A statue Gautama Buddha in Bodhgaya, India. Bodhgaya is traditionally considered the place of his awakening.
Part of a series on Buddhism
Outline · Portal History Timeline · Councils Gautama Buddha Disciples Later Buddhists Dharma or Concepts Four Noble Truths Dependent Origination Impermanence Suffering · Non-self Middle Way · Emptiness Five Aggregates Karma · Rebirth Samsara · Cosmology Practices Three Jewels Precepts · Perfections Meditation · Wisdom Noble Eightfold Path Aids to Enlightenment Monasticism · Laity Traditions · Canons Theravāda · Pali Mahāyāna · Chinese Vajrayāna · Tibetan
Buddhism (Pali/Sanskrit: बौद्ध धर्म Buddha Dharma) is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha (Pāli/Sanskrit "the awakened one"). The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened
Buddhism teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end suffering (or dukkha), achieve nirvana, and escape what is seen as a cycle of suffering and rebirth. Two major branches of Buddhism are recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"). Theravada—the oldest surviving branch—has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana is found throughout East Asia and includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shingon, Tendai and Shinnyo-en. In some classifications Vajrayana—a subcategory of Mahayana practiced in Tibet and Mongolia—is recognized as a third branch. While Buddhism remains most popular within Asia, both branches are now found throughout the world. Estimates of Buddhists worldwide vary significantly depending on the way Buddhist adherence is defined. Lower estimates are between 350–500 million.    Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. The foundations of Buddhist tradition and practice are the Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings), and the Sangha (the community).  Taking "refuge in the triple gem" has traditionally been a declaration and commitment to being on the Buddhist path and in general distinguishes a Buddhist from a non-Buddhist. Other practices may include following ethical precepts, support of the monastic community, renouncing conventional living and becoming a monastic, the development of mindfulness and practice of meditation, cultivation of higher wisdom and discernment, study of scriptures, devotional practices, ceremonies, and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas.
Life of the Buddha
The evidence of the early texts suggests that the Buddha was born in a community that was on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the northeastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE. It was either a small republic, in which case his father was an elected chieftain, or an oligarchy, in which case his father was an oligarch. According to the Theravada Tipitaka scriptures (from Pali, meaning "three baskets"), the Buddha was born in Lumbini in modern-day Nepal, around the year 563 BCE, and raised in Kapilavastu. 
Ascetic Gautama with his five companions, who later comprised the first Sangha. Wall painting in a Laotian temple
According to this narrative, shortly after the birth of young prince Siddhartha Gautama, an astrologer visited the young prince's father—King Śuddhodana—and prophesied that Siddhartha would either become a great king or renounce the material world to become a holy man, depending on whether he saw what life was like outside the palace walls. Śuddhodana was determined to see his son become a king so he prevented him from leaving the palace grounds. But at age 29, despite his father's efforts, Siddhartha ventured beyond the palace several times. In a series of encounters—known in Buddhist literature as the four sights he learned of the suffering of ordinary people, encountering an old man, a sick man, a corpse and, finally, an ascetic holy man, apparently content and at peace with the world. These experiences prompted Gautama to abandon royal life and take up a spiritual quest. Gautama first went to study with famous religious teachers of the day, and mastered the meditative attainments they taught. But he found that they did not provide a permanent end to suffering, so he continued his quest. He next attempted an extreme asceticism, which was a religious pursuit common among the Shramanas, a religious culture
Buddhism distinct from the Vedic one. Gautama underwent prolonged fasting, breath-holding, and exposure to pain. He almost starved himself to death in the process. He realized that he had taken this kind of practice to its limit, and had not put an end to suffering. So in a pivotal moment he accepted milk and rice from a village girl and changed his approach. He devoted himself to anapanasati meditation, through which he discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way (Skt. madhyamā-pratipad ): a path of moderation between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.  Gautama was now determined to complete his spiritual quest. At the age of 35, he famously sat in meditation under a sacred fig tree — known as the Bodhi tree — in the town of Bodh Gaya, India, and vowed not to rise before achieving enlightenment. After many days, he finally destroyed the fetters of his mind, thereby liberating himself from the cycle of suffering and rebirth, and arose as a fully enlightened being (Skt. samyaksaṃbuddha). Soon thereafter, he attracted a band of followers and instituted a monastic order. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the path of awakening he discovered, traveling throughout the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent,  and died at the age of 80 (483 BCE) in Kushinagar, India. The above narrative draws on the Nidānakathā biography of the Theravāda sect in Sri Lanka, which is ascribed to Buddhaghoṣa in the 5th century CE. Earlier biographies such as the Buddhacarita, the Lokottaravādin Mahāvastu, and the Mahāyāna / Sarvāstivāda Lalitavistara Sūtra, give different accounts. Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most accept that he lived, taught and founded a monastic order but do not consistently accept all of the details contained in his biographies.  According to author Michael Carrithers, while there are good reasons to doubt the traditional account, "the outline of the life must be true: birth, maturity, renunciation, search, awakening and liberation, teaching, death." In writing her biography of Buddha, Karen Armstrong noted, "It is obviously difficult, therefore, to write a biography of the Buddha that will meet modern criteria, because we have very little information that can be considered historically sound... [but] we can be reasonably confident Siddhatta Gotama did indeed exist and that his disciples preserved the memory of his life and teachings as well as they could."
Life and the world
Karma Karma (from Sanskrit: "action. The avoidance of unwholesome actions and the cultivation of positive actions is called śīla (from Sanskrit: "ethical conduct"). ever-changing process of "dependent arising" ("pratītyasamutpāda") determined by the laws of cause and effect (karma) rather than that of one being. Some Mahayana traditions hold different Traditional Tibetan Buddhist Thangka depicting the "Wheel of Life" with its six realms views. Animals: sharing space with humans. According to Buddhism there ultimately is no such thing as a self independent from the rest of the universe (the doctrine of anatta).
Two Tibetan Buddhist monks in traditional clothing
Each rebirth takes place within one of five realms according to Theravadins. but considered another type of life
. Vajrayana) regard the recitation of mantras as a means for cutting off previous negative karma. as it is called in Hinduism and Christianity. In Buddhism. Good. In Theravada Buddhism there can be no divine salvation or forgiveness for one's karma. since it is a purely impersonal process that is a part of the makeup of the universe. eternal soul. transmigrating or incarnating from one existence to the next. Buddhism rejects the concepts of a permanent self or an unchanging. the Angulimaliya Sutra and the Nirvana Sutra) claim that reciting or merely hearing their texts can expunge great swathes of negative karma. work") in Buddhism is the force that drives saṃsāra—the cycle of suffering and rebirth for each being. Preta: sometimes sharing some space with humans. but invisible to most people. each running from conception to death. Naraka beings: those who live in one of many Narakas (Hells) 2. karma specifically refers to those actions (of body.  These are further subdivided into 31 planes of existence: 1. unskillful (Pāli: "akusala") actions produce "seeds" in the mind which come to fruition either in this life or in a subsequent rebirth. or six according to other schools. The Japanese Pure Land teacher Genshin taught that Amida Buddha has the power to destroy the karma that would otherwise bind one in saṃsāra. and which bring about a consequence (or fruit. skillful deeds (Pāli: "kusala") and bad. an important variety is the hungry ghost 3. Some forms of Buddhism (for example.  Rebirth Rebirth refers to a process whereby beings go through a succession of lifetimes as one of many possible forms of sentient life. Rebirth in subsequent existences must be understood as the continuation of a dynamic. speech. For example. "phala") or result ("vipāka"). and mind) that spring from mental intent ("cetana"). the texts of certain Mahayana sutras (such as the Lotus Sutra.
2. which Buddhists strive to end by eradicating these causes and conditions. Suffering is caused by craving. Asuras: variously translated as lowly deities. Life as we know it ultimately is or leads to suffering/uneasiness (dukkha) in one way or another. Reaching this liberated state is achieved by following the path laid out by the Buddha. Suffering ends when craving ends. and taught as an introduction to Buddhism by some contemporary Mahayana teachers (for example. the Four Noble Truths were the first teaching of Gautama Buddha after attaining Nirvana.
According to other interpretations by Buddhist teachers and scholars. can be attained only by skilled Buddhist practitioners known as anāgāmis (non-returners).Buddhism 4. not recognized by Theravāda (Mahavihara) tradition as a separate realm 6. Each rebirth repeats this process in an involuntary cycle. This is achieved by eliminating delusion. the highest object of meditation. This is often expressed as a deluded clinging to a certain sense of existence. Cessation and the paths towards liberation from suffering.e. one craves that a certain state of affairs not exist. applying the methods laid out by the Buddha and subsequent Buddhists. the Dalai Lama). Suffering and causes of suffering 2. however there are passages in the Samyutta Nikaya of the Pali Canon (the collection of texts on which the Theravada tradition is based). Craving also has its negative aspect. to selfhood. there is an intermediate state (Tibetan "Bardo") between one life and the next.
Suffering's causes and solution
The Four Noble Truths According to the Pali Tipitaka and the Āgamas of other early Buddhist schools. Devas including Brahmas: variously translated as gods.
. 3. spirits. This method is described by early Western scholars. the "truths" do not represent mere statements. demons. known as the Śuddhāvāsa Worlds (Pure Abodes). Rebirths in the arupa-dhatu (formless realms) can be attained only by those who can meditate on the arūpajhānas. deities. The orthodox Theravada position rejects this. angels. grouped in two: 1. According to East Asian and Tibetan Buddhism.  Saṃsāra Sentient beings crave pleasure and are averse to pain from birth to death. thereby reaching a liberated state of Enlightenment (bodhi). antigods. They are sometimes considered to contain the essence of the Buddha's teachings: 1. lately recognized by some Western non-Buddhist scholars. and produce the causes and conditions of the next rebirth after death. 4. Human beings: one of the realms of rebirth in which attaining Nirvana is possible 5. but are categories or aspects that most worldly phenomena fall into. that seem to lend support to the idea that the Buddha taught of an intermediate stage between one life and the next. or to the things or phenomena that we consider the cause of happiness or unhappiness. they perpetuate the cycle of conditioned existence and suffering (saṃsāra). i. or left untranslated Rebirths in some of the higher heavens. titans. In being controlled by these attitudes.
The Dharmachakra represents the Noble Eightfold Path. The Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path—the fourth of the Buddha's Noble Truths—is the way to the cessation of suffering (dukkha). explained as the first four jhānas The practice of the Eightfold Path is understood in two ways.  The East Asian Mahayana position is that they are a preliminary teaching for people not yet ready for the higher and more expansive Mahayana teachings. It includes: 1. • Śīla is the ethics or morality. each starting with the word "samyak" (Sanskrit. not just as it appears to be. ājīvana (ājīva): a non-harmful livelihood • Samādhi is the mental discipline required to develop mastery over one's own mind.Buddhism Thus. according to the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism they are 1. 4. karman (kammanta): acting in a non-harmful way 3. the culmination of one leading to the beginning of another. "The noble truth that is suffering" "The noble truth that is the arising of suffering" "The noble truth that is the end of suffering" "The noble truth that is the way leading to the end of suffering"
The traditional Theravada understanding is that the Four Noble Truths are an advanced teaching for those who are ready for them. dṛṣṭi (ditthi): viewing reality as it is. without any craving or aversion 3. frequently translated into English as "right"). smṛti (sati): awareness to see things for what they are with clear consciousness. 2. being aware of the present reality within oneself. 2. allowing it to attain spiritual insight into the true nature of all things. This is done through the practice of various contemplative and meditative practices. as requiring either simultaneous development (all eight items practiced in parallel). 3. and includes: • vyāyāma (vāyāma): making an effort to improve 2. saṃkalpa (sankappa): intention of renunciation. It has eight sections. or "well". samādhi (samādhi): correct meditation or concentration. "properly". or as a progressive series of stages through which the practitioner moves. It includes: • vāc (vāca): speaking in a truthful and non-hurtful way 2. freedom and harmlessness. (NB: Pāli transliterations appear in brackets after Sanskrit ones): • Prajñā is the wisdom that purifies the mind. or abstention from unwholesome deeds. and presented in three groups known as the three higher trainings.
In the earliest Buddhist teachings. the concept of liberation (Nirvana)—the goal of the Buddhist path—is closely related to the correct understanding of how the mind causes stress. pain. The Middle Way has several definitions: 1. Buddhist philosophy and Reality in Buddhism). The middle ground between certain metaphysical views (for example. Since nothing lasts. but most regard it as having a place. "suffering" is too narrow a translation with "negative emotional connotations" which can give the impression that the Buddhist view is one of pessimism. and in any experience of loss. Tibet
. which avoids the extremes of permanence and nihilism or inherent existence and nothingness
Nature of existence
Buddhist scholars have produced a remarkable quantity of intellectual theories. affliction. unsteady. and some regard it as essential. attachment to them is futile and leads to suffering (dukkha). shared to some extent by all extant schools. Another term for emptiness. Some schools of Buddhism discourage doctrinal study. and is liberated from suffering (dukkha) and the cycle of incessant rebirths (saṃsāra). Although the term is often translated as "suffering". a lack of inherent existence. so as to
Debating monks at Sera Monastery. In English-language Buddhist literature translated from Pāli.Buddhism The Middle Way An important guiding principle of Buddhist practice is the Middle Way (or Middle Path). According to the doctrine of impermanence. misery. but Buddhism seeks to be neither pessimistic nor optimistic. and not-self. The doctrine asserts that because things are impermanent. discomfort. Suffering (Pāli: दुक्ख dukkha. Impermanence (Pāli: anicca) expresses the Buddhist notion that all compounded or conditioned phenomena (all things and experiences) are inconstant. and impermanent. and frustration. Sanskrit दुःख duḥkha) is also a central concept in Buddhism. dissatisfaction. Everything we can experience through our senses is made up of parts. Things are constantly coming into being. the cycle of rebirth (saṃsāra). The practice of non-extremism: a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification 2. philosophies and world view concepts (see. one develops dispassion for the objects of clinging. Everything is in constant flux. To this end. The word roughly corresponds to a number of terms in English including suffering. and its existence is dependent on external conditions. for example. Three Marks of Existence The Three Marks of Existence are impermanence. a state wherein it becomes clear that all dualities apparent in the world are delusory (see Seongcheol) 4. An explanation of Nirvana (perfect enlightenment). anguish. suffering. the Buddha recommended viewing things as characterized by the three marks of existence. at least for some persons at some stages in Buddhist practice. but realistic. which is said to have been discovered by Gautama Buddha prior to his enlightenment. As such. that things ultimately either do or do not exist) 3. "dukkha" is often left untranslated. sorrow. stress. anxiety. its philosophical meaning is more analogous to "disquietude" as in the condition of being disturbed. there is no inherent or fixed nature to any object or experience. life embodies this flux in the aging process. and so conditions and the thing itself are constantly changing. In awakening to the true nature of clinging. unsatisfactoriness. and ceasing to be. the ultimate nature of all phenomena (in the Mahayana branch). Abhidharma.
"conditioned genesis".) 11. the word also means fuel. specifically spiritual ignorance of the nature of reality Saṃskāras: literally formations.   Not-self (Pāli: anatta. Tibetan: rten. Upon careful examination. which feeds the continuing cycle of rebirth 10. tongue. stimulation (by a sense object) Vedanā: usually translated feeling: this is the "hedonic tone". Pali: paticcasamuppāda. but life is understood as starting at conception 12. referring to mind and body Ṣaḍāyatana: the six sense bases: eye. whether something is pleasant. one finds that no phenomenon is really "I" or "mine". ear. explained as referring to karma Vijñāna: consciousness. impression. each one giving rise to the next: Avidyā: ignorance. which explain the continuation of the cycle of suffering and rebirth (saṃsāra) in detail. When asked if the self was identical with the body. 2. The best-known application of the concept of pratītyasamutpāda is the scheme of Twelve Nidānas (from Pāli "nidāna" meaning "cause. Sanskrit: anātman) is the third mark of existence. In the Nikayas anatta is not meant as a metaphysical assertion. Tṛṣṇā: literally thirst. Chinese: 緣起) is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. It is variously rendered into English as "dependent origination". 4.Buddhism encompass its full range of meaning. but as an approach for gaining release from suffering. unpleasant or neutral 8.
. foundation. Dependent arising The doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit. 5. Jarāmaraṇa: (old age and death) and also śokaparidevaduḥkhadaurmanasyopāyāsa (sorrow. Upādāna: clinging or grasping. (The Theravada explains this as having two meanings: karma. It states that phenomena arise together in a mutually interdependent web of cause and effect. these concepts are in fact constructed by the mind. or "contingency". Bhava: literally being (existence) or becoming. body and mind-organ Sparśa: variously translated contact. The Twelve Nidānas describe a causal connection between the subsequent characteristics or conditions of cyclic existence.'byung. By analyzing the constantly changing physical and mental constituents (skandhas) of a person or object. the practitioner comes to the conclusion that neither the respective parts nor the person as a whole comprise a self. "interdependent arising". the Buddha refused to answer. pain. source or origin"). i. nose. sadness. "dependent co-arising".cing. specifically discriminative Nāmarūpa: literally name and form.'brel.e. In fact. and the existence itself.bar. Then the absence of the first Nidāna—ignorance—leads to the absence of the others. which produces a new existence. 3. Jāti: literally birth. and misery) 1. 7. Sentient beings always suffer throughout saṃsāra. but in Buddhism nearly always used to mean craving 9. until they free themselves from this suffering by attaining Nirvana.ba. lamentation. the Buddha rejected both of the metaphysical assertions "I have a Self" and "I have no Self" as ontological views that bind one to suffering. 6.
but to be replete with eternal Buddhic virtues. but his philosophy was argued within the parameters set out by the agamas. Not all Yogacarins asserted that mind was truly existent. Vasubandhu and Asanga in particular did not. in modern China all doctrines are regarded as equally valid. widely attested in the Prajñāpāramitā sutras which were emergent in his era. 150–250 CE). In the eyes of Nagarjuna the Buddha was not merely a forerunner. Shanghai. i. Buddha-nature is stated in the Mahayana Angulimaliya Sutra and Mahaparinirvana Sutra to not be śūnya. These two schools of thought. Besides emptiness. Sarvastivada teachings—which were criticized by Nāgārjuna—were reformulated by scholars such as Vasubandhu and Asanga and were adapted into the Yogacara (Sanskrit: yoga practice) school. some exponents of Yogacara asserted that the mind and only the mind is ultimately real (a doctrine known as cittamatra). Nagarjuna's primary contribution to Buddhist philosophy was the systematic exposition of the concept of śūnyatā. According to the Tathāgatagarbha Sutras. However. Some of the writings attributed to Nagarjuna made explicit references to Mahayana texts. and thus without any underlying essence. particularly anatta and pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination). Nagarjuna's school of thought is China. The concept of emptiness brings together other key Buddhist doctrines. it is not merely sentient beings that are empty of ātman. to refute the metaphysics of Sarvastivada and Sautrantika (extinct non-Mahayana schools). While the Mādhyamaka school held that asserting the existence or non-existence of any ultimately real thing was inappropriate. form the basis of subsequent Mahayana metaphysics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition. or "emptiness".e. meaning "Buddha embryo" or "Buddha-matrix"). in opposition or synthesis. Mahayana schools often place emphasis on the notions of perfected spiritual insight (prajñāpāramitā) and Buddha-nature (tathāgatagarbha. For Nagarjuna. the doctrines of early Buddhism.
. arguably the most influential scholar within the Mahayana tradition. In the Tathāgatagarbha Sutras the Buddha is portrayed proclaiming that the teaching of the tathāgatagarbha constitutes the "absolutely final culmination" of his Dharma—the highest presentation of truth (other sūtras make similar statements about other teachings) and it has traditionally been regarded as the highest teaching in East Asian Buddhism. thus the heterodox theories of svabhava circulating at the time were refuted on the basis of A monk in the Jade Buddha Temple. they are "empty" of being independent. He may have arrived at his positions from a desire to achieve a consistent exegesis of the Buddha's doctrine as recorded in the Canon. The Mahayana can also on occasion communicate a vision of the Buddha or Dharma which amounts to mysticism and gives expression to a form of mentalist panentheism (see God in Buddhism). Buddhahood. all phenomena (dharmas) are without any svabhava (literally "own-nature" or "self-nature"). the Buddha revealed the reality of the deathless Buddha-nature. which is said to be inherent in all sentient beings and enables them all eventually to reach complete enlightenment.Buddhism Emptiness Mahayana Buddhism received significant theoretical grounding from Nagarjuna (perhaps c. but the very founder of the Mādhyamaka system. known as the Mādhyamaka.
bodhi carried a meaning synonymous to nirvana. in devanagari: बॊधि) is a term applied to the experience of Awakening of arahants. according to Mahayana Buddhism. but it is more commonly translated into English as "enlightenment". Gombrich.
. including the Buddha. "extinguished". which implies the extinction of raga (greed. with the resultant escape from the cycle of rebirth. aversion) and moha (delusion). In the later school of Mahayana Buddhism. delusion: the extinction of delusion is of course in the early texts identical with what can be positively expressed as gnosis. Enlightenment). Bodhi literally means "awakening". India. using only some different metaphors to describe the experience. and that one needed to attain bodhi to eradicate
Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya. coming to refer only to the extinction of greed and hate. dosa (hate. hate and delusion. But the Mahayana tradition separated them and considered that nirvana referred only to the extinction of craving (passion and hatred). Originally nirvana and bodhi refer to the same thing. "quieted". Pali: "Nibbana") means "cessation". Enlightenment. while the bodhisattva not only achieves nirvana but full liberation from delusion as well. where Gautama Buddha attained Nirvana under the Bodhi Tree (left)
delusion: An important development in the Mahayana [was] that it came to separate nirvana from bodhi ('awakening' to the truth. is arahant. In Theravada Buddhism. How Buddhism Began Therefore. bodhi and nirvana carry the same meaning as in the early texts. thus still being subject to delusion. "extinction" (of craving and ignorance and therefore suffering and the cycle of involuntary rebirths (saṃsāra). He thus attains bodhi and becomes a buddha. The term parinirvana is also encountered in Buddhism. and to put a lower value on the former (Gombrich. the status of nirvana was downgraded in some scriptures. The term for anybody who has achieved nirvana. Bodhi (Pāli and Sanskrit. the arahant has attained only nirvana. 1992d). This interpretation ignores the third fire. they merely use different metaphors for the experience. when the physical body expires. craving). it is also known as "Awakening" or "Enlightenment" in the West. that of being freed from greed. "calmed". implying that delusion was still present in one who attained nirvana. and this generally refers to the complete nirvana attained by the arhat at the moment of death.Buddhism
Nirvana Nirvana (Sanskrit. In Early Buddhism. —Richard F.
in certain Mahayana sutras. usually just called Buddha. and delusion. hate. Celestial Buddhas are individuals who no longer exist on the material plane of existence. who discovers the truth by himself but lacks the skill to teach others • Savakabuddha. implying that delusion was still present in one who attained Nirvana. 1st century CE. a person may awaken from the "sleep of ignorance" by directly realizing the true nature of reality.Buddhism Buddhas Theravada In Theravada doctrine. After numerous lifetimes of spiritual striving. the Arahant attains Nirvana but not Bodhi. Nirvana came to refer only to the extinction of greed and hate. Pure Land. The commentaries to the Pali Canon classify these awakened beings into three types: • Sammasambuddha. Pure Land Buddhism is a very widespread and perhaps the most faith-orientated manifestation of
The Great Statue of Buddha Amitabha in Kamakura. Thus. the Buddha. Dharma and Sangha are viewed essentially as One: all three are seen as the eternal Buddha himself. the arahant has overcome these obstacles. the Buddha tends not to be viewed as merely human. Moreover. As a further distinction. while the Buddha attains Bodhi. Japan
. omnipresent being (see Dharmakaya) beyond the range and reach of thought. The method of self-exertion or "self-power"—without reliance on an external force or being—stands in contrast to another major form of Buddhism. the extinction of only hatred and greed (in the sensory context) with some residue of delusion.
Gautama Buddha. who receive the truth directly or indirectly from a Sammasambuddha Bodhi and nirvana carry the same meaning. but who still aid in the enlightenment of all beings. they have reached the end of the cycle of rebirth. or other being. but as the earthly projection of a beginningless and endless. who discovers the truth by himself and teaches the path to awakening to others • Paccekabuddha. animal. Gandhara
Mahayana In the Mahayana. thus still being subject to delusion. In attaining bodhi. which is characterised by utmost trust in the salvific "other-power" of Amitabha Buddha. is called anagami. no longer reincarnating as human. that of being freed from craving. Bodhi became a higher attainment that eradicates delusion entirely. ghost. such people are called arahants and occasionally buddhas.
Pure Land Buddhism holds that it has declined to the point where few are capable of following the path. The idea of the decline and gradual disappearance of the teaching has been influential in East Asian Buddhism. pāramitā). The understandings of this matter reflect widely differing interpretations of basic terms. the term Mahāyāna ("Great Vehicle") was originally even an honorary synonym for Bodhisattvayāna. or as essentially Nirvana itself. so it may be best to rely on the power of the Amitabha Buddha. an early and important Mahāyāna text. A Buddha era is the stretch of history during which people remember and practice the teachings of the earliest known Buddha. these perfections are: giving. A Theravada commentary says that Buddhas arise one at a time in this world element. Buddha eras Buddhists believe Gautama Buddha was the first to achieve enlightenment in this Buddha era and is therefore credited with the establishment of Buddhism. between the various schools of Buddhism. a bodhisattva-mahāsattva is so called. Mahāyāna Buddhism encourages everyone to become bodhisattvas and to take the bodhisattva vows. This Buddhic realm is variously construed as a foretaste of Nirvana. and generally refers to one who is on the path to buddhahood. This belief therefore maintains that many Buddha eras have started and ended throughout the course of human existence. if only one has faith in the power of that vow or chants his name. who taught directly or indirectly to all other Buddhas in it (see types of Buddhas). is the Buddha of this era.Buddhism Buddhism and centres upon the conviction that faith in Amitabha Buddha and the chanting of homage to his name will liberate one at death into the "happy land" (安樂) or "pure land" (淨土) of Amitabha Buddha. and transcendent wisdom. Mahāyāna Buddhism is based principally upon the path of a bodhisattva. The great vow of Amitabha Buddha to rescue all beings from samsaric suffering is viewed within Pure Land Buddhism as universally efficacious. According to Jan Nattier. In addition. Mahayana Buddhists believe there are innumerable other Buddhas in other universes. then.  The Gautama Buddha." The Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle.
. such as "world realm". effort. and this definition is the following:   Because he has enlightenment as his aim. but has traditionally acknowledged and respected the bodhisattva path as well. With these vows. This Buddha era will end when all the knowledge. contains a simple and brief definition for the term bodhisattva. evidence and teachings of Gautama Buddha have vanished. typically as a fully enlightened buddha (Skt. Bodhisattvas Bodhisattva means "enlightenment being". samyaksaṃbuddha). Theravada Buddhism primarily uses the term in relation to Gautama Buddha's previous existences. forbearance. meditation. discipline. one makes the promise to work for the complete enlightenment of all beings by practicing six perfections (Skt. and not at all in others. According to the Mahāyāna teachings.
 Devotional practices include bowing. but rejected  their theories of liberation. mindfulness and clear awareness are to be developed at all times. for example. in pre-Buddhist yogic practices there is no such injunction. In Nichiren Buddhism. In Buddhism.Buddhism
Devotion is an important part of the practice of most Buddhists. Borobodur. Having argued that the cosmological statements in the Upanishads also reflect a contemplative tradition. Some of the Buddha's meditative techniques were shared with other traditions of his day. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought. while a Buddhist monastic should do so. Java. but the idea that ethics are causally related to the attainment of "transcendent wisdom" (Skt. even as early as the late Rig Vedic period. Meditation was an aspect of the practice of the yogis in the centuries preceding the Buddha. According to the Samaññaphala Sutta this sort of vision arose for the Buddhist adept as a result of the perfection of "meditation" (Skt. offerings. based on the practice of mindful awareness. The difference between the Buddha's teaching and the yoga presented in early Brahminic texts is striking. The Buddha built upon the yogis' concern with Amitābha Buddha meditating. devotion to the Buddha Amitabha is the main practice. dhyāna) coupled with the perfection of "discipline" (Skt. The most ancient sustained expression of yogic ideas is found in the early sermons of the Buddha. In Pure Land Buddhism. devotion to the Lotus Sutra is the main practice. Indonesia. Religious knowledge or "vision" was indicated as a result of practice both within and outside of the Buddhist fold. based on strong parallels between Upanishadic cosmological statements and the meditative goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in the early Buddhist texts. Another new teaching of the Buddha was that meditative absorption must be combined with a liberating cognition. and chanting.
. He mentions less likely possibilities as well. One key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative absorption must be combined with liberating cognition. some sort of mental activity must take place: a liberating cognition. While there is no convincing evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts. for according to the Buddha. Two Upanishads written after the rise of Buddhism do contain full-fledged descriptions of yoga as a means to liberation. Meditative states alone are not an end. Wynne argues that formless meditation originated in the Brahminic or Shramanic tradition. They describe meditative practices and states which had existed before the Buddha as well as those which were first developed within Buddhism. śīla). even the highest meditative state is not liberating. Skt: dhyāna). The Buddhist texts are probably the earliest describing meditation techniques. A yogi in the Brahmanical tradition is not to practice while defecating. sitting in the lotus position. Yoga Buddhism traditionally incorporates states of meditative absorption (Pali: jhāna. prajñā) was original. he argues that the Nasadiya Sukta contains evidence for a contemplative tradition. pilgrimage. introspection and developed their meditative techniques.
 • The Sangha. Gandhāra.Buddhism Refuge in the Three Jewels Traditionally. The practice of taking refuge on behalf of young or even unborn children is mentioned in the Majjhima Nikaya. The Buddha could also be Footprint of the Buddha with Dharmachakra and represented as a concept instead of a specific person: the perfect triratna.
. Tibetan Buddhism sometimes adds a fourth refuge. for once one has reached Buddhahood. According to the scriptures. in the lama. the Buddha can be viewed as the supreme Refuge: "Buddha is the Unique Absolute Refuge. The teachings or law of nature as expounded by the Gautama Buddha. Pāli: ti-ratana) as the foundation of one's religious practice. This is especially said to be the case with the Lotus Sutra. Further. See also the Tathāgata and Gautama Buddha. too. It can also." • The Dharma. connote the ultimate and sustaining Reality which is inseparable from the Buddha. considered the ultimate expression of compassion. Indestructible and Absolute Refuge. from some Mahayana perspectives." The Three Jewels are: • The Buddha. These Three Jewels bring a fruition that is changeless. the Dharma embodied in the form of a great sutra (Buddhic scripture) can replace the need for a personal teacher and can be a direct and spontaneous gateway into Truth (Dharma). the Three Jewels are perceived as possessed of an eternal and unchanging essence and as having an irreversible effect: "The Three Jewels have the quality of excellence. the person who chooses the bodhisattva path makes a vow or pledge. Buddha is the Imperishable. 1st century CE. Just as real jewels never change their faculty and goodness. Gautama Buddha presented himself as a model. The Sangha is considered to provide a refuge by preserving the authentic teachings of the Buddha and providing further examples that the truth of the Buddha's teachings is attainable. wisdom that understands Dharma and sees reality in its true form. Dr. In Mahayana Buddhism. Eternal. or simply the congregation of monastic practitioners. The Dharma offers a refuge by providing guidelines for the alleviation of suffering and the attainment of Nirvana. In Mahayana. Those who have attained to any of the Four stages of enlightenment. especially in Mahayana. because they have an eternal and immutable essence. without resorting to a teacher". so are the Three Jewels (Refuges). Hiroshi Kanno writes of this view of the Lotus Sutra: "it is a Dharma-gate of sudden enlightenment proper to the Great Vehicle. whether praised or reviled. Infant baptism). it is a Dharma-gate whereby one awakens spontaneously. the first step in most Buddhist schools requires taking refuge in the Three Jewels (Sanskrit: tri-ratna. This is a title for those who have attained Nirvana. In Mahayana. there is no possibility of falling back to suffering. recognized by most scholars as an early text (cf.
keeping the precepts are meritorious and it acts as causes which would bring about peaceful and happy effects. they can choose to undertake the eight precepts. which are common to all Buddhist schools. the third precept on sexual misconduct is made more strict. Keeping the precepts promotes not only the peace of mind of the cultivator. music. and extinguishment. Śīla is the foundation of Samadhi/Bhāvana (Meditative cultivation) or mind cultivation. To refrain from dancing. Lay people generally undertake to live by the five precepts. word. To refrain from taking food at an unseasonable time. "basic morality with asceticism" (eight precepts). and panya) and the second pāramitā. which correspond to "basic morality" (five precepts). calmness. singing and unseemly shows 8. and a tenth added: 6. which is external. "morality". 4. It refers to moral purity of thought. In Buddhist thought. "ethics" or "precept". 5. 3. To refrain from using high or luxurious seats and bedding The complete list of ten precepts may be observed by laypeople for short periods. the seventh precept is partitioned into two. which add basic asceticism. In the eight precepts. the cultivation of dana and ethical conduct will themselves refine consciousness to such a level that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely. which is internal. According to the Law of Karma. or mind. and can meditate well: 1. perfumes. wearing jewelry and cosmetics. and from things that tend to beautify and adorn (the person)
. To refrain from the use of garlands. "novice monkhood" (ten precepts) and "monkhood" (Vinaya or Patimokkha). speech. There is nothing improper or un-Buddhist about limiting one's aims to this level of attainment. There are several Japanese Mahayana Buddhist monk levels of sila. To refrain from eating at the wrong time (only eat from sunrise to noon) 7. To refrain from dancing and playing music. It is one of the three practices (sila. To refrain from taking life (non-violence towards sentient life forms). but as training rules that laypeople undertake voluntarily to facilitate practice. ointments. even if there is no further Buddhist practice.Buddhism
Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually translated into English as "virtuous behavior". drugs and alcohol)
The precepts are not formulated as imperatives. attending shows and other performances 8. that is after the mid-day meal 7. It is an action committed through the body. and deed. and becomes a precept of celibacy. Keeping these precepts keeps the cultivator from rebirth in the four woeful realms of existence. For the complete list. quiet. 2. The three additional precepts are: 6. The five precepts are training rules in order to live a better life in which one is happy. and involves an intentional effort. The four conditions of śīla are chastity. without worries. or ahimsā To refrain from taking that which is not given (not committing theft) To refrain from sensual (including sexual) misconduct To refrain from lying (speaking truth always) To refrain from intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness (specifically. Śīla refers to overall principles of ethical behavior. If they wish. samadhi. but also peace in the community.
living life as the vinaya prescribes it is. which is expanded to one's body. Regarding the monastic rules. The precise content of the vinayapitaka (scriptures on Vinaya) differ slightly according to different schools. To refrain from (using) high and luxurious seats (and beds) 10. Samādhi (meditative cultivation): samatha meditation In the language of the Noble Eightfold Path. many male and female lay practitioners did practice meditation. not only monks. It includes the Patimokkha. there is also a distinctive Vinaya and ethics contained within the Mahayana Brahmajala Sutra (not to be confused with the Pali text of that name) for Bodhisattvas. from sitting cross-legged or kneeling to chanting or walking. but Chan (Zen) meditation is more popular. and allows clergy to marry. According to Peter Harvey. a set of 227 rules for monks in the Theravadin recension. for example. nuns. samatha meditation (Sanskrit: śamatha) and vipassanā meditation (Sanskrit: vipaśyanā). which are the basic precepts for monastics. Sanskrit ध्यान dhyāna). this has almost completely displaced the monastic vinaya. Upon development of samādhi. Samatha meditation starts from being mindful of an object or idea. The evidence of the early texts suggests that at the time of the Buddha. To refrain from accepting gold and silver
Vinaya is the specific moral code for monks and nuns. his mind is ready to penetrate and gain insight (vipassanā) into the ultimate nature of reality. the Buddha constantly reminds his hearers that it is the spirit that counts. tranquil. The cultivation of mindfulness is essential to mental concentration. because this practice can lead to both samatha and vipassana'.
Buddhist meditation is fundamentally concerned with two themes: transforming the mind and using it to explore itself and other phenomena. the eating of meat is frowned upon and vegetarianism is actively encouraged (see vegetarianism in Buddhism). and different schools or subschools set different standards for the degree of adherence to Vinaya. some even to the point of proficiency in all eight jhānas (see the next section regarding these). Novice-monks use the ten precepts. Once the meditator achieves a strong and powerful concentration (jhāna. whenever Buddhism has been healthy." In Eastern Buddhism. serious meditation by lay  people has been unusual. The most common method of meditation is to concentrate on one's breath (anapanasati). and provide a perfect springboard for the higher attainments.Buddhism 9. On the other hand. samyaksamādhi is "right concentration". According to Routledge's Encyclopedia of Buddhism. In Chinese Buddhism. Monastics are instructed by the Buddha to live as "islands unto themselves". in contrast. which is needed to achieve insight. leading to a state of total concentration and tranquility (jhāna) There are many variations in the style of meditation. The primary means of cultivating samādhi is meditation. mind and entire surroundings. and luminous. but also more committed lay people have practiced meditation. one's mind becomes purified of defilement. throughout most Buddhist monks praying in Thailand of Buddhist history before modern times. these exist (translated chih kuan). In Japan. where. the rules themselves are designed to assure a satisfying life. as one scholar puts it: "more than merely a means to an end: it is very nearly the end in itself. eventually obtaining release from all suffering.
. In this sense. and married lamas. calm. According to Theravada Buddhism the Buddha taught two types of meditation.
hatred and delusion. reading. a technique which is part of the Noble Eightfold Path. Notably. an Awakening to a universal. Prajñā is the wisdom that is able to extinguish afflictions and bring about bodhi. these defilements need to be permanently uprooted through internal investigation. Kosho Uchiyama. It will then lead the meditator to realize the Four Noble Truths. the cause of human existence and suffering is identified as craving. Prajñā (Wisdom): vipassana meditation Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) means wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination. meaning "meditation") is a form of Buddhism that became popular in China. seon in Korean or zen in Japanese (derived from the Sanskrit term dhyāna. Zen Buddhism is divided into two main schools: Rinzai (臨済宗) and Sōtō (曹洞宗). Zen does not neglect the scriptures. all defilements are suppressed temporarily. Zen places less emphasis on scriptures than some other forms of Buddhism and prefers to focus on direct spiritual breakthroughs to truth.Buddhism In Buddhist practice. According to Zen master. which is equated with the Buddha himself. conducting the business of one's daily life. pronounced chán in Chinese. which is what leads to knowledge (jñāna. Nevertheless. Thinking and thought must therefore not be allowed to confine and bind one. studying. When one is in jhana. anicca (impermanence) and anatta (not-self). Enlightenment and Nibbana. and sometimes reciting Buddhist texts and engaging in discourse. a meditative riddle or puzzle) as a device for spiritual break-through. These are believed to be deeply rooted afflictions of the mind that create suffering and stress. whether deep in meditation. experiencing. and the latter (while certainly employing koans) focusing more on shikantaza or "just sitting". Pāli ñāṇa) and understanding (prajñā Pāli paññā). only vipassanā meditation can reveal how the mind was disturbed to start with. Zen Zen Buddhism (禅). Jhanas are also states which Arahants abide in order to rest. we discover the Self that is living universal non-dual life (before the separation into two) that pervades all living creatures and all existence. It is spoken of as the principal means of attaining nirvāṇa. Zen Buddhist teaching is often full of paradox. or any other activity. analyzing.
. Initially. Nibbana is the ultimate goal of Theravadins. Korea and Japan and that lays special emphasis on meditation. it is said that while samatha meditation can calm the mind. in order to loosen the grip of the ego and to facilitate the penetration into the realm of the True Self or Formless Self. and thus can lead to nirvāṇa (Pāli nibbāna). non-dual Self occurs: ' When we let go of thoughts and wake up to the reality of life that is working beyond them. listening to a sermon. through its revelation of the true nature of all things as dukkha (unsatisfactoriness). Once the conceptual understanding is attained. In order to be free from suffering and stress. The Four Noble Truths and the three marks of existence. when thoughts and fixation on the little 'I' are transcended. and understanding of the true nature of those defilements by using jhāna. In Theravāda In Theravāda Buddhism. the former greatly favouring the use in meditation on the koan (公案. it is applied to daily life so that each Buddhist can verify the truth of the Buddha's teaching at a practical level. which carries with it the various defilements. prajñā is attained at a conceptual level by means of listening to sermons (dharma talks). one could in theory attain Nirvana at any point of practice. Only understanding (prajñā or vipassana) eradicates the defilements completely. These various defilements are traditionally summed up as greed.'. Prajñā is also listed as the sixth of the six pāramitās of the Mahayana.
Historically. nirvana ("extinguishing"). and moksha originated in the shramanas. besides Buddhism. were a continuation of a non-Vedic strand of Indian thought distinct from Indo-Aryan Brahmanism. the Ajnanas (agnostics) and the Jains.  Scholars have reasons to believe that ideas such as samsara. or even as little as three years. antinomians (such as Purana Kassapa). they were influenced by. and meditation as a means of developing the mind. Using these techniques. That was a period of social and religious turmoil. moreover. who emphasized the rule of fate. who claimed to be in possession of revealed truths not knowable by any ordinary human means. but also includes a vast array of spiritual and physical techniques designed to enhance Buddhist practice.
The Buddhist "Carpenter's Cave" at Ellora in Maharashtra. and in some respects continued. samsara ("eternal recurrence") and yoga ("spiritual practice"). including Buddha. karma (in the sense of the influence of morality on rebirth). According to him. earlier philosophical thought within the Vedic tradition as reflected e. materialists (such as Ajita Kesakambali). physical exercises. karma ("action").  These groups. the Lokayata (materialists). visualization. Tantric Buddhism. dhamma ("rule" or "law"). Their leaders.atman ("Self"). these practices can include sexual yoga.
A view of Ruined Buddhist temple on hilltop at ---File---Ramatheertham Vizianagaram AP India
Many of these new movements shared the same conceptual vocabulary . or esoteric Buddhism). Tantrayāna. One component of the Vajrayāna is harnessing psycho-physical energy through ritual. A particular criticism of the Buddha's was Vedic animal sacrifice. they declared that the entire Brahmanical system was fraudulent: a conspiracy of the brahmans to enrich themselves by charging exorbitant fees for the performance of bogus rites and the giving of futile advice. The shramanas rejected the Veda. and the authority of the brahmans. were often known as śramaṇas. India. and were later adopted by Brahmin orthodoxy. in the Upanishads. It accepts all the basic concepts of Mahāyāna.      At the same time. the most important ones in the 5th century BC were the Ajivikas.g.Buddhism Vajrayana and Tantra Though based upon Mahayana. it is claimed that a practitioner can achieve Buddhahood in one lifetime. the roots of Buddhism lie in the religious thought of Ancient India during the second half of the first millennium BC. These movements included. Tantric Buddhism is largely concerned with ritual and meditative practices. various skeptics (such as Sanjaya Belatthiputta). who stressed that the soul must be freed from matter. Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism is one of the schools that practice Vajrayāna or "Diamond Vehicle" (also referred to as Mantrayāna. those priests who
. buddha ("awakened one"). though only for some very advanced practitioners. atomists (such as Pakudha Kaccayana). as there was significant discontent with the sacrifices and rituals of Vedic Brahmanism. In the Tibetan tradition. It was challenged by numerous new ascetic religious and philosophical groups and teachings that broke with the Brahmanic tradition and rejected the authority of the Vedas and the Brahmans. The Buddha declared that priests reciting the Vedas were like the blind leading the blind. whose members were known as shramanas.
Dependent origination. recognized by nearly all scholars. meeting the new ideas with adaptations of their doctrines". they started immediately after the Second Council. In the first council. The root schism was between the Sthaviras and the Mahāsāṅghikas. appealed to tradition. Later Mahayana Buddhism.  Early Buddhist schools According to the scriptures. was called upon to recite the discourses (sūtras. therefore. The Mahāsāṅghikas argued that the Sthaviras were trying to expand the vinaya and may also have challenged what they perceived to be excessive claims or inhumanly high criteria for arhatship. so most scholars conclude that Gautama Buddha must have taught something similar to the Three marks of existence. transmission of teaching was done orally. a cousin of the Buddha and his personal attendant. but eventually. Certain basic teachings appear in many places throughout the early texts. Upāli. transforming it into what is recognized as early Hinduism. a detailed scholastic reworking of doctrinal material appearing in the Suttas.
The history of Indian Buddhism may be divided into five periods: Early Buddhism (occasionally called Pre-sectarian Buddhism). according to schematic classifications. the Puggalavada tradition places it in 137 AN. and. Scholars regard the traditional accounts of the council as greatly exaggerated if not entirely fictitious. winning side. Both parties. Following (or leading up to) the schisms. by about 100 CE if not earlier.  At the same time. He also mocked the Vedic "hymn of the cosmic man". another disciple. The Dipavamsa of the Theravāda says that the losing party in the Second Council dispute broke away in protest and formed the Mahasanghika. the brahmans thus developed "philosophical systems of their own. according to some sources. and Esoteric Buddhism (also called Vajrayana Buddhism). at some period after the Second Council the Sangha began to break into separate factions. As with any ancient Indian tradition. proposed his new idea of liberation in life. Early Mahayana Buddhism. and. the first Buddhist council was held. schisms were being caused by doctrinal disagreements too. the Five aggregates. the Sarvastivada tradition of Vasumitra says it was in the time of Asoka and the Mahasanghika tradition places it much later. and monks following different schools of thought seem to have lived happily together in the same monasteries. nearly 100 BCE. Its main scriptures are the Vinaya Pitaka and the four principal Nikayas or Agamas. According to most scholars. Pāli suttas) of the Buddha. each Saṅgha started to accumulate an Abhidharma. which shows them as on the same. The Sthaviras gave rise to several schools. one of which was the Theravāda school. was in fact non-existent. Some scholars disagree. These Abhidharma
. having explained that Brahminical attempts to achieve liberation at death were futile. Nikaya Buddhism or Sectarian Buddhism: The period of the Early Buddhist schools. and Nirvana. This contradicts the Mahasanghikas' own vinaya. He declared that the primary goal of Upanishadic thought. the Noble Eightfold Path.Buddhism had memorized the Vedas really knew nothing. The primary purpose of the assembly was to collectively recite the teachings to ensure that no errors occurred in oral transmission. The fortunate survival of accounts from both sides of the dispute reveals disparate traditions. these schisms were caused by disputes over vinaya. and have proposed many other theories. Originally. recited the monastic rules (vinaya). Karma and Rebirth. the abhidhamma. Pre-sectarian Buddhism Pre-sectarian Buddhism is the earliest phase of Buddhism. the Atman. the Four Noble Truths. The various accounts differ as to when the actual schisms occurred. soon after the parinirvāṇa (from Sanskrit: "highest extinguishment") of Gautama Buddha.   In particular. the traditional Brahminical religion itself gradually underwent profound changes. The Sthavira group offers two quite distinct reasons for the schism. According to the Dipavamsa of the Pāli tradition. Ānanda.
Yogacara. Therefore Mahāyāna was never a separate rival sect of the early schools. the two main philosophical schools of the Mahayana were the Madhyamaka and the later Yogacara. with supposed origins in stūpa veneration. and Buddhist Logic as the last and most recent. In India.
. Scholars generally date these texts to around the 3rd century BCE. Much of the early extant evidence for the origins of Mahāyāna comes from early Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. Tathagatagarbha. Paul Williams has also noted that the Mahāyāna never had nor ever attempted to have a separate Vinaya or ordination lineage from the early schools of Buddhism. with different theories and different texts. and the Mūlasarvāstivāda ordination lineage in Tibetan Buddhism. and also the practice of the Four Noble Truths. According to Dan Lusthaus. Mahāyāna was often interpreted as a more devotional. which were probably composed in the 1st century BCE in the south of India. along with texts concerning Akṣobhya Buddha. This continues today with the Dharmaguptaka ordination lineage in East Asia. 100 to 200 years after the death of the Buddha. Some scholars have traditionally considered the earliest Mahāyāna sūtras to include the very first versions of the Prajñāpāramitā series. for bodhisattvas. Scholars disagree on whether the Mahasanghika school had an Abhidhamma Pitaka or not. There were no great Indian teachers associated with tathagatagarbha thought. distinguishes Mahāyāna from Hīnayāna as follows: Both adopt one and the same Vinaya. four major types of thought developed: Madhyamaka. we now know that both Mahāyāna and non-Mahāyāna monks in India often lived in the same monasteries side by side. and the commonality stems from early Buddhism. The old views of Mahāyāna as a separate lay-inspired and devotional sect are now largely dismissed as misguided and wrong on all counts. or by making parallels with the history of the European Protestant Reformation. but rather that it existed as a certain set of Statue of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. From Chinese monks visiting India. The different Adhidharmas of the various schools did not agree with each other. Due to the veneration of buddhas and bodhisattvas. with Sanskrit in the Siddham script. These Mahāyāna teachings were first propagated into China by Lokakṣema. The earliest views of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the West assumed that it existed as a separate school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna" schools. and they have in common the prohibitions of the five offences.   Late Mahayana Buddhism During the period of Late Mahayana Buddhism. ideals. while those who do not perform these are called the Hīnayānists. The Chinese monk Yijing who visited India in the 7th century CE. Singapore. Therefore the seven Abhidharma works are generally claimed not to represent the words of the Buddha himself. but those of disciples and great scholars. These views have been largely dismissed in modern times in light of a much broader range of early texts that are now available. Every school had its own version of the Adhidharma.Buddhism texts do not contain systematic philosophical treatises. There is no evidence that Mahāyāna ever referred to a separate formal school or sect of Buddhism. Those who venerate the bodhisattvas and read the Mahāyāna sūtras are called the Mahāyānists. and therefore each bhikṣu or bhikṣuṇī adhering to the Mahāyāna formally belonged to an early school. Madhyamaka and Yogacara have a great deal in common. the first translator of Mahāyāna sūtras into Chinese during the 2nd century CE. and later doctrines. but summaries or numerical lists. lay-inspired form of Buddhism.  Early Mahayana Buddhism The origins of Mahāyāna are still not completely understood.
and were translated into Chinese. This period marks the first known spread of Buddhism beyond India. in opposite directions. During this period Buddhism Buddhist tradition records in the Milinda Panha was exposed to a variety of influences.
The early development of Buddhism
Buddhism may have spread only slowly in India until the time of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. During the Indian period of Esoteric Buddhism (from the 8th century onwards). The Theravada school spread south from India in the 3rd century BC. These two missions.
Buddhist proselytism at the time of emperor Ashoka (260–218 BCE). Buddhism spread from India to Tibet and Mongolia. Striking examples of this syncretistic development can be seen in the emergence of Greek-speaking Buddhist monarchs in the Indo-Greek Kingdom. 2. The Dharmagupta school spread (also in 3rd century BC) north to Kashmir. and to the island of Sri Lanka south of India. Mahayana Sutras spread from that general area to China. It is a matter of disagreement among scholars whether or not these emissaries were accompanied by Buddhist missionaries. The scriptures of Vajrayana have not yet been put in any kind of order. Ritual has to be examined as well. A Greek king. in the first case to the spread of Buddhism into China. has even been immortalized in the Buddhist canon. to Sri Lanka and Thailand and Burma and later also Indonesia. According to the edicts of Aśoka. The gradual spread of Buddhism into adjacent areas meant that it came into contact with new ethnical groups. to changing trends in non-Buddhist Indian Menander converted to the Buddhist faith and became an arhat. beyond the Mauryas' northwest border. religions—themselves influenced by Buddhism. and in the development of the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhāra. and then to Korea and Japan. In the 2nd century AD.Buddhism Vajrayana (Esoteric Buddhism) Scholarly research concerning Esoteric Buddhism is still in its early stages and has a number of problems which make research difficult: 1. not just doctrine. to the emergence of Theravāda Buddhism and its spread from Sri Lanka to the coastal lands of Southeast Asia. Vajrayana Buddhism was influenced by Hinduism. and therefore the research has to include research on Hinduism as well. particularly in eastern provinces of the neighboring Seleucid Empire.
. 3. and in the second case. from Persian and Greek that the 2nd century BCE Indo-Greek king civilization. and even farther to Hellenistic kingdoms of the Mediterranean. would ultimately lead. emissaries were sent to various countries west of India in order to spread Buddhism (Dharma). Menander. The support of Aśoka and his descendants led to the construction of more stūpas (Buddhist religious memorials) and to efforts to spread Buddhism throughout the enlarged Maurya empire and even into neighboring lands—particularly to the Iranian-speaking regions of Afghanistan and Central Asia. Gandhara and Bactria (Afghanistan). who was a public supporter of the religion.
or may encourage official counts to underestimate religious adherence.Buddhism
By the late Middle Ages. The Dalit Buddhist movement in India (inspired by B. Thailand. and the Sangha (the Buddhist community). Islam and Hinduism.  
• East Asian forms of Mahayana Buddhism that use Chinese scriptures are dominant in most of China. Vietnam and North Korea. Estimates are uncertain for several reasons: • difficulties in defining who counts as a Buddhist. Buddhism had become virtually extinct in India. Confucianism. Japan. Sri Lanka. the Dharma (the teachings of the Buddha). traditional religions.
According to one analysis.       • difficulties in estimating the number of Buddhists who do not have congregational memberships and often do not participate in public ceremonies. Taiwan. but basic lay adherence is often defined in terms of a traditional formula in which the practitioner takes refuge in The Three Jewels: the Buddha. which began during the lifetime of the Buddha. R. and animism. using Pāli as its scriptural language. and although it continued to exist in surrounding countries. It is now again gaining strength in India and elsewhere.   In many current and former Communist governments in Asia. Laos. government policies may discourage adherents from reporting their religious identity. Ambedkar) also practices Theravada. Buddhism is the fourth-largest religion in the world behind Christianity. its influence was no longer expanding. Formal membership varies between communities.
Percentage of cultural/nominal adherents of combined Buddhism with its related       religions (according to the highest estimates). • syncretism among the Eastern religions. is among the oldest organizations on earth. and Burma. • official policies on religion in several historically Buddhist countries that make accurate assessments of religious adherence more difficult.  Estimates of the number of Buddhist followers by scholars range from 230 million to 500 million. shamanism. is the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia.including Taoism. • Theravāda Buddhism.throughout East and Southeast Asia. Buddhism is practiced by Typical interior of a temple in Korea adherents alongside many other religious traditions. most notably China. with most around 350 million. an amalgam of various traditions that includes Buddhism. Singapore and Vietnam as well as such
. Shinto. Most scholars classify similar numbers of people under a category they call "Chinese folk" or "traditional" religion. The monks' order (Sangha). Korea. Approximately 124 million adherents.
sectarian Buddhism. This classification is also used by some scholars and is the one ordinarily used in the English language. Nikaya Buddhism. surrounding areas in India. Buddhists in Asia are frequently well organized and well funded. Approximately 185 million adherents. Buddhists themselves have a variety of other schemes. • Both accept that members of the laity and of the sangha can pursue the path toward enlightenment (bodhi). early Buddhist schools. and the Russian Federation.
Percentage of formal/practicing Buddhists by the numbers of registered adherents (according to the least estimates). it is recognized as an official religion and receives state support. • Both accept the Middle way. Dependent origination. Overall there is an overwhelming diversity of recent forms of Buddhism. Modern influences increasingly lead to new forms of Buddhism that significantly depart from traditional beliefs and practices. a variety of other terms are increasingly used instead. While in the West Buddhism is often seen as exotic and progressive. • Both consider buddhahood to be the highest attainment. China. according to one Buddhist ecumenical organization. or treat the same concepts as central. Hinayana (literally "lesser vehicle") is used by Mahayana followers to name the family of early philosophical schools and traditions from which contemporary Theravada emerged. conservative Buddhism. Nepal. For example. including Śrāvakayāna. Bhutan. the teachings of all three branches of Buddhism have spread throughout the world. Some scholars use other schemes. the Noble Eightfold Path and the Three marks of existence. An alternative scheme used by some scholars divides Buddhism into the following three traditions or geographical or cultural areas: Theravada. and Buddhist texts are increasingly translated into local languages. in the East it is regarded as familiar and traditional. • Tibetan Buddhism is found in Tibet. and some comparisons can be drawn between them. Southeast Asia and the West.
. but as this term is rooted in the Mahayana viewpoint and can be considered derogatory. mainstream Buddhism and non-Mahayana Buddhism. the Four Noble Truths.Buddhism communities within Indochina. Mongolia. In a number of countries.
At the present time. several concepts common to both major Buddhist branches: • Both accept the Buddha as their teacher. does have its own core concepts. Not all traditions of Buddhism share the same philosophical outlook. Most Buddhist groups in the West are at least nominally affiliated with one of these three traditions. East Asian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism.
Schools and traditions
Buddhists generally classify themselves as either Theravada or Mahayana. Approximately 20 million adherents. Each tradition. however.
Laos. It is relatively conservative. the Pali Canon. This school gradually declined on the Indian subcontinent. This school is derived from the Vibhajjavāda grouping which emerged amongst the older Sthavira group at the time of the Third Buddhist Council (c. its scriptures. It is also one of the first Buddhist schools to commit the complete set of its canon into writing. at what the Theravada usually reckon as the fourth council. Thailand. Nichiren
700 CE 800 CE
Legend: = Theravada tradition = Mahayana traditions = Vajrayana traditions
Theravāda ("Doctrine of the Elders". Cambodia as well as small portions of China. Burma. were finally committed to writing in the 1st century BCE. 1300 CE) 
250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE
Early Buddhist schools
Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia
Silk Road Buddhism
450 BCE 250 BCE
Chán. 450 BCE – ca. The Theravada school bases its practice and doctrine exclusively on the Pāli Canon and its commentaries. Vietnam. in Sri Lanka. but its branch in Sri Lanka and South East Asia continues to survive. and they are accepted as authentic in every branch of Buddhism. It has a growing presence in Europe and America. Tendai. Zen.Buddhism
This is a rough timeline of the development of the different schools/traditions:
Timeline: Development and propagation of Buddhist traditions (ca. After being orally transmitted for a few centuries. 250 BCE). Theravāda is primarily practiced today in Sri Lanka. Pure Land. The Sutta collections and Vinaya texts of the Pāli Canon (and the corresponding texts in other versions of the Tripitaka). Malaysia and Bangladesh. or "Ancient Doctrine") is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. and generally closest to early Buddhism. are generally considered by modern scholars to be the earliest Buddhist literature.
Tendai. the Lotus Sutra and the Mahaparinirvana Sutra) to lay the foundations for the later attainment of Buddhahood itself. the Himalayan regions. Mahayana schools recognize all or part of the Mahayana Sutras.
The Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism spread to China. Shingon. Vajrayana Buddhism became extinct in China but survived in elements of Japan's Shingon and Tendai sects. and the folk movement led by siddhas became more prominent. and Tibet. Singapore. In one of the first major contemporary academic treatises on the subject.". and faith in and veneration of those texts are stated in some sutras (e. There are differing views as to just when Vajrayāna and its tantric practice started. Japan. peculiar to Japan. of which "the Pure Land school of Mahayana is the most widely practised today. they are fused into a single unified form of Buddhism. The Buddhism practiced in Tibet. Blue-eyed Central Asian and Chinese Buddhist monks. parts of Russia and most of Vietnam (also commonly referred to as "Eastern Buddhism"). Indochina and Southeast Asia. In Korea. Vajrayana has always been a main component of Tibetan Buddhism. There are a variety of strands in Eastern Buddhism. Mongolia.
. in an increasingly fractious political environment. Some of these sutras became for Mahayanists a manifestation of the Buddha himself. 9th–10th heading of Vajrayana (also commonly referred to as "Northern Buddhism". Bezeklik. nearly all Buddhists belong to the Chogye school. which is officially Son (Zen). Davidson argues that the rise of Vajrayana was in part a reaction to the changing political climate in India at the time. Nālandā University became a center for the development of Vajrayāna theory and continued as the source of leading-edge Vajrayāna practices up through the 11th century. Kathmandu. China generally received Indian transmission up to the 11th century including tantric practice. In Tibet. Eastern and Mongolia is also Mahayana in origin. In Japan in particular. century. while a vast amount of what is considered to be Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayāna) stems from the late (9th–12th century) Nālandā tradition. Korea. Fairfield University professor Ronald M. Pure Land. they were passed on orally first Bodhnath Stupa. while in China it formed a separate sect. the most important one being the Nālandā University in north-eastern India. a form of Vajrayana. during the dynasty of the Guptas. scriptures and theories were transmitted to China. Nepal and only written down long after the Buddha's other teachings. they form separate denominations with the five major ones being: Nichiren. After perhaps two hundred years. Mahāyāna centres of learning were established.Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism flourished in India from the 5th century CE onwards. but with substantial elements from other traditions. Native Mahayana Buddhism is practiced today in China. it had begun to get integrated into the monastic establishment. but will be discussed below under the Tarim Basin. China. it is claimed that the historical Śākyamuni Buddha taught tantra. and Chan/Zen. but as these are esoteric teachings. In the Tibetan tradition. In most of this area however. With the fall of the Gupta dynasty. institutional Buddhism had difficulty attracting patronage. Tibet.g. These practices. However.
condensed 'study texts' were created that combined popular or influential scriptures into single volumes that could be studied by novice monks. and not a core. Patthana
. combined document of Buddhist principles in "The Buddha and His Dhamma" . along with other. Buddhism has no single central text that is universally referred to by all traditions. the Dhammapada was championed as a unifying scripture. This could be considered misleading. Chinese. while the followers of Mahāyāna Buddhism base their faith and philosophy primarily on the Mahāyāna sūtras and their own vinaya. Later in Sri Lanka. Mongolian. However. closely related scriptures. such as the Tao Te Ching. Yam. In addition to the Mahāyāna scriptures. a number of which had already existed for centuries. Other scholars say there is no universally accepted common core. various attempts have been made to synthesize a single Buddhist text that can encompass all of the major principles of Buddhism. Dwight Goddard collected a sample of Buddhist scriptures. Khandhaka Vin V
DN MN SN AN KN
Dhk. along with other classics of Eastern philosophy. Different schools of Buddhism place varying levels of value on learning the various texts.Buddhism Vajrayana combined and developed a variety of elements. Babasaheb Ambedkar attempted to create a single. Kvu. teaching. along with some texts that still exist in Sanskrit and Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. Vbh. and versions of a few even in the Pali Canon. Vajrayāna Buddhists recognise a large body of Buddhist Tantras. as Mahāyāna considers these merely a preliminary. The followers of Theravāda Buddhism take the scriptures known as the Pāli Canon as definitive and authoritative. In the Theravada tradition.
Pali Canon Vinaya Pitaka
SV. are known to the other schools as the āgamas. Dr. Dhs. Pug. The Pāli sutras. The Tibetan Buddhists have not even translated most of the āgamas (though theoretically they recognize them) and they play no part in the religious life of either clergy or laity in China and Japan. Over the years. but currently there is no single text that represents all Buddhist traditions. Some schools venerate certain texts as religious objects in themselves. Unlike many religions. some scholars have referred to the Vinaya Pitaka and the first four Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka as the common core of all Buddhist traditions. The size and complexity of the Buddhist canons have been seen by some (including Buddhist social reformer Babasaheb Ambedkar) as presenting barriers to the wider understanding of Buddhist philosophy. More recently. while others take a more scholastic approach. into his 'Buddhist Bible' in the 1920s. Tibetan.
Buddhist scriptures and other texts exist in great variety. with the emphasis on Zen. Buddhist scriptures are written in these languages: Pāli. some of which are also included in Chinese and Japanese collections of Buddhist literature. Other such efforts have persisted to present day.
Both the sūtras and the vinaya of every Buddhist school contain a wide variety of elements including discourses on the Dharma. the Sutta Pitaka. He states: "The Theravadins. a monk named Mahākāśyapa (Pāli: Mahākassapa) presided. they had all been promulgated by the Buddha. The Vinaya Pitaka contains disciplinary rules for the Buddhist monks and nuns. supporting material. The Pāli Tipitaka is the only early Tipitaka (Sanskrit: Tripiṭaka) to survive intact in its original language. These texts are those held genuine by the later school. this record was initially transmitted orally in form of chanting. and Mahīśāsaka schools. soon after the death of the Buddha. Mahāsaṅghika. According to the Mahayana historians these texts were admittedly unknown to the early schools of Buddhists. the first Buddhist council was held."
The Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that the Mahayana Buddhist tradition holds are original teachings of the Buddha. stories of the Gautama Buddha's previous lives. Upāli recited the vinaya. [The Buddha's] followers on earth. which arrogated to itself the title of Mahayana.000 wood printing blocks. However. which means "three baskets". most of which survive in Chinese translation only. came from other Buddhas or Bodhisattvas. Ānanda. which was criticized by Nagarjuna and is in fact opposed to early Buddhist thought ) and the Mahayana sutras as authentic teachings of Gautama Buddha. However. it contains material which is at odds with later Theravadin orthodoxy. The Sutta Pitaka contains discourses ascribed to Gautama Buddha. and various other subjects. the Mahayana sutras were transmitted in secret. not one of the eighteen. the Buddha's personal attendant.. Sammitya. an edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon carved and preserved in over 81. The Mahayana sutras often claim to articulate the Buddha's deeper. commentaries on other teachings. Some adherents of Mahayana accept both the early teachings (including in this the Sarvastivada Abhidharma. the Great Vehicle).Buddhism The Pāli Tipitaka. had not been sufficiently advanced to
. more advanced doctrines. According to the scriptures. refers to the Vinaya Pitaka. 'Great Vehicle'. and doctrinal clarification. Much of the material in the Canon is not specifically "Theravadin". and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. as well as explanations of why and how these rules were instituted. some early schools of Buddhism had five or seven pitakas. That path is explained as being built upon the motivation to liberate all living beings from unhappiness. and claim they were designed for different types of persons and different levels of spiritual understanding. then. reserved for those who follow the bodhisattva path. cosmological and cosmogonical texts. the sravakas ('pupils'). but a number of early schools had their own recensions of the Tipitaka featuring much of the same material. may have added texts to the Canon for some time. Dharmaguptaka. According to Peter Harvey. Hence the name Mahāyāna (lit. but they do not appear to have tampered with what they already had from an earlier period. According to some sources. or were preserved in non-human worlds because human beings at the time could not understand them: Some of our sources maintain the authenticity of certain other texts not found in the canons of these schools (the early schools).
According to Mahayana tradition. and was committed to text in the last century BCE. but is instead the collection of teachings that this school preserved from the early. We have portions of the Tipitakas of the Sārvāstivāda. non-sectarian body of teachings. The Abhidhamma Pitaka contains material often described as systematic expositions of the Gautama Buddha's teachings. These became the basis of the Tripitaka. was called upon to recite the dhamma.
The Tripiṭaka Koreana in South Korea. Kāśyapīya. The goal of the council was to record the Buddha's teachings.
In addition. debate exists as to whether the Theravada were historically included in the hinayana designation. Only the Theravada school does not include the Mahayana scriptures in its canon.Buddhism understand them. Approximately six hundred Mahayana sutras have survived in Sanskrit or in Chinese or Tibetan translations. East Asian Buddhism recognizes some sutras regarded by scholars to be of Chinese rather than Indian origin. and monotheism) Buddhism and Eastern teaching (Buddhism and East Asian teaching) Buddhism and psychology Buddhism and science Buddhist ethics (Buddhism and ethics) Buddhist philosophy (Buddhism and Western philosophy) Buddhism and Thelema
. As the modern Theravada school is descended from a branch of Buddhism that diverged and established itself in Sri Lanka prior to the emergence of the Mahayana texts. with various tenets of Christianity—have been subjects of close study. at exactly the same period. mysticism. very different—in fact seemingly older—ideas and aspirations appear to be motivating actual behavior. and is generally avoided. Some of these had their roots in other scriptures composed in the 1st century BCE. five centuries after the historical Gautama Buddha. dependent origination can be considered one of Buddhism's contributions to metaphysics. For example.
Buddhism provides many opportunities for comparative study with a diverse range of subjects. Also. customs and institutions in countries in which it has resided throughout its history. Buddhism's emphasis on the Middle way not only provides a unique guideline for ethics but has also allowed Buddhism to peacefully coexist with various differing beliefs. scholars conclude that the Mahayana scriptures were composed from the 1st century CE onwards: "Large numbers of Mahayana sutras were being composed in the period between the beginning of the common era and the fifth century". its moral and spiritual parallels with other systems of thought—for example." These texts were apparently not universally accepted among Indian Buddhists when they appeared. this label is seen as derogatory. Additionally. the pejorative label hinayana was applied by Mahayana supporters to those who rejected the Mahayana sutras. and old and established Hinnayana groups appear to be the only ones that are patronized and supported. but they were taught to various supernatural beings and then preserved in such places as the Dragon World. It was not until after the 5th century CE that the Mahayana sutras started to influence the behavior of mainstream Buddhists in India: "But outside of texts. at least in India. Generally. and hence were not given them to remember. in the modern era.
List of Buddhism related topics in comparative studies
• • • • • • • • • • Buddhism and Jainism Buddhism and Hinduism Buddhism and Christianity God in Buddhism (Buddhism.
gov/ g/ drl/ rls/ irf/ 2004/ Accessed 20 September 2008  Garfinkel. The Book of Protection. including on p. com/ Religions_By_Adherents.The World Factbook (https:/ / www. Buddha. with whom they marry.. Tantric Buddhism in East Asia. page 49. htm)  Buddhism . the kalakanjika asuras have the same colour. Boston. Wisdom Publications. 177  Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism Vol. Retrieved November 26.  Armstrong. Princeton University Press. Suvanno Mahathera  Harvey. then begins a numbered list of doctrines over the following pages. same foods. 011. Les Sectes bouddhiques du Petit Véhicule. p. 2005: 88–109. Gethin Foundations. p. in the Oxford University paperback Founders of Faith. Donald.org. piya. p. org/ en/ list/ 666). Books. same nourishment. 239  Lopez. org/ 13/ zse1-kasulis. 33  André Bareau. Buddhism in Practice. the noble eightfold path and the Four Noble Truths. vol 54. p. Introduction to Buddhism. École Française d'Extrême-Orient. pp. ISBN 0143034367. même durée de vie que les Dieux. 1986. The Life of the Buddha. 19.Buddhism
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and scholastic character of monastic Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 81-208-1104-6 : Early Upanishad thinkers like Yajnavalkya were acquainted with the sramanic thinking and tried to incorporate these ideals of Karma.'" R. 4-5  Williams." Taylor and Francis 2006. 1996. Jan (2003). p. 74  "Abhidhamma Pitaka.K. "Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. is (jokingly) etymologized as the 'non-meditator' (ajhāyaka). Delhi. 5  "The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for situating the emergence of the Mahayana around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all. Page 135. Delhi/SOAS. vol I.33  Warder." Page 86. An Introduction to Hinduism. 11  see also the book Bones. A History of Indian Buddhism. Mahāsāṅghika Origins: the beginnings of Buddhist sectarianism in History of Religions. 2000. page 85. Buddhist Forum.  Encyclopedia of Buddhism. 271  e. however. P. Samsara and Moksa into the vedic thought implying a disparagement of the vedic ritualism and recognising the mendicancy as an ideal. 5." Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2004): p. Gombrich in Paul Williams. 16. In view of the fact that this doctrine is emblazoned on almost every page of sramana scriptures. p.  Akira. now appears to be wrong on all counts. 1986. London. 105)  Janice J. part 1." Encyclopædia Britannica.39  Warder. 260  Akira. Indian Buddhism. p.  "The sudden appearance of this theory [of karma] in a full-fledged form is likely to be due.. is that it was a lay-influenced. 492  Akira. What the Buddha Taught. 268
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6th reprint. A.com/~anson/ebud/mfneng/mind0. Bernard (2006). • Gethin. 187. 100-1. Dorothy C. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. NY: Columbia U. geocities." insert "Akira Hirakawa defends the short chronology and Heinz Bechert himself sets a range from 400 B. Robinson & Johnson (1970/1982). ISBN 0-14-303436-7. Indian Buddhism.saigon. China. page 494  Thelema & Buddhism (http:/ / www. Oxford University Press. Wm. Autumn 2007. Curzon Press.B. New York: Columbia University Press. Royal Weiler. Mindfulness in Plain English. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Series 3 (6.  Gethin. xxix: "c.. R. Warder. Edward Arnold. (ed. org/ query?url=http:/ / www. philosophy. Retrieved 2007-07-11. L. page 86  Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume One). Sayings of the Buddha. Karen (2001). volume XVI. Wisdom Publications. Also available on this websites: saigon. Buddha. No. Japanese Buddhism. reprinted in Williams. page 114  Peter Harvey. V. pp.  David Kalupahana. 1988). 139-40.). • Donath. although by that time it had spread to Tibet. 1935. page 1  Clarke & Beyer. pdf& date=2010-01-17+ 12:04:48) (PDF) in Journal of Thelemic Studies.. 1. History and Practices. • Bechert. edu/ itc/ mealac/ pritchett/ 00ambedkar/ ambedkar_buddha/  Journal of the Pali Text Society. • Cousins. Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna.  Prebish & Keown. ISBN 1-84483-125-6. Sources of Indian Tradition: From the Beginning to 1800 (vol. Les Indes savants.N. Japan. 1). (2003).K. columbia. (1971). between ". New York: Columbia University Press. (ed. • Coogan." and "to 350 B. The World's Religions. page 9. Oxford University Press. Bhante Henepola (2002).. page 4  MacMillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. ISBN 0-07-017533-0. Penguin Books. 1. Stephen N. 6-7) writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the thirteenth century CE. Harrison. 3rd edition. pages 430. none of the other contributions in this section envisage a date before 420 B." • Davidson. "The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article" (http://indology. page xiv  http:/ / www. Buddhism. 3rd edition (2000)  Eliot. Oxford University Press.1): 57–63." See also. 1000-1200: Buddhism disappears as [an] organized religious force in India. 2008. Encyclopedia of Buddhism. volume I. Press. Foundations. An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings. Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo (London: Routledge). Ronald M. • de Give. Introducing Buddhism. 94-105. 2009. Peter Hardy. NB in the online transcript a little text has been accidentally omitted: in section 4. pp. 18-32
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