ART IN INDUS VALLEY

PRESENTED BY UMESH KUMAR SAXENA

When we talk about the early civilizations and aesthetic values of humanities the question arises that what man used as the first medium of communication because we have not found any script of the prehistoric period, only on the basis of the found drawings we came to know about their aesthetic sense and their lives. The conclusion is that lines were the first medium of expression or man first used lines as language. With the artistic and aesthetic approaches man also learnt to improve his life style and started to live in groups, thus the civilizations came in existence. Indus Valley civilization is one of the early civilizations of the world. Today¶s human being is mentally and physically developed form of the barbaric man, he also improved himself in the field of art from early cave paintings to modern Indian trends in art. Indus Valley civilization can be defined as an early civilization existing in full flower at the end of the third millennium BC. Carbon -14 dating of 2300 to 1750 BC generally conmifrm. It¶s two major cities Harrapa & Mohenjo ± daro are presently in Pakistan. Here in 1856 during the construction of a railway this place came in existence. Sir Alexander Cunningham, the father of the Indian archaeology later inspected the site and he could only confirm it¶s presence as an ancient city. In 1921 Mr. Daya Ram Sahni systematically excavated Harrapa. A year later a more important discovery was made by Mr. Rakhal Dass Banerjee almost four hundred miles further south on the Indus in the larkana district of sind. It was the site which became known as Mohenjo ± daro (place or hill of death). There was trade between the empires of Mesopotamia and the Harrapa culture. A vital link in the trade was almost certainly the island of Bahrein, for the archologists have found evidence of extensive copper industries and even more significantly many round seals with Harrapa motifs and glyphs. The remains of the found sculptures, seals, pottery, architectures etc. tells us that how art was mingled with their life and also present before us the royal story of the Harrapa civilization and aesthetic sense of human society.

SCULPTURES: Sculptural remains at Harrapa sites apart from the well known seals and terracotta figures are confined to Mohenjo ± daro and Harrapa. Only eleven pieces have been unearthed so far, all from the upper strata at Mohenjo ± daro.

New Delhi. The upper lip is shaved and the wide headband had in it¶s centre a flat circular ornament and a bangle worn high on the right arm. The tip of the flattish nose has been broken off. His garment is decorated with trefoil design. Even more impressive is a unique small bronze sculpture of a dancing girl from Mohenjo ± daro.Perhaps the most remarkable of all known Harrapa creation is a small bust depicting a priest ± king or deity. . a lime stone statuette measuring 17. her relaxed body twists so that one hand rest on her right hip while the other holds a small bowl against her left leg. Standing nude except for a brief necklace and an arm completely ringed with bangles. now in the national museum.5 cm. It covers his left shoulder and passes under his right arm.

Drilled sockets at the shoulders and neck must originally have been fitted with separately carved but now lost arm and head. elephants. agate. We find an incomplete male torso in grey stone from Harappa. Terracotta sculpture is more numerous than either stone or metal. pellet eyes and elaborate head dress have been unearthed. . Short horned and humped bulls.The fact that the Indus valley knew how to smelt bronze shows that how well advanced they were in metal work. In most cases they have a pierced boss at the back to accommodate a cord for handling. with pinched nose. but occasionally also of copper. More than thousand seals have now been recovered. Many terracotta figures perhaps one of a mother goddess. The objects depicted upon them as a whole are unique both in subject and in treatment. antelopes. The seals were generally made of steatite. The diversity of the animals depicted on the seals is outstanding and the beauty of their execution is impressive. These found sculptures present before us the development through fine art with aesthetic values. When the carving was complete the objects were covered with an alkali covering and fired producing a fine lustrous white finish. In size they range from ¾ inches to 1 ½ inches square. The tiny animals incised in these seals are exquisite. and their physical character is fairly consistent. SEALS: The Indus Valley seals are also one of the distinctive features of Harappa culture. The figure¶s legs are broken. faience and terracotta. rhinoceros. tigers and crocodiles are depicted in their most typical poses.

strainers. which shows the consistent characteristics and standards of an organized manufacturing system. fish are also used. The ware consists of a pinkish ± buff body. And presently in National Museum.5 cms. London. The carving is done in the intaglio technique. And presently it is in British Museum. size is 3.An outstanding icon in Indian art appears in Harrapa culture for the first time on a famous seal from Mohenjo ± daro. size 3. Among the various shapes which are found are huge tall decorated storage jars. POTTERY: It consists mainly of wheel turned items of a wide variety. . Forms of bull. peacock. Pakistan.5 cm. in this seal a seated µYogi¶ figure surrounded by animals. The designs range from simple horizontal stripes of varying thickness to elaborate patterns. pointed goblets. coated with red slip and painted with black lines. bowls with a pedestal. Such as checks or over lapping rows of circles. papal leaves. Karachi. In these seals writing goes from right to left and if there is a second line it runs from left to right. One other important seal from Mohenjo ± daro of a Brahamin bull.

On the citadel to the west of the great bath at Mohenjo ± daro are the remains of a sophisticated granary complex. LUCKNOW. COLLEGE OF ARTS & CRAFTS. LUCKNOW UNIVERSITY. Through these found remains we came to know that the aesthetic values were developed in the early Indus valley civilization UMESH KUMAR SAXENA ASST. The most dramatic characteristic of the two cities and two a degree of other Harrapa sites is a commending citadel.com . We can hope that archaeology will one day fill this gap. The pool is surrounded by a paved courtyard. is 39 feet long (north to south) 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep. E-mail: umeshkumarsaxena57@gmail. Most of the Mohenjo ± daro was built of kiln fired brick and the buildings were massed into µsuper blocks¶ of 600 by 1200 feet. Mob : 09415063514. at right angles. Mostly streets are 33feet wide and run north ± south intersecting subordinate ones. It is hard to believe that they did not exist. With reference of all above mention examples we come on this conclusion that the roll of fine arts in development of civilizations is very important or you can say that the civilizatio ns were developed through the arts and the feelings of aesthetics.ARCHITECTURE: The Indus valley civilization is distinguished by advanced urban planning. The high standard of town planning and sanitation with sufficient water supply and drainage system makes the Indus valley or Harrapa culture outstanding among all the ancient culture. PROFESSOR. In Mohenjo ± daro the remains of several impressive structures of which the most prominent is the so called µGreat Bath¶. The remains of shops are also found. As yet no wall paintings have been found. running east ± west.

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