formeaza in mod normal (cu do.Cu cine ai vorbit/discutat? Which of the girls are the flowers for? – Pentru care dintre fete sunt florile? What was the lecture about? – Despre ce trata conferinta? Cand who? Which? sau what? Sunt subiectul propozitiei. Aceasta este tentinta generala moderna. la Present Simple si Past Simple interogativul si negativul se formeaza fara auxiliarul do (sau does sau did): Who knows? – Cine stie? Which of you arrived first? – Care dintre voi a sosit primul? What comes next? – Ce urmeaza dupa aceea? Cand who? Which? sau what? Sunt complemente.The Interrogative Pronouns sunt: Who – cine ? Which – care? (selectiv) What – ce? care? (neselectiv) Who is he? Cine este el? Which (of them) do you prefer? – Pe care o/il preferi? What do you know? – Ce stii? What is the capital of France? – Care (neselectiv) este capitala Frantei? Pronumele interogative precedate de prepozitii sunt la cazul acuzativ: for whom? before which? on what? In limba vorbita prepozitia se asaza la urma. Who (mai rar whom) did you talk to? . in care caz whom devine who. does sau did): Whom did you invite to your birthday party? – Pe cine ai invitat la ziua ta? Which do you prefer? – Pe care il/o preferi? What did he tell you? – Ce ti-a spus? Whose (atat ca pronume cat si adjectiv) poate fi (a) subiect sau (b) complement: 125 .

3. Whose poem did you appreciate most? – A cui cuvantare ai apreciat-o mai mult? EXERCISES: 1.7. and (tell) her the words she (not know). Supply the most suitable tense (Future Simple. 5. They (go) home after they (finish) their work. you (not make) many mistakes in it. Before you go to see them. Whose poem impressed you most? – A cui poem te-a impresionat cel mai mult? b).a). 2. By next June he (write) his second novel. Future Continuous or Future Perfect): 1. We (hear) that a fire (break out) in the neighbouring house. They (drink) small cups of coffee after they (finish) dinner. my family (have) supper. I hope. His mother (worry) a lot about him before she (hear) that he was safe. 4. 5. 10. She said that she already (see) the Pyramids. 9. The little girl (ask) what (happen) to her ice-cream. I (do) my homework from three till six. She told her teacher that her mother (help) her with her homework the previous evening.8. 11. 7. 2. He told me he (catch) a young lion and (shoot) two others. When you come to my place tomorrow. I (do) my homework by six o’clock tomorrow. 4. 12. 126 . 3. When I come home tomorrow. Cyril was very angry and said that he (eat) two flies in his fruit salad. Cyril said he (be) short-sighted and already (swallow) them when his friend (tell) him what he (eat). The fire (spread) to the next building before the firemen (arrive). Tomorrow I (begin) doing my homework as soon as I come from school. 6. and we (go) for a walk together. 9. 6. Supply the most suitable tense (past or past perfect): 1. The waiter asked him why he (eat) them. I (do) my homework tomorrow. I (read) your book. He (can not) help thinking that he (see) that face somewhere before. By the end of the summer he (teach) us to speak English. My father (come) home at seven o‘clock tomorrow. 10. 2. 8. I (do) all my homework by the time he comes. The politician (declare) that his party always (stand) for social security. when you have finished this exercise. they (leave) the country. I (do) my homework at six o’clock tomorrow.

By … were you lent the money? 16. 11. 12. Nu mai era acelasi (se schimbase) de la casatoria lui. 2. 9. 4. … was that man? – Our new neighbour. So I walked in and looked round at the clerks. trenul plecase deja. 7. Cand l-am intalnit prima oara. … did you lend my bicycle? 11. 10. About … of them were they talking. 6. Brown’s. what according to the sense: 1. and brought him. 10. At … painting did they look? – Picasso’s. For … did Ted cut eleven roses? 12. 1. … is his name? 3. … did you lend my dictionary? 8. Noi nu-i intalnisem niciodata inainte. In … did you put the flowers? 14. pentru ca facuse cumparaturi toata dupa-amiaza. 4. Noi nu vom fi folosit multe cecuri. 3. … of them do you want? 5. I had an idea that a person who was about to open an account must necessarily speak to the manager. whom. Translate into English. Noi o vazusem inainte. Cand am sosit noi. El avusese dificultati sa-si gaseasca o noua slujba. Ce fel de necazuri aveti? 18. era in Franta de un an. … is the capital of France? 9. Nu-mi trecuse prin minte ca el putea fi spion.13. 8. I don’t know why I said “alone”. El nu va fi petrecut mult timp aici. 3. “Can I see the manager?” I asked the clerk and added “alone”. 15. … car did you drive? – My father’s. 4. whose. A cui este aceasta masina? TEXT: “MY FINANCIAL CAREER” (by Stephen Leacock) (1869-1944) My salary had been raised to fifty dollars a month and I felt that the bank was the only place for it. … happens in Chapter II? 6. … did you meet at the seaside? 7. 127 . Noi vom fi cheltuit foarte putini bani. Cine este acest barbat? 14.” said the clerk. To … of you did he address the letter? 13.Insert who. to whom. … daughter did he marry? – Mr. Noi nu vom fi cheltuit multi bani. 2. Care dintre ei a castigat meciul? 16. Ea era obosita. 5. which. Ce veti face anul viitor? 17. Cu cine ati vorbit? 15. “Certainly.

The manager was a calm, serious man. While talking to him I held my fifty-six dollars in my pocket. “Are you the manager?” I said God knows I didn’t doubt it. “Yes,” he said. “Can I see you,” I asked, “alone”? I didn’t want to say “alone” again, but without this word the question seemed useless. “Come in here, “he said, and led the way to a private room. “We’re safe from interruption here,” he said. “Sit down.” We both sat down and looked at each other. I found no voice to speak. “You’re one of Pinkerton’s detectives, I suppose,” he said. The expression in my eyes had made him think that I was a detective, and he looked worried. “To speak the truth,” I began. “I’m not a detective at all. I’ve come to open an account. I intend to keep all my money in this bank.” The manager looked serious, he felt sure now that I was a very rich man, probably a son of Baron Rothschild. “A large account, I suppose,” he said. “Rather a large one, “ I whispered. “I intend to place in this bank the sum of fifty-six dollars now, and fifty dollars a month regularly.” The manager got up and opened the door. He called out to the clerk. “Mr. Montgomery,” he said loudly, “this gentleman is opening an account. He will place fifty-six dollars in it. Good morning.” “Good morning,” I said, standing up, and walked through a big door into a safe. “Come out,” said the manager coldly and showed me the other way. I went up to the clerk and pushed the money to him. My face was terribly pale. “Here, I said, “put it in my account.” The sound of my voice seemed to mean, “Let’s do this painful thing while we feel that we want to do it.” When the operation had been performed, I remembered that I hadn’t left any money for present use. My idea was to draw out six dollars. Someone gave me a cheque-book and someone else began telling me how to write it out. The people in the bank seemed to think that I was a man who owned millions of dollars, but I was not feeling
very well, I wrote something on the cheque and pushed it towards the clerk. He looked at it.
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“What, are you drawing it all out again?” he asked in surprise. Then I realized that I had written fifty-six dollars instead of six. I was too upset to think clearly now. I had a feeling that it was impossible to explain the thing. All the clerks stopped writing to look at me. One of them prepared to pay the money. “How will you have it?” he said. “What?” “How will you have it?” “Oh,” I caught his meaning and answered without even trying to think, - “in fifty-dollar notes.” He gave me a fifty-dollar note. “And the six?” he asked coldly. “In six-dollar notes,” I said. He gave me six dollars, and I ran out. As the big door closed behind me, I heard a sound of laughter that went up to the roof of the bank. Since then I use a bank no more. I keep my money in my pocket and my savings in silver dollars in a sock.

VOCABULARY
to raise – a ridica, a creste to look round – a privi in jur account – cont clerk [kla:k] – functionar (de birou) to hold –held – a tine pocket – buzunar to doubt [daut] – a se indoi (de) to seem – a parea, a da impresia to lead – led – a conduce, a duce safe – sigur, convins safe and sound – teafar si nevatamat to whisper – a sopti to draw out – a extrage to call out – a striga (nume), a chema to own – a poseda, a avea to catch – caught – a prinde sock - soseta

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UNIT 16 SEQUENCE OF TENSES – Concordanta (corespondenta) timpurilor
Concordanta timpurilor, adica raportul dintre timpul din propozitia principala si cel din subordonata, este o problema foarte complexa in limba engleza, mai ales in comparatie cu romana, unde ea nu se aplica atat de strict si deci timpurile coincid rareori in cele doua limbi: He asked me how old I was. El m-a intrebat ce varsta am. 1). Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la Present Simple/Continuous, Present Perfect verbul din subordonata poate fi la orice timp: Principala Secundara I know what he does. Eu stiu ce face el. I know what he is doing. Eu stiu ce face el (in acest moment). I know what he did. Eu stiu ce a facut el. I know what he’s always done. Eu stiu ce a facut el intotdeauna. I know what he will do. Eu stiu ce va face el. 2). Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut, verbul din subordonata este la trecutul simplu sau continuu. I knew what he did. Eu stiam ce face el. I knew what he was doing. Eu stiam ce face el (la acel moment). I knew what he had done. Eu stiam ce a facut/facuse el. I knew what he would do. Eu stiam ce va face el. Nota: Totusi, se poate folosi prezentul in subordonata, daca este vorba despre un adevar imuabil (neschimbator, permanent). At that time, they didn’t know that the sun does not turn round the earth.

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before – inainte ca. Te voi suna daca nu-l gasesc/nu-l voi gasi. I’ll call you if I don’t find it. She thought I could help her. 3). Fie consecutive. Aceasta exceptie de la regula concordantei timpurilor se produce dupa when – cand. 131 . tinand seama ca propozitia principala este la trecut. Vom astepta pana cand vei veni/vii. might) pentru a marca posterioritatea: He left a few minutes after the film had begun. should. after – dupa. unless – daca nu: I’ll go when I’m ready. Mi-a spus ca o cheama Maria. if – daca. Voi pleca atunci cand voi fi/sunt gata. Spectacolul va incepe de indata ce presedintele va sosi/soseste. Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la viitor. actiunile verbelor din propozitia principala si din cea subordonata pot fi: fie simultane. while – in timp ce. dar. 4). He left as the film was beginning. cand se foloseste trecutul simplu sau continuu: She said that she spoke four foreign languages. La trecut. nu se stia ca soarele nu se invarteste in jurul pamantului. El a plecat la cateva minute dupa ce incepuse filmul. as soon as – de indata ce. verbul din propozitia subordonata temporala sau din conditionala este la prezent sau la Present Perfect. cand se foloseste Past Perfect pentru a marca anterioritatea si un auxiliar modal la trecut (would. until – pana cand/atat timp cat. The show will start as soon as the president has arrived.La acea vreme. !!! Urmatoarea situatie ar putea parea ciudata: She told me her name was Mary. El a plecat tocmai cand incepea filmul. A spus ca vorbeste patru limbi straine. predicatul secundarei trebuie modificat in functie de regulile concordantei. We’ll wait until you come. Ea s-a gandit ca eu voi putea s-o ajut. Maria o cheama mereu caci acesta este numele ei de botez. – desigur.

She says she will come to see us next Sunday. should finish) my work at that time. 2. He asked me where I (study. 8. was staying) at the “Savoy” Hotel. 3. He says that he has a good camera. 132 . 5. The boy didn’t know that water (boil) at 100o. 9. 8. 4. Put the following into the Past Tense observing the rules of the sequence of tenses: 1. 6. her watch (be) wrong. I hear that he has bought a new car. I (not see) him since my schooldays. She has just told me that she (not like) modern music. They realized that they (lost. 6. would not change) for the worse. I think that he lives in New York. had lost) their way in the dark. 4. She said she (can) not tell me the right time. She says she already (find) the book. 10. He said he (will come. studied). had seen) at the museum. 7. I want to know what he (has bought. We find that she has left home at eight o’clock this morning. 5. He promised that he (bring) us all necessary books. I asked my sister to tell me what she (has seen. 2. had bought) for her birthday. 10. 3. 7. 8. 9. I was thinking what a pleasure it (be) to see my old friend again. I hope it (will not change. Charlie noticed that Mary (cry). I suppose that he will send us a letter. I thought that I (shall finish. He has just said that she (not be) at home tomorrow. would come) to the station to see me off. Put the tenses in brackets into the correct form: 1. 3. He says he feels better now. I knew that he (is. 5. My uncle says he has just come back from London. 2. 2. 3. was) a very clever man. 9. She says Bill told her a lot of interesting things about his travels in the south. I didn’t know that you already (receive) the letter. Use the verbs in brackets in appropriate tenses observing the rules of the sequence of tenses: 1. had posted) the letter.EXERCISES: 1. I was sure he (posted. 6. 7. We told you that we (leave) town on the following day. I know that you are ill. 10. He said he (is staying. 4.

5. 14. Lager is a light-coloured beer. The barman “draws” the beer from the barrel using a hand pump. Bitter is the most popular beer. Lam intrebat de cata vreme asteapta autobuzul. Credeam ca dormea. it is a medium brown beer. Stout is a very dark. 6. dar ca inca n-a inteles folosirea timpurilor. El a scris ca a fost foarte bolnav timp de cinci zile. Most bitter drinkers prefer “real ale” these days. You must order your drink from the bar. El intreaba cat e ceasul. the Irish stout called Guinness is the most famous brand. There are three types of beer in Britain. 7. 11. similar to beers popular in the rest of Europe. Other beers called keg beers are stored in pressurized barrels. 15. and the barman or barmaid needs only to turn a small tap on the bar for the beer to pour into the glass. M-a intrebat daca stiu cand pleaca trenul. No children under 14 133 . dar inca nu mi le-a adus. Translate into English: 1. Ma intrebam daca ajunsesera deja. 2. 10. L-am intrebat daca vor fi acasa deseara. almost black beer. 3. Laws on drinking in Britain are very strict. as there is no waiter or waitress service. M-a intrebat daca te iubesc si eu am spus ca da. and pay for it at the same time. 12. El a zis ca la sfarsitul anului se vor implini cinci ani de cand studiaza engleza. Le-a spus parintelor lui ca vor merge intr-o excursie. 4. at about 4% alcohol by volume. In Britain you must specify the quantity you want – a pint or half a pint – and the type. please” – but this alone is not enough. and as Tony said in the interview a pub may only open at certain times of the day. El a spus ca-mi va repara ceasul pana maine. 8. 13. Ordering in a pub can also confuse visitors. TEXT: “BRITISH BEER” British beer can be confusing to visitors. If you want to sell alcohol you have to have a licence. El a spus ca imi va aduce ambele carti vineri. and is not very alcoholic. El spune ca merge acasa cu autobuzul in fiecare zi.4. El scrie ca se distreaza foarte bine. A spus ca ieri a pescuit toata ziua. 9. Real ale is bitter brewed in the traditional way and then stored in barrels. Many foreigners who are new to pubs ask for “a beer.

bere germana bitter – amar stout – bere neagra to store – a tine. mainly in the cities. a presuriza barrel – butoi keg – butoias to pour [po:] – a turna mainly – in special.A. VOCABULARY Real-ale . You must be 18 before you can legally buy or drink alcohol in a pub.bere naturala beer – bere pub – carciuma a pint [paint] – pinta (unitate de masura a capacitatii insemnand 0. As their names imply. they specialize in selling different types of wine. Fourteen-year-olds may go into a pub but may not buy or drink alcohol. in S.473 l) lager .U. mai ales to expand – a (se) extinde vineyard – vie. The British wine-producing industry has been expanding rapidly in recent years. 0. podgorie 134 . mainly from vineyards in the south-east of England where the climate is particularly suitable.568 l. Britain now produces some good quality white wines.years of age may go into a pub (although many pubs have a children’s room away from the bar). Now we can find them even in smaller towns. a pastra (in depozit) to pressurize – a etansa. Wine bars began to appear in large numbers. usually of a higher standard than those found in pubs. in the early 1980s. although they may also have a limited range of beers and spirits. They also serve meals.

He asks. now – then next week (month. He says. Necesita o atentie deosebita respectarii regulilor de corespondenta a timpurilor.UNIT 17 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH (Vorbirea directa si indirecta) Vorbirea directa este redarea intocmai a spuselor cuiva. ca si in limba romana. “Can I help you?” He asks if he can help you. this. dupa verbele (to ask – a intreba.Lucrezi saptamana aceasta? In limba engleza. to say – a spune etc. He asked me. He says. adjectivelor in functie de inteles. M-a intrebat daca am lucrat saptamana aceea. “Do you work this week?” M-a intrebat: . de exemplu: I poate deveni he sau she. La trecerea de la vorbirea directa la cea indirecta are loc schimbarea pronumelor. ago – in urma. Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la present. cel din subordonata este acelasi ca si la vorbirea directa. He asked me if I had worked that week.that. last month – the month before. tomorrow – the next day.) se foloseste virgula si nu doua puncte. adverbelor determinative. here – there etc. yesterday – the day before – in ziua precedenta. “I like working” He says he likes working. iar vorbirea directa este pusa intre ghilimele: Vorbirea indirecta reproduce continutul a ceea ce spune cineva intr-o imprejurare data. 135 ..in acea zi. year) – the following (next) …. 1) Propozitii enuntiative Verbul to say din propozitia principala se pastreaza atunci cand nu este insotit de un complement indirect. last year – the year before. sau se inlocuieste prin to tell. cu o zi mai inainte. before – inainte. “I shall help you” He says he will help you. today – that day.

“We’ll go there tomorrow.” She said. John ne-a intrebat daca vrem sa mergem sa luam cina cu ei in seara aceea. 136 .Intrebari speciale: She asked him. He asked me. cel din subordonata sufera o schimbare de timp: She said.) cu o luna inainte. “Peter is looking for the dog now.” They told me they would go there the following day. He said to me. “I heard you speaking He told me (that) he had heard on the radio last month” me speaking on the radio a month before. “Will you come and dine with us tonight?” John spuse: Vreti sa veniti sa luati cina cui noi diseara?” John asked (us) if/whether we would come and dine with them that night. John said. “Where did you work last year?” She asked him where he had worked a year before. “I want to study English this year” She said that she wanted to study English that year. 3). M-a intrebat daca am vazut noul film. She said that Peter was looking for the dog then. (Imi spuse ea ca. 2).Ai vazut filmul nou? He asked me if/whether I had seen the film that day.Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. m-a auzit la radio radio luna trecuta. “Have you seen the new film ?” El m-a intrebat: .) They said to me. te-am auzit la (Imi spuse ca. Propozitii interogative: Propozitia interogativa indirecta este introdusa prin if sau whether – daca.

rugamintea. a invita.Nu e adevarat! He exclaimed/cried indignantly that it wasn’t true. – Mana mai repede. Mi-a cerut/ordonat sa man mai repede. “Don’t book tickets for the theatre for next Sunday. She said to me. a ordona. (to ask – a cere. Drive faster!” he said to me.” My mother ordered me to help him. to order – a porunci. Propozitii exclamative: Propozitiile exclamative sunt redate in vorbirea indirecta printr-o serie de modificari cerute de sens. a porunci. “Tell him everything tomorrow. “When will you go to see your parents?” He asked me when I would go to see my parents. “That isn’t true!” El spuse: .” He asked me not to book tickets for the theatre for the following Sunday. He said. “Please help him. 137 . El exclama indignat ca nu este adevarat. caracterul exclamatiei fiind redat de verbe si adverbe (de mod): He said. 4).” She asked me to tell him everything the following day. Propozitii imperative: Propozitiile imperative se redau in vorbirea indirecta cu ajutorul unor verbe care exprima ordinul.I asked her. a zice etc urmate de infinitive). He asked me to drive faster. “What reports have you written?” I asked her what reports she had written. “What are you doing now?” He asked me what I was doing then. to tell – a spune. cererea etc. He asked me. He asked me. My mother said to me. 5).

” said Tom. I said. He said that while crossing the English Channel they had stayed on deck all day.” said his mother.” 2. “Don’t go alone. “I have something to show you. “I’ll come with you as soon as I am ready. She said. He asked Ann if she could be ready by ten. Bill said.” 4.EXERCISES: 1. He said.” 9. She said. “Did you play for your university team?” asked Bill. 1.” 10. The young man said. Have you seen the library?” asked Ann. “Do you play rugby?” 8. Peter said. I told my sister that she might catch cold. “Shut the door. “I can’t answer this question. “I want to see you today. “Don’t forget your sandwiches. My father said. 5. 4. I said to them. “I am going away tomorrow. Put the following into indirect speech. 138 . 5.” 7.” 4. “Don’t argue with your father. Tom. He asked. 2. 1. He said.” the detective said to the taxi-driver.” 2. She said that she was feeling bad that day. “How can I get from the station to the airport?” 5. He told me he was ill. 7. 3. I asked him. Ann asked. 3. He said he had just been examined by a good doctor. “Are you working as well as studying?” 9. Tom asked.” 6. 4. 1. “I’ve been in London for a month so far I haven’t had time to visit the Tower. 8. 1. “Can you get coffee on the train?” asked my aunt.” 7. “Follow that car. He said to me. “Switch off the TV.” she said. 8. 10. Put the following into indirect speech. 6. The student said. I warned. I said to her. “I usually spend my holidays in the south. Put the following into direct speech.” 3. I don’t understand it. “Who is playing next week?” 4. Mary said.” 8.” 5. “I am going to a rest-home tomorrow. 2.” 6. “Don’t say anything to make her angry. “Which team has won?” 3.” 3. “Have you reserved a seat?” 6. “I didn’t go to the concert yesterday. Tom said he would go to see the doctor the next day. 7. “I can give you my uncle’s address. He said that his health had greatly improved since then. “Wait for me at the bridge. He said. She replied. “What is happening?” 2. Put the following into indirect speech.

fables long transmitted through oral tradition. “This man must be mad. He was well known as a man who was fond of jokes. Ei me-au spus sa nu mergem la cinema astazi. can you tell me how soon I shall get to town?” “Go.). One day. 3. Ea l-a intrebat pe Dnul Brown. He wrote many fine stories. “I know I must go. TEXT: AESOP AND THE TRAVELLER AESOP (620? – 560? B. he met a traveller. who greeted him and said: “King man. Ei m-au intrebat unde este biblioteca universitatii. Many of AESOP’S fables were rewritten in Greek verse by the poet Babrius and in latin verse by the Roman poet Phaedrus in the 1st century AD. El ne-a intrebat cine a scris raportul. Aesop shouted after him: “You will get to town in two hours. ancient Greek writer of fables.” Aesop answered.” The traveller turned round in astonishment. Dnul Smith m-a intrebat putem sa-l vizitam Sambata. 10. “Why didn’t you tell me that before?” he asked. 2. 4. John l-a intrebat pe Bill cat timp a petrecut in Londra anul trecut. Translate into English.” Aesop said again angrily. “How could I have told you that before?” answered Aesop.” 139 . El m-a intrebat ce am vrut sa fac.5. Aesop was a very clever man who lived many hundreds of years ago in Greece. L-am rugat pe Peter sa nu spuna nimarui secretul nostru. “I didn’t know how fast you could walk. 1.” protested the traveller. 8.” the traveller thought and went on. Eu l-am intrebat din ce tara a venit. After he had gone some distance.C. 9. 5. 6. “but I should like you to tell me how soon I shall get to town?” “Go. 7. Mama le-a spus sa nu vina tarziu acasa. as he was enjoying a walk. unde au de gand sa mearga in concediu.

John va fi invitat de mine. John has been invited by me.-a. Complementul. ex. John a fost invitat de mine. The testpapers are written by them. sunt invitat. de exemplu: They write the testpapers. I had invited John. iar diateza pasiva (Passive Voice) arata ca actiunea este suferita de subiectul gramatical. Eu l-am invitat pe John. Diateza activa I invite John. I invited John. Lucrarile sunt scrise de catre ei. Diateza pasiva John is invited (by me) John este invitat (de mine) John was invited (by me) John a fost invitat de mine. Ei scriu lucrari de control.: The hall is filled with smoke. I am invited. dar si cu with. Eu l-am invitat pe John. I have invited John. John a fost/fusese invitat de mine. John had been invited by me. daca exista. I will invite John. Diateza pasiva se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar “to be”(la orice timp) si Participiul 2 al verbului de conjugat.UNIT 18 PASSIVE VOICE (Diateza pasiva) Diateza exprima o relatie de sens gramatical intre subiect si predicat: diateza activa (Active Voice) arata ca actiunea este savarsita de subiectul gramatical. Il invit pe John. Eu l-am invitat pe John. 140 . se introduce in general cu prepozitia by. John will be invited by me. Salonul este plin de fum. Eu il voi invita pe John.

I s-a spus sa fie serios. (passive) Diateza pasiva a verbelor precedate de verbele modale must. is being. Se spunea ca este serios. believe. The method may be changed by her.are. should se obtine prin adaugarea infinitivului “be” si participiul 2 al verbului de conjugat: He must sign the paper. The problem can be solved by them. We should study English. may. 2. I can’t bear being laughed at. can. 3. People will show the visitors the new buildings. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice with a personal subject: 1. Someone has already paid the 141 . Atentie la diferenta intre: He was said to be serious. Nu suport sa-si bata cineva joc de mine. He was told to be serious. Retineti urmatoarele constructii pasive cu verbe ca say. know. They can solve the problem.Diateza pasiva la Present si Past Continuous se formeaza de la Prezentul si Trecutul Continuu al verbului to be (am. EXERCISES: 1. They gave my little sister a ticket too. English should be studied by us. report: They say he is clever = He is said to be clever.were being) si Participiul 2 al verbului de conjugat: They are building a house. The paper must be signed by him. (active) A house was being built by them. was. (active) A house is being built by them (passive) They were building a house. I can’t bear people laughing at me. She may change the method. Se spune ca e destept.

9. 4. The text will be translated at the next lesson. At twelve o’clock the workers were loading the trucks. They have made my uncle a captain. They have made a number of the experiments in this laboratory. This name was seldom mentioned in his novels. 3. 5. 8. Someone is showing Mary how to bathe a baby. This mountain has never been climbed before. This book must be read by every student. All the questions must be answered. The papers had been looked through and corrected by the last lesson. 4. This house was built last year. 7. You can leave the key with the clerk downstairs. They were being taught drawing at that lesson. 12. 3. (How) 4. 6. 10. 8. Somebody will tell you what time the train leaves. Transform the sentences into the interrogative and negative: 1.electrician for his work. 10. Where no agent is mentioned one must be supplied. 2. This new dictionary is sold everywhere now. 9. 7. 11. 6. 5. 4. I am often told about it. He was fined for crossing the street in the wrong place. The letter has just been sent. 6. 9. 10. 13. (When) 142 . Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary. The problem will be solved by these methods. By six o’clock they had finished the work. Turn the following sentences into the active voice. 2. 14. She told me that those newspapers had been carefully put away where they would not be lost. 4. This film can be seen at our cinema. The work was finished in time. 5. You must do three of these exercises tomorrow. (By whom) 3. Transform the sentences using the interrogative words from the brackets: 1. The room was cleaned and aired. The dictation was written without mistakes. 3. This article will be translated at the lesson. All the passengers in the bus were listening to the story of the boy who had been saved from drowning by the quickness of the driver. America was discovered by Columbus. (What) 2. By three o’clock everything had been prepared. 2. 8. By the middle of the autumn we had planted all the trees. 7. They promise us higher salaries. The boy was punished for misbehaving. Betty was met at the station. 1.

Translate into English: 1. I shall not be allowed to go there. He took her to a hotel and left her there. The mail is delivered at 7 o’clock. Materialele acestea trebuie traduse in limba franceza. (What time) 7. She had no money and didn’t know where to look for George Brown. She also told Tripp that she was going to marry a farmer. This is what happened to him one day. She stopped Tripp and asked him where she could find George Brown. named Dodd. is the author of many short stories. his face was pale and he often asked the writer for a dollar.This book will be returned to the library next week. (Why) 8. His short stories are very popular all over the world. 4. 9. But before that she wanted to see George Brown and to have a talk with him. He was a young man but he looked forty.12. Ti se vor pune doua intrebari. Ni s-au cerut multi bani pentru un dormitor foarte mic. and then spent it on whisky. She thought that the first man whom she asked could tell her that. 8. Ea a fost aleasa dintre zece candidati. 10. (When) 5. That’s why she had come to New York. (By which) 9. Materialele conferintei au fost ascultate cu mare atentie de la ora 2 pana la 4. 2. He never shaved. HENRY) O.5. Once Tripp met a young girl in New York. 6. He had an acquaintance whose name was Tripp. (Where) 10. could not leave the girl alone. The body was found in the river. (Who) 6. 7. 5. Sunt invitat la familia Jackson. He told everything to O. Text: “GEORGE BROWN” (After O. Masina lui nu este inca reparata. The girl was not allowed to go to the concert. I s-a dat un automobil nou pentru aniversarea lui. El v-a fi primit de director. the famous American humorist. Usa trebuie lasata deschisa. Lui Richard I s-au predat engleza si rusa. 3.Henry 143 . 11. She had never been to the city before. The factory is being restructured by this team. Mi s-a spus ca el era bolnav. who was kind by nature.Henry. Tripp.

Tripp took his cheap watch out of his pocket and the writer saw half of the cent cut in two. Tripp suggested that the writer pay the bill at the hotel where Ada was staying and buy a railway ticket for Ada to get back home. When they were going to the bus-stop. He said that it would cost the writer three dollars. The girl didn’t want to marry the farmer. The writer took out a dollar and put it into Tripp’s hand. When George was nineteen. He added that the writer would be able to write a new short story. He promised to come back for Ada. It would cost only four dollars.and suggested that they should go and see the girl whose name was Ada. She wanted to find George. She and George were in love when the boy was eight and she was five. They saw her to the station and then went home. but she never saw him again. he left the village and left for New York. Ada was really beautiful. He wanted whisky. George Brown and Tripp were one and the same man. a sugera a adauga buzunar ieftin 144 . On the day George left they cut a cent into two pieces till they met again. He asked for another dollar for himself. Ada and George Brown loved each other dearly. She told them all the details. The two men were very sorry for Ada and advised her to go home. a consuma a (se) casatori a propune. VOCABULARY famous acquaintance to spend/spent/spent to marry to suggest to add pocket cheap vestit cunostinta a cheltui.

diateza activa: to be writing – a scrie I’d like to be watching TV.infinitivul prezent. aspectul continuu. El exprima notiunea verbului in sensul sau general. aspectul simplu. aspectul simplu. sau o actiune nematerializata. Ea pare sa fi inteles intrebarea. aspectul continuu. . As vrea sa citesc un roman interesant.exprima mai mult o optiune irealizabila.infinitivul perfect. . forma sa nefiind limitata de numar sau persoana. . aspectul simplu. Nu mi-ar fi placut sa-l intalnesc atunci.UNIT 19 THE INFINITIVE (Infinitivul) Infinitivul este forma sub care un verb este dat in dictionar. El pare sa fi dormit toata ziua.infinitivul perfect. Isi dorea sa fi avut multi bani. I didn’t like to have met him then. As vrea sa ma uit la televizor. diateza activa: to read – a citi I’d like to read an interesting novel.infinitivul prezent. In limba engleza INFINITIVUL se formeaza prin atasarea particulei “to” inaintea verbului propriu-zis. sa fi scris – foarte folosit in limba engleza – este mai putin cunoscut in limba romana.infinitivul prezent. . . He liked to have had much money. She seems to have understood the question. . diateza activa: to have written – a fi scris. diateza pasiva: to be written – a fi scris 145 . diateza activa: He seems to have been sleeping all day.

Nu esti singurul in situatia de a fi fost ajutat. il voi face/obliga sa repare asta. aspectul continuu. (Erau gata sa inceapa) VERBE URMATE DE INFINITIVUL FARA “TO” Acestea sunt in principal: 1) Defectivele: can.I don’t want to be forgotten. aspectul simplu. 4) to have: in sensul de a pune. cum ar fi “glad”.. l-am auzit venind I saw him go. Urmatoarele doua forme se folosesc foarte rar: . care mai frecvente fiind to see si to hear: I heard him come. “pleased”. worthy. nu-l voi lasa sa faca asta. (Eara nereabdator sa ajunga acolo). must We can speak English. l-am vazut plecand 146 . “delighted”. Precum si dupa alte adjective. diateza pasiva: to have been being written – a fi fost scris . “eager”-dornic etc. diateza pasiva: to be being written – a fi scris . 2) To let: fie ca ajuta la formarea imperativului: Let us go. aspectul continuu. (un)able. easy etc. ex: I am glad to meet you (Sunt incantat sa va cunosc) He was eager to get there. a obliga pe cineva sa faca ceva: I’ll have them repair it. sa mergem fie cand are intelesul de a lasa: I won’t let him do it.infinitivul perfect..Infinitivul perfect. ex: I was afraid to go there. Nu vreau sa fiu uitat. (Ma temeam sa ajung acolo) They were ready to start.Infinitivul se foloseste dupa unele adjective care exprima o emotie sau o dorinta. . te voi face sa intelegi. cum sunt: ready. afraid. may. 3) to make: I’ll make you understand. “anxious”-ingrigorat.Infinitivul prezent. diateza pasiva: To have been written – a fi fost scris We aren’t the only one to have been helped. 5) verbele de perceptie.

4. 3. prepozitia obligatorie este cea care poarta sensul principal. capata sensuri foarte diferite. in functie de prepozitia obligatorie care ii urmeaza: to get up a se scula to get away a scapa to get out a iesi to get in a intra to get down a cobori In acest caz. Astfel:  To get: acest verb. 6. atunci cand este urmat de un substantiv. He made her 147 . 5. He will be able (swim) very soon.(care pot fi urmate si de forma in –ing). care inseamna a obtine. si a deveni. asociat cu diferite prepozitii obligatorii. a imbraca to carry on a continua to put off amana (o sedinta) to carry out a infaptui to give up a renunta come on! haide! vino! to go on a continua to look out a fi atent to hurry up a se grabi EXERCISES: 1. atunci cand e urmat de un adjectiv. go out! Iesi!  Acelasi verb. I used (live) in a caravan. I want (see) the house where our president was born. He made me (do) it all over again. Insert “to” where necessary before the infinitives in brackets. PREPOZITII OBLIGATORII  Prepozitia obligatorie formeaza un ton impreuna cu verbul: ea poate: 1) nuanta sensului verbului: to look a privi to look up ridica privirea 2) modifica radical sensul verbului: to go up a urca to go out a iesi  Prepozitia obligatorie intra in forma de infinitiv si in cea de imperativ a verbului: to go out. Cateva expresii cu prepozitii obligatorii: to be off a pleca to put on a pune. She can (sing) quite well. 2. a iesi. 1. va avea sensuri radical diferite.

Model: I was glad when I heard of your success. He is strong enough to carry it. He hopes that he will know by tomorrow. 4.) 6. He couldn’t live on it. (Omit it. You can’t have a front-door key. 12. 5. 8. 1. He was very sorry when he heard of your disappointment. 9. He won’t boil a kettle. We should be sorry if we heard bad reports of him. 2. That was the first picture that came by satellite. Do you understand what you have to do? 5. 2. It is very cold. You are very young. I’d like him (go) to a university but I can’t (make) him (go). He wouldn’t let my baby (play) with his gold watch. The fire isn’t very hot. 3. Translate into Romanian. Model: It is very cold. 8. He made us (wait) for hours. It seems that it is improbable. Reword the following sentences using the infinitive. Our new car is very wide. 11. 2. 10. you can (use) it whenever you like. I can’t wear that kind of hat. I am rather old. 4. 3. The coffee isn’t strong. We can’t bathe. The candidate did not expect that he would pass his examination. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using too/enough with infinitive. He can carry it. He was furious. You needn’t (ask) for permission. 7. I was glad to hear of your success. He hadn’t much money. 6. 9. 3. He is lazy. He couldn’t speak. 10. We can’t go out. 4. 1. 10.(repeat) the message. He is strong. He won’t get up early. Passive Infinitive and Perfect Infinitive. You couldn’t slip between the bars. My friend was delighted when she learned of the arrival of our baby. If you want (get) there before dark you should (start) at once. 11. He can’t eat anything. Mary was told that she must not dirty the room. The ladder wasn’t very long. It is too cold for us to go out. May I (use) your phone? 8. You are quite thick. It won’t get through those gates. 7. 12. 148 . paying attention to Active Infinitive. It didn’t reach the window. He is very ill. 9. It won’t keep us awake.

Unfortunately he had some troubles with the bank and was sent off to Australia. Unfortunately she was 149 . 6. They fortunately did it at the same time. Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet. L-am vazut parasind camera plangand. His father never failed to mention the fact. 2. Translate into English. 5. 3. He received all the money that belonged to a good family and soon spent it. He could die or work. 5. I am awfully glad to have met you. but he doesn’t like to be reminded of his duties. I am very happy to have had the pleasure of making your acquaintance. 1. When Clyde looked at the girl closely. He could not earn enough money to book his passage. I-mi pare foarte rau ca n-am putut sa-l intalnesc. He is very forgetful. N-ai uitat sa pui scrisoarea la posta. Therefore he was eager to return to England. 10. When all the money had been spent. She was his father’s only sister. Mi-a fost greu sa scap de el. Este greu sa-i gasesti acasa. Which is more pleasant: to give or to be given presents? 6. 4. So he had to wait until his father and his brother died. Then he remembered that he had a rich aunt. 8. 6. 9. 9. Hilary found out her address. he remembered to have seen her at IBM company. Neither of these gave him any pleasure. Stiti cum se pronunta acest cuvant? 10. 7. Spune-i sa incerce sa se poarte mai frumos. He did not like Australia and Australia did not like him. To improve your phonetics you should record youself and analyse your speech. The old lady was glad to see her only nephew. 2. 3. Se asteapta de la tine sa te pregatesti sarguincios pentru examene. 4. 7.1. Este suficient de silitor ca sa fie in stare sa termine universitatea. The child did not like to be washed. Hilary could do one of two things. 8. I am very sorry to have spoilt your mood. Mi-ar placea sa fiu invitata. TEXT: “HIS RICH AUNT” by Cyril Hare (1900-1958) (English lawyer and mystery writer) Hilary Smith belonged to a good family. This is the book to be read during the summer holidays.

Hilary badly needed money. The doctor told Hilary that nothing could cure the old lady. So he chose a moment when hia aunt was feeling much better than usual and asked her for details of her will. His aunt took the glass and looked at Hilary. who trusted him because his aunt was rich. a fi dator vanzator a avea incredere 150 . VOCABULARY to belong to to fail unfortunately therefore to be eager to to earn to book passage to cure will to owe shopkeeper to trust a apartine. The next day Hilary found out that when a woman married. trecere. It was impossible for Hilary to speak with his aunt about money. an earlier will lost its value. He could put her to sleep forever. Hilary was afraid to remain in the hard world alone. Hilary was afraid that she wanted to leave all her money to somebody else. She got very bad and got angry when money was mentioned. The old woman told her nephew that she had made a will when she was a young girl. prin urmare. Hilary tried to take the glass away but the old lady raised it and drank. I shall change the will in your favour. Hilary decided to double the portion.seriously ill. deci a fi nerabdator sa a castiga a astepta calatorie pe mare. She was very religious and left all her money to some religious people in China. a tine de a nu reusi. If I die tonight. he owed a lot to shopkeepers. She didn’t make any other will. testament a datora.” She explained to her nephew that she had never been married. She thanked her nephew and said: “If I am alive tomorrow. the money goes to the nearest relation. He put some more medicine into the glass. So he made a decision. Every night his aunt took some medicine to make her sleep. so her first will did not lose its value. One morning she told Hilary that she was going to send for her lawyer to make a new will. a uita din nefericire/pacate de aceea. A new will must be made. you will get nothing. a lecui vointa. a da gres. cale a vindeca. His future was safe.

to begin. Imi place sa inot. He ended his speech by thanking everybody for their attention. Nu mai rade. El a inceput sa fumeze. to dislike. Do you mind opening the door? Te deranjaza daca deschid usa? 151 . Ador gradinaritul. El a renuntat sa mai picteze. Gerundul nedefinit este identic ca forma cu participiul nedefinit. to try . Gerundul nedefinit este intrebuintat: . Inotul este pasiunea mea. o propozitie subordonata sau un gerunziu: Cycling is good for your health. to enjoy. continuarea sa sfarsitul unei actiuni: to start. Swimming is my hobby.to be angry a fi suparat UNIT 20 THE GERUND (Gerund-ul) The Gerund (Gerundul) este reprezentat de gerundul nedefinit si de gerundul perfect. Imi place sa gradinaresc. to be fond of. - dupa verbe care exprima o stare sufleteasca: to like. to carry on. to continue.trying etc.El are valoare de substantiv si poate fi subiect sau complement. to give up … He started smoking. to read – reading. Continua sa lucrezi. He gave up painting. I love gardening. to get – getting. . Urasc sa astept. infinitivul verbului cu ajutorul sufixului – ing: to come . Mersul pe bicicleta este bun pentru sanatate. to finish. I love gardening. to prefer. to keep on. I like swimming. Se traduce in romana printr-un substantiv. Si-a incheiat discursul multumind tuturor pentru atentie. to stop. Go on working.coming. to hate. Stop laughing. to love.dupa verbe care indica inceputul. to mind… I hate waiting.

to aim at – a tinti la/sa. to rely on – a conta pe etc. to thank for – a multumi pentru. responsible for – raspunzator pentru De asemenea: worth – care merita sa etc. to be afraid of – a-i fi frica de. to believe in – a crede in. a accepta. proud of – mandru de. Sunt sigur ca el e capabil sa rezolve aceasta problema. chance of – sansa de. concious of – constient de. Urmareste sa ajunga un economist bun. He prevented me from making a serious mistake. to consist in – a consta in. experience in – experienta in. surprise at – surptindere de a . He is worth sending to study at Oxford University. to complain of – a se plange de. He aims to become a good economist.- dupa anumite verbe cu prepozitii: to agree on . to prevent from – a-i impiedica sa. to think of – a se gandi la. reason for – motiv de a. to depend on . Sunt de acord ca ea sa citeasca textul. dupa substantive cu prepozitii: importance of – importanta de a.a cadea de acord sa/asupra. capable of – capabil de (a). - - - 152 . to succeed in – a reusi in/sa.El m-a impiedicat sa comit o greseala serioasa. right of – drept de a. to agree to – a cadea de acord ca. What is the reason for her being impatient? Din ce motiv este nerabdatoare? dupa adjective si adjective cu prepozitii: afraid of – caruia ii este teama de/sa.o a depine de. to approve of – a aproba. I agree to her reading the text. El merita de a fi trimis sa-si faca studiile la universitatea din Oxford. I am sure that he is capable of solving this problem.

As vrea sa merg in Statele Unite. infinitivul cu to indica de regula o actiune viitoare sau ipotetica (presupusa). Imi amintesc faptul ca l-am vazut. Datorita faptului ca el a regizat piesa. spectacolul a fost un succes. having been seen – fiind vazut. 153 . the performance was a success. c) Complement circumstantial de cauza (rar): Owning to his having staged the play. Dupa ce-si arunca ochii pe scrisoare. I remenber seeing him. Nu uita sa ma suni maine. Verbe urmate de GERUND sau de INFINITIV Unele verbe pot fi urmate fie de un Gerund. Don’t you regret having said that? Nu regreti ca ai spus asta? Functiile sintactice ale gerundului perfect sunt urmatoarele: a) Complement direct sau prepozitional: He denies having spoken with them. cu Remember to call me tomorrow. b) Complement circumstantial de timp: After having glanced over the letter he put it back into the envelope. In acest caz. having solved – rezolvand.S. Imi amintesc ca am cunoscut-o. to remember – a-si aminti. Gerundul perfect exprima intotdeauna o actiune sau o stare ce a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau stari exprimate de verbul personal: I remember having met her. cu I’d like to travel to the U. Comparati: I like travelling. Imi place sa calatoresc. fie de un Infinitiv.a-i placea. to stop – a opri. De exemplu: To like .The Perfect Gerund (Gerundul perfect) Gerundul perfect este identic ca forma cu participiul perfect: having come – venind. o puse inapoi in plic. Neaga ca ar fi vorbit cu ei. in functie de nuanta exprimata.

12. (L-am vazut ca a traversat strada – se stie ca a traversat-o) I saw him crossing the street (L-am vazut traversand strada – L-am urmarit cum traversa) EXERCISES: 1. 3. 7. Don’t forget (lock) the door before (go) to bed. Smith: I don’t allow my family (smoke) at all. 5. Complete the following sentences by putting the given verbs into the gerund form: 1. 4. I am beginning (understand) what you mean. 11. I regret (inform) you that your application has been refused. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund or infinitive).They started (write) the lesson before the teacher came in. 9. I began (look) for the missing papers a few days ago. I began (read) a novel yesterday. S-a oprit din fumat (A incetat sa mai fumeze) She stopped to smoke. I tried (persuade) him (agree) with your proposal. 2. I am prepared (wait) here all night if necessary. We’re rather tired of (go) by train. but now I must stop (try) to find them. 10. Mrs. I suggest (do) more sentences on the gerund next time. I hate (go) out in the rain. We don’t like (have) to do homework. S-a oprit (din mers/lucru)ca sa fumeze. Do you mind (speak) to John and (ask) him to help us? 5. Mrs Jones: I don’t allow (smoke) in my living-room. We thought of (drive) across France. We enjoyed (see) you and (hear) all your news. but I dislike (peel) them. 8. 4. I am looking forward to (see) you. 2. 154 . 9. 1. Would you mind (show) me how (work) the lift? 7. 6. 6. I hate (practise) (read) aloud without first (learn) the new words. I saw him cross the street. He dreads (have) to retire. I love (eat) oranges. 11. It has stopped (rain).Alte exemple: She stopped smoking. Your windows need (clean). My uncle has given up (smoke) and now prefers (eat) sweets. I wish (see) the manager. 2. 8. 10. 3.

El a hotarat sa invete mai mult pe viitor. 4. 5. Would you mind coming again in a day or two? 5. 11. 11. 11. 8. They accuse him … (have) robbed the house. 4. He did not approve of her drinking so much coffee. 6. 2. He never agreed to their going on that dangerous voyage. She always complains of feeling ill. De ce insista parintii lor ca el sa mearga la universitate? 12. All the happiness of my life depends on your loving me. Nu ma deranjeaza ca vii acasa putin mai tarziu. 5. 7. 155 . 7. Do stop (talk). 6. Va deranjeaza daca las usa deschisa? 9. I insist … (be) told the truth. Fill the gaps with the correct prepositions and put the vers from brackets into the gerand. My friend succeeded in translating this difficult text. Jane thought of leaving London after Miss Brown’s marriage. 12. 8. 4. 5. 3. 2. You have little chance … (improve) the situation. 6.would you like me (do) them for you? 12. 10. 1. He enjoyed talking of the pleasures of travelling. Jane Eyre was fond …(read). 12 I stretched out my hand to prevent her … (fall). 1. She insisted … (join) our group. 8. 4. 9. 10. She denied having been at home that evening. I don’t have any intention … (interfere) in your affairs. 1. 2. 10. Nu suport plansul tau. N-a reusit sa-si ia examenele. Imi place sa fumez o tigara si pe urma sa merg la plimbare. The poor peasant thanked Robin Hood heartily … (have) helped him. He persisted … (try) to solve that difficult problem. Imi place sa ascult muzica buna. I object … his (borrow) money from you. Translate into English. We are tired … (say) this so many times. 3. 13. 9. Mi-e teama sa ma gandesc ce i s-ar putea intampla. We are looking forward to seeing you again. Continua sa vorbeasca numai de el insusi. 14. Ati terminat de vorbit? 3. 3. I avoided speaking to them about that matter. We were prevented … (go) to the sea by the bad weather. Translate into Romanian. 7. El prefera sa faca sport decat sa citeasca. I am trying (finish) a letter. Am reusit sa iau un bilet. Lui ii place sa mearga la teatru. The cold weather prevented the girls from going for long walks.

TEXT: THE VALUABLE FENCE (by H.A. Smith)
The Greggs were coming back from their first trip to Europe. On board the Queen Elizabeth they got acquainted with a Frenchman. His English was good and soon they got quite friendly. The Frenchman told the Greggs that he was an artist and his name was Lautisse. He asked them to keep it a secret. He did not like publicity. The Greggs didn’t know any artist whose name was Lautisse. So they talked to the ship’s librarian and found out that their new friend was the world famous artist whose pictures were very valuable and expensive. The librarian found a book with a biographical sketch and a photograph. The sketch said that the artist had retired at fifty-three to a villa on the Riviera. He said he would never touch a brush again. Lautisse was going to spend a month in New York. Mrs. Gregg suggested that he come to their place for the weekend. The artist accepted the invitation and made them promise not to invite any other people to their place and not to speak to him about art. At the appointed time Lautisse arrived at the Greggs and they were happy to see him. Mr. Gregg and his wife did their best to entertain the famous artist, but he did not want to go for a swim or walk in the woods. He wanted to sit and relax. The next morning Mr. Gregg got up very early as he wanted to paint the fence around the vegetable garden. He took a brush and was about to begin painting when Lautisse approached him. As soon as he saw the brush, he seized it from Mr. Gregg and began painting the fence. The same day Lautisse started for New York. Some correspondents found out about Lautisse’s stay in New York. An article was published in one of the newspapers saying: “Mr. Lautisse has spent all his time in New York except for the weekend at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Gregg. He met the Greggs on the ship coming from Europe.” The day after the story appeared, two reporters came to the Greggs’ place. They wanted to know everything about the stay of the famous artist at their place. They were shown the fence painted and
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signed by Lautisse. A long article, headlined “Lautisse paints again”, was published the next day. The fence turned out to be a valuable thing. It was sold for a big sum of money. It was taken to a museum. Mr. Gregg could not keep from laughing when he saw his fence in the museum. The fence was not worth it.

VOCABULARY
fence to get acquainted with expensive sketch to seize to turn out gard a face cunostinta cu scump, costisitor schita a apuca, a se folosi de a se arata, a se dovedi

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UNIT 21 THE CONDITIONALS (Propozitii conditionale)
Propozitia conditionala contine doua parti: 1) principala si 2) secundara, care de obicei, incepe cu “if” (daca) If he has time, he will help us. Daca el va avea timp, ne va ajuta. Propozitiile conditionale sunt de trei tipuri: 1) posibila in viitor; 2) putin probabila in prezent; 3) nereala in trecut. Type (1) The Conditional (Propozitii conditionale de tipul I) Form: If + Present Simple + will + base form of the verb. condition result If it rains, I will stay at home. If I don’t work hard, I won’t learn. What will you do if you don’t find the job? Use (intrebuintare): Type (1) The Conditional is used to express a possible condition and a probable result. (Conditionalul unul este utilizat pentru a exprima o conditie posibila si un rezultat probabil) I will post the letter if you like. (Eu voi expedia scrisoarea daca vrei) Notes: 1. Notice that future tense is not used in a condition. If you will leave now, you will catch the train. (This is WRONG – e gresit) If you leave now, you will catch the train. (This is RIGHT e corect) 2. Alternative forms (forme alternative): a) if can be replaced by unless or in case (daca poate fi inlocuit cu daca…nu sau daca).

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c) will can be replaced by an imperative If you like good food. (Conditia este presupusa pentru ca vorbitorul stie ca ceea ce spune el sau ea este improbabil sau imposibil. d) will can be replaced by another future tense If it doesn’t rain. I’ll come at 8. If you have finished the exercise. a) The condition is hypothetical because the speaker knows that what he or she is saying is improbable or impossible. If you find my money … I can buy you an ice-cream.Unless I hear from you. voi veni la 8. TYPE (2) Form: If + Past Simple. (Daca nu me-ar place meseria mea. (Daca nu am nici o informatie de la tine. b) will can be replaced by another modal verb.00. (Ia-si imprumuta Mariei bani daca ar avea nevoie) 159 . I’m going to play tennis. would + base form of the verb condition result If I had enough money. e) The Present Simple can be replaced by The Present Perfect in the conditional clause. eat at Brown’s restaurant. (Daca as avea suficienti bani.) I would lend Mary money if she needed it.( will poate fi inlocuit cu un alt verb modal). You should give it back to me.00). I would give it up. you can do the next one. as cumpara o masina) What would you do if you had 1000$? (Ce vei face daca ai avea 1000$?) If I didn’t like my job. as renunta la ea) Uses (intrebuintare): Type (2) The Conditional is used to express a hypothetical (presupus) condition and its probable result. I would buy a car. You must tell me immediately.

If I were you. you would have passed all the exams. TYPE (3) Form: if + Past Perfect + would Future Perfect in the past or could have. deoarece eu stiu ca ea are suficienti bani) If I were a bird. was sometimes changes to “were” (In cazul cand verbul predicat din partea introdusa de “if” este “be”. el near ajuta. 2. (Daca ei ar fi studiat toate temele ei ar fi putut scrie testul) 160 .(Implicatia este ca conditia este improbabila. I could run faster. m-as odehni) NOTES: 1. might have. If I were the President of my country. I’d have a rest. I’d give all workers their salary on time. (Conditia poate fi posibila in teorie. If you had studied hard. (Daca as fi in locul tau. If I stopped smoking. “Would” can be replaced by another modal verb in the result clause. dar improbabila in practica). (Daca ai fi studiat intens ai fi sustinut toate examenele) If they had studied all the themes. but improbable in practice. (Daca as fi pasare as zbura la tine) (Implacatia este ca conditia este imposibila pentru ca eu nu sunt pasare) b) The contidition can be possible in theory. la toate persoanele singular si plural) If Peter were here he would help us. c) The Type 2 conditional can express an advice. they could have written the test. After “if”. Daca Peter ar fi aici. se foloseste forma “were”. (Daca as fi prezidentul tarii mele as da tuturor muncitorilor salariu la timp). I would fly to you.

because we know the condition was not fulfilled. . n-am fi spus nimic.) He would have come if you had called him. if only: daca macar…). 161 . I’d rather you didn’t come.Uses (intrebuintare): All (3) types are impossible ideas. In asemenea cazuri verbul auxiliar “had” preceda subiectul: Had we known about it. to imagine …). Cazul trecutului ipotetic: Dupa unele verbe (to wish. I wish you came. As prefera sa nu vii. He acts as if we were married.I don’t know if I will come. but we like to imagine the result if … (Conditional trecut de tipul 3 exprima o actiune a carei realizare a depins de indeplinirea unei conditii: I should/would have come in time if I had not missed the buss. Dar: I shall tell him about it if he calls me up. unele expresii (It’s time. – but he didn’t come! Why? Because you didn’t call him. I shall tell him about it. E timpul sa pleci. (As fi venit la timp daca nu as fi pierdut autobusul. we wouldn’t have said anything. Imi doresc sa vii. Sa presupunem ca el accepta. It’s time you left. Daca am fi stiut despre aceasta.When will you come? . ATENTIE! Dupa when si if cu functie interogativa. se foloseste trecutul. Nota: Daca propozitia secundara preceda pe cea principala se separa prin virgula. Uneori propozitia secundara conditionala nu este introdusa prin “if”. El se poarta ca si cum am fi casatoriti. I’d rather…) sau unele conjunctii (as if: ca si cand. se foloseste viitorul. desi se face aluzie la prezent sau la un viitor ipotetic. If he calls me up. Let’s suppose he accepted.

He insisted that they should come to the meeting. You’ll catch the train if you take a taxi. If I hadn’t told him. What 162 . with automatic results. If it rained. to insist – a insista etc. If you had left earlier.If only I had a car! Daca macar as avea o masina! The Zero Conditional Form: If + Present Simple. 8. sau verbe de tipul: to order – a ordona. (Florile mor daca nu le uzi. it is obligatory – e obligator. If you didn’t do much maths at school. in propozitiile secundare verbul predicat se foloseste la modul subjunctiv. Flowers die if you don’t water them. E necesar ca ei sa prezinte planul de afaceri saptamana aceasta. EXERCISES: 1. (Daca incalzesti gheata ea se topeste) The Zero Conditional expresses conditions that are always true. Read the following sentences and notice carefully the tenses of the two verbs. to demand – a cere. he would never have known. Dupa constructiile si verbele mentionate. you will be ill. It means when (atunci) cand or whenever (oricand. El a insistat ca ei sa vina la adunare. it is incredible – e incredibil. it is (im)possible – e (im)posibil.) Folosirea modului subjunctiv dupa constructii de tipul: it is necessary – e necesar. should fiind prezent la toate persoanele singular si plural: It is necessary that they should submit the business plan this week. ori de cate ori). it melts. you would have caught the train. 4. 3. 5. They will get wet if it rains. Present Simple If you heat the ice. you would find economics difficult. 6. it is desirable – e de dorit. 2. Then say what kind of condition each sentence is: 1. 7. I would stay at home. If you eat too much.

I would not have lost my money if … 4. I’d rather you (pay) me now. Complete the following conditionals: 1. 3. 6. I would have been in bad trouble if Jane hadn't helped me. 2. 10. What (happen) if I press this button? 3. I’ll be very angry if he (make) any more mistakes. If he wants to see me. … 6. Suppose he (ask) me for the money tomorrow! 10. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: 1. 5. It’s about time you (get) the tea ready. He will not come unless … 3. … 5. 2. If they had waited. If he arrived late. 163 . I’d rather you (go) now. I should not be able to enjoy Byron’s poetry. we would meet every day.would you do if you lost your job? 9. He acts as if he (know) English perfectly. Why wouldn’t you do it if … 2. I wish I (know) his name. If I had been in love with him (her). 9. 8. she would be a much better student. 3. 7. Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets: 1. If my friend (work) in my office. If only he (not eat) so much garlic last night! 9. 4. they (find) me. He wouldn’t have begun to learn English if … 9. … 8. It’s time we all (go) home.The dish would have been much more tasty if she (be) a better cook. He said he wished he (never see) me. Don’t you wish you (come) earlier? 6. Unless you go to France. … 4. You would have understood the rule if you (not to miss) the teacher’s explanation. 5. If I (not know) English. I should be delighted if I (have) such a beautiful fur-coat. If she (not to be) so absent-minded. If you spoke English every day. 7. If I were you. … 7. 2. you … 10. If you had got up earlier this morning. 4. you (improve) your language skills. If only he (not eat) so much garlic! 8.

ne vom aseza. 14. Daca obosim. Translate into English: 1. It’s cold (and I hate cold weather). dati-l inapoi. I have to work tomorrow (but I like to stay in bed). 10. 15. E incredibil ca el sa spuna aceste cuvinte. El a dorit ca propunerea lui sa fie luata in consideratie. I don’t know anything about cars (and my car has just broken down). Daca mergi la universitate. 5. 22. 164 . 7. As alege costumul acesta. Imi doresc sa fi putut sa fac cunostinta cu el. 25. 3. 7. E important ca raportul sa fie prezentat saptamana viitoare. 4. 23. Mi-as dori ca tu sa te porti mai frumos. 12. George isn’t here (and I need him). 20. daca ii este foame. 7. Mi-as dori sa fie mai frumos afara. Parlamentarii au cerut ca legea sa fie modificata. I haven’t any pens (and I need one). 11. I’m not lying on a beautiful sunny beach (and that’s a pity). E necesar ca laboratoarele sa fie asigurate cu utilaj nou. 13. 9. Daca ai citi aceasta carte. 24. 1. As traduce-o daca as avea un dictionar. 6. 4. Ii dau intotdeuna bani daca imi cere. 5. Mary can’t go to the party (she’s your best friend). Mi-as dori sa nu fi uitat adresa lui. 3. Mi-as dori sa fiu acasa. As fi scris un roman daca as fi avut mai mult timp. Ce sar intampla daca ei s-ar rataci in padure? 8. As dori sa fi putut sa merg la teatru. Politistul a ordonat ca automobilul sa fie oprit. 21. 8. 18. daca n-ar fi atat de stramt. I can’t give up smoking (but I’d like to). 6. va trebui sa studiezi mult. Daca imprimuti ceva. 19. Da-i ceva de mancare. 2. ai vedea ca nu e chiar asa de rea. Write sentences beginning with I wish … Example: I don’t know many people (and I’m lonely). 17. Profesorul a sugerat ca proiectul sa fie imbunatatit. Mi-as dori sa nu fim nevoiti sa invatam asa mult.5. Imi doresc sa fi fost in stare sa rezolv toate problemele. 16. 2. I wish I knew more people.

One of the early chewing gum makers was Wiliam White. but refused to chew it before his guests. A few months after that famous battle. The store owner sold them all and asked for more. Adams was in a store when he saw a little girl buy a piece of wax to chew. It’s the sweet substance people buy just to chew but not swallow. but he learned that Santa Ana had gone back home to Mexico. a popcorn salesman. Santa Ana was captured and permitted to return home to Mexico. Mister Adams agreed to experiment with chicle. Chewing gum made him a rich man. Adams sent to Mexico for more chicle. William White was presented to King Edward the seventh. 165 . Instead of going straight home. Adams had seen the General break off small pieces of chicle from time to time and chew it. during a visit to England. He looked for the General to tell him the sad news.TEXT: “CHEWING GUM” We all know about chewing gum. the General took the long way – east to New York City. one hundred fifty years ago. Once. History tells us that the man most responsible for chewing gum was Mexican dictator. White gave the King a box of chewing gum and urged him to try it right there and then. It was the dried juice of a tree found in the jungles of Mexico and Central America. Huge amounts of chicle remained. And Adams wondered what to do with it. He took with him a large amount of a strange material called chicle. General Antonio Lopez Santa Ana. And the chewing gum industry was born. But after many weeks he admitted failure. It also made him famous enough to be elected to Congress. One day. He told the store owner that he had something better than wax and he made several hundred little balls of chicle. The surprised King Edward accepted the gum. He was the General who defeated the Texans at the Alamo in San Antonio. General Santa Ana met a man named Thomas Adams.

They say the person does not have the mental ability to walk and chew gum at the same time. VOCABULRY chewing gum to swallow chicle failure wax to warn painful guma de mestecat a inghiti guma de mestecat esec. Some Americans use “chewing gum” in a funny expression to joke about someone’s lack of intelligence. Some warned it was dangerous. And painful death would follow. greu 166 . It swallowed.Many stories were spread about chewing gum in the early days. they said. nereusita ceara a avertiza dureros. the gum would make the intestines stick together.

Cu cat mai mult lucram. 167 . His aim is to prove that his material is the best. traducandu-se in romaneste prin “trebuie sa”: They are to start this project at the end of the month. cu atat mai mult primim. less etc). traducerea in romana se face prin “poate fi”. to notice. aim. In cazul cand verbul “to be” este urmat de asemenea verbe ca to see. sau “se poate”: This phenomen is to be observed very often. cu atat mai repede il traducem. Ei trebuie sa inceapa acest proiect la sfarsitul lunii. In afara de acesta. Cu cat textul este mai usor. si se traduce in romana prin “consta in”. Deseori ea se intrebuinteaza ca echivalent al verbului modal must. The easier the text is. problem etc. Fenomenul acesta poate fi observat foarte des. Astfel uneori poate fi intalnita constructia the more … the (more. task. the quicker we translate it. “este de a”. Scopul lui este de a demonstra ca metoda sa este cea mai buna. to feel etc. the more we get. better. to find. care in romaneste se traduce prin “cu cat … cu atat” si adjectivele sau adverbele respective la gradul comparativ: The more we work. in imbinarea to be + infinitiv verbul to be poate indeplini functia de verb copulativ (de legatura) dupa substantive ca: plan. Unele dificultati pot fi intimpinate la traducerea imbinarii to be + infinitiv. to observe.UNIT 22 In aceasta lectie ne vom concentra asupra unui sir de elemente gramaticale care ar putea crea unele dificultati in procesul folosirii limbii engleze. la diateza pasiva.

In romaneste traducerea se efectuaza prin forma negativa a verbului predicat la timpul respectiv: They failed to understand us. He did as (like) I wanted. Conjunctii subordonatoare (compuse): after* dupa ce in case in cazul in care all the more… cu atat mai mult in order that astfel in cat as ca si in order to astfel in cat as if ca si cum once odata ce as long as atat dimp cat provided numai sa as soon as de indata cesince* deoarece as though ca si cum so as to astfel icat because deoarece so much as atat incat before* inainte ca so much so… atat de… However oricat de… so that astfel incat if daca supposing presupunand in as much as in masura in care whenever ori de cate ori till*. de regula. as introduce comparatia intre verbe. Observatii: That – ca. Ei n-au reusit sa ne inteleaga. care leaga doi termeni de acelasi fel. dar.or daca … sau when atunci cand while in timp ce • Aceste conjunctii pot fi si prepozitii. A man like you. (Ei nu ne-au inteles) CONJUCTIONS (Conjunctiile) Exista doua feluri de conjunctii: conjunctii coordonatoare. until* pana cand (ce) whereas in timp ce unless numai daca whether. 168 . conjunctii subordonatoare. As si like – ca si. se omite atunci cand introduce o propozitie completiva directa. se intalneste adesea like in fata unui verb. 1. un barbat ca tine.. in engleza americana curenta. care leaga o propozitie regenta de o subordonata.Anumite dificultati poate crea imbinari to fail + infinitiv. una din cele mai folosite conjunctii. like intre substantive (sau pronume). El a facut (asa) cum voiam.

2.tot (asa) … ca (si). Englesa este tot asa de dificila ca si franceza. I’d like to spend a few days both in London and in Paris.cat despre. As dori sa petrec cateva zile atat la Londra cat si la Paris.nici … nici.as far as . Ea este nu numai un economist bun.as well as – precum si. . . We are not sure whether he is at home or at the university. . El nu cunoaste nici franceza nici engleza. Ei pot fi sau in biblioteca.not only … but also . English is as difficult as French. sau in laborator. .both … and – atat … cat si. They may be either in the library or in the laboratory. . She is not only a good economist but also a good manager. . .ori … ori. 169 . dar si un bun manager. Conjunctii coordonatoare (corelative) and si not only… nu numai as well as la fel ca si but also ci si but dar now acum cand but then in scimb only numai for caci that is to say adica however totusi that is why iata de ce indeed intr-adevar then atunci moreover in plus therefore in consecinta too de asemenea nevertheless totusi yet totusi .neither … nor . Nu suntem siguri daca el se afla ori acasa ori la universitate.nu numai … dar si.either … or – sau … sau.whether … or . He knows neither French nor English.as … as .

cu atat mai mult cunoastem. 6. 2. You are to come at nine next time. El n-a reusit sa prezinte proiectul la timp.m. Vreau ca atat Dvoatra. 8. We must take either English or French this year. 7. 1. 18. Translate into English. cu atat mai multe eforturi va necesita. the better. She failed to come on time. 4. As long as we work here. Scopul lui este de a imbunatati performanta companiei sale. 16. Both John and Mary study French. Translate into Romanian 1. Cu cat mai mult citim. 5. 8. Vorbesc de parca ar fi prieteni de multi ani. Neither Peter nor Paul participate in the conference. 5. acest actor nu este cunoscut in tara noastra. sau a dlui Brown. She talked about London as if she had lived there. 16. Cu cat mai grea e problema. Puteti folosi sau metoda mea. cat si franceza sunt obiectele mele preferate la universitate. 15. use the dictionary. Sarcina noastra e de a restructura intreprinderile. Ne-am intalnit inca in 1980. we shall deal with this problem. 17. In order to translate the text. Nici noi nici ei nu pot solutiona aceasta problema. 14. Cu cat mai mult invatam. 10. She plays both tennis and badminton. 14. 3. Indata ce termin lectiile. 170 . Ei trebuie sa pregateasca materialele pentru seminar. I like living both in the country and in the city. give us a call. 4. 9. As soon as you arrive in Paris. 6. That’s neither interesting nor true. 9. He is not only a good scientist. John knows French as well as Mary does. The seminar is to begin at 3 p. Atat engleza. dar si engleza. 15. The sooner he comes. 10. 13. 12. this team is not involved in the Energy Project. 2. but also a good teacher. 3.EXERCISES: 1. 20. 12. 2. 13. Our aim is to know English well. the better we know it. As far as I know. 19. Dupa cate stiu. Ei studiaza nu numai franceza. 11. ne ducem acasa. 7. 11. cat si Dumneaei sa participati la conferinta. The more we learn English. You must do this job whether you like it or not. cu atat mai mult stim.

Differences between American English and British English Spelling British catalogue cancelled centimetre centre cheque colour employee enquiry favour fulfil guarantee harbour honour instalment kilometre labelled labour licence litre metre milligramme offence to practise programme skilful totalling traveller travelling tyre unequalled American Word Usage British American catalog accident casualty canceled autumn fall centimeter ask for a lift ask for a ride center behind in back of check to book a room to make a reservation color booking-office ticket-office employe motor-car automobile/car inquiry cargo ship freighter favor cashier bank teller fulfill cinema movie theater guaranty chemist druggist harbor chemist’s drugstore honor coach/bus bus installment engaged busy kilometer filling station gas station labeled ground floor first floor lobor garden yard license to hire to rent liter label tag meter lift elevator milligram lorry truck offense Ltd (Limited) Inc.(Incorporated) to practice luggage baggage program post mail skillful petrol gas (gasoline) totaling pavement sidewalk traveler PLC (private Inc.) traveling holiday vacation tire managing director president (business) unequaled railway railroad 171 .(incorporated limited company) Co.

No fixed rules: dispatch/despatch realise/realize utilise/utilize post code to put through spirits shop subway number plate to ring up zip code to connect liquor store underpass licence plate to call up 172 .

IRREGULAR VERBS (Verbe neregulate sau “tari”) Infinitive to be to bear to become to begin to bleed to blow to break to bring to build to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to find to fly to forget to freeze to get Past Simple was/were bore became began bled blew broke brought built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt found flew forgot froze got 173 Participle II been born become begun bled blown broken brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt found flown forgotten frozen got .

to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet to pay to put to read to rend to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to send gave went grew hung had heard hid held hurt kept knelt knew laid led learnt left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put read [red] rent rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent given gone grown hung had heard hidden held hurt kept knelt known laid led learnt left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put read [red] rent ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent 174 .

to set to shake to shine to shoot to show to shut to sing to sit to sleep to smell to speak to spell to spend to steal to stick to strike to swear to sweep to swim to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand to wake to wear to win to wind to withdraw to write set shook shone shot showed shut sang sat slept smelt spoke spelt spent stole stuck struck swore swept swam took taught told thought threw understood woke wore won wound withdrew wrote set shaken shone shot shown shut sung sat slept smelt spoken spelt spent stolen stuck struck sworn swept swum taken taught told thought thrown understood woken worn won wound withdrawn written 175 .

I AM A ENGLISH. HURRAY !!! WINNER. BECAUSE I KNOW 176 .

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