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suu Years of Indigenous
lntioduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
भe Pie-Columbian Woild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
भe Genocide Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯
Expansion. Exploitation. and Exteimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
भe Penetiation of Noith Ameiica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1¯
भe Euiopean Stiuggle foi Hegemony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Tiagedy· भe United States is Cieated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Revolutions in the ێNew Woildۏ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2¯
Manifest Destiny and the US ێlndian Waisۏ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Afiikan Slaveiy. Afiikan Rebellion. and the US Civil Wai . . . . . . 34
Black Reconstiuction and Deconstiuction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3õ
भe Colonization of Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Exteimination ۊ Assimilation· Two Methods. One Goal . . . . . . . 4õ
भe People Aim foi lieedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯4
भe Stiuggle foi Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯9
ln Total Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . õ2
भioughout the yeai 1992. the vaiious states which have pioਈted fiom
the colonization of the Ameiicas will be conducting lavish celebiations
of the ےDiscoveiy of the Ameiicasۓ. Spain has spent billion of dollais foi
celebiations in conjunction with Expo ێ92 in Seville. ln Columbus. Ohio.
a s100 million quincentennial celebiation plans on enteitaining seveial
million touiists. CELAM. the association of South Ameiicaۏs Catholic
bishops. has oiganized a gatheiing to celebiate the ےਈझh centenaiy of
the evangelization of the Ameiicasۓ to be piesided ovei by the Pope.
As well. theie is a wide selection of museum exhibits. ਈlms. TV shows.
books and many othei pioducts and activities focusing on Columbus
and the ےDiscoveiyۓ. all piesenting one inteipietation of the ¯00 yeais
following 1492. भe main thiust of this inteipietation being that the
colonization piocess ۊ a piocess of genocide ۊ has. with a few ےbad
spotsۓ. been oveiall a mutually beneਈcial piocess. भe ےgieatnessۓ of
Euiopean ieligions and cultuies was biought to the lndigenous peoples.
who in ietuin shaied the lands and aझei ےaccidentallyۓ being intioduced
to Euiopean disease. simply died oਇ and whose descendants now ਈll
the uiban gheठos as alcoholics and welfaie iecipients. Of couise. a few
ےiemnantsۓ of lndian cultuies was ietained. and theie aie even a few
ےpiofessionalۓ lndian politicians iunning aiound.
BU XBT OP ٖ%JTDPWFSZٗ َ JU XBT BO "NFSJDBO *OEJBO )PMPDBVTU
Until iecently. commonly accepted population levels of the indigenous
peoples on the eve of 1492 weie aiound 10ۉ1¯ million. भis numbei
continues to be accepted by individuals and gioups who see 1492 as a
ےdiscoveiyۓ in which only a few million lndians died ۊ and then mostly
fiom diseases. Moie iecent demogiaphic studies place the lndigenous
population at between ¯0 to 100 million peoples. with some 10 million in
Noith Ameiica. 30 million in Mesoameiica. and aiound ¯0 to ¯0 million
in South Ameiica.
Today. in spite of ¯00 yeais of a genocidal colonization. theie is an
estimated 40 million lndigenous peoples in the Ameiicas. ln Guatemala.
the Mayan peoples make up õ0.3 peicent of the population. and in Bolivia
lndians compiise ovei ¯0 peicent of the total population. Despite this.
these lndigenous peoples lack any contiol ovei theii own lands and
compiise the most exploited and oppiessed layeis of the population,
chaiacteiistics that aie found also in othei lndigenous populations in
the seठlei states of the Ameiicas (and thioughout the woild).
ࠬe Pre-Columbian World
Befoie the Euiopean colonization of the Ameiicas. in that time of
life scholais iefei to as ےPie-histoiyۓ oi ےPie-Columbianۓ. the Westein
hemispheie was a densely populated land. A land with its own peoples
and ways of life. as vaiied and diveise as any of the othei lands in the
ln fact. it was not even called ےAmeiicaۓ by those peoples. lf theie was
any iefeience to the land as a whole it was as Tuitle lsland. oi Cuscatlan.
भe liist Peoples inhabited eveiy iegion of the Ameiicas. living within
the diveisity of the land and developing cultuial lifeways dependent on
the land. भeii numbeis appioached ¯0ۉ100 million peoples piioi to the
Geneially. the hundieds of diਇeient nations can be summaiized within
the vaiious geogiaphical iegions they lived in. भe commonality of
cultuies within these iegions is in fact a natuial development of people
building life-ways dependent on the land. As well. theie was extensive
inteiaction and inteiielation between the people in these iegions. and
they all knew each othei as nations.
ln the Aictic iegion live(d) the lnuit and Aleut. whose lifeways ie-
volve(d) aiound the hunting of sea mammals (Beluga whales. waliuses.
etc.) and caiibou. supplemented by ਈshing and tiading with the people
to the south.
South of the Aictic. in the Subaictic iegion of what is today Alaska.
the Noithwest Teiiitoiies. and the noithein iegions of the Canadian
piovinces. live(d) piedominantly hunting and ਈshing peoples. भe vaiia-
tions of these lands iange fiom open tundia to foiests and lakes. iiveis.
and stieams. भe Ciee. Chipewyan. Kaska. Chilcotin. lngalik. Beothuk.
and many othei nations inhabit(ed) this iegion. hunting beai. goats. and
deei in the west. musk oxen and caiibou fuithei noith. oi buਇalo fuithei
south in the piaiiies.
Altogethei in the Aictic and Subaictic iegions theie lived peihaps as
many as 100.000 people.
On the Paciਈc Noithwest coast. stietching fiom the coasts of Alaska
and BCdown to noithein Califoinia. live(d) the Tlingit. Haida. Tsimshian.
Kwa-Kwa-Kaۏwakw. Nuu-chah-nulth. Nuxalk. Salish. Yuiok. and many
otheis. भese peoples developed a lifeway ievolving aiound ਈshing. भe
peoples of this iegion numbeied as many as foui million.
Between the Paciਈc coastal mountain iange and the cential plains
in what is today southein BC. Washington. Oiegon. ldaho and Mon-
tana. live(d) the Sahaptin (Nez Peice). Chopunnish. Shoshone. Siksikas
(Blackfeet). and otheis. भese peoples numbeied aiound 200.000.
To the east weie people of the plains. encompassing a vast iegion
fiom Texas up to paits of southein Albeita. Saskatchewan. and Manitoba.
eastwaid to Noith and South Dakota. Minnesota. Wisconsin. Missouii.
and Aikansas. Heie. the Lakota (Sioux). Cheyenne. Aiapaho. plains Ciee.
Siksikas (of the Blackfeet Confedeiacy. including the Blood and Peigan).
Ciow. Kiowa. Shoshone. Mandan. and many otheis. numbeied up to one
million. and the buਇalo as many as 80 million befoie theii slaughtei by
luithei east. in the lands stietching fiom the Gieat Lakes to the At-
lantic coast. live(d) hunting. ਈshing. and faiming peoples, the Kanienke-
hake (Mohawks). Oneida. Onondaga. Cayuga. Seneca (these ਈve na-
tions foimed the Haudenosaunee ۊ the People of the Longhouse ۊ also
known as the lioquois Confedeiacy). Ojibway. Algonkin. Micmac. Wen-
dat (Huion). Potowatomi. Tuscaioia. and otheis. ln this woodland iegion.
stietching fiom Ontaiio. बebec. and New Yoik. down to the Caiolinas.
lived up to two million peoples.
South of this aiea. fiom paits of the Viiginias down to lloiida.
west of the Gulf of Mexico including Mississippi and Louisiana. live(d)
भe Muskogee-speaking Choctaw. Cieek. and Chikasaw. the Cheiokee.
Natchez. Tonkawa. Atakapa. and otheis. One of the most feitile agiicul-
tuial belts in the woild. faiming was well established supplemented by
hunting and ਈshing. भese peoples numbeied between two and thiee
East of this aiea. in the south-westein United States. extending down
to noithein Mexico and Califoinia. live(d) agiaiian and nomadic peoples,
the Pueblo. Hopi. Zuni. the Yumun-speaking Hualapai. Mojave. Yuma.
and Cocopa. the Uto-Aztecan speaking Pimas and Papagos. and the
Athapascans consisting of the Navajo (Dine) and Apache peoples. भese
peoples. altogethei. numbeied about two million.
ln the Mesoameiican iegion. including Mexico. Guatemala and Be-
lize. live(d) the numeious agiicultuial peoples. whose piimaiy staple
was maize, the Aztecs. Texacoco. Tlacopan. and the Mayans ۊ in the
Yucatan peninsula. Heie. laige city-states with stone and biick buildings
and pyiamids. as well as extensive agiaiian wateiways consisting of
dams and canals weie built. Wiiठen languages weie published in books.
and the study of astionomy and mathematics was well established. A
calendai system moie accuiate than any in Euiope duiing the 1¯
tuiy was developed. Altogethei. these peoples numbeied aiound 30ۉ40
ln the Caiibbean basin. including the coastal aieas of Columbia.
Venezuela. Costa Rica. Honduias. and the many small islands such as
Cuba. Hispaniola. Pueito Rico etc.. live(d) hunting. ਈshing. and agiaiian
peoples such as the Caiib. Aiawak. Waiao. Yukpa. Paujanos. and otheis.
भese peoples numbeied aiound ਈve million.
ln all of South Ameiica theie weie as many as 40ۉ¯0 million peoples.
ln the Andean highlands of Peiu and Chile live(d) the lnca peoples.
compiised of the बechua and Aymaia. ln the south of Chile live(d) the
Mapuche. and in the lowland iegions ۊ including the Amazon iegion
ۊ live(d) the Yanomami. Gavioe. Txukahame. Kieen. Akaioie. and oth-
eis. South of the Amazon iegion. in Aigentina. Paiaguay. and Uiuguay.
live(d) the Ayoieo. Ache. Mataco. Guaiani. and many otheis. ln the
southeinmost lands live(d) the Oawasgai. Selkۏnam. Onu. and otheis.
With a few exceptions. the liist Nations weie classless and commu-
nitaiian societies. with stiong matiilineal featuies. भe political spheie
of lndigenous life was not dominated by men. but in many cases the
iesponsibility of women. Eldeis held a position of impoitance and ho-
noui foi theii knowledge. भeie weie no piisons. foi the liist Nations
peoples had well developed methods of iesolving community pioblems.
and theie was ۊ fiom the accounts of eldeis ۊ veiy liठle in anti-social
ciime. Community decisions weie most fiequently made by consensus
and discussions amongst the people.
But the liist Nations weie not peifect. being humans they had. and
still have. theii inconsistencies and piactises that aie not positive.
Some examples can be seen as the aimed conਉicts between nations
thioughout the Ameiicas. and piactises of slaveiy amongst the Paciਈc
Noithwest coast peoples and in the Mesoameiican iegion. Howevei.
even heie the foims of waifaie ieਉected similai developments thiough-
out the woild. and in any case nevei appioached the genocidal methods
developed. in paiticulai. in Euiope. Waifaie was the piactise of explicitly
waiiioi societies. भe accounts of slaveiy. although theie is no way to
explain it away. diਇeied shaiply fiom the Euiopeans in that it was not
based on iacism. noi was it a fundamental chaiacteiistic which foimed
the economic basis of these societies.
भe histoiy of the liist Nations must always be analyzed ciitically,
those who tell us that histoiy aie iaiely evei of the lndigenous peoples.
ࠬe Genocide Begins
ےभeii bodies swelled with gieed. and theii hungei was iav-
ۊ Aztec testimonial
On Octobei 12. 1492. sailing aboaid the Sonìo Mor:o undei ਈnance
fiom the Spanish ciown. Ciistofoio Colombo stumbled upon the island
of Guanahani (believed to be San Salvadoi). in the Caiibbean iegion.
lnitially chaiting a new tiade ioute to Asian maikets. the outcome of
Colomboۏs voyage would quickly piove fai moie luciative than the open-
ing of new tiade ioutes. as fai as Euiope was conceined.
lt was on Guanahani that Colombo ਈist encounteied Taino Aiawaks.
whom he titled ێlndiansۏ. believing he had in fact ieached Asia. loi this
initial encountei. Colomboۏs own log stands as testimony to his own
ےNo soonei had we concluded the foimalities of taking pos-
session of the island than people began to come to the
beachX X X भey aie fiiendly and well-dispositioned people
who beai no aims except foi small speais.
ےभey ought to make good and skilled seivantsX X X l think
they can easily be made Chiistians. foi they seem to have
no ieligion. lf it pleases Oui Loid. l will take six of them
to Youi Highnesses when l depaitۓ (fiom Colomboۏs log.
Octobei 12. 1492).
Tiue to his woid. if liठle else. Colombo kidnapped about 9 Taino
duiing his jouiney thiough the Bahamas. and anticipated even moie
kidnappings and enslavement.
ےX X Xthese people aie veiy unskilled in aims. Youi Highnesses
will see this foi youiselves when l biing you the seven that
l have taken. Aझei they leain oui languages l shall ietuin
them. unless Youi Highnesses oidei that the entiie popula-
tion be taken to Castille. oi held captive heie. With ¯0 men
you could subject eveiyone and make them do what you
wishedۓ (Colomboۏs log. Octobei 14. 1492).
भioughout Colomboۏs log of this ਈist voyage. theie is constant iefei-
ence to the notion that the Taino believe the Euiopeans to be descended
fiom heaven. despite the fact that íneithei] Colombo noi any of his ciew
undeistood Aiawak. Anothei consistency in Colomboۏs log is the obses-
sion with gold. to which theie aie 1õ iefeiences in the ਈist two weeks
alone. 13 in the following month. and 4õ moie in the next ਈve weeks.
despite the fact that Colombo found veiy liठle gold on eithei Guanahani
oi any of the othei islands he landed on.
ln a ਈnal iefeience to Colomboۏs log. one can also ਈnd the dual mission
Robeit H. luson. ࡀe Log o[ C|r:sìo¡|er Co|o»|vs. lnteinational Maiine Publishing Co..
Maine 198¯. pg. ¯õ.
lbid. pg. 80. Colombo was inconsistent on the actual numbei of Taino he kidnapped.
ےX X XYoui Highnesses must iesolve to make them (the Taino
ۊ O|To|K:n ed.) Chiistians. l believe that if this eਇoit
commences. in a shoit time a multitude of peoples will be
conveited to oui Holy laith. and Spain will acquiie gieat
domains and iiches and all of theii villages. Beyond doubt
theie is a veiy gieat amount of gold in this countiyX X X Also.
theie aie piecious stones and peails. and an inਈnite quantity
of spicesۓ (Colomboۏs log. Novembei 11. 1492).
भe duality of Colomboۏs mission. and the subsequent Euiopean in-
vasion that followed. was the Chiistianization of non-Euiopeans and
the expiopiiation of theii lands. भe two goals aie not unconnected,
ےChiistianizationۓ was not meiely a piogiam foi Euiopean ieligious in-
doctiination. it was an aठack on non-Euiopean cultuie (one baiiiei to
colonization) and a legally and moially sanctioned foim of wai foi con-
quest. ےEven his name was piophetic to the woild he encounteied ۊ
Chiistophei Columbus tianslates to ێChiist-beaiei Colonizeiۏۓ.
Still on his ਈist voyage. Colombo meandeied aiound the Caiibbean
and eventually established the ਈist Spanish seठlement. ێNatividadۏ. on
the island of Hispaniola (today Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Leav-
ing about 3¯ men on Hispaniola. Colombo and his ciewietuined to Spain
to gathei the mateiials and men needed foi the coming colonization. and
to iepoit to the ciown on his jouiney.
ln Septembei. 1493. Colombo ietuined to Hispaniola with a ਉeet of 1¯
ships and 1.200 men. भe detachment that had been leझ on Hispaniola
had been destioyed following outiages by the Spaniaids against the
Taino. भe iesistance had alieady begun.
Colombo would make foui voyages in all. the iemaining two in 1498
and 1¯02. His voyages aiound the Caiibbean biought him to what is
now Tiinidad. Panama. Jamaica. Venezuela. Dominica. and seveial othei
islands ۊcaptuiing Native peoples foi slaveiy and extoiting gold thiough
a quota of a hawks bell of gold dust to be supplied by eveiy Native ovei
the age of 14 eveiy 3 months. lailuie to ਈll the quota oझen entailed
lbid. pg. 10¯.
A|+esosne Noìes. Vol. 9. No. 4.
cuठing the ێviolatoisۏ hands oਇ and leaving them to bleed to death.
Hundieds of Caiib and Aiawak weie shipped to Spain as slaves undei
Colomboۏs goveinoiship. ¯00 alone following his second voyage. lndeed.
the absence of a ےgieat amount of goldۓ in the Caiibbean had Colombo
devising anothei method of ਈnancing the colonization· ےभe savage and
cannibalistic Caiib should be exchanged as slaves against livestock to be
piovided by meichants in Spain.ۓ
Colombo died in 1¯0õ. but following his initial voyage to the Ameiicas.
wave upon wave of ਈist Spanish. then Poituguese. Dutch. liench and
Biitish expeditions followed. caiiying with them conquistadois. meice-
naiies. meichants. and Chiistian missionaiies.
Hispaniola seived as the ਈist beachhead. used by the Spanish as a stag-
ing giound foi aimed incuisions and ieconnaissance missions. justiਈed
thiough the ێChiistianizationۏ piogiam, one yeai aझei Colomboۏs ਈist
voyage. Pope Alexandei Vl in his intei ceteia divina papal bull gianted
Spain all the woild not alieady possessed by Chiistian states. excepting
the iegion of Biazil. which went to Poitugal.
While the Spanish laid the gioundwoik foi theii colonization plans.
othei Euiopean nations began to send theii own expeditions.
ln 149¯. Giovanni Caboto Motecataluna (John Cabot). ਈnanced by
England. ciossed the Atlantic and chaited the Atlantic coast of Noith
Ameiica. Undei the commission of Heniy Vll to ےconquei. occupy. and
possessۓ the lands of ےheathens and inਈdelsۓ. Cabot ieconnoiteied the
Newfoundland coast ۊ kidnapping thiee Micmacs in the piocess.
At aiound the same time. Gaspai Coite Real. ਈnanced by Poitugal.
ieconnoiteied the Labiadoi and Newfoundland coasts. kidnapping ¯¯
Beothuks to be sold as slaves to oਇset the cost of the expedition.
Meanwhile. Ameiigo Vespucci ۊ foi whom the Ameiicas weie named
aझei ۊ and Alonso de Ojedo. on sepaiate missions foi Spain. ieconnoi-
teied the west lndies and the Paciਈc coast of South Ameiica. Ojedo was
actively caiiying out slave iaids. and was killed by a waiiioiۏs poisoned
aiiow foi his eਇoits.
liom the papal bull of 1493 and a subsequent Tieaty of Toidesillas
(1494). Poitugal had been given possession of Biazil. ln 1¯00. the Poi-
tuguese admiial Pedio Alvaies Cabial foimally claimed the land foi the
Now that the initial ieconnaissance missions had been completed. the
invasion intensiਈed and expanded. ln 1¯13. Ponce de Leon. ਈnanced by
Spain. aठempted to land in lloiida. but was diiven oਇ by 80 Calusa wai
liom 1¯1¯ to 1¯21. the Spanish conquistadoi Heinando Coites laid
waste to the Aztec empiie in Mexico. captuiing the capital city of
Tenochtitlan and killing millions in a iuthless campaign foi gold.
Shoitly aझeiwaids. in 1¯24. Pedio de Alvaiado invaded the iegion
of El Salvadoi. aठacking the Cuscatlan. Pipeles. and बiche peoples.
ln Guatemala Alvaiado conducted eight majoi campaigns against the
Mayans. and while he and his men weie buining people alive. the
Catholic piiests accompanying him weie busy destioying Mayan his-
toiical iecoids (that is. while they weienۏt busy diiecting massacies
themselves). Alvaiadoۏs soldieis weie iewaided by being allowed to
enslave the suivivois.
ln 1¯31. the Spaniaid liancisco Pizaiio invaded the iegion of the lncas
(now Peiu). Taking advantage of an inteinal stiuggle between two lnca
factions led by the biotheis Huascai and Atahualpa. Pizaiio succeeded
in subjugating the lncas by 1¯33.
Ten yeais latei. Pedio de Valdivia claimed Chile foi the Spanish ciown.
although ਈeice iesistance by the Mapuche nation iestiicted the Spanish
to the noithein and cential iegions. Valdivia was eventually killed in
baठle by Mapuche waiiiois.
Duiing this same peiiod. Jacques Caitiei. ਈnanced by liance in 1¯34.
was ieconnoiteiing the eastein iegions of what would become Canada.
and Spaniaids such as Heinando de Sotos. Maicos de Niza and otheis
began penetiating into Noith Ameiica. claiming the lands foi theii ie-
spective countiies. as was theii custom.
Expansion, Exploitation, and Extermination
ےl am SmallpoxX X X l come fiom fai awayX X X wheie the gieat
watei is and then fai beyond it. l am a fiiend of the Big
Knives who have biought me, they aie my people.ۓ
ۊ Jamake Highwatei. An¡oo on InJ:on OJ.sse.
भe foimulative yeais of the colonization piocess weie diiected to-
waids exploiting the lands and peoples to the fullest. To the Euiopeans.
the Ameiicas was a vast. unspoiled aiea suitable foi economic expansion
भe piimaiy activity was the accumulation of gold and silvei. then
a foim of cuiiency among the Euiopean nations. भis accumulation
was ਈist accomplished thiough the ciudest foims of theझ and plundei
(ie. Colomboۏs and Coitesۏ methods). Eventually. moie systematic foims
weie developed. including the enco»:enJos ۊ a foim of taxation imposed
on lndigenous communities that had been subjugated. and the use of
lndigenous slaves to pan the iiveis and stieams. By the mid-1¯00s. the
expiopiiation of gold and silvei involved intensive mining. Entiie cities
and towns developed aiound the mines. Millions of lndigenous peoples
died woiking as slaves in the mines at Guanajuato and Zacatecas in
Mexico. and Potosi in Bolivia. By the end of the 1¯00s. Potosi was one
of the laigest cities in the woild at 3¯0.000 inhabitants. Peiu was also
anothei aiea of intensive mining. liom the time of the aiiival of the
ਈist Euiopean colonizeis until 1õ¯0. 180ۉ200 tons of gold ۊ fiom the
Ameiicas ۊ was added to the Euiopean tieasuiy. ln todayۏs teims. that
gold would be woith s2.8 billion.
Duiing the same peiiod. eight million
slaves died in the Potosi mines alone.
Slaveiy was anothei majoi economic activity. Not only foi woik
in the mines. but also foi expoit to Euiope. ln Nicaiagua alone. the
ਈist ten yeais of intensive slaving. beginning in 1¯2¯. saw an estimated
4¯0.000 Miskitu and Sumu peoples shipped to Euiope. Tens of thousands
peiished in the ships that tianspoited them. Subsequently. the slave
tiade would tuin to Afiika. beginning in the mid-1¯00s when Poituguese
colonists biought Afiikan slaves to Biazil to cut cane and cleai foiest
aiea foi the constiuction of seठlements and chuiches. An estimated 1¯
million Afiikan peoples would be biought as slaves to the Ameiicas by
1800. and a fuithei 40 million oi so peiished in the tiansatlantic ciossing
in the miseiable conditions of the ships holds.
ln aieas such as the highlands of noithein Chile. Peiu. Guatemala.
and Mexico. wheie the climate was moie suitable. the Spanish weie able
Jack Weatheifoid. InJ:on G:+ers. Ballantine Books. New Yoik. 1988.
to giow ciops such as wheat. cauliਉowei. cabbage. leठuce. iadish. sugai
cane. and latei giapes. bananas. and coਇee. By the mid-1¯00s. using
slave laboui. many of these ciops ۊ paiticulaily wheat and sugai cane ۊ
weie laige-scale expoits foi the Euiopean maikets.
ln othei aieas. spiawling heids of caठle weie established. Heids which
iaiely exceeded 800 oi 1.000 in Spain ieached as many as 8.000 in Mexico.
By 1¯¯9. some ianches in noithein Mexico had up to 1¯0.000 head of
भe eਇects of extensive land-cleaiing foi the ciops and ianches and
intensive mining culminated in incieasing defoiestation and damage
to the lands. Moie immediately foi the lndigenous peoples in the ie-
gion. paiticulaily those who lived on subsistence agiicultuie. was the
dismantling of destiuction of agiaiian ways ieplaced by expoit ciops.
ln oidei to caiiy out this expansion and exploitation. the subjugation
of the liist Nations was a necessity. and the task of colonizing othei
peoples was one in which the Euiopeans had had plenty of expeiience.
ےln a sense. the ਈist people colonized undei the pioਈt motiva-
tion by the use of labouiX X Xweie the Euiopean and English
peasantiy. lieland. Bohemia and Catalonia weie colonized.
भe Mooiish nation. as well as the Judaic Sephaidic nation.
weie physically depoited by the Ciown of Castille fiom
the lbeiian peninsulaX X XAll the methods foi ielocation. de-
poitation and expiopiiation. weie alieady piactised if not
Piioi to Colomboۏs 1492 voyage. the development of a capitalist mode
of pioduction emeiging fiom feudalism had dispossessed Euiopean peas-
ants of independent pioduction and subsistence agiicultuie. Subse-
quently. they weie to entei into a ielationship of foiced dependence
to land-owneis and manufactuieis. leading to peiiods of intense class
stiuggle. paiticulaily as the lndustiial Revolution (fueled by the expio-
piiation of mateiials fiom the Ameiicas and Afiika) loomed evei laigei.
Alfied W. Ciosby. ےभe Biological Consequences of 1492ۓ. Re¡orì on ì|e A»er:cos. Vol.
XXV No. 2. pg. 11. ¯.
Roxanne Dunbai Oitiz. InJ:ons o[ ì|e A»er:cos. Piaegei Publisheis. New Yoik 1984.
lndeed. the majoiity of Euiopeans who emigiated to the Ameiicas in
. and 18
centuiies weie impoveiished meichants. petit-
bouigeois tiadeis. meicenaiies. and Chiistian missionaiies all hoping to
build theii foitunes in the ێNew Woildۏ and escape the deepening class
stiatiਈcation that was quickly developing. Howevei. the ਈist peima-
nent seठlements weie limited. theii main puipose being to facilitate and
maintain aieas of exploitation. Duiing the entiie 1õ
centuiy. only an
estimated 100.000 Euiopeans weie peimanent emigiants to the Ameiicas.
भeii eਇects. howevei. weie oveiwhelming, in the same 100 yeai
peiiod. the populations of the lndigenous peoples declined fiom ¯0ۉ100
million to aiound 12 million. भe Aztec nation alone had been ieduced
fiom aiound 30 million to 3 million in one ¯0 yeai peiiod. भe only teim
which desciibes this depopulation is that of Genocide, an Ameiican
Apologists foi the Genocide aठiibute the majoiity of deaths to the
intioduction of disease epidemics such as smallpox and measles by un-
While aठempting to diminish the scale and intensity of the Genocide
(othei foims of this diminishment aie claiming the population of the
Ameiicas was a much smallei poition than geneially accepted demo-
giaphic numbeis). such a peispective disiegaids the conditions in which
these diseases weie intioduced. Conditions such as wais. massacies.
slaveiy. scoiched eaith policies and the subsequent destiuction of sub-
sistence agiicultuie and food-stocks. and the accompanying staivation.
malnutiition. and dismembeiment of communally-based cultuies.
भese conditions weie not intioduced by ےunknowingۓ Euiopeans,
they weie paits of a calculated campaign based on exploitation in which
the exteimination of lndigenous peoples was a ciucial factoi.
Euiopean diseases intioduced into these conditions came as an aझei-
eਇect of the initial aठacks. And theii eਇects weie disastious. Once the
eਇects of the epidemics weie iealized howevei. the use of biological
waifaie was also planned in the foim of infected blankets and othei
textiles supplied to lndigenous peoples.
ࠬe Penetration of North America
While the Spanish weie destioying the Caiibbean and Mesoamei-
ican iegion. the Poituguese weie caiiying out similai campaigns in
Biazil. भe paठeins established by the Spanish would be iepeated by the
Poituguese duiing the 1õ
centuiies in Biazil. Uiuguay. and
By the beginning of the 1¯
centuiy. the Spanish and Poituguese
had penetiated viitually eveiy iegion in the southein hemispheie. es-
tablishing numeious seठlements facilitated with the help of Jesuit and
lianciscan missionaiies. as well as mines. ianches. and plantations. De-
spite all this. theie weie still laige aieas in which Euiopean claims to
lands iemained a theoietical pioposition, these aieas iemained outside of
Euiopean contiol with ਈeice lndigenous iesistance. भis was paiticulaily
so in the southein iegions.
Duiing this peiiod. liench. Dutch. and advance elements of the Biitish
also established seठlements in the Caiibbean.
ln 1õ04. the liench occupied the island of Guadaloupe. followed by
the island of Maitinique and vaiious smallei islands in the West lndies.
ln 1õ3¯ they occupied what is now liench Guiana.
Meanwhile. the Dutch occupied a coastal iegion that would eventually
become Suiinam (Dutch Guiana) as well as seठlements established by
the Dutch West lndia Company in the aiea of Belize (which would latei
become a Biitish colony).
भe Dutch. liench. and Biitish weie ielatively limited in theii exploits
in the South Ameiicas. and it would be in Noith Ameiica wheie theii
main eਇoits would be diiected.
As has alieady been noted. liench expeditions had penetiated the
noith-eastein iegions of what would become बebec and the Atlantic
piovinces. in the 1¯30s. ln 1¯õ2 and 1¯õ4. the liench aठempted to
establish seठlements in South Caiolina and lloiida. but weie diiven
out by the Spanish (who had claimed lloiida in 1¯39 duiing de Sotoۏs
ln 1¯8¯ the Biitish also aठempted seठlements. on Roanoke lsland
in Noith Caiolina. and again in 1¯8õ. Both aठempts failed when the
seठleis-to-be weie unable to suivive.
ln the peiiod up to 1õ00. moie ieconnaissance missions weie con-
ducted, in 1¯¯õ Maitin liobishei chaited the Aictic coasts encounteiing
lnuuk. and in 1¯¯8 liancis Diake chaited the coast of Califoinia.
Meanwhile. the Spanish weie pushing into Noith Ameiica fiom theii
bases in southein Mexico. encounteiing iesistance fiom Pueblos and
ln the beginning of the 1õ00s. as the hoise spiead thioughout the south-
west and into the plains. Samuel de Champlain expanded on Caitieisۏ
eailiei expedition. penetiating as fai west as Lake Huion and Lake On-
taiio. his aठacks on Onondago communities. using Wendat (Huion)
waiiiois. would tuin the Haudenosaunee against the liench.
ln 1õ0õ. the Biitish ਈnally succeeded in establishing theii ਈist pei-
manent seठlement in Noith Ameiica at Jamestown. Viiginia. ln 1õ20.
Pilgiims (English Puiitans) landed on the east coast also. establishing
the Plymouth colony.
Meanwhile. Beothuks in Newfoundland had ietaliated against a liench
aठack in clashes that followed killed 3¯ liench seठleis. भe liench
iesponded by aiming Micmacs ۊ tiaditional enemies of the Beothuks ۊ
and oਇeiing bounties foi Beothuk scalps. भis is believed to the oiigin
of ێscalp-takingۏ by Native waiiiois, the steieo-type of Native ێsavageiyۏ
was in fact intioduced by the liench and. latei. the Dutch. भe combined
aठacks by the liench and Micmacs led to the eventual exteimination of
the Beothuk nation.
ln 1õ24. the Dutch established loit Oiange (latei to become Albany.
New Yoik) and claimed the aiea as New Netheiland.
While the Atlantic coast aiea of Noith Ameiica was becoming quickly
liठeied with Biitish. liench and Dutch seठlements. substantial diਇei-
ences in the lands and iesouices foiced the focus of exploitation to diਇei
fiom the colonization piocess undeiway in Meso- and South Ameiica.
ln the South. the laige-scale expiopiiation of gold and silvei ਈnanced
much of the invasion. As well. the dense populations of the lndigenous
peoples piovided a laige slave-laboui foice to woik in the ਈist mines
ln contiast. the Euiopeans who began colonizing Noith Ameiica found
a lowei population density and the lands. though feitile foi ciops and
abundant in fui-beaiing animals. contained liठle in piecious metals ac-
cessible to 1¯
centuiy Euiopean technology.
भe exploitation of Noith Ameiica was to iequiie long-teim activities
which could not iely on lndigenous oi Afiikan slaveiy but in fact which
iequiied lndigenous paiticipation. Maintaining colonies thousands of
miles away fiomEuiope and lacking the gold which ਈnanced the Spanish
aimada. the colonial foices in Noith Ameiica would have to iely on the
giadual accumulation of agiicultuial pioducts and the fui tiade.
ln this way. the initial seठlements ielied laigely on the hospitality
aਇoided them by the Native peoples. Eailiei aठempts at Euiopean set-
tlements had failed foi piecisely this ieason. as the Euiopeans found
themselves almost completely ignoiant of the land.
भe giowing Euiopean colonies quickly set about acquiiing alieady
cleaied and cultivated land. and theii expansionist policies led to ਈeice
competition between the colonies. भis biठei stiuggle foi domination of
land and tiade fiequently began and ended with aठacks against lndige-
nous communities. One of the ਈist of these ێstiategic aठacksۏ occuiied
in 1õ22 when a foice fiom the Plymouth colony massacied a gioup of
Pequots. ln ietaliation. Pequote waiiiois aठacked a seठlei village at
Wessagusset. which was then abandoned and subsequently absoibed
into the dominion of the Plymouth colony. which had coveted the tiade
and land enjoyed by the Wessagusset seठleis.
By 1õ30. the Massachuseठs Bay colony had been established. and
ێNew Englandۏ. once only a vague geogiaphical expiession came to apply
in piactise to the colonies of New Plymouth. Salem. Nantucket. Rhode
lsland. Connecticut. New Haven and otheis.
भe expansionist diives of the Massachuseठs colonists consisted of
massacies caiiied out against ਈist the Pequot and eventually the Naiia-
ganseठs between 1õ34 and 1õ48.
lt was in this peiiod that the tiansition between Euiopean dependence
on Native peoples began to be ieveised. भiough the establishment and
liancis Jennings. ࡀe In+os:on o[ A»er:co InJ:ons, Co|on:o|:s», onJ ì|e Conì o[ Conqvesì.
Univeisity of Noith Caiolina Piess. Jennings documents the activities of these ਈist
colonies. fiequently ielying on peiiod manusciipts.
expansion of Euiopean colonies. incieased contact with liist Nations
biought extensive tiading. as well as disease epidemics and conਉict.
Tiade giadually seived to bieak up lndigenous societies.
ےlndian industiy became less specialized and divided as it
enteied into closei ielations of exchange with Euiopean in-
dustiy. loi the lndians. inteisocietal commeice tiiumphed
by suboidinating and eliminating all ciaझs except those di-
iectly ielated to the Euiopean-lndian tiade. while inteitiibal
tiading ielations suivived only insofai as they seived the
puiposes of inteisocietal tiadeۓ.
भus. tiade with Euiopean industiy developed a ielationship of giow-
ing dependence on the Euiopean colonists. भe items tiaded to Natives ۊ
metal pots. knives. and occasionally iiਉes ۊ weie of Euiopean manufac-
tuie and supply. भe tiade also disiupted and changed tiaditional Native
methods in othei ways. with the intioduction of alcohol and exteimina-
tionist foims of waifaie ۊ including toituie ۊ undei the diiection of the
colonialists. as well as an oveiall escalation in waifaie in the competition-
diiven fui tiade and intioduction of Euiopean iiਉes.
While disease epidemics began to spiead thioughout the Atlantic
coastal aiea. the colonialists also ielied to a laige extent on exploiting
and exaggeiating alieady existing hostilities between liist Nations. as
the Spanish and Poituguese had also done in theii campaigns.
ےभe giim epics of Coites and Pizaiio. not to speak of Colum-
bus himself. testify to the militaiy abilities of Spanish sol-
dieiy. but these need to be compaied as well with the gieat
failuies of Naivaez. Coionado and de SotoX X X (भe conquis-
tadois) did not conquei Mexico and Peiu unaided. Native
allies weie indispensableX X X Noith of New Spain. invasion
staited latei. so lienchmen. Dutchmen. and Englishmen
found native communitiesX X Xalieady ieduced by epidemic
lbid. pg. 8¯.
fiom base populations that nevei appioached the size of
lt was at this time that the concept of tieaty making began to take
hold. ln keeping with the English colonists eaily plans of keeping some
level of peace with the Natives. as in 1õ0õ when
ےthe Viiginia Company of London instiucted its colonists to
buy a stock of coin fiom the ێnatuialsۏ befoie the English
intention to seठle peimanently should become evident. भe
Companyۏs chiefs weie suie that ێyou cannot caiiy youi-
selves so towaids thembut they will giowdiscontented with
भe initial English (and Dutch) seठleis began the piocess of puichasing
land. supplemented as always with aimed foice against vulneiable ln-
digenous nations (such as those decimated by disease oi alieady engaged
in wais with moie poweiful liist Nations).
lt iemains uncleai as to what the liist Nations undeistood of the local
puichasing piocess. but some points aie cleai, theie was no piactise of
piivate owneiship of land. noi of selling land. among oi between the
Peoples piioi to the aiiival of the colonialists, theie weie howevei agiee-
ments and pacts between liist Nations in iegaids to access to hunting oi
ਈshing aieas. भis would indicate tieaties weie most likely undeistood
as agieements between liist Nations and seठlei communities ovei use of
ceitain aieas of land. as well as non-aggiessiveness pacts. ln eithei case.
wheie liist Nations iemained poweiful enough to detei initial seठlei
outiages the tieaties weie of liठle eਇect if they tuined out to be less than
honouiable. and theie was enough duplicity. fiaud. and theझ contained
in the tieaties that they could not be consideied binding. Piactises such
as oially tianslating one veision of a tieaty and signing anothei on pa-
pei weie fiequent. as was taking Euiopean pioposals in negotiations
and claiming that these had been agieed upon by all ۊ when in fact
lbid. pg. 33.
lbid. pg. ¯õ.
they weie being negotiated. As well. violations of tieaty agieements
by seठleis was commonplace. paiticulaily as. foi example. the Viiginia
colony discoveied the pioਈtability of giowing tobacco (intioduced to
the seठleis by Native peoples) and began expanding on theii initial land
Giadually. liist Nations along the Atlantic found themselves dispos-
sessed of theii lands and victims of seठlei depiedations. One of the ਈist
conਉicts that seiiously thieatened to diive the colonialist foices back
into the sea bioke out in 1õ22. when the Powhatan Confedeiacy. led by
Opechancanough. aठacked the Jamestown colony. Clashes continued
until 1õ44. when Opechancanough was captuied and killed.
By the mid-1õ00s. clashes between Natives and seठleis began to in-
ciease. Tensions giew as the Euiopeans became moie obtuse and domi-
neeiing in theii ielationship with the liist Nations. ln 1õ¯¯ foi example.
the so-called ێPeach Waisۏ eiupted between colonialists of New Nethei-
lands and the Delawaie Nation when a Dutchman killed a Delawaie
woman foi picking a peach tiee on the colonies ێpiopeityۏ. भe seठlei
was subsequently killed and Delawaie waiiiois aठacked seveial Dutch
seठlements. भe ਈghting along the Hudson Rivei lasted until 1õõ4 when
the Dutch foiced the Delawaie nation into submission by kidnapping
Delawaie childien as hostages.
ln 1õ¯¯ the Naiiaganseठs. Nipmucs. and Wapanoags. led in pait by
Metacom (also known as King Philip by the Euiopeans) iebelled against
the colonies of New England following the English aiiest and execution
of thiee Wapanoags foi the alleged killing of a Chiistianized Native. be-
lieved to be a tiaitoi. भe wai ended in 1õ¯õ aझei the English colonialists
ۊ making use of Native allies and infoimeis ۊ weie able to defeat the
iebellion. Metacom was killed. and his family and hundieds of otheis
sold to slaveis in the West lndies. भe militaiy campaign caiiied out by
the colonial foices decimated the Naiiaganseठ. Nipmuc. and Wapanoag
Meanwhile in 1õ80. a Pueblo upiising led in pait by the Tewa Medicine
man Pope succeeded in diiving out the Spanish fiom New Mexico. By
1õ89. Spanish foices weie able to once again subjugate the Pueblos.
By the late 1õ00s. the competition between Euiopean states would
dominate the colonization piocess in Noith Ameiica.
ࠬe European Struggle for Hegemony
Although colonial wais had been fought in the past between liance.
Spain. भe Netheilands. and England. and conਉicts had eiupted between
theii colonies in the Ameiicas. the late 1õ80s and the following 100 yeai
peiiod was to be a time of biठei stiuggle between the Euiopeans foi
domination. भis peiiod of Euiopean wais was to be played out also in
the Ameiicas. ےTo a gieat extent. the baठle foi colonies and the wealth
they pioduced was the ultimate baठleਈeld foi state powei in Euiopeۓ.
Beginning in 1õ89 with King Williamۏs Wai between the liench and
the English. which evolved into बeen Anneۏs Wai (1¯02ۉ13). to King
Geoigeۏs Wai (1¯44ۉ48) and culminating in the so-called ێliench and
lndian Waiۏ (1¯¯4ۉõ3). the baठles foi colonial possessions in the Amei-
icas miiioied those iaging acioss Euiope in the same peiiod. except
that in Noith Ameiican and in the Caiibbean. the Euiopean stiuggle
foi hegemony in the emeiging woild tiade maiket would employ heavy
concentiations of Native waiiiois.
While the Biitish emeiged victoiious fiom the ێGieat Wai foi Empiieۏ.
and the liench defeated ceding Hudson Bay. Acadia. New liance and
othei teiiitoiies in a seiies of tieaties. those who weie most aਇected by
the Euiopean stiuggles weie the Native peoples of the Atlantic iegions.
भe fallout fiom those wais was the viitual exteimination of some ln-
digenous peoples. including the Apalachees in lloiida. the establishment
of colonial militaiy gaiiisons and outposts. a geneial militaiization of
the iegion with heaviei aimaments and combat veteians. and the subse-
quent expansion of colonial seठlements. extending theii fiontieis and
pushing many liist Nations fuithei west.
Duiing the peiiod of the colonial wais. lndigenous iesistance did not
end. noi was it limited to aiding theii iespective ێalliesۏ.
ln 1¯11. the Tuscaioias aठacked the English in Noith Caiolina and
fought foi two yeais. until the English countei-insuigency campaign leझ
hundieds dead and some 400 sold into slaveiy. भe Tuscaioias ਉed noith.
seठling among the Haudenosaunee and becoming the Sixth Nation in
Oitiz. op. cit.
ln 1¯1¯. the Yamasee nation iose up against the English in South
Caiolina. but weie viitually exteiminated in a iuthless English campaign.
ln 1¯20. the Chickasaw nation waiied against liench occupation. until
lianceۏs capitulation to England in 1¯õ3. Similaily. lox iesistance to
liench colonialism continued fiom 1920 to aiound 1¯3¯.
ln 1¯29. the Natchez nation began aठacking liench seठleis in
Louisiana aझei goveinoi Sieui Chepait oideied theii main village cleaied
foi his plantations. ln the ensuing baठles. Chepait was killed and the
liench countei-insuigency campaign leझ the Natchez decimated. al-
though gueiiilla stiuggle was to continue along the Mississippi Rivei.
ln 1¯õ0 the Cheiokee nation began theii own gueiiilla wai against
theii ێalliesۏ the English. in Viiginia and Caiolina. Led by Oconostota.
the Cheiokee fought foi two yeais. eventually agieeing to a peace tieaty
which saw paititions of theii land ceded aझei the English colonial foices
had iazed Cheiokee villages and ciops.
ln 1¯õ1. Aleuts in Alaska aठacked Russian tiadeis following depie-
dations on Aleut communities oਇ the coast of Alaska (the Russian colo-
nizeis eventually moved into the Piibilof and Aleutian islands in 1¯9¯.
ielocating Aleuts and viitually enslaving them in the seal hunt).
Against Biitish colonization. the Oठawa leadei Pontiac led an alliance
of Oठawas. Algonquins. Senecas. Mingos. and Wyandots in 1¯õ3. भe
oਇensive captuied nine of twelve English gaiiisons and laid siege to
Detioit foi six months. Unable to expand the insuigency oi diaw in
piomised liench assistance. Pontiac eventually negotiated an end to the
conਉict in 1¯õõ.
Added to this peiiod of waifaie was the continuing spiead of disease
epidemics. ln 1¯4õ in Nova Scotia alone. 4.000 Micmacs had died of
With the defeat of liance. the Biitish had acquiied vast iegions of
foimeily liench teiiitoiy. unbeknownst to the many liist Nations who
lived on those lands. and with whom the liench nevei negotiated any
land tieaties noi iecognized any foim of Native title.
At this time.
ےX X Xthe Biitish goveinment seized the oppoitunity to consol-
idate its impeiial position by stiuctuiing foimal. constitu-
tional ielations withX X Xnatives. ln the Pioclamation of 1¯õ3.
it announced its intention of conciliating those disgiuntled
tiibes by iecognizing theii land iights. by secuiing to them
contiol of unceded land. and by enteiing into a nation-to-na-
भe Royal Pioclamation of 1¯õ3 piovided foi a sepaiate ێlndian Tei-
iitoiyۏ west of the Appalachians and the oiiginal भiiteen Colonies.
Within this teiiitoiy theie was to be no puichasing of land othei than
by the ciown. ln the colonies now undei Biitish contiol. including
Newfoundland. Labiadoi. बebec. Nova Scotia. as well as the भiiteen
Colonies. seठleis occupying unceded Native lands weie to be iemoved.
and piivate puichases of lands occupied by oi ieseived foi Natives was
piohibited ۊ these lands could only be puichased by the ciown in the
piesence of the liist Nations.
As giand as these statements weie. they weie ioutinely violated by
colonialists and iaiely enfoiced. lndeed. one yeai following the pioclama-
tion. Loid Dunmoie ۊ the goveinoi of the Viiginia colony ۊ had alieady
bieached the demaication line by gianting to veteians of the ێliench
and lndian Waiۏ who had seived undei him lands which weie pait of
the Shawnee nation. भe Shawnee ietaliation was not shoit in coming.
but Dunmoieۏs challenge to Biitish contiol was to piecipitate in foim
and substance anothei peiiod of conਉict that would see the colonization
piocess expand westwaid. And that peiiod of conਉict would undeiline
the ieal intent of the Royal Pioclamation as a stiategic document in the
defense of Biitish colonial inteiests in Noith Ameiica.
John S. Milloy. ےभe Eaily lndian Acts· Developmental Stiategy and Constitutional
Changeۓ. As Long As ࡀe Svn S|:nes onJ Voìer F|o+s. Univeisity of BC Piess. 1983. pg.
Tragedy· ࠬe United States is Created
With the dominance of Biitish powei on a woild scale. the Euiopean
stiuggle foi hegemony in the Ameiicas was neaiing its end. Subse-
quently. the 18
centuiies weie to be a peiiod of wais foi
independence that would foice the Euiopean states out of the Ameiicas.
loiemost among these wais was the independence stiuggle that would
lead to the biith of the United States.
Emeiging fiom the ێGieat Wai foi Empiieۏ. Biitain found itself vic-
toiious but also heavily in debt. To defiay the cost of maintaining and
defending the colonies. Biitain substantially changed its colonial policies.
Laige poitions of the ਈnancial costs of the colonies weie placed diiectly
on the colonies themselves thiough a seiies of taxes. भe imposition of
the taxes incited the seठleis to demand taxes be imposed only with theii
consent. ln fact. the question of taxes was pait of a widei debate, who
should contiol and pioਈt fiom colonialism. the colonies oi the colonial
By 1¯¯¯. seठlei piotests and ievolts had culminated into a geneial wai
foi independence that continued until 1¯83. when the Biitish capitulated
and ceded laige poitions of its teiiitoiies along the Atlantic.
भat the Biitish colonial foices did not lose moie teiiitoiy can be aठiib-
uted much to the paiticipation of numeious liist Nations on the side of
the Biitish, the Royal Pioclamation was thus a stiategy to dampen Native
iesistance to Biitish colonialism (as in the eiuption of King Geoigeۏs Wai
in 1¯44 when Micmacs allied themselves with the liench and. following
the Tieaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1¯48. continued ਈghting the Biitish. who
then concluded a tieaty of ےPeace and liiendshipۓ with the Micmacs). as
well as a method of foiming militaiy alliances with liist Nations. if not
at least theii neutiality in Euiopean conਉicts.
As in pievious Euiopean stiuggles. lndigenous peoples weie used as
expendable tioops. and the extensive militaiization fuithei consolidated
ےभe end of the wai saw thousands of Whites. United Em-
piie Loyalists. ਉock to Nova Scotia. भey came in such num-
beis and spiead so widely ovei the Maiitime iegion that it
was consideied necessaiy to divide Nova Scotia into thiee
piovinces to ease administiative pioblems, New Biunswick.
Cape Bieton. Nova ScotiaX X Xand lle St.-Jean. soon to be ie-
named Piince Edwaid lslandۓ.
To the south. the iebellious seठleis weie establishing theii newly-cie-
ated United States. loi the liist Nations in this iegion. the wai had been
paiticulaily destiuctive, the colonial iebels had caiiied out scoiched-
eaith campaigns against the Shawnee. Delawaie. Cheiokee. and the Hau-
denosaunee (which had suਇeied a split with the Oneidas and Tuscaioias
allying themselves with the ievolutionaiies).
Heie again the Royal Pioclamation iemained a useful tool in ie-en-
foicing the Biitish colonial fiontiei and ietaining Native allies.
ےAdheience to the piinciples of theX X XPioclamationX X Xie-
mained the basis of Biitainۏs lndian policy foi moie than half
a centuiy. and explains the success of the Biitish in main-
taining the lndians as allies in Biitainۏs wais in Noith Amei-
icaX X X Even when Biitain lost much of its Noith Ameiican
teiiitoiy aझei 1¯81. and its lndian allies lost theii tiaditional
lands as a iesult of theii Biitish alliance. the Ciown pui-
chased land fiom the lndians living within Biitish teiiitoiy
and gave it to theii allies who moved noithX X Xۓ.
Having consolidated the भiiteen Colonies along the Atlantic seaboaid.
the independent United States quickly set about expanding westwaid.
launching militaiy campaigns to extend the fiontieis of seठlement.
One of the ਈist of these campaigns began in 1¯90 undei the oidei of
Piesident Geoige Washington. Consisting of about 1.100 Pennsylvania.
Viiginia. and Kentucky militiamen led by Biigadiei Geneial Josiah Hai-
mai. the foice was quickly defeated by a confedeiacy of Miami. Shawnee.
Ojibway. Delawaie. Potawatomi. and Oठawa waiiiois led by the Miami
Geoige l. G. Stanley. ےAs Long as the Sun Shines and the Watei llows· An Histoiical
Commentۓ. ibid. pg. ¯ۉõ.
John L. Tobias. ےPiotection. Civilization. Assimilation· An Outline Histoiy of Canadaۏs
lndian Policyۓ. ibid. pg. 40.
chief Michikinikwa (Liठle Tuitle). A second foice was dispatched and
defeated in Novembei. 1¯91. linally. in 1¯94. a laige foice led by Geneial
Anthony Wayne defeated the confedeiacy. now led by Tuikey loot. neai
the shoies of Lake Eiie. Waiiiois who suivived made theii way to the
Biitish loit Miami gaiiison. But the Biitish ۊ foimei allies of many
of the liist Nations in the confedeiacy duiing the ievolutionaiy wai
ۊ iefused them sheltei. and hundieds weie slaughteied at the gates by
Wayneۏs soldieis. Although the confedeiacy was essentially bioken. the
Miami would continue aimed iesistance up to 1840.
भe ێlndian Waisۏ launched by the US continued foi the next 100 yeais.
following an exteiminationist policy that was aimed at destioying Native
nations and secuiing those iemnants who suivived in (what was then
believed) baiien and desolate ieseives. Once the People weie contained
in these Bonìvsìons. the next step was the destiuction of Native cultuie
undei the auspices of then-emeiging goveinmental agencies.
As the US moved to a highei level of wai against liist Nations. it also
began moving against competing Euiopean poweis still piesent in the
ln 1812. using the pietext of Native iaids along its noithein fiontiei
fiom Biitish teiiitoiies. US foices aठempted to invade Biitish Noith
Ameiica. Heie again. Biitainۏs colonial policies pioved eਇective, an
alliance of Native nations (who had theii own inteiests in full imple-
mentation of the 1¯õ3 Pioclamation) and Euiopean seठleis succeeded
in iepulsing the US expansion. Among those who fought against the
US invasion weie the Native leadeis Tecumseh ۊ a Shawnee chief who
woiked to foim a Native confedeiacy against the Euiopeans (and who
aigued that no one individual oi giouping could sell the lands. as it be-
longed to all the Native peoples), Black Hawk ۊ a leadei of the Sauk who
would also lead futuie Native insuigencies, and Joseph Biant ۊ a leadei
in the Haudenosaunee who was iewaided with a laige teiiitoiy by the
Biitish and piomptly began selling oਇ paititions to Euiopean seठleis (in
histoiy. he is iegaided as a ےheioۓ by Euio-Ameiicans but a tiaitoi by
his people). Tecumseh was killed in baठle in the Baठle of Moiaviantown
in Ontaiio in 1813.
ln 181¯. hostilities between Biitain and the US weie foimally ended
in the Tieaty of Ghent. though neithei the US wai on Natives. oi Native
Reyolutions in the كNew Worldل
lollowing the Ameiican Revolution. movements foi independence
began bieaking out in South and Cential Ameiica.
Despite the seemingly monolithic appeaiance of Spanish oi Poi-
tuguese colonialism in the ਈist thiee centuiies following the Euiopean
invasion. and despite the genocidal policies of the conquistadois. Native
iesistance continued. Paiticulaily in. foi example. the inteiioi iegion of
the Yucatan Peninsula. the lowland foiests of Peiu. the Amazon iegion.
and even in the Andean highlands ۊ which had suਇeied such a seveie
depopulation, between 1¯32 and 1õ2¯. the population of the Andean
peoples is estimated to have declined fiom 9 million to ¯00.000. ln these
iegions. colonial domination was continually challenged and foimed the
base foi iesistance movements that began even in the 1¯00s.
Among the ਈist of these ievolts was the Vilacabamba iebellion of
1¯3õ led by Manqu lnka. Although the insuigency was unable to expand
and failed to diive the Spanish out. the iebels weie able to establish a
ےlibeiated zoneۓ in the Vilacabamba iegion of piesent-day Bolivia foi the
next thiee decades.
भe ending of the initial ievolt is iecognized as the
execution of anothei leadei. Tupac Amaiu l in 1¯¯2.
Othei majoi insuigencies also bioke out in Ecuadoi in 1¯¯8. 1¯99. and
1õ1¯. भe ltza of Tayasal in the Yucatan Peninsula iemained unsubju-
gated until 1õ9¯.
ےEuiopeans found it paiticulaily diਊcult to establish eਇec-
tive tianspoitation and communication facilities in the foiest
lowlands of the Maya aieaX X X भough the Spaniaids achieved
foimal soveieignty ovei Yucatan with ielative ease. many
Silvia Riveia Cusicanqui. ےAymaia Past. Aymaia lutuieۓ. Re¡orì on ì|e A»er:cos. Vol.
XXV No. 3. pg. 20. 1¯.
local Maya gioups successfully iesisted eਇective domina-
tionX X Xfoi centuiiesۓ.
Keeping pace with colonial developments in Noith Ameiica. the Span-
ish intioduced a seiies of laws in the 1¯
centuiy known as the Leyes
de lndias. Similai to the latei 1¯õ3 Pioclamation intioduced in Biitish
Noith Ameiica. the laws paititioned the Andean iegion into a ێRepublic
of Spainۏ and a ێRepublic of lndiansۏ ۊ each with its own sepaiate couits.
laws and iights. भe Leyes de lndias weie. ےfiom the point of view of the
colonial statX X Xa piagmatic measuie to pievent the exteimination of the
(lndigenous) laboui foiceX X Xۓ.
Despite its seeming ےlibeialismۓ. foiced laboui accompanied by tax
laws iemained in place. and the iegulation was nevei fully enfoiced.
ln 1¯42. Juan Santos Atahualpa led an lndigenous iesistance movement
in Peiu compiised laigely of Yanesha (Amuesha) and Ashaninka (Campa)
peoples that fought oਇ Spanish colonization foi moie than a centuiy.
ln the 18
centuiy. lndigenous iesistance bioke out in a majoi ievolt
in the colony of Uppei Peiu (now Bolivia). led by Jose Gabiiel Tupac
ےMuch has been wiiठen about the 1¯80 lndian iebellion led
by Jose Gabiiel Tupaq Amaiu and his successois, less is
known about the Chayanta and Sikasika ievolts which oc-
cuiied at the same time. the laठei led by Julian Apasa Tupaq
Kataii. loi moie than half a centuiy. colonial tax laws had
piovoked a gioundswell of piotestX X X ln mid-1¯80. an appai-
ently spontaneous ievolt bioke out in Macha. in the piovince
of Chayanta. to fiee an lndian cacique. Tomas Kataii. jailed
aझei a dispute with local mestizo authoiitiesX X X भen in No-
vembei 1¯80. Jose Gabiiel Tupaq Amaiu led a well-oiganized
iebellion in Tungasuca. neai Cuzco. Julian Apasa Tupaq
Kataii. an lndian commonei fiom Sullkaw (Sikasika) iose up
and laid siege to La Paz fiom Maich to Octobei 1¯81 duiing
John S. Hendeison. ࡀe Vor|J o[ ì|e Anc:enì Mo.o. Coinell Univeisity Piess. 1981. pg. 32.
Sylvia Riveia Cusicanqui. op. cit.
which one fouith of the cityۏs population died. Aझei the
defeat in Apiil 1¯81 of Tupaq Amaiu in Cuzco. the iebellion
shiझed to Azangaio. wheie his ielatives Andies and Diego
Ciistobal led the stiuggle. Andies successfully laid siege
to Soiata in August of that yeai. but by Novembei he and
Diego Ciistobal weie foiced to suiiendei to the Spanish au-
thoiities. भe iebellion was ciushed by the beginning of
भe leadeis. peiceived oi ieal. weie captuied and executed, they weie
quaiteied. decapitated. oi buined alive.
While lndigenous iesistance continued and fiequently sent shock-
waves thioughout the ianks of the colonialists ۊ including Spaniaids
and Cieoles (descendants of Spanish seठleis in the Ameiicas) ۊ the
colonies themselves began to expeiience movements foi independence
compiised of Cieoles and Mestizos.
भe backgiounds to the movements foi independence ۊ like in the
US ۊ aie found in the oppiessive taxation and monopolistic tiade laws
imposed by the colonial centeis. both of which constiained the economic
giowth of the colonies. As well. Cieoles weie geneially by-passed foi
colonial positions which went to agents boin in Spain.
भe ਈist majoi seठlei ievolt was in 1809 in the colony of Uppei Peiu
(Bolivia). which succeeded in tempoiaiily oveithiowing Spanish authoi-
ities. ln 1810 Colombia declaied its independence. followed one yeai
latei by Venezuela. ln 181õ. Aigentina declaied its independence. and
the next yeai Geneial Jose de San Maitin led tioops acioss the Andes to
ےlibeiate Chile and Peiu fiom the Royalist foicesۓ. Wais foi independence
spiead quickly. and Spanish ioyalist foices lost one colony aझei anothei
in decisive conਉicts. culminating in the Baठle of Ayacucho in 1824 in
Peiu. which eਇectively diminished Spainۏs domination in the Ameiicas
(which was alieady dampened by Napoleonۏs invasion of Spain in the
lbid. pg. 21.
Although the independence movements succeeded in oveithiowing
Spanish and Poituguese foices. they weie led by. and in the inteiests of.
Cieole elites ۊ with the assistance of land-owneis and meichants.
ےX X Xthe ievolutions foi independent state foimation in the
Ameiicas in the late 18
and eaily 19
centuiies must be
seen as being in the mode of Euiopean nation-state foima-
tion foi the puipose of capitalist development. Although
they weie anti-ێmothei countiyۏ. they weie not anti-colonial
(just as the foimation of Rhodesia and South Afiica as states
weie not anti-colonial events)ۓ.
भe piesent-day Confedeiation of lndigenous Nationalities of Ecuadoi
(CONAlE) desciibes the independence of Ecuadoi. foi example. as
ےnot mean(ing) any change in oui living conditions, it was
nothing moie than the passage of powei fiom the hands of
the Spaniaids to the hands of the Cieolesۓ.
As in the US example. the newly-independent states quickly set about
consolidating theii positions politically and militaiily and puisuing eco-
भe iesult was an eiuption of wais between the independent states
ovei boideis. tiade. and ultimately foi iesouices. ln 1884 the Wai of the
Paciਈc began. involving Bolivia. Chile. and Peiu in a dispute ovei access
to nitiate iesouice. liom 18õ¯ۉ¯0. Aigentina. Biazil. and Uiuguay allied
themselves against Paiaguay in the bloody Wai of the Tiiple Alliance ۊ
a wai in which Paiaguay lost a laige amount of its male population ۊ
As in Noith Ameiica. these and othei conਉicts most adveisely aਇected
the liist Nations peoples. भe majoiity of those who died in the Wai of
the Tiiple Alliance weie Native. As well. the militaiization that occuiied
cieated laige ieseives of well-equipped. combat-expeiienced tioops. ln
Roxanne Dunbai Oitiz. op. cit.
बoted in Les lield. ےEcuadoiۏs Pan-lndian Upiisingۓ. Re¡orì on ì|e A»er:cos. Vol. XXV
No. 3. pg. 41.
Aigentina and Chile. these militaiy ieseives weie diiected against invad-
ing then unsubjugated iegions wheie Mapuche iesistance had peisisted
foi centuiies. Between 18õ¯ and 188¯. a militaiized fiontiei existed fiom
which aठacks against the Mapuche weie conducted. Tens of thousands
of Mapuche weie killed. the suivivois dispeised to ieseivation aieas.
ln the 18¯0s. the development of vulcanization in Euiope led to an
invasion of the Uppei Amazon iegions of Biazil. Colombia. Ecuadoi. Peiu.
and Bolivia ۊ wheie iubbei tiees would eventually supply the woild
maiket. ln the Putumayo iivei iegion of noithein Peiu and Colombia
alone. 40.000 Natives weie killed between 188õ and 1919 (by 1920. itۏs
estimated that the depopulation of the iubbei aieas had ieached 9¯¯ in
lt was in this post-independence peiiod that ۊ aiising fiom the com-
plete tiansition fiom leudalism to capitalism in Euiope ۊ new foims
of Euiopean domination weie being intioduced. Biieਉy. this consisted
of the intioduction of bank loans diiected piimaiily at developing in-
fiastiuctuies foi the expoit of iaw and manufactuied mateiials· ioads.
iailways. and poits. paiticulaily in the mining and agiicultuial indus-
tiies. ln the 1820s. English banks loaned ovei 21 million pounds to
foimei Spanish colonies. भiough the debts. and the subsequent impoit
of Euiopean technology and machineiy necessaiy foi laige-scale min-
ing and agiibusiness ۊ necessaiy to begin iepayment of the loans ۊ
dependence was giadually established (and continues today in the foim
of the lnteinational Monetaiy lund and the Woild Bank. contiolled by
Duiing the same peiiod. the US was also seठing footholds in the iegion.
ln 18¯3. ਈve yeais aझei gold was discoveied in pieviously unknown aieas
in Cential Ameiica. US maiines invaded Nicaiagua. ln 1898. following
the Spanish-Ameiican Wai. Pueito Rico and Cuba weie annexed to the
US (Pueito Rico iemains today as the last US colonial nation). As well. US
Andiew Giay. ࡀe A»er:nJ:ons o[ Sovì| A»er:co. Minoiity Rights Gioup Repoit No. 1¯.
London 198¯. pg. 8.
G-¯· the giouping of the seven most advanced industiialized countiies consisting of
Biitain. Canada. liance. ltaly. Geimany. Japan. and the USA. भe G-¯ meet annually to
deteimine woild economic policies, togethei they hold dominant positions in the woild
foices occupied the Philippines ۊcaiiying out massacies of men. women.
and childien ۊ and Hawaii came undei US contiol in 1893. With these
actions the US established itself as an emeiging capitalist powei. and the
eventual extent of US impeiialism was beginning to take shape.
On a global scale. the development of impeiialismhad nowestablished
itself inteinationally, the full division of the woild between piedomi-
nantly Euiopean poweis and the US was complete (and would subse-
quently lead to two woild wais).
Manifest Destiny and the US كIndian Warsل
While the US was in the piocess of establishing itself as an impeiialist
woild powei. it was still stiuggling to consolidate itself as a continental
base and counteiing aimed iesistance by liist Nations.
Piioi to the US-Biitish Wai of 1812. Louisiana was puichased fiom
liance. in 1803. and Spain had ceded lloiida in 1819. By 1824. the Buieau
of lndian Aਇaiis was oiganized as pait of the Wai Depaitment. Militaiy
campaigns weie launched against liist Nations. fiom the Shawnee of
the Mississippi Valley to the Seminole in lloiida. At the same time.
the legalistic instiuments foi occupation weie being intioduced. ln
1830 the lndian Removal Act was implemented. and in 1834 Congiess
ieoiganized the vaiious depaitments dealing with lndian iepiession by
cieating the US Depaitment of lndian Aਇaiis. and the lndian Tiade and
lnteicouise Act which iedeਈned the ێlndian Teiiitoiyۏ and ێPeimanent
lndian liontieiۏ. भe ێlndian Teiiitoiyۏ had been pieviously deਈned in
182¯ as lands west of the Mississippi. lollowing the foimation of the
teiiitoiies of Wisconsin and lowa. the fiontiei was extended fiom the
Mississippi to the 9¯
भe lndian Removal Act was diiected at foiced ielocation of Natives
east of the 9¯
meiidian to the west of it. ln 1838. US tioops foiced
thousands of Cheiokee into concentiation camps. fiom which they weie
foiced westwaid on the Tiail of Teais. ln the midst of wintei. one out
of eveiy foui Cheiokees died fiom cold. hungei. oi diseases. Many
othei nations weie foicibly ielocated· the Choctaws. Chickasaws. Cieeks.
Shawnees. Miamis. Oठawas. Wendats and Delawaies. भe ێPeimanent
lndian liontieiۏ was a militaiized line of US gaiiisons. similai to that in
Aigentina and Chile duiing the same peiiod.
But the ێlndian liontieiۏ was not to hold. Like the Biitish Royal Piocla-
mation of 1¯õ3. the iestiictions on Euiopeans seठling oi tiading in these
iegions weie ioutinely ignoied. With the US annexation of noithein
Mexico in 1848. the US acquiied the teiiitoiies of Texas. Califoinia. New
Mexico. Aiizona. Utah and Coloiado. भe same yeai. gold was discov-
eied in Califoinia. With these two events. the laige-scale invasion of the
ێlndian Teiiitoiyۏ was undeiway. Undei the ideology of Manifest Destiny.
the US was to launch a ienewed peiiod of genocidal wai against those
iegions and liist Nations which iemained unsubjugated. भe theatie of
wai extended fiom the Gieat Lakes iegion aiound Minnesota. south of
the Rio Giande. and west to Califoinia. extending noith to Washington
state. lt was a peiiod of wai which involved many liist Nations· the
Lakota. Cheyenne. Commanche. Kiowa. Yakima. Nez Peice. Walla Walla.
Cayuse. Aiapaho. Apache. Navajo. Shoshone. Kickapoos. and many oth-
eis. lt was also a wai fiom which many Native leadeis would leave a
legacy of stiuggle that. like those stiuggles in South and Mesoameiica.
would iemain as symbols of iesistance to the Euiopean colonization·
Ciazy Hoise. Tatanka Yotanka (Siठing Bull). Ten Beais. Victoiio. Geion-
imo. बanah Paikei. Wovoka. Black Keठle. Red Cloud. Chief Joseph. and
so many otheis.
Although the ێlndian Waisۏ of this peiiod weie by no means one-
sided ۊ the US foices suਇeied many defeats ۊ the US colonial foices
succeeded in giadually and iuthlessly gaining dominance. Vaiious fac-
tois contiibuted to this. following the paठeins of pievious campaigns
against Native peoples· the continuing spiead of diseases such as measles.
smallpox. and choleia (between 183¯ۉ¯0. at least foui majoi smallpox
epidemics swept thiough the westein plains. and between 18¯0ۉõ0 a
choleia epidemic hit the Gieat Basin and southein plains), the use of
infoimeis and tiaitois, and the oveiwhelming stiength of US foices in
both weaponiy and numbeis of soldieis. Combined with outiight tieach-
eiy and policies of exteimination. these factois continued to eiode the
stiength of once-poweiful liist Nations.
One of the majoi tuining points in this peiiod can be seen as the US
Afrikan Slayery, Afrikan Rebellion, and the US
Ostensibly a moial ciusade to ےabolish slaveiyۓ. the US Civil Wai of
18õ1ۉõ¯ was in ieality a conਉict between the commeicial and indus-
tiial development of the Noith against the agiaiian stagnation based on
Afiikan peoplesۏ slave-laboui of the South.
By the 19
centuiy. 10 to 1¯ million Afiikan peoples had been ielo-
cated to the Ameiicas by ਈist Poituguese. then English. Spanish. and
US colonialists. भese peoples came fiom all iegions of Afiika· Senegal.
the lvoiy Coast. Angola. Mozambique. etc. ۊ and fiom many Afiikan
Nations· the Yoiuba. Kissi. Senefu. loulah. lons. Adjas. and many otheis.
Enslaved. these peoples weie foiced to laboui in the mines. textile
mills. factoiies. and plantations that seived ਈist the Euiopean maikets
and. aझei the wais foi independence. the newly-cieated nation-states of
भe slave-tiade in both Ameiican and Afiikan lndigenous peoples
was absolutely necessaiy foi the Euiopean colonization of the Ameiicas.
भe foiced ielocation of millions of Afiikan peoples also intioduced new
dynamics into the colonization piocess, not only in the economics of
Euiopean occupation. but also in the development of Afiikan peoplesۏ
As eaily as 1¯2õ. Afiikan slaves had iebelled in a shoit-lived Spanish
colony in South Caiolina. and aझei theii escape took iefuge amongst liist
Nations peoples. ln the Caiibbean and South Ameiica. wheie Afiikan
slaveiy was ਈist centeied. laige ievolts fiequently bioke out and escaped
Afiikan slaves took iefuge amongst Caiibs and Aiawaks. ln Noitheast
Biazil. an Afiikan iebellion succeeded in oiganizing the teiiitoiy of
Palmaies ۊ which giew to one-thiid the size of Poitugal.
Piobably one of the most famous Afiikan and Native alliances was
the example of the escaped Afiikan slaves and the Seminole in lloiida.
भe escaped Afiikans had ےfoimed libeiated Afiikan communities as a
semi-autonomous pait of the shelteiing Seminole Nationۓ.
J. Sakai. Se࠻|ers ࡀe M.ì| o[ ì|e V|:ìe Pro|eìor:oì. Moiningstai Piess. 1989. pg. 2¯.
these two peoples would caiiy out one of the stiongest iesistance stiug-
gles against the US. भe so-called Seminole Wais began in 1812 when
Geoigia vigilantes aठempted to iecaptuie Afiikans foi enslavement. and
continued foi thiity yeais undei the US campaign of ielocations. भe
Seminole Wais. undei the fanatical diiection of Piesident Jackson. weie
the most costly of the US ێlndian Waisۏ, ovei 1.õ00 US soldieis weie
killed and thousands wounded at the cost of some s30 million. Even
aझei this. the Seminole-Afiikan gueiiillas iemained unsubjugated. भe
solidaiity between the Afiikans and the Seminoles is most cleai in the
second Seminole Wai of 183¯. भe Seminoles. undei Osceola. iefused to
accept ielocation to Oklahoma ۊ one of the key disagieements also be-
ing the US insistence on sepaiation of the Afiikans fiom theii Seminole
biotheis and sisteis. भe US foices ielaunched theii wai. and weie nevei
able to achieve a cleai victoiy.
By the mid-1800s. slaveiy was viewed by some paits of the US iuling
class as an obstacle to economic giowth and expansion. भe anti-slaveiy
campaign. led by the Noith. was a piactical eਇoit to fiee land and laboui
fiom the limitations of the closed system of plantation agiicultuie based
on slave laboui,
ےSlaveiy had become an obstacle to both the continued
giowth of seठlei society and the inteiests of the Euio-
Ameiikan bouigeoisie. lt was not that slaveiy was unpiof-
itable itself. lt was. woikei foi woikei. much moie pioਈtable
than white wage-laboui. Afiikan slaves in industiy cost the
capitalists less than one-thiid the wages of white woiking-
menX X X But the Ameiican capitalists needed to gieatly ex-
pand theii laboui foice. While the planteis believed that
impoiting new millions of Afiikan slaves would most piof-
itably meet this need. it was cleai that this would only add
fuel to the ਈies of the alieady insuiiectionaiy Afiikan colony.
Pioਈt had to be seen not only in the squeezing of a few moie
dollais on a shoit-teim. individual basis. but in teims of the
needs of an entiie Empiie and its futuie. And it was not
just the demand foi laboui alone that outmoded the slave
system. Capitalism needed giant aimies of seठleis. waves
and waves of new Euiopean shock-tioops to help conquei
and hold new teiiitoiy. to develop it foi the bouigeoisie and
gaiiison it against the oppiessedۓ.
भe ےinsuiiectionaiy ਈiesۓ had alieady dealt the occupation foices a
shocking blow in 1¯91 in the Haitian Revolution. Afiikan slaves. led
in pait by Toussaint LۏOuveituie. iebelled and defeated Spanish. Eng-
lish. and liench foices. establishing the Haitian Republic that oਇeied
citizenship to any Native oi Afiikan peoples who wanted it.
भeie weie also incieasing ievolts within the US. including the 1800
ievolt in Viiginia led by Gabiiel Piossei. and Nat Tuineiۏs ievolt in 1831
which killed sixty seठleis.
ےभe situation became moie acute as the developing capitalist
economy cieated tiends of uibanization and industiializa-
tion. ln the eaily 1800s the Afiikan population of many
cities was iising fastei than that of Euio-Ameiicansۓ.
भe ievolts led by Gabiiel and Tuinei had caused discussions in the
Viiginia legislatuie on ending slaveiy. and public iallies had been held
in Westein Viiginia demanding an all-white Viiginia.
Combined. these factois led the Noith to agitate foi an end to slaveiy
as one speciਈc foim of exploitation. ln tuin. the Southein states. led by
plantation owneis and slaveis. thieatened to secede fiom the Union. भe
Civil Wai began.
Blaࠨ Reconstruction and Deconstruction
भe beginning of the US Civil Wai in 18õ1 posed vaiious pioblems foi
the noithein Union iuling class. Not only was the wai foi the pieseiva-
tion of an expanding continental empiie. but it also opened up a second
fiont· that of a libeiation stiuggle by enslaved Afiikan peoples. With
lbid. pg. 2¯.
lbid. pg. 31.
a population of foui million. the iising of these Afiikans in the South
pioved ciucial in the defeat of the Confedeiacy. By the tens of thousands.
Afiikan slaves escaped fiom the slaveis and enlisted in the Union foices.
भis massive withdiawal of slave-laboui hit the Southein economy haid.
and the Noithein foices weie bolsteied by the thousands.
Towaids the end of the Wai in 18õ¯. those Afiikans who did not es-
cape began a laige-scale stiike following the defeat of the Confedeiacy.
भey claimed the lands that they had labouied on. and began aiming
themselves ۊ not only against the Southein planteis but also against
the Union aimy. Widespiead conceins about this ێdangeious positionۏ
of Afiikans in the South led to ێBlack Reconstiuctionۏ, Afiikans weie
piomised ےdemociacy. human iights. self-goveinment and populai own-
eiship of the landۓ.
ln ieality. it was a stiategy foi ietuining Euio-Ameiican dominance
ے1. भe militaiy iepiession of the most oiganized and mili-
tant Afiikan communities.
2. Pacifying the Afiikan peoples by neo-colonialism. using
elements of the Afiikan petit-bouigeoisie to led theii people
into embiacing US citizenship as the answei to all piob-
lems. lnstead of nationhood and libeiation. the neo-colonial
agents told the masses that theii demociatic demands could
be met by following the Noithein seठlei capitalistsX X Xۓ.
lollowing this stiategy. Union aimy foices aठacked Afiikan communi-
ties who weie occupying land. foicing tens of thousands oਇ collectively
held land and aiiesting the ےleadeisۓ. Afiikan tioops who had fought in
the Union aimy weie quickly disaimed and dispeised. oi sent to ਈght as
colonial tioops in the ongoing ےlndian Waisۓ. White supiemacist teiioi-
ist oiganizations foimed. one of the most infamous ۊ but not the only ۊ
being the Ku Klux Klan.
Undei the 14
Amendment to the US Constitution. Afiikans became
US citizens. including the iight to vote. भiough the neo-colonialist
lbid. pg. 39.
stiategy of Reconstiuction. Afiikans weie able to push thiough iefoims
including integiated juiies. piotective laboui iefoims. divoice and piop-
eity iights foi women. and an involvement in local goveinment.
Howevei. even these small iefoims weie too much foi Southein
Whites. Reconstiuction was vigoiously iesisted ۊ not only by foimei
slaves and planteis but also by pooi Whites who ਉocked to oiganiza-
tions such as the KKK. White Caps. White Cioss. and the White League.
भousands of Afiikans weie killed duiing state elections as the White
supiemacist gioups conducted teiioiist campaigns aimed at counteiing
the gains of Reconstiuction and pieseiving White supiemacy.
ےln 18¯õۉ¯¯. the ਈnal accommodation between Noithein cap-
ital and the Southein planteis was ieached in the ێHayes-
Tilden dealۏ. भe South piomised to accept the dominance
of the Noithein bouigeoisie ovei the entiie Empiie. and to
peimit the Republican candidate Rutheifoid B. Hayes to suc-
ceed Giant in the US Piesidency. ln ietuin. the Noithein
bouigeoisie agieed to let the planteis have iegional hege-
mony ovei the South. and to withdiaw the last of the occu-
pying Union tioops so that the Klan could take caie of the
Afiikans as they wished. While the guaided iemnants of Re-
constiuction held out heie and theie foi some yeais (Afiikan
Congiessmen weie elected fiom the South until 189¯). the
ciitical yeai of 18¯¯ maiked theii conclusive defeatۓ.
Not insigniਈcantly duiing this same peiiod. Noithein woiking class
Whites weie engaged in a vicious class stiuggle foi an 8 houi woik day.
even as Afiikans weie undei aठack by the KKK and othei iacist oiga-
nizations. And. at the same time. liठle notice was made of the militaiy
exteimination campaigns being caiiied out against Native peoples.
Duiing the Wai. many liist Nations aठempted to iemain ےneutialۓ in
the South. although some piomises by the Confedeiacy foi land stimu-
lated some liist Nations to side with the South. But ےneutialityۓ is not
the same as passive, Native peoples continued theii own iesistance to
lbid. pg. 41.
colonization. liom 18õ1ۉõ3 the Apaches led by Cochise and Mangas
Coloiado fought occupation foices. a iesistance that would continue
until 188õ when Geionimo was captuied. भe Santee also engaged the
US militaiy fiom 18õ2ۉõ3 led by Liठle Ciow. ln 18õ3ۉõ4. this wai would
shiझ to Noith Dakota undei the Teton. ln 18õ3. the Westein Shoshone
fought seठleis and aठacked militaiy patiols and supply ioutes in Utah
and ldaho. भat same yeai. the Navajo iebelled in New Mexico and
With the completion of the tianscontinental iailioad in 18õ9. seठle-
ment of the West incieased iapidly. भe militaiization fiomthe Civil Wai.
and the ability to supply and facilitate laige-scale militaiy opeiations.
opened up the ਈnal peiiod in the ےlndian Waisۓ. ln the post-Civil Wai
peiiod. the genocidal piocess of colonization was to entei a new phase.
even at the piice of thousands of US tioops dead and wounded. and each
dead lndian coming at the piice of s1 million. By 188¯. the last gieat
heid of buਇalo would be slaughteied by Euio-Ameiican hunteis ۊ this
also foiming a pait of the countei-insuigency stiategy of depiiving the
Plains lndians of theii piimaiy food souice. live yeais latei. 3¯0 Lakotas
would be massacied at Chankpe Opi Wakpala. the cieek called Wounded
ࠬe Colonization of Canada
ln contiast to the US campaign of exteimination. the colonization
piocess in Canada lacked the laige-scale militaiy conਉicts that chaiac-
teiized the US ےlndian Waisۓ. Although many Euio-Canadians
like to believe that these diਇeiences in colonization lie in fundamentally
diਇeient values. cultuies. etc.. they aie no moie than the iesult of diਇei-
ences in colonial piactises iooted in basic economic needs and stiategies.
As can be seen in the aझeimath of the US Wai foi lndependence. theie
followed a peiiod of iapid expansion and seठlement. lollowing the con-
solidation of the ے13 Biitish colonies along the Noith Atlantic. and aimed
Euio-Canadian· a teim used to distinguish between descendants of Euiopeans in the US
and those in Canada.
with a pie-impeiialist thiust (the Monioe Doctiine and the ideology of
ێmanifest destinyۏ). the entiepieneuis contiolling the new state machin-
eiy dispatched theii militaiy foices iapidly acioss Noith Ameiicaۓ.
Canada. on the othei hand. did not ਈght a wai foi independence and
iemained ਈimly a pait of the Biitish Empiie.
As pieviously discussed. the ਈist majoi colonization of what would
become eastein ےCanadaۓ was caiiied out by liance. Between 1õ08 and
1¯¯õ. some 10.000 liench seठleis had aiiived in Canada. भe ےliench
and lndian Waisۓ of the 18
centuiy iesulted in the defeat of the liench
foices, the subsequent Tieaty of 1¯õ3 established Biitish iule ovei New
liance (now बebec). With the बebec Act of 1¯¯4. the piovince of
बebec was expanded. Biitish ciiminal law established. and the feu-
dal administiation implemented by liance iemained laigely unchanged.
Conਉicts ielated to civil maठeis and piopeity iemained iegulated undei
liench civil law. भe seigneuiial system. a feudal system in which the
land of the piovince was given in giant fiom the King to seigneuis (usu-
ally lowei nobility and fiom the Chuich). who. in tuin. iented the land
to peasants in ietuin foi an annual ient (called tithes. payable in goods
of pioducts iaised on the land). was continued. As with the 1¯õ3 Royal
Pioclamation. the बebec act secuied the loyalty of the liench cleigy
and aiistociacy in the US Wai foi lndependence.
As a iesult of the wais of the 18
centuiy. liench seठlement had
giown to õ0.000 as soldieis employed by liance swelled the liench pop-
ulation. भe expansion of the piovince undei the बebec Act had seized
a laige poition of the ےlndian teiiitoiyۓ and placed it undei Ciown juiis-
diction. lollowing the US Wai foi lndependence. some 40.000 loyalists
ਉed the foimei Biitish colonies and seठled in Canada. occupying moie
Native lands ۊ paiticulaily that of the Haudenosaunee. Biitish colonial
authoiities went to some lengths to acquiie land while placating the still
geo-militaiily impoitant lndians.
Oitiz. op. cit.
Negotiations with the Mississaugas of southein Ontaiio weie conducted as eaily as 1¯81.
pioviding land foi communities fiom the Haudenosaunee. whose lands weie supplied
to Biitish loyalists in a stiategic defensive line along the US boidei. Between 1¯81 and
183õ. 23 such land cessions weie conducted. Not tieaties but instead ےsimple ieal estate
dealsۓ in which the Biitish paid with goods and latei money. ln 1818 the piactise was
While the colonialists weie busy consolidating the administiation
of ےBiitish Noith Ameiicaۓ. the Paciਈc Noithwest was coming undei
Beginning in 1¯¯4. the ਈist iecoided colonizeis into the aiea of Biitish
Columbia came aboaid the Spanish ship Sonì:ogo. loui yeais latei. an
expedition led by James Cook descended upon the aiea. leading to the
establishment of a laige and pioਈtable fui tiade. भe dominance of the
fui tiade would last until aiound 18¯4 when Euiopean seठlement began
to inciease iapidly along with the mining and logging industiies. As a
iesult of the eaily dominance of the fui tiade. which ielied on Native
collaboiation. Biitish colonizeis cuitailed theii militaiy opeiations. Nev-
eitheless. conਉicts did eiupt. piimaiily against Biitish depiedations. As
moie ships fiequented the aiea. clashes spiead with aठacks on colonial
vessels and the shelling of Native villages.
Even befoie Euiopean seठlement in BC. the impact of the tiadeis was
disastious. loi example. fiom183¯ when the ਈist census was taken of the
Kwakwaka-wakw nation. to 188¯. theie was between a ¯0 to 90 peicent
ieduction in population (fiom aiound 10.¯00 to 3.000).
ln an all too
familiai paठein. the intiusion of Euiopean tiadeis had set into motion
disease epidemics. even as eaily as the 1¯80s and ێ90s. ln 183õ. a smallpox
epidemic hit the noithein coast. and the fui tiade was ےdepiessed all
that wintei and the following spiingۓ.
lollowing an invasion of gold
hunteis into the iegion in 18¯8. one of the most devastating epidemics
stiuck in 18õ2. killing at least 20.000 lndians.
Meanwhile. in Biitish Noith Ameiica. the geo-militaiy impoitance
of the liist Nations was quickly being eioded. With the inਉux of loyal-
ists aझei the US Wai foi lndependence. the Euiopean population had
giown and was stiategically gaiiisoned in key militaiy aieas ۊ conਉicts
adopted of paying annuities. By 1830 these annual payments weie diiected at building
houses and puichasing faim equipment ۊ in line with changing colonial piactises. ےभis
was then followed by the establishment of the band fund systemۓ. see As Long os ì|e Svn
S|:nes. op. cit.. pg. 9.
Daia Culhane Speck. An Frror :n }vJge»enì. Talonbooks. Vancouvei 198¯. pg. ¯2.
Wilson Duਇ. ࡀe InJ:on H:sìor. o[ BC, Vo|. ) ࡀe I»¡ocì o[ ì|e V|:ìe Mon. Anthiopology
in BC. Memoii No. ¯. 19õ4. BC Piovincial Museum. Victoiia 19õ¯ (liist Edition). pg. 42.
lbid. pg. 42.43.
with the US weie piedicted. As well as fuithei incieasing the Euiopean
population in the iegion. the Wai of 1812 and US policies of moving
Natives fiom the noithein fiontiei had bioken up confedeiacies and
gieatly diminished the powei of the liist Nations in the aiea. Aझei
this. Biitish colonial policies changed fiom essentially foiming militaiy
alliances to a highei level of colonization thiough policies of bieaking
down the collective powei of liist Nations. Chiistianization and an ovei-
all Euiopeanization of Native peoples was developed as oਊcial policy.
By the 18¯0s. an instiument had been cieated to this end· ےभe Giadual
Civilization Act of 18¯¯ۓ.
ےभe Act was based upon the assumption that the full civi-
lization of the tiibes could be achieved only when lndians
weie biought into contact with individualized piopeityX X X
Any lndianX X Xadjudged by a special boaid of examineis to be
educated. fiee fiom debt. and of good moial chaiactei could
on application be awaided twenty hectaies of landX X Xۓ.
Heie. the ےcivilization of the tiibesۓ should be iead as the elimination
of the basis of Native cultuies and Je [ocìo the liist Nations as nations.
भe twenty hectaies of land was to be taken fiom the ieseive land base.
subsequently bieaking up the collective and communitaiian land piac-
tises of Native peoples and ieplacing these with individual paicels of
land, all the easiei. fiom the viewpoint of the colonizei. to achieve the
long-teim goal of completely eliminating liist Nations os nations and
leaving nothing but dispeised. accultuiated. peoples to be assimilated
into Euiopean society. भe patiiaichal dimensions of foiced-assimilation
weie also cleai· only males could be so enfianchised.
of lnquiiy had fuithei iecommended that ieseive lands be iestiicted
to a maximum of 2¯ acies pei family. and that Native oiganization be
giadually ieplaced with a municipal foim of goveinment.
John S. Milloy. op. cit.. pg. ¯8.
Kathleen Jamieson. InJ:on Vo»en onJ ì|e Lo+ :n ConoJo C:ì::ens M:nvs. Advisoiy
Council on the Status of Women. lndian Rights foi lndian Women. Canada 19¯8. pg.
At the same time. new methods in acquiiing land weie developed.
Beginning on 18¯0 and continuing into the 20
centuiy. a seiies of
tieaties weie ےnegotiatedۓ in which Native nations ceded immense tiacts
of land in ietuin foi ieseive land. hunting and ਈshing iights. education.
medical caie. and the payment of annuities. भe ਈist such tieaties weie
the Robinson tieaties. which would be ienegotiated in 18¯1 as Tieaties
No. 1 and No. 2.
ےभe ielationship between the immediate iequiiements of the
inteinal impeiialist expansion and the tieaties is iemaikable.
भe ਈist of these tieaties was sought. accoiding to a 19
centuiy histoiianۏs ਈist-hand iepoit. ێin consequence of
the discoveiy of mineials on the shoies of Lake Huion and
SupeiioiۏX X X भe piaiiie tieaties weie obtained immediately
in advance of agiicultuial seठlement. and the tieaty which
includes paits of the Noithwest Teiiitoiies was negotiated
immediately upon the discoveiy of oil in the Mackenzie
While the colonizeis knew what they wanted in pioposing the tieaties.
Native peoples weie unpiepaied foi the duplicity and dishonoui of the
tieaty-seekeis. When a commission jouineyed to the Noithwest Teiiito-
iies to investigate unfulਈlled piovisions of Tieaties 8 and 11. they found
ےAt a numbei of meetings. lndians who claimed to have been
piesent at the time when the Tieaties weie signed stated that
they deਈnitely did not iecall heaiing about the land entitle-
ment in the Tieaties. भey explained that pooi inteipieteis
Donald R. Colboine. Noiman Ziotkin. ےlnteinal Canadian lmpeiialism and the Native
Peopleۓ. I»¡er:o|:s», Noì:ono|:s», onJ ConoJo. Maixist lnstitute of Toionto. Between
the Lines and New Hogtown Piess 198¯. pg. 1õ4.
weie used and theii chiefs and head men had signed even
though they did not know what the Tieaties containedۓ.
भe tieaties weie impoitant aspects of the plan foi the expansion of
Canada westwaid and economic development based on iesouice extiac-
tion and agiicultuie. lndeed. the Confedeiation of Canada in the Biitish
Noith Ameiica Act of 18õ¯ was aimed piimaiily at consolidating the
then-existing eastein piovinces and facilitating in this westwaid expan-
sion, the piimaiy instiuments seen as a tians-Canada iailway. telegiaph
lines. and ioads. Expansion as seen not only as economically necessaiy
but also politically uigent as the US was expanding westwaid at the same
भe invasion of the piaiiie iegions was not without conਉict. भe most
signiਈcant iesistance in this peiiod was that of the Metis peoples ۊ de-
scendants of piimaiily liench and Scoठish seठleis and Ciee ۊ in what
would become Manitoba. भe Red Rivei Rebellion. also known as the
liist Riel iebellion aझei Louis Riel. a Metis leadei. eiupted following an
inਉux of Euio-Canadian seठleis and the puichase of the teiiitoiy fiom
the contiolling Hudsons Bay Company. by the goveinment of Canada.
भe iebellion was diiected against the annexation of the teiiitoiy ovei
the Metis ۊ who numbeied some 10.000 in the iegion. A foice of 400
aimed Metis seized a small gaiiison and demanded demociatic iights
foi the Metis in the Confedeiation. भe following yeai the Manitoba Act
made the teiiitoiy a piovince. Howevei. ਈझeen yeais latei in 188¯ the
Metis along with hundieds of Ciee waiiiois undei the chiefs Big Beai
and Opetecahanawaywin (Poundmakei) weie again engaged in wide-
spiead aimed iesistance against colonization. loi almost foui months
the iesistance continued against thousands of goveinment tioops which.
unlike in 18¯0. weie no tianspoited quickly and en masse on the new
Canadian Paciਈc iailway. Aझei seveial clashes the Metis and Ciee wai-
iiois weie eventually defeated, the Ciee and Metis gueiiillas impiisoned.
lbid. pg. 1õ¯. बote fiom Repoit of the Commission appointed to investigate the
unfulਈlled piovisions of Tieaties 8 and 11 as they apply to the lndians of the Mackenzie
Distiict. 19¯9. pgs. 3ۉ4.
killed in baठles oi executed. Anothei Metis leadei. Gabiiel Dumont.
escaped to the US.
भe Metis and Ciee iesistance of 188¯ was the ਈnal chaptei of aimed
iesistance in the 19
centuiy. Howevei. the use of militaiy foice in
contiolling Native peoples was alieady being bypassed by the lndian
Act of 18¯õ. itself a ieaਊimation and expansion on pievious legislation
conceining Native peoples. भis Act. with subsequent additions and
changes. iemains the basis of Native legislation in Canada today.
Undei the lndian Act. the fedeial goveinment thiough its Depaitment
of lndian Aਇaiis is given complete contiol ovei the economic. social.
and political aਇaiis of Native communities. Moie than just a legislative
instiument to administei ےlndian aਇaiisۓ. the lndian Act was and is an
aठack on the veiy foundations of the liist Nations as nations. Besides
iestiicting hunting and ਈshing. ciiminalizing independent economic
livelihood (ie. in 1881 the Act made it illegal foi Natives to ےsell. baitei oi
tiaਊc ਈshۓ). the Act also declaied who was and who was not an lndian. it
iemoved ےlndian statusۓ fiom Native women who maiiied a non-Native.
and ciiminalized vital aspects of Native oiganization and cultuie such as
the potlatch. the sun-dance. and pow-wow. Eveiything that foimed the
political. social. and economic bases of Native societies was iestiicted,
the cultuie was aठacked because it stood as the ਈnal baiiiei of iesistance
to Euiopean colonization. ln the aiea of political oiganization.
ےभe lndian Act (of 1880) cieated a new bianch of the civil
seivice that was to be called the Depaitment of lndian Af-
faiis. lt once again empoweied the supeiintendent geneial
to impose the elective systemof band goveinmentX X X ln addi-
tion. this new legislation allowed the supeiintended geneial
to depiive the tiaditional leadeis of iecognition by stating
that the only spokesmen of the band weie those men elected
accoiding toX X Xthe lndian Actۓ.
ln 1894. amendments to the Act authoiized the foiced ielocation of
Native childien to iesidential boaiding schools. which weie seen as
John L. Tobias. op. cit.. pg. 4õ.
supeiioi to schools on the ieseives because it iemoved the childien
fiom the inਉuence of the Native community. lsolated childien in the
total contiol of Euiopeans weie easiei to bieak, Native languages weie
foibidden and all customs. values. ieligious tiaditions and even clothing
weie to be ieplaced by Euiopean foims. Sexual and physical abuse weie
common chaiacteiistics of these schools. and theii eਇects have been
devastatingly eਇective in paitially accultuiating geneiations of Native
भe lndian Act followed eailiei legislation in that the long-teim objec-
tive was the assimilation of Chiistianized Natives. giadually iemoving
any ےspecial statusۓ foi Native peoples and eliminating ieseives and
tieaty iights, all of which would make the complete exploitation of the
land a simple task. As pait of this stiategy of containing and iepiessing
Native peoples who did not assimilate. and who weie thus an obstacle
to the full expansion of Canada. the lndian Act also denied the iight
to vote to Native peoples and implemented a pass system similai if not
the foieiunnei to the Pass Laws in the Bantustans of South Afiica (it
should also be noted that Asian peoples weie denied the iight to vote as
well and weie subjected to viciously iacist campaigns in BC by both the
goveinment and the laboui movement, only in 19¯0 weie Native and
Asian peoples given this ےillustiiousۓ iight).
Extermination ؿ Assimilation· Two Methods,
ln the eaily 1900s. the population of Native peoples in Noith Amei-
ica had ieached theii lowest point. ln the US alone this population
had declined to some 2¯0.000. As in Canada. Native peoples had been
consigned to laigely desolate land aieas and the piocess of assimilation
began thiough goveinment agencies such as the Buieau of lndian Aਇaiis.
Heie too. iesidential schools. ciiminalization of Native cultuies. and con-
tiol of political and economic systems weie the instiuments used. Native
peoples. like those in Canada. weie viewed as obstacles to be ciushed in
the diive foi pioਈts.
ln both countiies. iesistance to this assimilation continued in vaii-
ous foims· potlatches and sun-dances weie continued in clandestinity
and the elected band councils opposed. As well. Native peoples began
foiming oiganizations to woik against goveinment polices. ln 1912. the
Alaska Native Biotheihood was foimed by the Tlingit and Tsimshian at
Sikta. भat same yeai. the Nishga Land Claims Petition was piesented
to the Canadian goveinment conceining the iecognition of aboiiginal
title, no tieaties had oi have been signed with liist Nations in BC ۊ
with the exception of a noith-eastein coinei of BC included in Tieaty
No. 8 and some minoi tieaties on Vancouvei lsland. Yet Natives in BC
had found themselves dispossessed of theii teiiitoiy and subjected to
the lndian Act. ln 191õ the Nishga joined with the inteiioi Salish and
foimed anothei intei-tiibal oiganization. the Allied Tiibes of BC. lunds
weie iaised. meetings held. and petitions sent to Oठawa. ln 192¯. a
special Joint Commiठee of the Senate and House of Commons found
that Natives had ےnot established any claim to the lands of BC based on
aboiiginal oi othei titleۓ.
भat same yeai Section 141 was added to the
lndian Act piohibiting ےiaising money and piosecuting claims to land oi
ietaining a lawyeiۓ.
While the Euiopean nations would lead the woild into two gieat wais
foi hegemony. political instability and economic depiedations foimed the
geneial paठein in South and Cential Ameiica. Militaiy iegimes backed
by US and Biitish impeiialism caiiied out genocidal policies and seveie
iepiession against lndigenous peoples. As in Noith Ameiica. lndigenous
peoples weie consigned to desolate ieseive lands wheie the state oi
missionaiies ietained contiol ovei political. economic. social and cultuial
systems. Howevei. in contiast to the colonization of Noith Ameiica.
wheie Native peoples weie viewed as iiielevant to economic expansion.
the lndians of South and Cential Ameiica iemained as substantial souices
of exploited laboui. With the laige-scale investments fiomthe impeiialist
centies in the foimof loans. the expoit of piimaiy iesouices took piioiity.
भe ےiubbei boomۓ was one example. wheie tens of thousands of lndians
died in foiced laboui. ielocations. and massacies caiiied out by laige
ےland owneisۓ. companies. and hiied death squads.
बoted in Wilson Duਇ. op. cit.. p. õ9.
ےln the wake of the iubbei boom. Colombia. Ecuadoi and
Peiu became baठlegiounds foi a wai between oil companies.
Subsidiaiies of Shell and Exxon fought foi exploiation iights
in the Amazon. even to the extent of becoming involved
in a boidei wai between Ecuadoi and Peiu in 1941X X X ln
BiazilX X X8¯ lndian gioups weie wiped out in the ਈist half
of the 20
centuiy fiom contact with expanding colonial
fiontieis ۊ especially iubbei and mining in the noithwest.
caठle in the noitheast. agiicultuie in the south and east. and
fiom ioad building thioughout all iegionsۓ.
While policies of foiced assimilation weie occasionally aiticulated.
militaiy and paiamilitaiy foices weie to iemain an essential pait of con-
tiolling Native communities and opening up teiiitoiies to exploitation.
भe most violent manifestation of this iepiession came in El Salvadoi in
1932. wheie as many as 30.000 people. piimaiily lndian peasants. weie
massacied following an upiising against the militaiy dictatoiship that
took powei the yeai piioi. While the massacies weie caiiied out undei
the guise of ےanti-communismۓ. US and Canadian naval vessels stood
oਇshoie. and US Maiines in Nicaiagua weie put on aleit. Howevei. ےlt
was found unnecessaiy foi the USX X Xand Biitish foices to landۓ the US
Chief of Naval Opeiations would testify befoie Congiess. ےas the Salvado-
ian goveinment had the situation in handۓ.
Duiing the same peiiod
in Colombia. the lndian leadei बintin Lame helped initiate stiuggles
foi land and developed an lndigenous philosophy of iesistance, in the
eaily 1980s. his legacy would live on in the lndian gueiiilla gioup ےCom-
mando बintin Lameۓ. Gonzalo Sanchez was anothei leadei who helped
oiganize the Supieme Council of lndians in Natagaima. Colombia. in
Aझei Woild Wai 2. signiਈcant changes in the woild capitalist economy
would see incieased penetiation of the Amazon and othei lowland foiest
iegions in South Ameiica. ln the post-Wai peiiod. the US emeiged in
Andiew Giay. op. cit.. pg. 8.
बoted in Noam Chomsky. Tvrn:ng ì|e T:Je ࡀe US onJ Loì:n A»er:co. Black Rose
Books. Montieal 198¯. pg. 44.
a dominant position in the woild economy and would subsequently
move to open up maikets foi economic expansion. ln Westein Euiope
and Japan. as pait of the Maishall Plan. some s30 billion in loans and
aid was pumped into the economies to iebuild these countiies as US
maikets and. not insigniਈcantly. as a base of containment against the
USSR (militaiy alliances weie also cieated thiough NATO and SEATO.
positioned against the East Bloc).
South and Cential Ameiica weie to be biought ਈimly undei US con-
tiol. a piocess begun duiing the eaily 1900s as the US moved to ieplace
Biitain as the dominant impeiialist nation in the iegion. even paying oਇ
debts owned to Biitain. As pait of the US post-Wai plans. South and
Cential Ameiica would also ieceive billions of dollais in diiect ਈnancial
aid fiom the US and fiom piivate tiansnational banks. भis aid allowed
the ےundeidevelopedۓ countiies to industiialize by impoiting modein
technology fiom the US (in fact. as pait of US ਈnancial aid. the loans
had to be spent in the US). भe enoimous debts incuiied in this piocess
guaianteed dependence and opened up these countiies to multinational
coipoiations. As well. inteinational oiganizations such as the Woild
Bank. lnteinational Bank foi Reconstiuction and Development. and the
Agency foi lnteinational Development (AlD) weie foimed to piovide
multilateial funding aimed laigely at the agio-expoit sectois. iesouice
extiaction. hydio-electiic piojects and infiastiuctuie (ioads. communica-
tions. etc.) necessaiy foi the development of those industiies. Linked to
this ےaidۓ scheme is the lnteinational Monetaiy lund. which doesnۏt fund
speciਈc piojects but instead steps in with balance of payments suppoit
when a countiy is unable to pay its debts.
भese piojects and the oveiall industiialization opened up aieas foi
fuithei exploitation, penetiation of aieas such as the Amazon and laige-
scale expiopiiations acceleiated in the 19õ0s. fuithei devastating lndige-
nous peoples and leading to ienewed campaigns of exteimination.
Of couise. all this economic iestiuctuiing did not occui without giow-
ing iesistance. With giowing movements against impeiialism. including
peasant unions. students. woikeis. gueiiillas and lndians. a substantial
pait of the ےaidۓ included militaiy tiaining. weapons. and equipment. US
Special loices tioopeis weie not only in Southeast Asia. they weie also
quite busy in Cential Ameiica. tiaining death squads and diiecting mas-
sacies. As pait of an oveiall countei-insuigency campaign. the militaiiza-
tion alone piecipitated an upwaid spiial of violence. ln Guatemala alone.
between 19õõۉõ8. some 8.000 people weie slaughteied by Guatemalan
soldieis undei the diiection of US Gieen Beiet advisois, US pilots ਉewUS
planes on bombing missions. Paiamilitaiy gioups/death squads hunted
down ےsubveisivesۓ in collaboiation with the goveinment. militaiy. multi-
nationals. and land-owneis.
भe main taigets of this campaign. dubbed
ےOpeiation Guatemalaۓ. weie the Mayan peoples.
Anothei aspect of the countei-insuigency plans was that of popula-
tion contiol. Piimaiily the focus of US state-funding. the Agency foi
lnteinational Development (AlD) was established in 19õ1. Using the
false pietext of an ےovei-population pioblemۓ being the cause of mass
poveity and staivation ۊ instead of impeiialism ۊ population contiol
came to be championed as the most impoitant dilemma facing the ےmod-
ein woildۓ. Undei the guise of ےfamily planningۓ. AlD began funding
foi a wide-iange of public and piivate oiganizations. foundations. and
chuiches who piovided tiaining. equipment. and clinics foi biith contiol
piogiams. Between 19õ8 and 19¯2. ےfunds eaimaiked foi population
piogiams thiough legislation and obligated by AlD amounted to moie
than s2¯0 millionۓ.
South Ameiica ieceived the laigest peicentage of
this funding. Besides educational mateiial. biith contiol pills. lUDs. and
othei phaimaceuticals developed by a pioਈtable gene and biotechnology
industiy in the impeiialist centies. the main thiust of population contiol
iemains steiilization. Between 19õ¯ۉ¯1. an estimated 1 million women
in Biazil had been steiilized.
ln Pueito Rico. 34¯ of all women of child-
beaiing age had been steiilized by 19õ¯.
Between 19õ3ۉõ¯. moie than
40.000 women in Colombia had been steiilized.
ln contiast to these
Tom Baiiy. Deb Pieusch. and Beth Wood. Do||ors onJ D:cìoìors. Giove Piess lnc.. New
Yoik 1983. pg. 122.
Bonnie Mass. ࡀe Po|:ì:co| Fcono». o[ Po¡v|oì:on Conìro| :n Loì:n A»er:co. Editions Latin
Ameiica. Montieal 19¯2. pg. 8.
lbid. pg. 19.
lbid. pg. 41.
ےGiowing light Against Steiilization of Native Womenۓ. A|+esosne Noìes. Vol. 11 No. 1.
Wintei 19¯9. pg. 29.
piogiams in the ےभiid Woildۓ. the impeiialist centies see iestiictions
on aboition and stiuggles foi womenۏs iepioductive choice. But even
heie theie is a double standaid foi non-Euiopean women·
ےLee Biightman. United Native Ameiicans Piesident. esti-
mates that of the Native population of 800.000 (in the US). as
many as 42¯ of the women of childbeaiing age and 10¯
of the menX X Xhave been steiilizedX X X भe ਈist oਊcial in-
quiiy into the steiilization of Native womenX X Xby Di. Con-
nie UiiX X Xiepoited that 2¯.000 lndian women had been pei-
manently steiilized within lndian Health Seivices facilities
alone thiough 19¯¯X X X
ےAccoiding to a 19¯0 feitilization study. 20¯ of maiiied Black
women had been steiilized. almost thiee times the peicent-
age of white maiiied women. भeie was a 180¯ iise in the
numbei of steiilizations peifoimed duiing 19¯2ۉ¯3 in New
Yoik City municipal hospitals which seive piedominantly
Pueito Rican neighbouihoodsۓ.
Similai iesults weie found in lnuit communities in the Noithwest
Teiiitoiies. Cleaily. ےoveipopulationۓ is not an issue in Noith Ameiica.
noi is it in South oi Cential Ameiica. Rathei. it is a method foi ieducing
speciਈc poitions of the population who would oiganize against theii
oppiession and who have no place in the schemes of capital. ln othei
woids. ےlt is moie eਇective to kill gueiiillas in the wombۓ.
Of all the South Ameiican countiies that undeiwent massive indus-
tiialization aझei Woild Wai 2. Biazil is piobably the most well known.
lollowing a 19õ4 coup backed by the US. lMl and multinationals. foieign
investment iose steadily. Between 19õ4ۉ¯1. ovei s4 billion had been
pumped into Biazil thiough the Woild Bank. AlD. lDB. and otheis.
Between 1900ۉ¯¯. the lndigenous population of Biazil had declined
fiom ovei 1 million to less than 200.000.
thiough the iubbei boom.
lbid. pg. 29.
Sv¡.sovo A Docv»enìor. Re¡orì on ì|e ConJ:ì:ons o[ InJ:on Peo¡|es :n Bro::|. lndigena
lnc. and Ameiican liiends of Biazil. Nov. 19¯4. pg. 48.
lbid. pg. õ.
ianching. and mining industiies. lollowing the 19õ4 coup and the iise in
foieign investment. the penetiation of the Amazon iegion in paiticulai
was incieased. As these industiies invaded even moie lndian lands. a
ienewed campaign of exteimination accompanied them. lndians weie
hunted down by death squads. theii communities bombed and massacied.
and disease epidemics puiposely spiead thiough injections and infected
blankets. ln the 19õ0s alone.
ےOf the 19.000 Monducuius believed to have existed in the
30s. only 1200 weie leझ. भe stiength of the Guaianis had
been ieduced fiom ¯.000 to 300. भeie weie 400 Caiajas leझ
out of 4.000. Of the Cintas Laigas. who had been aठacked
fiom the aii and diiven into the mountains. possibly ¯00
had suivived out of 10.000X X X Some like the Tapaiunas ۊ
in this case fiom a giझ of sugai laced with aisenic ۊ had
All these atiocities weie pait of a ےpaciਈcationۓ campaign aimed at
eliminating the lndians. who heie too weie seen as obstacles to ےdevel-
opmentۓ. भe goveinment agencies iesponsible foi ےlndian aਇaiisۓ weie
some of the woist agents in this campaign. so much so that the pooily-
named lndian Piotection Seivice had to be disbanded and ieplaced by
the National lndian loundation (lUNAl). Not suipiisingly. the only ieal
changes weie in the names. By 19¯0. plans foi building an extensive
ioad system foi all the industiies that had iecently invaded the Amazon
weie announced. भe following yeai. the piesident of lUNAl signed a
deciee which iead ےAssistance to the lndian will be as complete as pos-
sible. but cannot obstiuct national development noi block the vaiious
axes of penetiation into the Amazon iegionۓ.
भe Tians-Amazonic ioad
system iesulted in the foiced ielocation of some 2¯ lndian nations and
thousands of deaths. भe stiuggle against the ioads continues today.
Biazil is only one example, similai developments iesulted in othei
South Ameiican countiies.
Noiman Lewis. ےGenocideۓ. Sv¡.sovo. op. cit.. pg. 9.
ےभe Politics of Genocide Against the lndians of Biazilۓ. Sv¡.sovo. op. cit.. pg. 3¯.
Seemingly in contiast to these exteimination campaigns. Canada ap-
peaied to be moving towaids a much moie ےlibeialۓ epoch, why. Natives
had even been given the ےiightۓ to vote. the pass laws had been sciapped.
and potlatches weie once again peimiठed' ln fact. the lndian Act it-
self was being viewed by some as an impediment to the assimilation of
Native peoples. भe combined eਇects of the lndian Act. the iesidential
schools. etc. had so debilitated Native peoples that they weie almost no
longei needed, once poweiful cultuial bases. such as the potlatch. weie
ieduced to neai spectacles foi the enjoyment of Euio-Canadians similai
to iodeo shows. By 19õ9. the goveinment went so fai as to aiticulate its
goals in the aptly-named ےWhite Papeiۓ, the intent was to end the special
legal and constitutional status of Natives. and to deny the ielevancy of
tieaty iights. Ostensibly a policy to ےhelpۓ the lndian. the papei even
suggested a total ievision of the lndian Act and a giadual phasing out of
the Depaitment of lndian Aਇaiis ovei a ਈve yeai peiiod. ln the denial
of tieaty iights and land claims. the papei stated.
ےभese aboiiginal claims to land aie so geneial and undeਈned
that it is not iealistic to think of them as speciਈc claims
capable of iemedy except thiough a policy and piogiam that
will end injustice to lndians as membeis of the Canadian
Duiing the same peiiod. Canada was moving towaids incieased ie-
souice extiaction. भis had begun in the 19¯0s especially in the mining
of uianium foi nucleai eneigy and as expoit foi the US nucleai en-
eigy and weapons industiy. Uianium mining was centied piimaiily in
Saskatchewan and in the US southwest. As well. theie was incieased
oil and gas exploiation in the Noith and the development of hydio-elec-
tiic piojects. What beठei way to push thiough these dangeious and
damaging piojects than by acceleiating the goveinmentۏs long-teim as-
similation policy and denying Native land title` Cleaily. exteimination
campaigns in Biazil and assimilation policies in Canada aie two sides of
Goveinment of Canada. statement of the Goveinment of Canada on lndian Policy. 19õ9.
the same coin· destioying Native nations and opening up the lands to
fuithei exploiation. What these goveinments didnۏt count on was the
continued iesistance of Native peoples.
ࠬe People Aim for Freedom
Along with an explosion of inteinational stiuggles in the 19õ0s. includ-
ing national libeiation movements in Afiika. Asia. and in the Ameiicas.
theie was an upsuige in Native peopleۏs iesistance. भis upsuige found
its backgiound in the continued stiuggles of Native peoples and the devel-
opment of the stiuggle against continued iesouice extiaction thioughout
ln South and Cential Ameiica Native iesistance giewalongside the stu-
dent. woikei. womenۏs and gueiiilla movements. which weie compiised
laigely of Mestizos in the uiban centies.
ln Ecuadoi. the Shuai nation had foimed a fedeiation based on ie-
gional associations of Shuai communities in 19õ4. and was inਉuential in
the development of othei lndigenous oiganizations, it would also be the
focus of goveinment iepiession as in 19õ9 when its main oਊces weie
buint down and its leadeis aठacked and impiisoned. ln 19¯1. the lndige-
nous Regional Council of Cauca (CRlC) was foimed in Colombia by 2.000
lndians fiom 10 communities. CRlC quickly initiated a campaign foi ie-
cupeiating stolen ieseive lands. ln Bolivia. two Aymaian oiganizations
weie foimed· the Minkۏa and the Movimiento Tupac Kataii. National
and inteinational confeiences weie held in vaiious countiies. and by
19¯4 a confeience in Paiaguay diew delegates fiom eveiy countiy in
South and Cential Ameiica fiom a laige numbei of lndian nations.
A piimaiy focus of these lndigenous movements was iecupeiating
stolen lands. and widespiead occupations. piotests. and ioad blockades
weie oiganized. ln Chile. Mapuches began ےfence-iunningۓ ۊ moving
fences which sepaiated ieseive lands fiom faim lands and extending
the ieseive teiiitoiy. ln Mexico. lndigenous peasants caiiied out laige-
scale occupations· by 19¯¯ theie weie ¯õ occupations in Sinaloa alone.
and some 2¯.000 acies of land occupied in Sinaloa and Sonoia. By De-
cembei of 19¯õ. tens of thousands occupied land in Sonoia. Sinaloa.
Duiango. and Coahuila.
Of couise. these and many othei occupations
and piotests did not occui without seveie iepiession. Assassinations.
massacies. destiuction of communities. and scoiched eaith policies weie
diiected against the lndigenous movements.
Similaily. the ieclaiming of tiaditional lndian lands was also a piimaiy
focus of stiuggle in Noith Ameiica. One of the ਈist of these occupations
in this peiiod was the seizing of the Seaway lnteinational Biidge in On-
taiio by Mohawks. in Decembei 19õ8. भe action was to piotest the
Canadian stateۏs decision to levy customs duties on goods caiiied acioss
the inteinational boidei by Mohawks. despite a tieaty which stipulated
this iight and the fact that the boidei aiea was on Mohawk land. भe
occupation ended when RCMP and Ontaiio Piovincial Police stoimed
the biidge and aiiested 48 Mohawks. Howevei. the stiuggle of the Mo-
hawks was was to piecipitate occupations which weie to followas a ےRed
Nationalism/Red Poweiۓ movement swept acioss both Canada and the
US. alongside Black. Chicano. and Pueito Rican libeiation movements.
ln 19õ8. the Ameiican lndian Movement (AlM) was foimed in Min-
neapolis-St. Paul. At ਈist an oiganization modelled aझei Euio-Ameiican
Leझ gioups and inspiied in pait by the Civil Rights stiuggles of the 19¯0s
and õ0s. as well as the Black Pantheis. AlM oiganized against police
violence. iacism. and poveity. lnitially uiban-based and piedominantly
centied in the Dakotas and Nebiaska. AlM quickly spiead to a wide-
spiead movement iepiesented in both uiban gheठos and iuial ieseive
Although AlM membeis would be involved in many of the stiug-
gles that would develop ۊ paitly because AlM was an inteinational
movement and not iegional ۊ AlM itself was only one pait of the ےRed
Nationalistۓ movement. ln 19õ8. the National Alliance foi Red Powei
had foimed on the West Coast. and the following yeai lndians occupied
Alcatiaz lsland in San liancisco haiboui. claiming they had ےdiscoveiedۓ
it, the occupation would last 19 months and would become known as the
ਈist majoi event in the stiuggle foi ےRed Poweiۓ. Anothei aspect of this
Jane Adams. ےMexico ۊ भe Stiuggle foi the Landۓ. InJ:geno. Vol. 3 No. 1. Summei 19¯¯.
pg. 28. 30.
peiiod was the continuing local and iegional daily stiuggles. indepen-
dent though not totally unielated fiom the emeiging Native libeiation
movement. in communities ਈghting theझ of land. poveity. pollution. etc.
ln 19¯0. foi example. 200 Metis and lndians occupied the Albeita New
Stait Centie at Lac La Biche. piotesting against the fedeial goveinmentۏs
cancellation of the piogiam.
भat same yeai. AlM paiticipated in the occupation of Plymouth Rock
and the Mayਉowei ship ieplica on ےभanksgiving Dayۓ. as well as oiga-
nizing piotests and actions against the BlA íBuieau of lndian Aਇaiis ۊ
SlSlS ed.]. ln South Dakota. a piotest at the Custei Couithouse was at-
tacked by police. leading to a iiot in which the couit and seveial buildings
weie buined down. ln 19¯2. AlM oiganized the ےTiail of Bioken Tieaties
Caiavanۓ. and piepaied a 20 point position papei conceining the geneial
conditions of Native peoples in the US. भe Tiail ended in Washington.
DC. wheie demonstiatois occupied and destioyed the oਊces of the BlA.
भe following yeai. tiaditionalists in the Pine Ridge ieseivation in
South Dakota iequested AlM suppoit aझei a campaign of teiioi led
by Tiibal Piesident Dick Wilson and BlA thugs. On lebiuaiy 2¯. a
caiavan of people went to Wounded Knee foi a council ۊ the site of
the 1890 massacie. भe aiea was almost immediately suiiounded by
police. and a one day meeting tuined into a ¯1 day aimed occupation
in which 300 people iesisted a laige militaiy and paiamilitaiy foice
consisting of lBl agents. BlA police. local and state police. and militaiy
peisonnel. Two Natives weie shot dead. two wounded. and one ledeial
Agent wounded. भiee weeks into the libeiation of Wounded Knee. the
lndependent Oglala Nation was established.
ےभe lndependent Oglala Nation was moie than just a biave
gestuie by a band of besieged lndians. lt iepiesented the
giavest thieat in moie than a centuiy to the plans of the US
goveinment to subdue the Native people of the US and to
depiive them of theii lands foi the exploitation and pioਈt
of white inteiestsۓ.
ےOn the Road to Wounded Kneeۓ. InJ:on Noì:on. Vol. 3. No. 1. Apiil 19¯õ. pg. 1¯.
As supplied dwindled and the militaiy piepaied foi a ਈnal assault. the
defendeis decided to withdiaw. On May ¯. about half the people ਈlteied
thiough the enemy lines. and the following day about 1¯0 who iemained
laid down theii aims. ln the peiiod following. the lBl. BlA. and Wilsonۏs
iegime conducted a campaign of teiioi, by 19¯õ as many as 2¯0 people
in and aiound Pine Ridge weie dead. including ¯0 membeis of AlM.
Shootings. ਈiebombings. assaults. and assassinations weie caiiied out by
Wilsonۏs goons and in conjunction with the lBlۏs Countei-lntelligence
Piogiam (COlNTELPRO). On June 2õ. 19¯¯. an lBl iaid on an AlM
encampment iesulted in a ਈie-ਈght in which two lBl agents and an
Oglala. Joseph Stuntz. weie shot dead. Although Stuntzۏ death was nevei
investigated. noi weie the many othei killings of Oglala tiaditionalists
and AlM membeis duiing this peiiod. the lBl launched a campaign to
impiison AlM membeis foi the two dead agents. Eventually Leonaid
Peltiei would be convicted of the killings in a tiial that showed nothing
moie than that the lBl had fabiicated evidence and testimony.
ln the same yeai as the libeiation of Wounded Knee. AlM was also
established in Canada following the Cache Cieek highway blockade
in BC. भe blockade was against pooi housing conditions on a neaiby
Native ieseive. ln Novembei of that yeai. the lndian Aਇaiis oਊce in
Kenoia. Ontaiio was occupied foi one day by Ojibways. भe following
yeai. membeis of the Ojibway Waiiioiۏs Society and AlM initiated an
aimed occupation of Anicinabe Paik. neai Kenoia. fiomJuly 22 to August
8. Two months eailiei. Mohawks fiom Akwesasne and Kahnawake had
occupied Moss Lake in uppei state New Yoik. ieclaiming and ienaming
the aiea Ganienkeh ۊ Land of the llint. the tiaditional name foi the
Kanienkehake. People of the llint. Aझei a shooting incident between
White vigilantes and Mohawks. police insisted on enteiing Ganienkeh
to investigate but weie iefused entiy. As the thieat of a police iaid
incieased. Natives. including some veteians fiomWounded Knee. iushed
to Ganienkeh. Bunkeis weie built and defensive lines established. ln the
end. police withdiew (in 19¯¯. the Mohawks agieed to leave Moss Lake
in exchange foi land in Clinton County. which is closei to Kahnawake
On Septembei 14. 19¯4. the ےNative Peopleۏs Caiavanۓ leझ Vancouvei.
initiated by Natives who had paiticipated in the Anicinabe Paik occu-
pation. Similai to the Tiail of Bioken Tieaties. the Caiavan demanded
iecognition and iespect foi tieaty and aboiiginal iights. seठlement of Na-
tive land claims. an end to the lndian Act. and an investigation of the DlA
by Natives aimed at dissolving it. By Septembei 30
. the Caiavan had
biought aiound 800ۉ900 Natives to Pailiament Hill in Oठawa. lnstead of
a meeting with pailiament. the piotest faced iiot police and baiiicades.
As police aठacked the demonstiation. clashes bioke out. leaving dozens
of Natives and nine police injuied.
ln 19¯õ. the ےTiail of Self-Deteiminationۓ leझ the west coast of the US
as one of many anti-Bicentennial piotests oiganized by Native peoples.
lts puipose was to get the goveinmentۏs answei to the points iaised by
the 19¯2 caiavan. As in that piotest. goveinment oਊcials iefused to
meet with the people and 4¯ demonstiatois weie aiiested at the BlA
oਊces in Washington. DC.
lt was also duiing this peiiod that Native peoples began oiganizing
aiound inteinational bodies. ln the US. membeis of AlM and numeious
tiaditional leadeis and eldeis foimed the lnteinational lndian Tieaty
Confeience. in 19¯4.
ےभe thiust of the Tieaty Confeience is foi iecognition of
tieaties by the US as a means of iestoiing soveieign iela-
tions between the native nations and that countiy. भen.
theie will be moves to contiol exploitation. ietuin contiol
of native lands toX X Xthe native nation. and a ietuin of foims
of goveinment appiopiiate to each nationۓ.
भe llTC was the ਈist lndian oiganization to apply foi and ieceive UN
Non-Goveinmental status. Delegates fiom the llTC. CRlC. and othei
South and Cential Ameiican lndigenous oiganizations foimed the basis
foi developing legalistic fiamewoiks based on inteinational laws aimed
at iestoiing soveieign nation status foi liist Nations. Confeiences such
ےNoith Ameiican Soveieign Nationsۓ. A|+esosne Noìes. Vol. 8 No. 4. pg. 1õ.
as the 19¯¯ UN-sponsoied NGO meeting on ےpioblems of Westein Hemi-
spheie lndigenous Peoplesۓ oi the louith lnteinational Russell Tiibunal
in 1980 weie oiganized to examine and document the continuation of
genocidal piactises. and to develop policies conceining these issues/ भe
end iesult of these confeiences appeais to be a foium foi documenting
genocide. and. at best. exeiting some level of inteinational piessuie on
paiticulai countiies. As AlM membei Russell Means has stated. ےlt ap-
peais useless to appeal to the US oi its legal system to iestoie its honoi
by honoiing its tieatiesۓ.
ln light of the iecent UN iole in the US-led
Gulf Wai. and its iecent iepeal of the condemnation of Zionism as iacism.
the UN itself seems useless.
ࠬe Struggle for Iand
As pieviously discussed. the woild economic system undeiwent pio-
found changes following and as a iesult of the Second Woild Wai. ln
the post-Wai economic boom. plans foi new eneigy policies began to
be foimulated in the US and Canada. As alieady noted. one aspect of
these plans was based on uianium mining and its application in nucleai
eneigy and weapons systems. As well. plans foi diveiting watei and/oi
hydio-electiic powei fiom Canada to the US weie also foimulated in
19õ4 thiough the Noith Ameiican Watei and Powei Alliance (NAWAPA).
lollowing the 19¯3 ےOil Ciisisۓ. plans foi developing ےinteinalۓ eneigy
souices weie intensiਈed. ln the US. this eneigy policy was dubbed
ےlt seems cleai that the US goveinment has anticipated that
Ameiican natives ۊ like those of othei colonized aieas of
the woild who have tiied to iesist the theझ of theii nat-
uial iesouices ۊ might put up a ਈghtX X X íT]his seems the
most logical conclusion to diaw fiom Senate Bill 82õ. an
expansion of the ledeial Eneigy Act of 19¯4 into a US cen-
tied ێcompiehensive eneigy policyۏ. Section õ1õ of this Bill
A|+esosne Noìes. Vol. 8 No. õ.
pioposes that the Eneigy Administiatoi ێis authoiized to
piovide foi paiticipation of militaiy peisonnel in the pei-
foimance of his functionsۏ and that aimed foices peisonnel
so assigned will be. in eਇect. an independent ێeneigy-aimyۏ.
undei the diiect contiol of the Depaitment of Eneigyۓ.
As well. in 19¯1 a gioup of electiical powei geneiation companies
and goveinment iesouices buieauciats issued the Noith Cential Powei
Study. ےwhich pioposed the development of coal stiip mining in Montana.
Wyoming. and the DakotasX X Xۓ.
ln Canada. these plans can be seen in the hydio-electiic piojects built
in Manitoba and in James Bay. noithein बebec. भeie was also the
penetiation of the Canadian noith with oil and gas exploiation. the
Mackenzie Valley pipeline. uianium mining in Saskatchewan. etc. ln
the US. the new eneigy policies piecipitated vaiious aठacks on Native
ln 19¯4. Public Law 93ۉ¯31 was passed authoiizing the paitition of
joint Hopi and Navajo lands in noithein Aiizona and the foiced ieloca-
tion of some 13.000 people. भe puipose of the ielocation was ostensibly
to iesolve a false ےHopi-Navajo land disputeۓ. ln fact. theie is some 19
billion tons of coal in this land. Anothei example is that of Wounded
Knee. Duiing Woild Wai 2. a noith-westein poition of the Pine Ridge
ieseivation was ےboiiowedۓ by the fedeial goveinment foi use as an
aeiial gunneiy iange. lt was to be ietuined when the wai ended.
ےWell. the wai ended in 194¯ and along about 19¯0. some of
the tiaditional people one the ieseive staited asking ێWheie
is oui land` We want it backۏ. What had happened was
that a ceitain agencyX X XNASA. had ciicled a satellite and
that satellite was ciicled in co-opeiation withX X Xthe National
Uianium Reseaich and Evaluations lnstituteX X X What they
discoveied was that theie was a paiticulaily iich uianium
deposit withinX X Xthe gunneiy iangeۓ.
Paula Giese. ےभe Last lndian Wai· loi Eneigyۓ. Repoit on the भiid lnteinational lndian
Tieaty Confeience. June 1¯ۉ19 19¯¯.
Dick Wilson was put in place as Tiibal Council Piesident. ਈnanced.
supplied and backed by the goveinment. with the puipose of having him
sign ovei the gunneiy iange lands to the US goveinment. On June 2õ.
19¯¯. Dick Wilson signed this 10 pei cent of the Pine Ridge ieseive land
to the fedeial goveinment, the same day that the lBl iaided the AlM
ےln a peiiod baiely exceeding 200 yeais. the 100¯ of the tei-
iitoiy which was in lndigenous hands in 1õ00. was ieduced
to 10¯ and ovei the next 100 yeais to 3¯. We ietain nominal
iights to about 3¯ of oui oiiginal teiiitoiy within the USA
today. Native peoples weie consigned to what was thought
to be the most useless possible landX X X lionically. fiom the
peispective of the Piedatoi. this tuined out to be the land
which contained about 2/3 of what the US consideis to be
its domestic uianium ieseive. Peihaps 2¯¯ of the ieadily ac-
cessible low-sulphui coal. Peihaps 1/¯ of the oil and natuial
gas. Viitually all of the coppei and bauxiteX X X भeie is gold.
भeie aie ienewable iesouices and watei iights in the aiid
Similai compaiisons can be found in Canada and the countiies of South
and Cential Ameiica. With massive changes in industiialization and in
eneigy demands. along with new technologies in locating and extiacting
iesouices. the colonization piocess has. since the Second Woild Wai.
enteied a new phase. Along with these ਉashpoints aiising fiom the ےLast
lndian Wai· loi Eneigyۓ. theie is the daily demands of capital in othei
industiies such as foiestiy. ਈshing. iubbei. agiicultuie. ianching. etc.
and in land foi militaiy weapons testing. tiaining. etc.
Taking these developments since Woild Wai 2. and the colonization
piocess piioi t this. an undeistanding of the histoiy of lndigenous ie-
sistance becomes cleaiei. Most impoitantly. howevei. is undeistanding
that this iesistance continues today.
Waid Chuichill. ےLeonaid Peltiei. Political Piisonei· ACase Histoiy of the Land Rip-Oਇsۓ.
ReJ RooJ. No. 2. June 1991. pg. õ.
lbid. pg. õ.
In Total Resistance
ےNow that wai is being foiced upon us. we will tuin oui
heaits and minds to wai and it too we will wage with all
oui mightX X X Oui Spiiits aie stiong. We aie togethei at last
with ouiselves and the woild of oui ancestois, we aie pioud
befoie oui childien and oui geneiations unboinX X X We aie
fiee. No yoke of white goveinment oppiession can contain
us. We aie fieeۓ
ۊ Mohawk Nation Oਊce. August 2¯. 1990.
ln Maich 1990. the Mohawks of Kanesatake occupied the Pines ۊ tia-
ditional lands which also contain the peoples cemeteiy and a laciosse
ਈeld ۊ against the Municipality of Okaۏs plans to expand an adjacent golf
couise ovei the Pines. भe golf couise expansion was pait of Okaۏs plans
to expand a luciative touiist industiy. On July 11. ovei 100 membeis
of the बebec Piovincial Police (SO) aठacked the baiiicades. opening
ਈie on mostly women and childien and ਈiing teai-gas and concussion
gienades. Membeis of the Kahnawake Waiiioiۏs Society and waiiiois
fiom Kanesatake ietuined ਈie. ln the exchange of ਈie. one SO oਊcei
was killed. lollowing the ਈie-ਈght in the Pines and the ietieat of the
police. Waiiiois fiom Kahnawake seized the Meiciei Biidge ۊ a majoi
commutei biidge into Montieal ۊ to detei a second SO aठack. Moie
baiiicades weie eiected on ioads and highways aiound both Kanesatake
and Kahnawake by hundieds of Mohawk women and men ۊ seठing into
motion one of the longest aimed stand-oਇs in Noith Ameiica in iecent
histoiy. भe stand-oਇ. which saw hundieds of police and ovei 4.000
tioops fiom the Canadian Aimed loices deployed. initiated widespiead
solidaiity fiom Native peoples acioss Canada, ioad and iailway block-
ades weie eiected. lndian Aਇaiis oਊces occupied. demonstiations held.
and sabotage caiiied out against iailway biidges and electiical powei
lines. भe vulneiability of such infiastiuctuie was well know. and in fact
this possibility of an escalation of Native iesistance was a main pait of
why theie was no massacie caiiied out against the Natives and suppoit-
eis who held out in the Tieatment Centie. On Septembei 2õ. the last
iemaining defendeis made the collective decision to disengage ۊ not
suiiendei ۊ and began to move out of the aiea. भey weie. in theoiy.
walking home. iefusing to suiiendei foi they had commiठed no ےciimesۓ
in defending soveieign Mohawk land. Needless to say. the colonialist
occupation foices disagieed and captuied the defendeis. subjecting some
of the Waiiiois to toituie including beatings and mock executions.
At the same time. membeis of the Peigan Loneਈghteiۏs Society had
diveited the sacied Oldman Rivei away fioma damsystemin Albeita and
confionted the RCMP. Milton Boin With A Tooth would subsequently
be aiiested foi ਈiing two waining shots into the aii. He has since been
sentenced to 18 months.
As well. the Lilۏwat nation in BC eiected ioad blockades on theii
tiaditional land in an asseition of theii soveieignty as well as pait of the
solidaiity campaign with the Mohawks. loui months latei the RCMP
would iaid the blockade and aiiest some ¯0 Lilۏwat and suppoiteis. on
Novembei õ. On Novembei 24. a logging opeiation on Lubicon Ciee land
in noithein Albeita was aठacked and some s20.000 damage inਉicted on
vehicles and equipment. भiiteen Lubicon Ciee including Chief Beinaid
Ominayak weie subsequently chaiged with the action but have yet to
be put on tiial, a tiial they have iefused to iecognize as having any
juiisdiction on Lubicon Ciee land.
Duiing the same peiiod. lndigenous peoples in South Ameiica weie
caiiying foiwaid theii stiuggles.
ln Bolivia in Octobei . 1990. some 800 lndians fiom the Amazon iegion
ۊ Moxenos. Yuiacaies. Chimanes and Guaianies ۊ walked 330 miles
fiom the noithein city of Tiinidad to La Paz in a month-long ےMaich
foi Land and Dignityۓ. When the maich ieached the mountain pass that
sepaiates the highlands fiom the Amazon plains. thousands of Aymaias.
बechuas and Uius fiom acioss the Bolivian highlands weie theie to
gieet them. Like theii sisteis and biotheis in Noith Ameiica. this maich
was against logging opeiations as well as caठle ianching on lndian land.
ln Ecuadoi. fiom June 4
. 1990. a widespiead lndigenous upiis-
ing paialyzed the countiy. Neaily all majoi ioads and highways weie
blocked. demonstiations and festivals of up to ¯0.000 spiead thioughout
the countiy. despite massive police and militaiy iepiession. Demonstia-
tions weie aठacked. piotesteis beaten. teai-gassed and shot. भiough the
cooidination of CONAlE (Confedeiacion de Nacionalidades del Ecuadoi)
ۊ a national lndian oiganization foimed in 198õ ۊ a 1õ point ےMandate
foi the Defense. Life. and Rights of the lndigenous Nationalitiesۓ was
ieleased. भe demands included contiol of lndian lands. constitutional
and tax iefoims. and the dissolution of vaiious goveinment-contiolled
pseudo-lndian oiganizations. भe goveinment agieed to negotiations
on the demands, the upiising had iestiicted food supplies to the uiban
aieas. disiupted watei and electiicity supply. closed down schools. and
occupied oil wells. aiipoits. and iadio stations. भe lndigenous upiising
had eਇectively shut down the countiy.
ln the ¯00 yeais since the Genocide ਈist landed in the Caiibbean. itۏs
cleai that the colonization piocess continues, the killings. theझs. and
destiuction of natuial life continues. भe oiiginal conquistadois have
been ieplaced by militaiy foices and death squads in the South. and by
militaiy and police foices in the Noith. Euiopean disease epidemics con-
tinue. now joined by deadly pesticides and industiial pollutants. Slaveiy
is gone. so we aie told. but in any case lndigenous peoples. Blacks. and
pooi Mestizos ਈll the piisons in dispiopoitionate numbeis. And some
things havenۏt ieally changed at all· the oiiginal peoples still exist in con-
ditions of poveity. suicides. and the despaii of alcoholism ۊ conditions
intioduced ¯00 yeais ago. But something else has also iemained· the
spiiit of iesistance and the stiuggle against the colonizeis. भe iesistance
against this genocide has been continuous and shows that the people
have neithei been defeated noi conqueied.
ln this way. the Campaign foi ¯00 Yeais of lndigenous Resistance in
1992 foims an impoitant point in this histoiy· ےln oui continent. histoiy
can be divided into 3 phases, befoie the aiiival of the invadeis, these ਈve
hundied yeais, and that peiiod. beginning today. which we must deਈne
and buildۓ (Campaign ¯00 Yeais of Resistance and Populai Resistance).
In ì|e S¡:r:ì o[ Cro:. Horse,
In ì|e S¡:r:ì o[ Tv¡oc Koìor:,
In Toìo| Res:sìonce.
Souices foi the population of lndigenous peoples piioi to 1492 include·
• Heniy l. Dobyns. Noì:+e A»er:con H:sìor:co| De»ogro¡|. A Cr:ì:co|
B:||:ogro¡|.. Univeisity of lndiana Piess 19¯õ, ےEstimating Aboiigi-
nal Population· An Appiaisal of Techniques with a NewHemispheiic
Estimateۓ. Cvrrenì Anì|ro¡o|og.. no. ¯. 19õõ.
• Pieiie Chanu. Conqveìe eì F:¡|o:ìoì:on Je Nov+eov: MonJes (XVIe
S:ec|e). Paiis 19õ9 (estimates population at 80ۉ100 million).
• William R. Jacobs. ےभe Tip of an lcebeig, Revisionismۓ. in V:||:o»
onJ Mor. orìer|.. No. 31. 19¯4 (estimates population at ¯0ۉ100
• Woodiow Wilson Boiah. ےAmeiica as Model· भe Demogiaphic lm-
pact of Euiopean Expansion Upon the Non-Euiopean Woildۓ. in
Acìos . Me»or:os XXXV Congreso Inìernoc:ono| Je A»er:con:sìos.
Mexico 19õ2 (estimates population at 100 million). Souice· Roxanne
Dunbai Oitiz. InJ:ons o[ ì|e A»er:cos.
5़ह "ूवॆष़ऽेै -ऽशॆवॆ्
Maich 11. 2011
¯00 Yeais of lndigenous Resistance
Repiinted fiom Oh-Toh-Kin. Vol. 1 No. 1. Wintei/Spiing 1992. भis aiticle is
intended as a basic histoiy of the colonization of the Ameiicas since 1492. and the
lndigenous iesistance to this colonization continuing into 1992. भe authoi admits to
not having a full undeistanding of the tiaditions of his own people. the
Kwakiutl (Kwakwakaۏwakw), as such the aiticle lacks an analysis based in an
authentic lndigenous philosophy and is instead moie of a histoiical chionology.
Retiieved on May 8. 2009 fiom http·//anti-politics.net/distro/text/suuyears.html
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