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)

Answer ALL questions in this section.

Write your answers in the AL(E) answer book.

1. Let a] = 8 , a2 = 66 and an+2 - 8 a/HI -a. = 0 for all positive integers n. Using mathematical induction, prove that an = (4 + M)n+ (4-&)" for any positive integer n.

(6 marks)

2. Let n be a positive integer. Denote the coefficient of xk in the expansion of (3 + x)" by ak . Find

(a)

(b)

(c)

(7 marks)

3.

(a)

Resolve into partial fractions.

x(x + 2)(x + 4)

(b) Let n be a positive integer.

(i)

"I BCD E

Express " in the form A + -- + ~- + ~- + -- where A ,

B k(k+2)(k+4) n+1 n+2 n+3 n+4'

B, C, D and E are constants.

(ii)

Find f 1 .

k=n+1 kCk+2)(k+4)

(7 marks)

201 l-AL-P MATH 1-3

3

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4.

(a)

Express cos3B in terms of cose .

(b) Using the substitution x=2cosO, solve the equation x3-3x+I=O.

(6 marks)

LIj

\;._ S\:::; l\)

5. Suppose that the matrix P = (J3k; ) represents the anticlockwise rotation about the origin by an

-k v3k

angle B in the Cartesian plane, where 0 < B < r. .

Find k .

(b)

(CO. sa It is known that the matrix

sma

sina ) -cosa

~ S-"}", ~~, r' _cw

r- -. ;".

"L, 1 ...... ~)

represents the reflection in the straight line

y = ( tan ; ) x . Let Q be the matrix representing the reflection in the straight line

y=(tan ~)x.

(i) / Write down the matrix Q.

Does the matrix PQ represent a reflection? Explain your answer.

(7 marks)

p. Let n be a positive integer.

<:»:

(a)

n+l Let u1, a2 ' ... ,an+l be positive real numbers. Define A = L ak hI

(i)

n+1 A

Prove that I ~=n . hI A

(ij)

n+l 2

Using Cauchy-Schwarz's inequality, or otherwise, prove that L __ A_ ~ (n + I)

k~1 A-ak n

(b)

• ,.. ' n+1 1 n + 1

Usmg (a)(u), prove that L 2..

k=l (n+l)(n+2)-2k n(n+2)

(7 marks)

2011-AL-P MATH 1-4

4

SECTION B (60 marks)

Answer any FOUR questions in this section. Each question carries 15 marks. Write your answers in the AL(C) answer book.

7.

(a)

Consider the system of linear equations in x , y, z

{ y + (/I..+I)z 0

(S) : AX + 2y + 2z J.l

X - AY 4z J.l2

, where ;(., J.l E R

(i) .' Suppose that f.1- = 0

v ....

(1) Prove that (S) has non-trivial solutions if and only if ;(.3 + /1..2 - 2A = 0

(2) Solve (5') when A = 1 .

(ii) Suppose that f1 * 0 .

(l)v Find the range of values of A for which (S) has a unique solution.

(2) v/ Solve (S) when (S) has a unique solution.

(3)

Find A and If for which (S) has infinitely many solutions.

(11 marks)

.' (b)

/

Is there a real solution (x, y, z) of the system oflinear equations

{ Y + 2z = 0

x + 2y + 2z = 1 x - y - 4z = 1

\. ".

\

satisfying 3x2 + 2y2 + z2 = I? Explain your answer.

(4 marks)

8.

(a)

(i) Prove that P is a non-singular matrix.

(ii) Evaluate r ' AP .

(iii)

For any positive integer n , find d] and d2 such that An = p( ~

O)rl _ d2

(9 marks)

(b) Let B = [~ ~J - For any positive integer n , find B + B3 + B5 + ... + B2n~1 _

(6 marks)

2011-AL-P MATH 1-5

5

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- ----- .... _ .... _--- _._- - ... ------.--~,~--

9.

(a)

Let (}.J and PI be real numbers satisfying (}.l > Pl > 0 .

For any positive integer n, defme an+l = ~ a/ - an fin + fin 2 and f3n+! = ~a" f3n .

(i),. Prove that

.r

(3) fin+1 ~ fJn .

(ii)

Prove that the sequences {an} and {fJn} converge to the same limit.

(iii)

2 2 2 2

Prove that an + fJn = al + PI .

Hence, or otherwise, express lim an in terms ofal and fJl .

n-v»

(10 marks)

(b) Let XI and Yl be real numbers such that XI > Yl > 0 .

For any positive integer n, defrne xn+1 = J xn Yn and

Yn+1 = ~ 22 . x" -X"Yn+Yn

Do lim xn and lim y" exist? Explain your answer.

n.....::,.oo f1~c()

(5 marks)

10.

(a)

Let p(x) be a polynomial with real coefficients such that pen) = pen-I) for any positive integer n. Prove that p(x) = p(O) for all x E R .

(3 marks)

(b) Let [(x) be a polynomial with real coefficients such that xf(x - I) = (x - n-)f(x) . Prove that

(i) if there exists an integer k such that f(k) = 0 , then f(k + 1) = 0 ;

(ii) f(x)=O forall XER .

(5 marks)

(cy Let g(x) beapolynomialwithrealcoefficientssllchthat xg(x-l) = (x-3)g(x) . Provethat

(1) g(O) = g(l) = g(2) = 0 ;

(ii) g(x) = C x(x -l)(x - 2) , where C is a constant.

(7 marks)

2011-AL-PMATH 1-6

6

~ ~--~- ~----------

. 11.

(a)

Let z = cos e + i sin () , where () E R . Find the four values of z such that Im(z2 + i) = 0 .

(4 marks)

(b) Let ZI andz2 be two of the values of Z obtained in (a) such that Im(Zj) <0 < Im(z2) .

J1

For any positive integer n, define SIl:=: L m r , where OJ:=: Z2 Zt

(i) Prove that 11)3 = 1 .

(ii) If n is a multiple of 3, prove that Sn:=: 0 .

(iii) If n is not a multiple of 3, find S,., .

(iv) Does there exist an integer m such that (S2009 + S2010 + S201 I)m = 2 ? Explain your answer.

(v) Find all positive integers k such that (S"l + (Sn+l)k + (Sn+2)k = 2 for any positive integer n.

(11 marks)

END OF PAPER

2011-AL-P MATH 1-7

7

I !.

SECTION A (40 marks)

Answer ALL questions in this section.

Write your-answers in the AL(E) answer book.

1. Let kE Rand f: R ---,> R be defined by

{ k - e3x when x < 0 ,

f(x} =

4 sin x + 5 cos x when x;:: 0 .

It is given that f(x) is continuous at x = 0 .

(a) Find k.

" (b) Is f'(x) differentiable at x = 0 ? Explain your answer,

v

I Find the asymptote(s) of the graph of y = f(x).. ;<

\/

(7 marks)

,/ v

2.

{X when 0 s x s 3 ,

Let f : R -7 R be an even function such that f(x) =, 1

x+ when x>3.

(a) Write' down the value of f(-5) .

"1 "

• I (b)

v

( (c)/

~j

Sketch the graph of y = f (x) .

Let g: R -7 R be defined by g(x) = f(x + 2) - f(x ~ 2) ., <,

J- .. :

(i) Prove that g is an odd function.

(ii) Sketch the graph of y = g(x) .

(7 marks)

3.

Let f: R -7 R be defined by f(») = 1

Jx2 +2x+5

(a) Provethat (x2+2x+5)f'(x)+(x+l)f(x)=O.

Hence prove that (x2 + 2x+ 5) f(n+l) (x) + (2n + I)(x + 1) f(nl (x) +n2 f(n-l}(x) = 0 forany

positive integer n, where f(O) = f .

-:

\@

Using (a), or otherwise, evaluate f(6)(-1) and f(7)~.

(6 marks)

2011-AL-P MATH 2-3

3

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4 ..

(a)

Find J x2~9 - x3 dx .

(6 marks)

s.

\ ..

i_.-/

(a)

Using the substitution x = 5 + 2 sin e > find I ~(x -3)(7 - x) dx .

(b)

I

Let D be the region bounded by the curve y = (x - 3)(7 - x)) 4 and the x-axis, Find the volume of the solid of revolution generated by revolving D about the x-axis.

(7 marks)

6. The equation of the hyperbola H is 4x2 - i = 144 . Let P be the point (6 sec 0 , 12 tan 0) , where 0<8<7r .

2

(a) Prove that P lies on H.

(b) Let L be the normal to H at P.

(i) Find the .r-intercept and the y-intercept of L .

(ii) If the area of the region bounded by L, the x-axis and the y-axis is 150, find the coordinates of P .

(7 marks)

2011-AL-P MATH 2-4

4

SECTION B (60 marks)

Answer any FOUR questions in this section. Eachquestion carries 15 marks. Write your answers in the AL(C) answer book.

7. Let f:R--?R bedefinedby f(x) ''''In(x2-2x+IO) .

(a) Find fl(x) and f"(x) .

(2 marks)

(b) Solve each ofthe following inequalities:

(i) f(x) > 0 ,

(ii) f'ex) > 0 ,

(iii) f"(x) > 0 .

(3 marks)

(c) Find the relative extreme point(s) and point(s) of inflexion of the graph of y = f(x) .

(3 marks)

(d) Sketch the graph of y "" f(x) .

(2 marks)

(e) Find the area of the region bounded by the graph of y = f(x) ~nd the straight line y = ln 18 .

(5 marks)

8.

'"

(a)

(i)

n

Prove that J'2 d.x = I

() 1 -i-sin x

t.

- .. ,,'

(ii)

Evaluate

f~ sinx

---dx .

o 1 + sin x

-:

f .... ' \

1 '

j <:0-:.3

C 1 .,' '; .... ;; ..

-);(;:~:'9 .:»

(5 marks)

(b) Let f:[O,n-]--?R be a continuous function such that f(n--x)=f(x) for all XE{O,ll'].

n:

U sing integration by substitution, prove that J: f (x) dx =' 2 f 02' f (x) dx .

(3 marks)

(c) Let g: [0, tt ] --? R be a continuous function such that g(n - x) = -g{x) for all x E [0, n-] ,

Jff 1 Jrr:

Using the substitution u. = n -x , prove that g(x)ln(l+ eCOSX)dx ==- g(x)cosxdx,

o 2 0

(3 marks)

(d)

E 1 In cos X InCI + eCOSX) dx

va uate 2 .'

o (l+sinx)

(4 marks)

Go on to the next page:>

20l1-AL·P MATH 2-5

5

9.

(a)

Let f: R ~ Rand g: R ~ R be increasing continuous functions.

(i) Let F: R ~ R be defined by F(x) = x I: f(t)g(t) dt - ( f: f(t) dt)( f: get) dt J .

~l~, Prove that ~ F(x) = J: (f(t) - f(x»){g(t) - g(x)}dt .

\_,/

(2) Find the least value of F(x) .

(ii) Using (a)(i), prove that (f: f(X)dx)( S: g(X)dx)S; f: f(x)g(x)dx .

( I )" I

(iii) Furthermore, if f(x) > 0 for all x E R , prove that fo f (x) dx S; Jo (f(x»)n dx

for any positive integer n.

(11 marks)

(b) Let h: R ~ R + be an increasing continuous function, where R + is the set of positive real numbers. Prove that (f2 hex) dx rail S; 52010 f2 (h(x»)2011 dx .

(4 marks)

10. Denote the set of positive real numbers by R+ .

(a) It is given that a,b,s,tER+, where a-c b and s+t=1 . Let f:R+ ~R be a twice differentiable function such that f"(x) S; 0 for all x E R + .

(i) Let u = sa + tb . Using Mean Value Theorem, prove that f(b)-f(u) S;f'(u)S; f(u)-f(a)

s(b-a) t(b-a)

(ii) Usrng(a)(i),provethat sf(a)+tf(b)s;f(sa+tb).

(6 marks)

(b) Let h,k,p,qER+, where p+q=l . Using (a),provethat hPkq S;ph+qk .

(3 marks)

n

(c) Let XI' X2"'" x,,, ~, ~, ... , An E R+, where LAk = I Using mathematical induction,

k=1

11 n

prove that n Xk Ak S; I AkXk

k~l k=l

(6 marks)

2011-AL-P MATH 2-6

6

11. Consider the two parabolas 1j: y2 "" 4x and P2: y2 = 8x . Let L be the tangent to ~ at the point S(s2,2s), where s>O.

(a) Find the equation of L.

(2 marks)

(b) L cuts P2 at the points A(Za2 ,4a) and B(2pi, 413) . Let L1 and L2 be the tangents to

P2 at A and B respectively.

" (i) Prove that a + f3 = 2s and

\/' .:»

/

,

~/

»<: <}--

v'

\'

, (ii)

Let e be the acute angle between L1 aJid L2 .

,. (1 )

!

/

o 2.J2s t:

Prove that tan = ~- .

s2 +2

\ : \--

...... ~ .. _oJ····

(2)

Find the greatest value of 8 .

It is given that L] and L2 intersect at C.

-: : /'

~1) .. _.-Express the coordinates of C in terms of s .

" '\ ' <, ~.--~.' ......

, I

//

(2)/

; ; j ,

Find the equation,9fthe locus of C as s varies.

/\\~'(:

/ -:-,_ -,/ '" "

~' \>'\:

'<;:t:-

-'>

,~,~

~ ,. END OF PAPER

r,

/

~....-- ..... ~-

1""1 ~~ ~

_.: 4C;~ i:

(0- __ -""~ ___ _ ?- ----_?

-- -:'"

'\. ~. "

,n, \. • _.J

.:: - --

~ "1 --~

2011-AL-P MATH 2-7

7

•

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