GENERAL PRESENTATION [ REPORTS

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SUBMITTED TO: - Lect. Shabnam Sharma

SUBMITTED BY:AMBER COURSE- B.TECH (CSE) REGD. NO.:-10802649 ROLL NO.:- RC1801A10 Surface computing
Surface computing is the term for the use of a specialized computer GUI in which traditional GUI elements are replaced by intuitive, everyday objects. Instead of a keyboard and mouse, the user interacts directly with a touch-sensitive screen. It has been said that this more closely replicates the familiar hands-on experience of everyday object manipulation. Surface computing is slowly starting to catch on and is starting to be used in real world applications. Here is just a sample of what surface computing technologies have been used.

The Microsoft Surface is starting to pick up popularity and has been used in various places and venues. AT&T became the first retailer to use Surface to help their customers purchase phones. Customers could place the phones on the Surface and receive full phone specs, as well as pricing. It has also been used in a wide variety of locations which include hotel lobbies, such as Sheraton Hotels, as well as venues which included Super Bowl XLIII to help police organize and monitor the event in great detail. It is also starting to gain use in the broadcasting industry and has been used by MSNBC during the 2008 US Presidential Elections. However, USD $15,500 (device only) is still considered expensive for most businesses. There are other new surface computing applications that are still being developed, one of which is from the MIT Media Lab where students are developing wearable computing systems that can be used on almost any surface. The name of this device is Sixth Sense. A surface computer is a computer that interacts with the user through the surface of an ordinary object, rather than through a monitor and keyboard. The category was created by Microsoft with Surface (codenamed Milan), the surface computer from Microsoft which was based entirely on a Multi-Touch interface and using a coffee-table like design, and was unveiled on 30 May 2007. Users can interact with the machine by touching or dragging their fingertips and objects such as paintbrushes across the screen, or by setting realworld items tagged with special bar-code labels on top of it. The Surface is a horizontal display on a table-like form. Somewhat similar to the iPhone, the Surface has a screen that can incorporate multiple touches and thus uses them to navigate multimedia content. Unlike the iPhone, which uses fingers' electrical properties to detect touch, the Surface utilizes a system of infrared cameras to detect input. Uploading digital files only requires each object (e.g. a Bluetooth-enabled digital camera) to be placed on the Surface

LINUX
Linux refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel. Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from mobile phones, tablet computers and video game consoles, to mainframes and supercomputers. Linux is a leading server operating system, and runs the 10 fastest supercomputers in the world. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License.

The name "Linux" comes from the Linux kernel, originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The main supporting user space system tools and libraries from the GNU Project (announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman) are the basis for the Free Software Foundation's preferred name GNU/Linux. A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access. Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running. Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems, providing the most common implementation of the C library, a popular shell, and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System. Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-based iPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9, System z10; in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers. Specialized distributions exist for less mainstream architectures. The ELKS kernel fork can run on Intel 8086 or Intel 80286 16-bit microprocessors, while the µClinux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors), PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, and mobile phones.

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
In telecommunications, wireless communication may be used to transfer information over short distances (a few meters as in television remote control) or long distances (thousands or millions of kilometers for radio communications). The term is often shortened to "wireless". It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless telephones.

Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. Wireless networking (i.e. the various types of unlicensed 2.4 GHz WiFi devices) is used to meet many needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:
• • • • •

To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling, To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure, To link portable or temporary workstations, To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or To remotely connect mobile users or networks.

Wireless communication can be via:
• • •

radio frequency communication, microwave communication, for example long-range line-of-sight via highly directional antennas, or short-range communication, or infrared (IR) short-range communication, for example from remote controls or via Infrared Data Association (IrDA).

Applications may involve point-to-point communication, point-to-multipoint communication, broadcasting, cellular networks and other wireless networks.

COMBAT AIRCRAFT
Combat aircraft is an aircraft designed to destroy enemy equipment using its own armament. The fighters were first introduced in 1914 at the time of first world war but their limitation was that they were not very fast The first military aircraft were, by definition, reconnaissance aircraft. Their only mission was to fly over military lines to take photographs and to do anything else they could to assess and report on enemy dispositions. The first pilots went aloft unarmed, even after the war broke out. After that, they started taking hand carried bombs, and then carrying pistols and other firearms to fire at other aircraft. First generation subsonic jet fighters (mid-1940s to mid-1950s)

Second generation jet fighters (mid-1950s to early 1960s) Third-generation jet fighters (early 1960s to 1970) Fourth generation jet fighters (1970 to mid-1990s) Fifth generation jet fighters (1990 to present Features of a Modern Combat Aircraft : Air Superiority, Stealth, Maneuverability, Aerodynamics, Range, Avionics, Armament . Air Superiority: controlling the airspace within a limited area and within a limited length of time Maneuverability: Not top speed, but climbing performance, acceleration and turning speed Aerodynamics: controlling angles of rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle's center of mass. Range: The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing. Avionics: The cockpit of an aircraft is a major location for avionic equipment, including control, monitoring, communication, navigation, weather, and anti-collision systems. Stealth technology also known as LO technology (low observable technology) is a subdiscipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.

SUBMITTED TO: - Lect. KANIKA Sharma SUBMITTED BY:AMBER COURSE- B.TECH (CSE) REGD. NO.:-10802649 ROLL NO.:- RC1801A10

SUBMITTED TO: - Lect. NITIKA Sharma SUBMITTED BY:AMBER COURSE- B.TECH (CSE) REGD. NO.:-10802649 ROLL NO.:- RC1801A10

SUBMITTED TO: - Lect. GURPREET KAUR SUBMITTED BY:AMBER COURSE- B.TECH (CSE) REGD. NO.:-10802649 ROLL NO.:- RC1801A10

SUBMITTED TO: - Lect. Swapnil bagwari SUBMITTED BY:AMBER COURSE- B.TECH (CSE) REGD. NO.:-10802649 ROLL NO.:- RC1801A10

SUBMITTED TO: - Lect. Chavi ralhan SUBMITTED BY:AMBER COURSE- B.TECH (CSE) REGD. NO.:-10802649

ROLL NO.:- RC1801A10

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