Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD) is the name of an optical disc format. The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high- definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. The name Blu-ray is derived from the underlying technology, which utilizes a blue-violet laser to read and write data. The name is a combination of “Blue” (blue- violet laser with wavelength 405 nm) and “Ray” (optical ray). By employing a short wavelength blue violet laser, the Blu-ray Disc successfully minimizes its beam spot size by making the numerical aperture (NA) on a field lens that converge the laser to 0.85. In addition, by using a disc structure with a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection layer, the Blu-ray Disc diminishes aberration caused by disc tilt. This also allows for disc better readout and an increased recording density. The extra capacity combined with the use of advanced video and audio codec will offer consumers an unprecedented HD experience. Blu-ray also promises some added security, making ways for copyright protections. Blu ray disc takes the DVD technology one step further. Because the Blu-ray Disc utilizes global standard "MPEG-2 Transport Stream" compression technology highly compatible with digital broadcasting for video recording, a wide range of content can be recorded. It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasting while maintaining high quality and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. In addition, the adoption of a unique ID written on a Blu-ray Disc realizes high quality copyright protection functions.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 11 Certificate Acknowledgement Abstract Introduction Working Specifications Characteristics


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Comparison of storage technologies Applications Security mechanisms Future scope Conclusion References



The standards for 12-cm optical discs, CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray rewritable discs (BD-RE Standard) were established in 1982, 1996, and 2002, respectively. The recording capacity required by applications was the important issue when these standards were decided. The requirement for CDs was 74 minutes of recording 2-channel audio signals and a capacity of about 800 MB. For DVDs, the requirement as a video disc was the recording of a movie with a length of two hours and fifteen minutes using the SD (Standard Definition) with MPEG-2 compression. The capacity was determined to be 4.7 GB considering the balance with image quality. In the case of Blu-ray, a recording of an HDTV digital broadcast greater than 2 hours is needed. Two hours of recording requires a recording capacity of 22 GB or more. This capacity is about 5 times that of DVDs, which cannot achieve this capacity by merely increasing their recording density.


The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs. making the optical beam passing substrate thin. 0.1 Evolution of consumer optical discs To obtain this capacity a number of techniques have been developed such as: employing a blueviolet laser. increasing the numerical aperture of objective lens. A double layer BD can hold up to 50 GB that means 4. and evenly thick. A single layer BD can hold up to 25 GB that means 2 hours of HD (High Definition) video and 13 hours of SD (Standard Definition) video. Blu-ray (BD) is a next generation disc format.5 hours of HD video or more than 20 hours of SD video. using an aberration compensation method of pickup adapted to the substrate thickness and dual layer discs.Fig 1. 5 .1mm.

the Blu-ray Disc successfully minimizes its beam spot size by making the numerical aperture (NA) on a field lens that converge the laser 0. the Blu-ray Disc diminishes aberration caused by disc tilt. The name is a combination of "Blue" and optical ray "Ray".85. with more than 170 member companies from all over the world. By employing a short wavelength blue violet laser.The Blu-ray Disc format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA). Ltd Sharp Corporation Sony Corporation TDK Corporation Thomson Multimedia Twentieth Century Fox Walt Disney Pictures Warner Bros. by using a disc structure with a 0. Inc Matsushitha Electrical Industrial Co. Ltd Mitsubishi Electric Corporarion Pioneer Corporation Samsung Electronics Co. According to the Blu-ray Disc Association. This also allows for disc better readout and an 6 . which utilizes a blue-violet laser to read and write data. The Board of Directors currently consists of: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Apple Computer.1mm optical transmittance protection layer. The character "e" is intentionally left out because a daily-used term can’t be registered as a trademark. the spelling of "Blu-ray" is not a mistake. personal computer and media manufacturers. Entertainment The name Blu-ray is derived from the underlying technology. In addition. The first blue laser was developed in 1996 by Shuji Nakamura (Nichia Corporation). Ltd LG Electronics. a group of leading consumer electronics. Inc Hewlett Packard Company Hitachi. Inc Dell.

At 1x speed. It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasting while maintaining high quality and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. a wide range of content can be recorded. A BD/DVD combo disc has been developed that stores both DVD and BD data.5 hours to record an entire single layer BD. As with conventional CDs and DVDs. software. The transfer rate is 36 megabits per second. BD‐RW: A rewritable format developed for PC storage.read-only format for distribution of HD movies. Because the Blu-ray Disc utilizes global standard "MPEG-2 Transport Stream" compression technology highly compatible with digital broadcasting for video recording. the adoption of a unique ID written on a Blu-ray Disc realizes high quality copyright protection functions. The Blu-ray Disc's tracking pitch is reduced to 0. almost half of that of a regular DVD. In addition.increased recording density. Blu-ray plans to provide a wide range of formats including ROM/R/RW. BD‐RE: A rewritable format developed for HDTV recording.32um. The Blu Ray Disc Association has developed recorders that are BD/DVD/CD compatible. games. The Blu-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. etc BD‐R: A write once format developed for PC storage. It is composed of two DVD layers and a third BD layer storing 33.5 GB total. it takes approximately 1.2 Reading of BD/DVD Combo Disc 7 . The following formats are part of the Blu-ray Disc specification: BD-ROM . Fig 1. achieving up to 27 GB high-density recording on a single sided disc.

Consequently. but they also offer a new level of interactivity. while a double layer BD costs around Rs 13001600.3 Evolution of package media CHAPTER-2 WORKING Blu-ray discs not only have more storage capacity than traditional DVDs. Users will be able to connect to the Internet and instantly download subtitles and other interactive movie features. reflecting the demands of the movie industry. you can: • • • record high-definition television (HDTV) without any quality loss instantly skip to any spot on the disc record one program while watching another on the disc 8 .A single layer BD costs around Rs 500-700. Fig 1. A blue ray disc player range costs a minimum of Rs 14000. During the switch from VHS to DVD. With Blu-ray. digital recording and interactive functions were newly introduced. it is anticipated that the specifications of BD-ROM will provide a high performance interactive feature and a connection to broadband services.

A laser reads the other side of these pits called the bumps to play the movie or program that is stored on the Blu-ray. Blu-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0. smaller beam and shorter track pitch together enable a single-layer Blu-ray disc to hold more than 25 GB of information about five times the amount of information that can be stored on a DVD. which lets data on blue laser optical storage discs be stored more densely.15 microns (µm) (1 micron = 10-6 meters) long -. along with the materials in the optical disc and the way the laser is applied to the disc. The spot size of a laser beam is one determining factor. Unlike current DVDs. the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. Plus. Laser beams with larger spot sizes typically create larger pits than those with smaller pit sizes. Blu-ray uses a blue laser (which is where the format gets its name). The smaller beam focuses more precisely.this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD. Blue lasers are desirable because blue light has the shortest wavelength among visible light. which use a red laser to read and write data.• • • • create playlists edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program access the Web to download subtitles and other extra features Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits (spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges). The smaller the pits (and therefore the bumps). Most blue laser diodes use indium gallium nitride as the material to create the laser light.74 microns to 0. A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nanometers). The more data that is contained on a disc. enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are only 0. the more precise the reading laser must be. Blue laser beams have a smaller spot size and are more precise than red laser beams. in the size of the pits the laser makes on an optical disc.32 microns. The smaller pits. 9 .

Having a polycarbonate layer on top of the data can cause a problem called birefringence. All of these issues lead to a very involved manufacturing process. and is therefore not exactly perpendicular to the beam. If the beam is split too widely. in which the substrate layer refracts the laser light into two separate beams.2 millimeters) as a DVD. in which the laser beam is distorted. Today many single lenses with working distance larger than 0. In total. 10 . Figure 2. In early BD-RE systems the high NA was realized by using 2 lenses in combination. In a DVD. each 0. But the two types of discs store data differently. if the DVD surface is not exactly flat. the disc cannot be read.2 shows that the high NA lens increases the areal density by 2 times while the blue laser contributes an additional factor of 2. the pickup head for BD-ROM uses a high numerical aperture (NA) lens of 0.5mm have been developed and even lenses which can be used in DVD/BD compatible pickups and CD/DVD/BD compatible pickups have been developed.85 and a 405 nm blue laser. the data is sandwiched between two polycarbonate layers.Fig 2.6 times compared to the areal density of DVD.1 Construction Each Blu-ray disc is about the same thickness (1. it can lead to a problem known as disc tilt.6-mm thick. Also. resulting in more than 5 times the capacity of DVD. the Blu-ray spot size is less than 1/5 that of DVD. Like the BD-RE system.

3 shows the outline of a Single Layer BD Read-Only disc and Figure 2.4 shows the outline of a Dual Layer BD Read-Only disc. Fig 2.3 Single Layer BD 11 .Fig 2.2 Comparison Disc Structure Figure 2.

i.6-mm thick layers of plastic – typically polycarbonate. Due to the injection molding process used to produce them. One of the features that differentiate Blu-ray Disc from DVD recording systems is the position of the recording layer within the disc. well away from the point of focus of the laser. disc substrates suffer from stressinduced birefringence. If this splitting is excessive. the cover layer can optionally be protected with an additional hard coat layer.e. which means that they split the single incident laser light into two separate beams. the drive cannot read data reliably from the disc. The purpose of this is to shift surface scratches. the recording layer is sandwiched between two 0.Fig 2. particularly for DVDs. the injection molding process has always been a very critical part of CD and DVD production. Consequently. For DVD. Another critical manufacturing tolerance. fingerprints and dust particles to a position in the optical pathway where they have negligible effect . However. is the flatness of the 12 . burying the recording layer 0.6 mm below the surface of the disc also has disadvantages.4 Double layer BD To improve scratch resistance.

because the laser beam becomes distorted if the disc surface is not perpendicular to the beam axis . If we assume a maximum disc rotation speed of 10.5 Cover layer Reading Data According to the Blu-ray Disc specification.5 13 . the recording layer in a Blu-ray Disc sits on the surface of a 1.1-mm thick cover layer.1-mm thick plastic substrate. as BDROM movies will require a 54Mbps data transfer rate the minimum speed we're expecting to see is 2x (72Mbps). However. The large NA value effectively means that Blu-ray will require less recording power and lower disc rotation speed than DVD and HD-DVD to achieve the same data transfer rate. protected by a 0. then 12x at the outer diameter should be possible (about 400Mbps). While the media itself limited the recording speed in the past. To overcome these disadvantages. 1x speed is defined as 36Mbps. the only limiting factor for Blu-ray is the capacity of the hardware.disc. as a result of the larger numerical aperture (NA) adopted by Blu-ray Disc.a condition referred to as disc tilt. Fig 2.000 RPM. This distortion increases as the thickness of the cover layer increases and also increases for higher numerical aperture. Focusing in a Blu-ray disc is done as in figure 2. This is why the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) already has plans to raise the speed to 8x (288Mbps) or more in the future. Blu-ray also has the potential for much higher speeds.

there will be a semi transparent layer in between the two recording layers. CDs and DVDs look very similar because the fundamental optical technology for both devices is the 14 . Inside the disc player. The disc read is done by focusing at the correct layer by using the focusing mechanism and an optical pickup unit is there which could receive the reflected ray back from the data layer while reading Fig 2. there will be a focusing mechanism that could actually calculate the number of layers in the disc.6 Focussing the laser beam Optical data storage for digital video Optical data storage is commercially successful in the form of Compact Discs (CDs) for audio and software distribution and Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs) for video distribution.

and a small. However CDs. DVDs and BD are different in terms of specific optical components in the drive. thickness and free working distance. This similarity is also true for the next generation of optical disc storage. Larger data volumes translate into higher quality video and longer playing time. Data management parameters include data rate. and HDTV play time and bit-rate scheme. objective lens. energy from the intense scan spot is absorbed. As the surface moves under the scanning spot. numerical aperture. protective layer. in how data are managed and in the details of the disk structure used to store the information. minimum channel bit length and track-to-track spacing. video format. These differences allow a larger volume of data to be recorded on each successive generation. where an input stream of digital information is converted with an encoder and modulator into a drive signal for a laser source. which may be used for digital home theatre recording and HDTV distribution. Disk structure parameters are user data capacity. The process for exposing data marks on a recordable optical disk is shown in fig 2. localized region heats up.same. 15 .7. The laser source emits an intense light beam that is directed and focused onto the surface by the objective lens. Parameters for HD Video Storage with Optical Disks • • • Optical Parameters Disk Structure Parameters Data Management Parameters Optical parameters include laser wavelength. Optical parameter Digital information is stored on optical disks in the form of arrangements of data marks in spiral tracks.

the reflected light is modulated.Fig 2.2. where the laser is used at a constant output power level that does not heat the data surface beyond its thermal writing threshold.8. A 16 . Modulation of the intense light beam is synchronous with the drive signal. except that the light‐sensitive layer is designed to produce pits in the master that serve as data marks in the replicas. The scan spot is moved slightly as the surface rotates to allow another track to be written on new media during the next revolution. Inexpensive replicas of the master are made with Injection‐molding equipment. Modulated light is collected by illumination optics and directed by the beam splitter to servo and data optics. changes its reflective properties. Data marks on prerecorded disks are fabricated by first making a master disk with the appropriate data‐mark pattern. Masters for prerecorded CDs and DVDs are often exposed in a similar manner to exposing data marks on recordable optical disks.7 Writing a disc The surface. so a circular track of data marks is formed as the surface rotates. Readout of data marks on the disk is illustrated in Fig. under the influence of heat beyond a critical writing threshold. The detectors change light modulation into current modulation that is amplified and decoded to produce the output data stream. where the beam is focused onto the surface. which converges the light onto the detectors. As the data marks to be read pass under the scan spot. The laser beam is directed through a beam splitter into the objective lens.

optical disks focus through a protective layer. If the protective layer is scratched or damaged. Its thick protective layer. the substrate is made as thin as possible without sacrificing contamination protection. Motor instabilities induce tilt as the disk spins. In order to limit these effects. High NA systems are sensitive to changes in substrate thickness and disk tilt. Tilt causes coma. Small laser spots are required to record and read out small data marks. the protective layer should be as thick as possible. and data can usually be recovered reliably. relatively low NA and long laser wavelength produce a stable system that is not very sensitive to environmental 17 . which degrade the quality of the read out signal. it can be cleaned or buffed. which are usually a small percentage of the total disk thickness. which is another form of aberration effect. More data marks per unit area translate into higher capacity disks. This degrades the read out signal. Energy from the central portion of the spot is redistributed to concentric rings. The most conservative technology is the Video CD. In order to maximize disk capacity. The protective layer prevents dust and other contamination from directly obstructing the laser spot at the data marks. called spherical aberration. Instead. Fig 2. the combination of thick protective layer and high NA is not easily accomplished.fundamental limitation to the number of data marks per unit area is due to the size of the focused laser beam that illuminates the surface. the optical system uses high NA and short wavelength.8 Reading a disc Instead of focusing directly on the recording surface. For maximum contamination protection. the out‐of focus contamination only partially obscures the laser focus cone. However. Manufacturing variations create thickness no uniformities. so evolution of optical data storage is toward smaller spot sizes.

Due to the short wavelength. higher NA optics and a thinner protective layer. The number of channel bits per data mark depends on the modulation scheme. The Advanced Optical Disk and Blu‐ Ray systems both use a new blue laser source that emits 0. However. The Advanced Optical Disk system uses the same protective layer thickness as a DVD.62 micrometers. The combination of short wavelength and higher NA produce a spot size of about 1. DVD technology uses a shorter wavelength laser. The relatively large spot produces relatively large data marks and correspondingly wide tracks and large channel‐bit lengths. The free working distance is nearly is same for all technologies except Blu‐Ray.factors like dust and scratches. The protective layer had to be made thinner.48 micrometers.6 micrometers. the sensitivity to thickness variations and disk tilt is low because of the low NA. The net effect is not great.5 = 1. because higher NA reduces the focal depth and DVDs have a more robust error management strategy. Blu‐Ray systems utilize more complicated lens systems due to the high NA. which is the smallest spot size of all the technologies.85= 0. The spot size is 0.78/0. 18 . the spot size for the Advanced Optical Disk is about 0. so working distance had to be reduced. the protective layer had to be made thin to limit sensitivity to thickness variations and disk tilt. as well as the sensitivity to thickness variations and disk tilt. Disc structure parameters The spot size created from the NA and wavelength parameters is the most important factor to determine the track‐to‐track spacing and the minimum channel bit length along the track. Sensitivity to dust and scratches is about the same as a DVD. Progressively smaller spot sizes enable smaller track spacing and shorter channel bit lengths.405 micrometer light.1 micrometers. DVDs are slightly more sensitive to dust and scratches than CDs. because of the high NA.2 mm.405/0. Therefore. The ideal spot size is about 0. Blu‐Ray disks are sensitive to dust and scratches. Although the cover layer is thick at 1. and it uses the same NA objective lens. because the sensitivity to thickness variations and disk tilt is too high otherwise. Several channel bits are encoded into each data mark. The Blu‐Ray system uses both higher NA and thinner cover layer. The integrity of this reduced working distance is not clear at this time.

6 mm substrates. They all are round disks that are approximately 120 mm in diameter. BD To the user.6 mm substrates are bonded together and the data are recorded on the bond side of each substrate.9A. Through many years of experience with CDs. For example. where the 19 . B in Fig. this format has proven effective and mechanically reliable. Like the CD. all generations of optical disks look very similar. 2. Data are recorded on only one side of the disk.9 CD. DVDs also allow more two layers per side (A. data are recorded and read through the clear substrates.9B). as shown in Fig.2 mm thick substrate. use the format shown in Fig. An implementation of the Blu‐Ray disk is shown in Fig. have a central mounting hole and are approximately 1. However. 2.9B.2.9C. the manner in which data layers are arranged on the disk depends on the technology used. The two layers are fabricated before bonding at the same time as the individual 0.2 mm substrate. DVD. DVDs. 2. the CD uses a simple 1.Fig 2. where two 0. through the clear 1. which also serves as the protective layer. where the layers are separated by a thin adhesive spacer.2 mm thick.

The random‐access nature of DVDs allows very efficient methods for data compression. Later generations of optical disks also follow the DVD model.protective layers on each side are very thin at 0. simply using a more advanced error correction scheme on DVDs allows a 30% higher disk capacity compared to CDs. video format.1 mm. data are managed in a manner similar to data management for magnetic tape. CDs are much more efficient that magnetic tape for pseudorandom access. data are recorded on the substrate. Because of the thin protective layer. Efficient data retrieval is accomplished when these long files are read out in a contiguous fashion. and much less storage area on the disk is used. In addition. For example. where DVDs utilize true error correction. In this case. For example. the Original error correction strategy for CDs was designed for error concealment when listening to audio. the maximum amount of information per scene is limited only by the maximum data rate of the player. In these fast‐moving scenes. To be sure. rather than supplying data at a constant rate. Data management parameters The logical organization of data on the disk and how those data are used are considerations for data management. contiguous files are used that are not easily subdivided and written in a random access pattern. MPEG‐2 with variable bit rate allows data to be read out from the disk as they are required. Since CDs were designed for audio. Data management considerations have important implications in the application of optical disk technology to storage for HDTV. During a slow scene. which does not serve as the protective layer. bit‐rate scheme and HDTV play time are all data management issues. efficient recovery of variable length files is achieved. require much less information per frame than a fast‐moving car chase or explosion. There is a basic difference in data management between CDs and DVDs. not as many files are accessed. This architecture leaves room on the disk for the data associated with faster‐moving scenes. For HDTV. a protective layer resin is spun on and hardened or a thin protective sheet is bonded on each side of the substrate. but the management philosophy is the same. Instead. That is. On the other hand. the Blu‐Ray disk must also be used with a cartridge. like love scenes or conversations. Data rate. acceptable picture quality is obtained by using MPEG‐2 with a maximum data rate of about 13‐25 Mbps for most scenes. Long. 20 . DVDs are more like magnetic hard disks. where the file structure is designed to be used in random‐access architecture. Slowly moving scenes.

Estimated improvement in compression is a around a factor of three beyond MPEG‐2. The tape speed and data rate for these devices are set by the upper limit of the scene requirements. BD‐RW: A rewritable format developed for PC storage. Since the tape does not slow down during slower scenes. as video operating systems and associated compression technology become more advanced. special multiple‐beam readout or high velocity disk drives could produce the data rate. Instead. optical disks do not require as many gigabytes of user data capacity for an equivalent length and quality HDTV presentation. 21 . which is not easily compressed into an efficient variable‐rate scheme. the random‐access architecture of optical disks is a much more efficient way to use the available storage area. the data stream is ‘padded’ at these times with useless information that takes up valuable storage area on the tape. MPEG‐2 is a technique for compressing video data and replaying the data associated with certain rules that are defined in the MPEG‐2 specifications. Blu‐Ray should easily provide two hours or longer of prerecorded HDTV per side compressed with MPEG‐2. like magnetic tape. During fast‐moving scenes. It is not practical to store HDTV on CDs and DVDs with MPEG‐2. Overall. supply data at a constant rate. That is. BD‐RE: A rewritable format developed for HDTV recording.Fixed‐rate schemes. in addition to a rule‐based algorithm. Blu‐ray has slightly higher capacity and data rate. Blu-ray Disc Formats BD‐ROM: A read only format developed for prerecorded content. no fundamental changes are required to the optical disk system. which is an advantage of the fixed‐bit‐rate scheme. DVDs are not capable of the 13 Mbps random data rate to support MPEG‐2. BD‐R: A write once format developed for PC storage. However. MPEG‐4 technology is an advanced video compression scheme that utilizes advanced pre‐filtering and post‐filtering. Therefore. no matter what the requirements of the scene. at best. the play time would be only a few minutes. the optical disk system only stores and retrieves data on command from the video operating system. The action of the optical disk system is not to compress data or interpret the video information rules. the data stream from the tape supplies an adequate data rate. The two‐hour play time for HDTV with Blu‐Ray is really a specification for real time recording.For CDs.

Now when we quickly cool them. if we want to erase the BD‐RW. 22 . and thus the information is erased. In the groove. As scan spot falls on the surface it changes to amorphous. By heating up the material again. We cannot change it back to crystal state. Fig 2. the material gradually wants to take its old form again. This is called a wobbled groove. Lands are the borders between the grooves. So we want to get rid of that amorphous state. but this time taking more time and less heat. And so it is called as phase change recording. give the crystal another state (Amorphous state) which thus contains the data and by very quite slowly heating it and cooling it. Now.10 Phase change Data is stored in the form of grooves. by very quickly heating it and very quickly cooling it. on an optical disc. That is the material is changed from crystal state to amorphous state. we can give the crystals their old form back (crystalline state) which contains no more data. there are lands. If we use BD‐R the material on the disc itself is changed forever. they change form. Record Many Times: If we use a BD‐RW the material on the disc itself changes. So. There is no way to get the material back into its old state. pits are formed to store data.We can do this as long as the material doesn’t get worn out. we have to make sure that we lose all the data. The recording material is crystalline in nature. This state is called the crystalline state. but can be changed back again . It’s a constant change of phases. they stay in that form itself. By heating up the crystals. Grooves and lands have a sinus form.Versions of Recording One Time Recording: Making permanent changes to a disc. Next to the grooves.

CHAPTER-3 SPECIFICATIONS Capacity Wave length of the laser 23.3 25 27GB (single layer) 405nm (blue-violet laser) Numerical Aperture of the objective lens 0.2mm 23 .85 Data transfer rate Disc diameter Thickness of the disc 36Mbps 120mm 1.

948 Mbit/s (Movie application) (10. to be followed by the BD-R (recordable) and BD-ROM formats in mid-2004. but with the addition of the latter two more advanced codec’s.160/0. Blu-ray Discs with capacities of 100GB and 200GB are currently being researched. The first codec only allows for about two hours of storage on a single layer Blu-ray Disc.264/AVC codec.149/0. Codecs The BD-ROM format includes 3 codec’s: MPEG-2 (the standard used for DVDs). a single-layer disc can hold almost four hours.367 m/s (Movie application) (3. With the BD format’s choices for both NA and wavelength we have been able to realize a format with 5X higher data rate while only doubling the rotation rate of DVD-ROM discs. The BD-RE (rewritable) standard is now available. and VC-1 based on Microsoft's Windows Media 9 codec.75 nm (25GB) (267nm for DVD) Linear velocity: 7. MPEG1. with these capacities achieved by using four and eight layers respectively.08 Mbps for DVD).138um AC3.0 of the Blu-ray specifications. Looking further ahead in time.49 m/s for DVD). MPEG-4's H. The BD system has the potential for future higher speed drives.32μm Shortest pit length Audio recording format Visual data Data Rate 0.Diameter of the center hole Recording method Data track Tracking pitch 15mm Phase change Groove recording . as part of version 2. The following numbers offer a comparison: Data bit length: 111. BD-ROM pre-recorded media are to be available by late 2005. High24 . Layer2 MPEG-2 video For high-definition movies a much higher data rate is needed than for standard definition. User data transfer rate: 53.

Recorders The first Blu-ray recorder was unveiled by Sony on March 3. JVC and Samsung Electronics announced Blu. while it is not compulsory for manufacturers.RE (and by extension BD-R) does not currently support any advanced codec beyond MPEG-2. 2003. Because MPEG-2 is currently used to broadcast HDTV. Germany. 2003. This makes the upgrade more attractive to consumers as it does not require replacing their collections of DVDs. Blu-ray lasers and drives are capable of reading the various DVD formats. ensuring backward compatibility.definition MPEG-2 has a data rate of about 25Mbps. BD. DTS and dts++ (loss less compression). while the latter two have data rates of about I5Mbps for video and 3Mbps for audio. Since there are no consumer level recorders capable of real-time transcoding from the MPEG-2 used for broadcasting and any other codec that might be used for BD-RE.ray based products at DFA in Berlin. recorders write this HD stream directly to a disc. Dolby Digital. 25 . Encoding methods for the audio stream include Linear PCM. Compatibility The BDA announced that. MPEG-2 is the only format supported by BD-RE. On September 1. and was introduced to the Japanese market in April that year. The Blu-ray Disc Association is known to be looking into other codec’s superior to those supported by the DVD specification.

5 hours of HDTV recording on it.CHAPTER-4 CHARACTERISTICS Life span In the case of ordinary discs. the inner perimeter which limits the disc life. It can also record over 13 hours of standard TV broadcasting using the standard definition picture quality. most probably rewriting is done repeatedly to one area of the disc. It is enough to put 2. by using a system that uses free disc spaces with equal frequency. the disc life is less. rewriting and playback of HD video up to 25GB on a single sided disc. In the rewritable versions. Large Recording Capacity The Blu-ray disc enables the recording. High Speed 26 . BDFS (Blu-ray Disc File Structure) is designed so as to avoid this problem.

Highly compatible with digital broadcasting MPEG2 transport stream compression technology for video recording can record digital broadcasting including HDTV while maintaining its original picture quality.5 hours to fill the entire BD with 25 GB of data.e.a unique ID encryption system -. Resistance to Scratches and Fingerprints The protective layer is hard enough to prevent accidental abrasions and allows fingerprints to be removed by wiping the disc with a tissue. Ease of Use DVD recording devices are very simple to use. Compatible The BD drives are designed to be backward compatible. Easy to use disc cartridge An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints. Even children can use them. i. They are used just like any regular red 27 .It has a data transfer rate of 36 Mbps. Because of this high speed transfer rates it can also record the data in very little time. They come equipped with a secure encryption system -. More than enough transfer capacity for real time recording and playback. CDs and DVDs work equally well with the BD drives.a unique ID that protects against video piracy and copyright infringement. There are no complexities to the use of blue laser recording devices. In a perfect environment it would take 2. An artificial fingerprint reagent is placed on the disc surface to resist fingerprint oils. Security Blu-ray discs are better armed than current DVDs.

DVD-RW and DVD+RW use a red laser to read and write data. the new format uses a blue laser instead.laser DVD recording device. DVD+R. which means that it's possible to focus the laser beam with even greater precision. DVD. An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints. Safety and Security Blue laser light helps in detecting some chemical and biological weapons because it causes them to give off light. The benefit of using a blue laser is that it has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometer) than a red laser (650 nanometer). Blu-ray Disc Recorders will be made compatible with current red-laser technologies and allow playback of CDs and DVDs. The table below compares the three optical disc technologies: 28 . DVD-R. hence the name Blu-ray. This allows data to be packed more tightly on the disc and makes it possible to fit more data on the same size disc. CHAPTER-5 COMPARISON OF STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES While current optical disc technologies such as CD. Despite the different type of lasers used. So it could be used in airports and other places that have security screening to detect such a weapon.

29 .

30 . ability to record high-definition television (HDTV) Improved sound.1 Comparison of different technologies Blu-Ray Vs VHS The Blu-ray Disc recorder represents a major leap forward in video recording technology as it enables recording of high-definition television (HDTV). etc). access web content. ability to record surround sound (Dolby Digital.Fig 5. change the order of recorded programs and edit recorded video Automatically find an empty space to avoid recording over programs Simultaneous recording and playback of video (enables Time slip/Chasing playback) Enhanced interactivity. It also offers a lot of new innovative features not possible with a traditional VCR: Random access. instantly jump to any spot on the disc Searching. enables more advanced programs and games Broadband enabled. quickly browse and preview recorded programs in real-time Create play lists. DTS. download subtitles and extras Improved picture.

totaling about 1. A standard DVD holds about seven times more data than a CD does. This huge capacity means that a DVD has enough room to store a full-length.2 Density comparison In BD we need to travel shorter for the same amount of data access as compared to DVD which results in faster data seek.7 GB. but it has a much larger data capacity. BD provides better access to random data. A usually used version of floppy disc has a capacity of 1.Blu-Ray Vs Other Storage Devices The storage capacity of different digital storage technology varies a lot. 1 DVD = 5 to 10 CD’s 1 Blu-ray = 5 to 10 DVD’s 31 . DVD can also be used to store almost eight hours of CD-quality music per side.44MB while that of a CD is 700 MB & for DVD it is 4. MPEG-2-encoded movie. A DVD is very similar to a CD. DVD is composed of several layers of plastic. as well as a lot of other information. Fig 5. Also they have varying shell lives out of these DVD has the maximum. Each layer is created by injection molding polycarbonate plastic.2 millimeters thick.

Fig 5.4 BD and DVD Both BD and DVD are 1. 32 .3 Capacity comparison A single layer DVD can hold up to 4.5 hours of HD video or more than 20 hours of SD video. A single layer BD can hold up to 25 GB that means 2 hours of HD (High Definition) video and 13 hours of SD (Standard Definition) video.Fig 5.7 GB of data. A double layer BD can hold up to 50 GB that means 4.2 mm thick and 120 mm in diameter.

the Blu‐ray Disc format can store High Definition video in the highest possible quality. the format allows for recording of digital broadcasts while meeting the content protection demands of the broadcast industry. There is even room for additional content such as special features and other bonus material to accompany the High 33 . Depending on the encoding method. High Definition Video Distribution Due to its enormous data capacity of 25 to 50 GB per (single sided) disc. The Blu-ray Disc format offers consumers the ability to record their High Definition television broadcasts in their original quality for the first time. High Definition video distribution is one of the key features of Blu‐ray Disc. but the format’s versatile design and top‐of‐the line specifications mean that it is suitable for a full range of other purposes as well. As such it will become the next level in home entertainment. there is room for more than seven hours of the highest HD quality video.CHAPTER-6 APPLICATIONS • • • • • High Definition Television Recording High Definition Video Distribution High Definition Camcorder Archiving Mass Data Storage Digital Asset Management and Professional Storage The Blu‐ray Disc format was designed to offer the best performance and features for a wide variety of applications. there is no need to compromise on picture quality. High Definition Television Recording High Definition broadcasting is vastly expanding in the US and Asia. Consumers are increasingly making the switch to HDTV sets to enjoy the best possible television experience. offering an unsurpassed user experience. preserving the pure picture and audio level as offered by the broadcaster. And since the Blu‐ray Disc format incorporates the strongest copy protection algorithms of any format or proposal to date. Because of the huge capacity of the disc.

Now consumers demand an even bigger storage capacity. Then DVD surpassed this amount by offering 4.Definition movie. As Blu‐ray Disc uses the same form factor as CD and DVD. without the risk of tape wear. video and photo capabilities of personal computers has lead to yet another level in data storage requirements. by incorporating many new interactive features allowing content providers to offer an even more incredible experience to consumers. the Blu‐ ray Disc can be edited. An Internet‐connection may even be used to unlock additional material that is stored on the disc. CD‐R/RW meant a huge increase in storage capacity compared to traditional storage media with its 650 MB. The Blu‐ray Disc format again offers 5 to 10 times as much capacity as traditional DVD resulting in 25 to 50 GB of data to be stored on a single rewritable or recordable disc. Now. High Definition Camcorder Archiving As the market penetration of High Definition TV sets continues to grow. the Blu‐ray Disc format. an impressive 5 to 10 times increase. The growing number of broadband connections allowing consumers to download vast amounts of data. this allows for Blu‐ray Disc drives that can still read and write to CD and DVD media as well. With the advent of the first HD camcorders. commercial storage requirements are growing exponentially due to the proliferation of e‐mail and the migration to paperless processes. When the HD content is stored on a Blu‐ray Disc. the Blu‐ray Disc movie format greatly expands on Traditional DVD capabilities. with its unprecedented storage capacity. As these camcorders are tape‐based. as well as the ever increasing audio. as there is enough room on the disc to include premium material as well. In addition.5 GB of storage. Furthermore.7 to 8. consumers cannot benefit from the convenience and direct access features they are used to from the DVD players and recorders. allows for the HD video recorded with an HD camcorder to be seamlessly transferred to a Blu‐ray Disc. Mass Data Storage In its day. consumers can now for the first time record their own home movies in a quality level unlike any before. so does the demand of consumers to create their own HD recordings. Furthermore. 34 . it can be randomly accessed in a way comparable to DVD. enhanced with interactive menus for an even increased user experience and the disc can be safely stored for many years.

One Blu‐ray Disc may replace many backup tapes. Think of medical archives that may contain numerous diagnostic scans in the highest resolution. And contrary to network solutions. low cost per GB and extremely versatile ways of transferring data from one device to another (because of Blu‐ray Disc’s extremely wide adoption across the industry). the format is optimized for Digital Asset Management and other professional applications that require vast amounts of storage space. or catalogs of audio visual assets that need to be instantly retrieved in a random access manner.Digital Asset Management and Professional Storage Due to its high capacity. CDs. the discs can be physically stored in a different location for backup and safekeeping. without the need to “restore” data from a storage carrier. DVDs or other less common or proprietary storage media. CHAPTER-7 SECURITY MECHANISMS 35 .

A list of licensed commercial adopters is available from the BD+ website. The specifications of the BD+ virtual machine are available only to licensed device manufacturers.. and Sony. execute native code. Since keys can be revoked in newer releases. Toshiba. Panasonic. Warner Bros. If a playback device manufacturer finds that its devices have been hacked. Parts of the content will not be viewable without letting the BD+ program unscramble it. possibly to patch an otherwise insecure system. It was developed by AS Licensing Administrator. • • • verify that the player's keys have not been changed. LLC (AACS LA). several successful attacks have been made on the format. In addition. effectively a small virtual machine embedded in authorized players. Intel. allows content providers to include executable programs on Blu-ray Discs. Since appearing in devices in 2006. The first titles using BD+ were released in October 2007. this is only a temporary attack. BD+ BD+ was developed by Cryptography Research Inc. versions of BD+ protection have been circumvented by various versions of the Any DVD 36 . The first known attack relied on the trusted client problem. transform the audio and video output.The Blu-Ray format employs several layers of digital rights management. it can potentially release BD+ code that detects and circumvents the vulnerability. and new keys must continually be discovered in order to decrypt the latest discs. IBM. BD+. and is based on their concept of SelfProtecting Digital Content. AACS The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management. This cat-and-mouse game has gone through several cycles. Such programs can: • examine the host environment to see if the player has been tampered with. Every licensed playback device manufacturer must provide the BD+ licensing authority with memory footprints that identify their devices. decryption keys have been extracted from a weakly protected player (Win DVD). These programs can then be included in all new content releases. Microsoft. and a consortium that includes Disney. Since November 2007.

Through licensing of the special hardware element. and two applications from DVDFab (Passkey and HD Decrypter). Bit-by-bit copies that do not replicate the BD-ROM Mark have no known decoding method.6 and above. the BDA believes that it can eliminate the possibility of mass producing BD-ROMs without authorization. Other programs known to be capable of circumventing BD+ protection are DumpHD (versions 0. BD-ROM Mark BD-ROM is a small amount of cryptographic data that is stored separately from normal Blu-ray Disc data. MakeMKV. A specially licensed piece of hardware is required to insert the ROM-mark into the media during replication. along with some supporting software). CHAPTER-8 FUTURE SCOPE 37 .HD program.

Blu-ray holds the promise to steal a march over its immediate predecessor. Cost has dampen the sales. Owing to the patent and the technology involved. Blu-ray costs more than DVDs. CHAPTER-9 CONCLUSION 38 . The expected upswing in high-definition television adoption and broadband implementation could act as the catalyst.Despite the impending tug-of war. it will move towards commodity pricing. But sooner than later. the DVD success story. if not better. major players have explored the ways to make Blu-ray compatible with DVDs. Aware that the recession in economies across the globe could come in the way of high-definition television broadband penetration. Once that happens. The industry is of the view that Blu-ray has the potential to replicate. the industry is excited about the future prospects of this technological innovation.

5 billion. but this will be an interesting technological development to follow. and so more data can be stored on a disc. The manufacturers of Blu-ray discs are further trying to increase the number of layers in a single disc so that a four layer disc stores 100GB of data .These two are the most notable advantages of BD technology. Nichia. Prototype blue-laser-based optical disc systems have been around for more than a year. It's possible that the industry is headed to a point where BD sales will one day outstrip DVDs. These show the increasing demand for Blu-ray products. 8 layer disc stores about 200 GB of data.S. one problem has hampered development of commercial systems: cost. Blue lasers have a shorter wavelength. Companies involved in the development will respectively make products that take full advantage of Blu-ray. generating sales of a whopping $9. In conclusion the Blue-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. However. However. making consumer products based on the parts unrealistic. There is a lot of talk about blue-laser-based systems being focused around highdefinition television. So BD will be a good option for such peoples. which means the laser beam can be focused onto a smaller area of the disc surface. In turn. Home video spending on the whole has been projected to grow exponentially to $25. It's too early to call the game just yet. They are also aiming to further enhance the appeal of the new format through developing a larger capacity. which has heavy data needs. According to the EMA (Entertainment Merchant Association) in U.Today consumers are searching for faster transfer speeds and large storage capacity . the major source for blue lasers.6 billion in 2012. is expected to begin commercial production this year and the price of a blue-laser diode is expected to tumble once the company begins turning them out in volume. 39 . A sample blue-laser diode currently costs around $1000. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified. sales of Blu-ray Discs will surpass those of standard definition storage media. likewise. Disc's large capacity and highspeed data transfer rate. this means less real estate is needed to store one bit of data. such as over 30GB on a single sided single layer disc and over 50GB on a single sided double layer disc. But Blu-ray Disc groups are also considering development of write-once and read-only formats for use with PCs. Adoption of the Blue-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is also being considered. by the end of 2012.

The DVD forum may or may not invite the Blu-ray light into is era but the 27GB disc is not far off in practically disturbing the DVD wave. CHAPTER-10 REFERENCES 40 .

blu-raytalk.gizmodo.com http://www.com http://www.org http://en.howstuffworks.bluraydisc.com http://www.bluray.• • • • • • • http://www.wikipedia.com White paper Blu-Ray Disc 41 .org http://electronics.

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