Technical guide book

ABB drives
2 Technical guide book
3 Technical guide book
ABB drives
Technical guide book
3AFE64514482 REV E
EFFECTIVE: 26.10.2010
© Copyright 2010 ABB. All rights reserved.
4 Technical guide book
5 Technical guide book
1. Direct Torque Control explains what DTC is; why and how
it has evolved; the basic theory behind its success; and the
features and benefits of this new technology.
2. EU Council Directives and adjustable speed electrical
power drive systems is to give a straightforward explanation
of how the various EU Council Directives relate to Power Drive
Systems.
3. EMC compliant installation and configuration for a power
drive system assists design and installation personnel when
trying to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC
Directive in the user’s systems and installations when using
AC Drives.
4. Guide to variable speed drives describes basics of different
variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in industrial
processes.
5. Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems explains
how to avoid damages.
6. Guide to harmonics with AC drives describes harmonic
distortion, its sources and effect, and also distortion calculation
and evaluation with special attention to the methods for reduc-
ing harmonics with AC drives.
7. Dimensioning of a drive system. Making dimensioning
correctly is the fastest way of saving money. Biggest savings can
be achieved by avoiding very basic mistakes. These dimension-
ing basics and beyond can be found in this guide.
8. Electrical braking describes the practical solutions available
in reducing stored energy and transferring stored energy back
into electrical energy.
9. Guide to motion control drives gives an overview of high
performance drives and motion control.
10. Functional safety guide introduces the Machinery Direc-
tive and the standards that must be taken into account when
designing a machine, in order to ensure operational safely.
Contents
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6 Technical guide book
ABB drives
Direct Torque Control -
the world’s most advanced AC drive technology
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2 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
ABB drives
Direct Torque Control -
the world’s most advanced AC drive technology
Technical guide No. 1
3AFE58056685 REV C
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved.
1
4 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
5 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7
General ........................................................................................................ 7
This manual’s purpose .................................................................................. 7
Using this guide ............................................................................................ 7
What is a variable speed drive? .................................................................... 8
Summary ..................................................................................................... 8
Chapter 2 - Evolution of Direct Torque Control ..................................... 8
DC Motor Drives ........................................................................................... 9
Features .................................................................................................. 9
Advantages ............................................................................................. 9
Drawbacks ............................................................................................ 10
AC Drives - Introduction ............................................................................. 10
AC Drives -frequency control using PWM ................................................... 11
Features ................................................................................................ 11
Advantages ........................................................................................... 12
Drawbacks ............................................................................................ 12
AC Drives - flux vector control using PWM ................................................. 12
Features ................................................................................................ 12
Advantages ........................................................................................... 13
Drawbacks ............................................................................................ 13
AC Drives - Direct Torque Control ............................................................... 14
Controlling Variables .............................................................................. 14
Comparison of variable speed drives .......................................................... 15
Chapter 3 - Questions & Answers ........................................................ 17
General ...................................................................................................... 17
Performance .............................................................................................. 18
Operation ................................................................................................... 24
Chapter 4 - Basic Control Theory ........................................................ 28
How DTC works ......................................................................................... 28
Torque Control Loop ................................................................................... 29
Step 1 Voltage and current measurements ............................................ 29
Step 2 Adaptive Motor Model ................................................................ 29
Step 3 Torque Comparator and Flux Comparator .................................. 30
Step 4 Optimum Pulse Selector ............................................................ 30
Speed Control ............................................................................................ 31
Step 5 Torque Reference Controller ....................................................... 31
Step 6 Speed Controller ........................................................................ 31
Step 7 Flux Reference Controller ........................................................... 31
Chapter 5 - Index ................................................................................. 32
6 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
7 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Chapter 1 - Introduction
General
Direct Torque Control - or DTC - is the most advanced AC drive
technology developed by any manufacturer in the world.
This manual’s purpose
The purpose of this Technical Guide is to explain what DTC is;
why and how it has evolved; the basic theory behind its success;
and the features and benefits of this new technology.
While trying to be as practical as possible, this guide does re-
quire a basic understanding of AC motor control principles.
It is aimed at decision makers including designers, specifiers,
purchasing managers, OEMs and end-users; in all markets such
as the water, chemical, pulp and paper, power generation, mate-
rial handling, air conditioning and other industries.
In fact, anyone using variable speed drives (VSD) and who would
like to benefit from VSD technology will find this Technical Guide
essential reading.
Using this guide
This guide has been designed to give a logical build up as to
why and how DTC was developed.
Readers wanting to know the evolution of drives from early
DC techniques through AC to DTC should start at Chapter 2
(page 8).
For those readers wanting answers about DTC’s performance,
operation and application potential, please go straight to Chap-
ter 3 (page 17) Questions & Answers.
For an understanding of DTC’s Basic Control Theory, turn to
page 28.
8 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
Chapter 2 - Evolution of Direct
Torque Control
What is a variable speed drive?
To understand the answer to this question we have to under-
stand that the basic function of a variable speed drive (VSD) is
to control the flow of energy from the mains to the process.
Energy is supplied to the process through the motor shaft. Two
physical quantities describe the state of the shaft: torque and
speed. To control the flow of energy we must therefore, ulti-
mately, control these quantities.
In practice, either one of them is controlled and we speak of
“torque control” or “speed control”. When the VSD operates
in torque control mode, the speed is determined by the load.
Likewise, when operated in speed control, the torque is deter-
mined by the load.
Initially, DC motors were used as VSDs because they could
easily achieve the required speed and torque without the need
for sophisticated electronics.
However, the evolution of AC variable speed drive technology
has been driven partly by the desire to emulate the excellent
performance of the DC motor, such as fast torque response
and speed accuracy, while using rugged, inexpensive and
maintenance free AC motors.
Summary
In this section we look at the evolution of DTC, charting the four
milestones of variable speed drives, namely:
• DC Motor Drives 9
• AC Drives, frequency control, PWM 11
• AC Drives, flux vector control, PWM 12
• AC Drives, Direct Torque Control 14
We examine each in turn, leading to a total picture that identifies
the key differences between each.
9 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Evolution of Direct Torque Control
DC Motor Drives
Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Motor Drive
Features
• Field orientation via mechanical commutator
• Controlling variables are Armature Current and Field Current,
measured DIRECTLY from the motor
• Torque control is direct
In a DC motor, the magnetic field is created by the current
through the field winding in the stator. This field is always at right
angles to the field created by the armature winding. This condi-
tion, known as field orientation, is needed to generate maximum
torque. The commutator-brush assembly ensures this condition
is maintained regardless of the rotor position.
Once field orientation is achieved, the DC motor’s torque is easily
controlled by varying the armature current and by keeping the
magnetising current constant.
The advantage of DC drives is that speed and torque - the two
main concerns of the end-user - are controlled directly through
armature current: that is the torque is the inner control loop and
the speed is the outer control loop (see Figure 1).
Advantages
• Accurate and fast torque control
• High dynamic speed response
• Simple to control
Initially, DC drives were used for variable speed control because
they could easily achieve a good torque and speed response
with high accuracy.
10 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
A DC machine is able to produce a torque that is:
• Direct - the motor torque is proportional to the armture
current: the torque can thus be controlled directly and ac-
curately.
• Rapid - torque control is fast; the drive system can have
a very high dynamic speed response. Torque can be
changed instantaneously if the motor is fed from an ideal
current source. A voltage fed drive still has a fast
response, since this is determined only by the rotor’s
electrical time constant (i.e. the total inductance and
resistance in the armature circuit)
• Simple - field orientation is achieved using a simple
mechanical device called a commutator/brush assembly.
Hence, there is no need for complex electronic control
circuitry, which would increase the cost of the motor
controller.
Drawbacks
• Reduced motor reliability
• Regular maintenance
• Motor costly to purchase
• Needs encoder for feedback
The main drawback of this technique is the reduced reliability
of the DC motor; the fact that brushes and commutators wear
down and need regular servicing; that DC motors can be costly
to purchase; and that they require encoders for speed and posi-
tion feedback.
While a DC drive produces an easily controlled torque from zero
to base speed and beyond, the motor’s mechanics are more
complex and require regular maintenance.
AC Drives - Introduction
• Small size
• Robust
• Simple in design
• Light and compact
• Low maintenance
• Low cost
The evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been
partly driven by the desire to emulate the performance of the DC
drive, such as fast torque response and speed accuracy, while
utilising the advantages offered by the standard AC motor.
Evolution of Direct Torque Control
11 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
AC Drives - frequency control using PWM
Figure 2: Control loop of an AC Drive with frequency control
using PWM
Features
• Controlling variables are Voltage and Frequency
• Simulation of variable AC sine wave using modulator
• Flux provided with constant V/f ratio
• Open-loop drive
• Load dictates torque level
Unlike a DC drive, the AC drive frequency control technique
uses parameters generated outside of the motor as controlling
variables, namely voltage and frequency.
Both voltage and frequency reference are fed into a modulator
which simulates an AC sine wave and feeds this to the motor’s
stator windings. This technique is called Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) and utilises the fact that there is a diode rectifier towards
the mains and the intermediate DC voltage is kept constant.
The inverter controls the motor in the form of a PWM pulse train
dictating both the voltage and frequency.
Significantly, this method does not use a feedback device which
takes speed or position measurements from the motor’s shaft
and feeds these back into the control loop.
Such an arrangement, without a feedback device, is called an
“open-loop drive”.
Evolution of Direct Torque Control
12 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
Advantages
• Low cost
• No feedback device required - simple
Because there is no feedback device, the controlling principle
offers a low cost and simple solution to controlling economical
AC induction motors.
This type of drive is suitable for applications which do not require
high levels of accuracy or precision, such as pumps and fans.
Drawbacks
• Field orientation not used
• Motor status ignored
• Torque is not controlled
• Delaying modulator used
With this technique, sometimes known as Scalar Control, field
orientation of the motor is not used. Instead, frequency and
voltage are the main control variables and are applied to the
stator windings. The status of the rotor is ignored, meaning that
no speed or position signal is fed back.
Therefore, torque cannot be controlled with any degree of ac-
curacy. Furthermore, the technique uses a modulator which
basically slows down communication between the incoming
voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to
respond to this changing signal.
AC Drives - flux vector control using PWM
Figure 3: Control loop of an AC Drive with flux vector control using PWM
Features
• Field-oriented control - simulates DC drive
• Motor electrical characteristics are simulated - “ Motor
Model”
• Closed-loop drive
• Torque controlled INDIRECTLY
Evolution of Direct Torque Control
13 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
To emulate the magnetic operating conditions of a DC motor, i.e.
to perform the field orientation process, the flux-vector drive
needs to know the spatial angular position of the rotor flux inside
the AC induction motor.
With flux vector PWM drives, field orientation is achieved by elec-
tronic means rather than the mechanical commutator/brush
assembly of the DC motor.
Firstly, information about the rotor status is obtained by feeding back
rotor speed and angular position relative to the stator field by
means of a pulse encoder. A drive that uses speed encoders is
referred to as a “closed-loop drive”.
Also the motor’s electrical characteristics are mathematically
modelled with microprocessors used to process the data.
The electronic controller of a flux-vector drive creates electrical
quantities such as voltage, current and frequency, which are the
controlling variables, and feeds these through a modulator to
the AC induction motor. Torque, therefore, is controlled INDI-
RECTLY.
Advantages
• Good torque response
• Accurate speed control
• Full torque at zero speed
• Performance approaching DC drive
Flux vector control achieves full torque at zero speed, giving it
a performance very close to that of a DC drive.
Drawbacks
• Feedback is needed
• Costly
• Modulator needed
To achieve a high level of torque response and speed accuracy, a
feedback device is required. This can be costly and also adds
complexity to the traditional simple AC induction motor.
Also, a modulator is used, which slows down communication
between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need
for the motor to respond to this changing signal.
Although the motor is mechanically simple, the drive is electri-
cally complex.
Evolution of Direct Torque Control
14 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
AC Drives - Direct Torque Control
Figure 4: Control loop of an AC Drive using DTC
Controlling Variables
With the revolutionary DTC technology developed by ABB, field
orientation is achieved without feedback using advanced motor
theory to calculate the motor torque directly and without using
modulation. The controlling variables are motor magnetising
flux and motor torque.
With DTC there is no modulator and no requirement for a ta-
chometer or position encoder to feed back the speed or position
of the motor shaft.
DTC uses the fastest digital signal processing hardware avail-
able and a more advanced mathematical understanding of how
a motor works.
The result is a drive with a torque response that is typically 10
times faster than any AC or DC drive. The dynamic speed accu-
racy of DTC drives will be 8 times better than any open loop AC
drives and comparable to a DC drive that is using feedback.
DTC produces the first “universal” drive with the capability to
perform like either an AC or DC drive.
The remaining sections in this guide highlight the features and
advantages of DTC.
Evolution of Direct Torque Control
15 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Comparison of variable speed drives
Let us now take a closer look at each of these control blocks
and spot a few differences.
Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Drive Figure 2: Control loop with frequency
control
Figure 3: Control loop with flux
vector control
Figure 4 Control loop of an AC
Drive using DTC
The first observation is the similarity between the control block of
the DC drive (Figure 1) and that of DTC (Figure 4).
Both are using motor parameters to directly control torque.
But DTC has added benefits including no feedback device is used;
all the benefits of an AC motor (see page 10); and no external
excitation is needed.
Table 1: Comparison of control variables
Evolution of Direct Torque Control
16 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
As can be seen from Table 1, both DC Drives and DTC drives use
actual motor parameters to control torque and speed. Thus,
the dynamic performance is fast and easy. Also with DTC, for
most applications, no tachometer or encoder is needed to feed
back a speed or position signal.
Comparing DTC (Figure 4) with the two other AC drive control
blocks (Figures 2 & 3) shows up several differences, the main
one being that no modulator is required with DTC.
With PWM AC drives, the controlling variables are frequency and
voltage which need to go through several stages before being
applied to the motor. Thus, with PWM drives control is handled
inside the electronic controller and not inside the motor.
Evolution of Direct Torque Control
17 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Chapter 3 - Questions & Answers
General
What is Direct Control?
Direct Torque Control - or DTC as it is called - is the very latest
AC drive technology developed by ABB and is set to replace
traditional PWM drives of the open- and closed-loop type in
the near future.
Why is it called Direct Torque Control?
Direct Torque Control describes the way in which the control
of torque and speed are directly based on the electromagnetic
state of the motor, similar to a DC motor, but contrary to the
way in which traditional PWM drives use input frequency and
voltage. DTC is the first technology to control the “real” motor
control variables of torque and flux.
What is the advantage of this?
Because torque and flux are motor parameters that are being
directly controlled, there is no need for a modulator, as used in
PWM drives, to control the frequency and voltage. This, in ef-
fect, cuts out the middle man and dramatically speeds up the
response of the drive to changes in required torque. DTC also
provides precise torque control without the need for a feedback
device.
Why is there a need for another AC drive technology?
DTC is not just another AC drive technology. Industry is de-
manding more and existing drive technology cannot meet these
demands.
For example, industry wants:
• Better product quality which can be partly achieved with
improved speed accuracy and faster torque control.
• Less down time which means a drive that will not trip un-
necessarily; a drive that is not complicated by expensive
feedback devices; and a drive which is not greatly affected
by interferences like harmonics and RFI.
• Fewer products. One drive capable of meeting all appliction
needs whether AC, DC or servo. That is a truly “universal”
drive.
• A comfortable working environment with a drive that pro-
duces much lower audible noise.
18 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
These are just some of the demands from industry. DTC can
deliver solutions to all these demands as well as bringing new
benefits to many standard applications.
Who invented DTC?
ABB has been carrying out research into DTC since 1988
foll owing the publication of the theory in 1971 and 1985 by
German doctor Blaschke and his colleague Depenbrock.
DTC leans on the theory of field oriented control of induction
machines and the theory of direct self control. ABB has spent
over 100 man years developing the technology.
Performance
What are the main benefits of DTC technology over tradi-
tional AC drive technology?
There are many benefits of DTC technology. But most sig-
nificantly, drives using DTC technology have the following
exceptional dynamic performance features, many of which
are obtained without the need for an encoder or tachometer
to monitor shaft position or speed:
• Torque response: - How quickly the drive output can reach
the specified value when a nominal 100% torque reference
step is applied.
For DTC, a typical torque response is 1 to 2 ms below
40 Hz compared to between 10-20 ms for both flux vector
and DC drives fitted with an encoder. With open loop PWM
drives (see page 11) the response time is typically well over
100 ms. In fact, with its torque response, DTC has achieved
the natural limit. With the voltage and current available,
response time cannot be any shorter. Even in the newer
“sensorless” drives the torque response is hundreds of
milliseconds.
• Accurate torque control at low frequencies, as well as full
load torque at zero speed without the need for a feedback
device such as an encoder or tachometer. With DTC, speed
can be controlled to frequencies below 0.5 Hz and still provide
100% torque right the way through to zero speed.
• Torque repeatability: - How well the drive repeats its
output torque with the same torque reference command.
DTC, without an encoder, can provide 1 to 2% torque re-
peatability of the nominal torque across the speed range.
This is half that of other open-loop AC drives and equal to
that of closed-loop AC and DC drives.
Questions and Answers
19 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
• Motor static speed accuracy: - Error between speed
reference and actual value at constant load.
For DTC, speed accuracy is 10% of the motor slip, which
with an 11 kW motor, equals 0.3% static speed accuracy.
With a 110 kW motor, speed accuracy is 0.1% without
encoder (open-loop). This satisfies the accuracy require-
ment or 95% of industrial drives applications. However, for
the same accuracy from DC drives an encoder is needed.
In contrast, with frequency controlled PWM drives, the
static speed accuracy is typically between 1 to 3%. So the
potential for customer process improvements is signifi-
cantly higher with standard drives using DTC technology.
A DTC drive using an encoder with 1024 pulses/revolution
can achieve a speed accuracy of 0.01%.
• Dynamic speed accuracy: - Time integral of speed de-
viation when a nominal (100%) torque speed is applied.
DTC open-loop dynamic speed accuracy is between 0.3 to
0.4%sec. This depends on the gain adjustment of the
controller, which can be tuned to the process requirements.
With other open-loop AC drives, the dynamic accuracy is
eight times less and in practical terms around 3%sec.
If we furnish the DTC controller with an encoder, the dynam-
icspeed accuracy will be 0.1%sec, which matches servo
drive performance.
What are the practical benefits of these performance
figures?
• Fast torque response: - This significantly reduces the speed
drop time during a load transient, bringing much improved
process control and a more consistent product quality.
• Torque control at low frequencies: - This is particularly-
beneficial to cranes or elevators, where the load needs to be
started and stopped regularly without any jerking. Also with
a winder, tension control can be achieved from zero through
to maximum speed. Compared to PWM flux vector drives,
DTC brings the cost saving benefit that no tachometer is
needed.
• Torque linearity: - This is important in precision applications
like winders, used in the paper industry, where an accurate
and consistent level of winding is critical.
Questions and Answers
20 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
• Dynamic speed accuracy: - After a sudden load change,
the motor can recover to a stable state remarkably fast.
Table 2: Dynamic performance features and benefits offered by DTC
technology
Apart from excellent dynamic performance figures, are
there any other benefits of DTC drive technology?
Yes, there are many benefits. For example, DTC drives do not
need a tachometer or encoder to monitor motor shaft speed or
position in order to achieve the fastest torque response ever
from an AC drive. This saves initial cost.
Questions and Answers
Investment cost
savings. Increased
reliability. Better
process control.
Higher product
quality. Leads to a
true universal drive.
Similar performance
to DC but without
tachometer. Reduced
mechanical failures
for machinery. Less
downtime. Lower
investment.
Cost effective, high
performance torque
drive; provides
position control
and better static
accuracy. High
accuracy control with
standard AC motor.
Investment cost
saving. Better
load control. Can
use AC drive and
motor instead of
DC. Standard AC
motor means less
maintenance and
lower cost.
Allows speed to be
controlled better than
0.5% accuracy. No
tachometer needed in
95% of all applications.
Drive for demanding
applications. Allows
required torque at
all times. Torque
repeatability 1%.
Torque response time
less than 5ms.
No mechanical brake
needed. Smooth
transition between
drive and brake. Allows
drive to be used in
traditional DC drive
applications.
Servo drive
performance.
Good motor speed
accuracy without
tachometer.
Excellent torque
control without
tachometer.
Control down to zero
speed and position
with encoder.
Full torque at zero
speed with or without
tachometer/ encoder.
FEATURE RESULT BENEFIT
21 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Rapid control DC link
voltage.
Power loss ride through. Drive will not trip. Less
down time. Avoids
process interruptions.
Less waste in
continuous process.
Automatic start
(Direct restart).
Starting with motor
residual inductance
present. No restarting
delay required.
Can start into a motor
that is running without
waiting for flux to decay.
Can transfer motor from
line to drive. No restart.
No interruptions on
process.
Controlled braking
between two speed
points.
Investment cost savings.
Better process control.
No delay required as
in DC braking. Can be
used for decelerating to
other than zero speed.
Reduced need for brake
chopper and resistor.
Flux braking.
Flux optimisation. Motor losses minimised.
Less motor noise.
Controlled motor.
Self identification/
Auto-tuning.
Tuning the motor
to drive for top
performance.
Easy and accurate
set-up. No parameter
tuning required. Less
commissioning time.
Guaranteed starting
torque. Easy retrofit for
any AC system.
No predetermined
switching pattern of
power devices.
Low noise. No fixed
carrier, therefore
acoustic noise
reasonable due to
“white” noise spectrum.
Cost savings in acoustic
barriers in noise
sensitive applications.
No harmful mechanical
resonances. Lower
stresses in gearboxes,
fans, pumps.
Can accelerate and
decelerate in quickest
time possible without
mechanical constraints.
Automatic start
(Flying start).
Synchronises to rotating
motor.
No process
interruptions. Smooth
control of machinery.
Resume control in all
situations.
No limits on maximum
acceleration and
deceleration rate.
Better process control.
BENEFIT FEATURE RESULT
Table 3: User features and benefits offered by DTC technology
Questions and Answers
22 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
Also a DTC drive features rapid starting in all motor electro-
magnetic and mechanical states. The motor can be started
immediately without delay.
It appears that DTC drives are most advantageous for
high performance or demanding drive applications. What
benefits does DTC bring to standard drives?
Standard applications account for 70% of all variable speed
drives installed throughout industry. Two of the most common
applications are in fans and pumps in industries like Heating,
Ventilating and Air Conditioning ( HVAC), water and food and
drinks.
In these applications, DTC provides solutions to problems like
harmonics and noise.
For example, DTC technology can provide control to the drive
input line generating unit, where a conventional diode bridge is
replaced with a controlled bridge.
This means that harmonics can be significantly reduced with
a DTC controlled input bridge. The low level current distortion
with a DTC controlled bridge will be less than a conventional
6-pulse or 12-pulse configuration and power factor can be as
high as 0.99.
For standard applications, DTC drives easily withstand huge and
sudden load torques caused by rapid changes in the process,
without any overvoltage or overcurrent trip.
Also, if there is a loss of input power for a short time, the drive
must remain energised. The DC link voltage must not drop below
the lowest control level of 80%. To ensure this, DTC has a 25
microseconds control cycle.
What is the impact of DTC on pump control?
DTC has an impact on all types of pumps. Because DTC leads
to a universal drive, all pumps, regardless of whether they are
centrifugal or constant torque type (screw pumps) can now be
controlled with one drive configuration, as can aerators and
conveyors. DTC technology allows a drive to adjust itself to
varying application needs.
For example, in screw pumps a drive using DTC technology
will be able to adjust itself for sufficient starting torque for a
guaranteed start.
Questions and Answers
23 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Improved power loss ride through will improve pumping avail-
ability during short power breaks.
The inherent torque control facility for DTC technology allows
the torque to be limited in order to avoid mechanical stress on
pumps and pipelines.
What is the impact of DTC technology on energy savings?
A feature of DTC which contributes to energy efficiency is a
development called motor flux optimisation.
With this feature, the efficiency of the total drive (that is controller
and motor) is greatly improved in fan and pump applications.
For example, with 25% load there is up to 10% total energy
efficiency improvement. At 50% load there can be 2% total ef-
ficiency improvement.
This directly impacts on operating costs. This feature also sig-
nificantly reduces the motor noise compared to that generated
by the switching frequency of a traditional PWM drive.
Has DTC technology been used in many installations?
Yes, there are hundreds of thousands of installations in use.
For example, one of the world’s largest web machine manu-
facturers tested DTC technology for a winder in a film finishing
process.
The Requirement:
Exact torque control in the winder so as to produce high quality
film rolls.
The Solution:
Open-loop DTC drives have replaced traditional DC drives and
latter flux vector controlled AC drives on the centre drives in
the rewind station.
The Benefits:
Winder station construction simplified and reliability increased.
The cost of one tachometer and associated wiring equals that
of one 30 kW AC motor. This provides significant investment
cost savings.
Questions and Answers
24 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
Operation
What is the difference between DTC and traditional PWM
methods?
• Frequency Control PWM and Flux Vector PWM
Traditional PWM drives use output voltage and output fre-
quency as the primary control variables but these need to be
pulse width modulated before being applied to the
motor.
This modulator stage adds to the signal processing time and
therefore limits the level of torque and speed response
possible from the PWM drive.
Typically, a PWM modulator takes 10 times longer than DTC to
respond to actual change.
• DTC control
DTC allows the motor’s torque and stator flux to be used as
primary control variables, both of which are obtained directly
from the motor itself. Therefore, with DTC, there is no need for
a separate voltage and frequency controlled PWM modulator.
Another big advantage of a DTC drive is that no feedback device
is needed for 95% of all drive applications.
Why does DTC not need a tachometer or position encoder to
tell it precisely where the motor shaft is at all times?
There are four main reasons for this:
• The accuracy of the Motor Model (see page 29).
• Controlling variables are taken directly from the motor (see
page 29).
• The fast processing speeds of the DSP and Optimum Pulse
Selector hardware (see page 30).
• No modulator is needed (see page 14).
Questions and Answers
25 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
When combined to form a DTC drive, the above features pro-
duce a drive capable of calculating the ideal switching voltages
40,000 times every second. It is fast enough to control individual
switching pulses. Quite simply, it is the fastest ever achieved.
Once every 25 microseconds, the inverter’s semiconductors are
supplied with an optimum switching pattern to produce the
required torque. This update rate is substantially less than any
time constants in the motor. Thus, the motor is now the limiting
component, not the inverter.
What is the difference between DTC and other sensorless
drives on the market?
There are vast differences between DTC and many of the sensor-
less drives. But the main difference is that DTC provides accurate
control even at low speeds and down to zero speed without
encoder feedback. At low frequencies the nominal torque step
can be increased in less than 1ms. This is the best available.
How does a DTC drive achieve the performance of a servo
drive?
Quite simply because the motor is now the limit of performance
and not the drive itself. A typical dynamic speed accuracy for a
servo drive is 0.1%s. A DTC drive can reach this dynamic ac-
curacy with the optional speed feedback from a tachometer.
How does DTC achieve these major improvements over
traditional technology?
The most striking difference is the sheer speed by which DTC
operates. As mentioned above, the torque response is the quick-
est available.
To achieve a fast torque loop, ABB has utilised the latest high
speed signal processing technology and spent 100 man years
developing the highly advanced Motor Model which precisely
simulates the actual motor parameters within the controller.
For a clearer understanding of DTC control theory, see
page 28.
Questions and Answers
26 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
Does a DTC drive use fuzzy logic within its control loop?
No. Fuzzy logic is used in some drives to maintain the accelera-
tion current within current limits and therefore prevent the drive
from tripping unnecessarily. As DTC is controlling the torque
directly, current can be kept within these limits in all operating
conditions.
A drive using DTC technology is said to be tripless. How has
this been achieved?
Many manufacturers have spent years trying to avoid trips during
acceleration and deceleration and have found it extraordinar-
ily difficult. DTC achieves tripless operation by controlling the
actual motor torque.
The speed and accuracy of a drive which relies on com-
puted rather than measured control parameters can never
be realistic. Unless you are looking at the shaft, you are
not getting the full picture. Is this true with DTC?
DTC knows the full picture. As explained above, thanks to the
sophistication of the Motor Model and the ability to carry out
40,000 calculations every second, a DTC drive knows precisely
what the motor shaft is doing. There is never any doubt as to
the motor’s state. This is reflected in the exceptionally high
torque response and speed accuracy figures quoted on pages
18 and 19.
Unlike traditional AC drives, where up to 30% of all switchings are
wasted, a drive using DTC technology knows precisely where
the shaft is and so does not waste any of its switchings.
DTC can cover 95% of all industrial applications. The ex-
ceptions, mainly applications where extremely precise speed
control is needed, will be catered for by adding a feedback
device to provide closed loop control. This device, however,
can be simpler than the sensors needed for conventional
closed loop drives.
Even with the fastest semiconductors some dead time is
introduced. Therefore, how accurate is the auto-tuning of a
DTC drive?
Auto-tuning is used in the initial identification run of a DTC drive
(see page 29). The dead time is measured and is taken into ac-
count by the Motor Model when calculating the actual flux. If
we compare to a PWM drive, the problem with PWM is in the
range 20-30 Hz which causes torque ripple.
Questions and Answers
27 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
What kind of stability will a DTC drive have at light loads
and low speeds?
The stability down to zero speed is good and both torque and
speed accuracy can be maintained at very low speeds and light
loads. We have defined the accuracies as follows:
Torque accuracy: Within a speed range of 2-100% and a load
range of 10-100%, the torque accuracy is 2%.
Speed accuracy: Within a speed range of 2-100% and a load
range of 10-100%, the speed accuracy is 10% of the motor slip.
Motor slip of a 37 kW motor is about 2% which means a speed
accuracy of 0.2%.
What are the limitations of DTC?
If several motors are connected in parallel in a DTC-controlled
inverter, the arrangement operates as one large motor. It has no
information about the status of any single motor. If the number of
motors varies or the motor power remains below 1/8 of the rated
power, it would be best to select the scalar control macro.
Can DTC work with any type of induction motor?
Yes, any type of asynchronous, squirrel cage motor.
Questions and Answers
28 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
Chapter 4 - Basic Control Theory
How DTC works
Figure 5, below, shows the complete block diagram for Direct
Torque Control ( DTC).
Walk around the block
Figure 5: DTC comprises two key blocks: Speed Control and Torque Control
The block diagram shows that DTC has two fundamental sec-
tions: the Torque Control Loop and the Speed Control Loop.
Now we will walk around the blocks exploring each stage and
showing how they integrate together.
Let’s start with DTC’s Torque Control Loop.
29 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Torque Control Loop
Step 1 Voltage and current measurements
In normal operation, two motor phase currents and the DC bus
voltage are simply measured, together with the inverter’s switch
positions.
Step 2 Adaptive Motor Model
The measured information from the motor is fed to the Adaptive
Motor Model.
The sophistication of this Motor Model allows precise data about
the motor to be calculated. Before operating the DTC drive, the
Motor Model is fed information about the motor, which is col-
lected during a motor identification run. This is called auto-tun-
ing and data such as stator resistance, mutual inductance and
saturation coefficients are determined along with the motor’s
inertia. The identification of motor model parameters can be
done without rotating motor shaft. This makes it easy to apply
DTC technology also in retrofits. The extremely fine tuning of mo-
tor model is achieved when the identification run also includes
running the motor shaft for some seconds.

There is no need to feed back any shaft speed or position with
tachometers or encoders if the static speed accuracy require-
ment is over 0.5%, as it is for most industrial applications.
Basic Control Theory
30 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
This is a significant advance over all other AC drive technology.
The Motor Model is, in fact, key to DTC’s unrivalled low speed
performance.
The Motor Model outputs control signals which directly repre-
sent actual motor torque and actual stator flux. Also shaft speed
is calculated within the Motor Model.
Step 3 Torque Comparator and Flux Comparator
The information to control power switches is produced in the
Torque and Flux Comparator.
Both actual torque and actual flux are fed to the comparators
where they are compared, every 25 microseconds, to a torque
and flux reference value. Torque and flux status signals are
calculated using a two level hysteresis control method.
These signals are then fed to the Optimum Pulse Selector.
Step 4 Optimum Pulse Selector
Within the Optimum Pulse Selector is the latest 40 MHz dig-
ital signal processor ( DSP) together with ASIC hardware to
determine the switching logic of the inverter. Furthermore, all
control signals are transmitted via optical links for high speed
data transmission.
This configuration brings immense processing speed such
that every 25 microseconds the inverter’s semiconductor
switching devices are supplied with an optimum pulse for
reaching, or maintaining, an accurate motor torque.
The correct switch combination is determined every control
cycle. There is no predetermined switching pattern. DTC has
been referred to as “just-in-time” switching, because, unlike
traditional PWM drives where up to 30% of all switch changes
are unnecessary, with DTC each and every switching is needed
and used.
This high speed of switching is fundamental to the success of
DTC. The main motor control parameters are updated 40,000
times a second. This allows extremely rapid response on the
shaft and is necessary so that the Motor Model (see Step 2) can
update this information.
It is this processing speed that brings the high performance
figures including a static speed control accuracy, without en-
coder, of ±0.5% and the torque response of less than 2 ms.
Basic Control Theory
31 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
Speed Control
Step 5 Torque Reference Controller
Within the Torque Reference Controller, the speed control output
is limited by the torque limits and DC bus voltage.
It also includes speed control for cases when an external torque
signal is used. The internal torque reference from this block is fed
to the Torque Comparator.
Step 6 Speed Controller
The Speed Controller block consists both of a PID controller
and an acceleration compensator. The external speed reference
signal is compared to the actual speed produced in the Motor
Model. The error signal is then fed to both the PID controller and
the acceleration compensator. The output is the sum of outputs
from both of them.
Step 7 Flux Reference Controller
An absolute value of stator flux can be given from the Flux
Reference Controller to the Flux Comparator block. The ability to
control and modify this absolute value provides an easy way to
realise many inverter functions such as Flux Optimisation and
Flux Braking (see page 21).
Basic Control Theory
32 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
Chapter 5 - Index
A
acceleration compensator 31
accuracy control 20
AC drive 1, 3, 7, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
20, 23, 26, 30
AC drive using DTC 14, 15
AC drive with flux vector control 12
AC motor 20
aerators 22
air condition 22
ASIC 30
auto-tuning 21, 26, 29
B
Blaschke 18
braking 21, 31
C
closed-loop 12, 18
closed-loop drives 12
commissioning 21
control cycle 30
controlled input bridge 22
controlling variables 16
control loop 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 26, 28, 29, 31
control variables 15, 24
conveyors 22
costs 20, 21, 23
D
DC bus voltage 29, 31
DC drive 9, 12, 15, 16, 20
DC link voltage 21, 22
DC Motor 9
Depenbrock 18
diode bridge 22
Direct Torque Control 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 28
drive input line generating unit 22
DSP 24, 30
DTC 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30
dynamic speed accuracy 19, 25
E
electronic controller 16
elevators 19
encoders 16, 20, 24, 25, 29, 30
energy savings 23
external speed reference 31
external torque signal 31
F
fan 21, 22, 23
feedback device 18, 24, 26
field oriented control 18
film finishing 23
flux braking 21, 31
flux comparator 30, 31
flux optimisation 21, 23, 31
Flux Reference Controller 31
flux vector 12, 15, 18, 23, 24
flux vector control 12, 15
food 22
frequency control 11, 15, 24
fuzzy logic 26
G
gearbox 21
H
harmonics 22
heating 22
HeVAC 22
hysteresis control 30
I
inertia 29
initial cost 20
L
load torque 18, 22
loss of input power 22
low frequencies 18, 19, 25
M
maintenance 20
mechanical brake 20
modulator 16, 24
motor flux optimisation 23
Motor Model 12, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31
motor noise 21, 23
Motor static speed 19
motor torque 30
mutual inductance 29
N
noise 21, 22, 23
nominal torque step 25
O
operating cost 23
optical link 30
Optimum Pulse Selector 30
output frequency 24
output voltage 24
P
paper industry 19
PID controller 31
pipelines 23
position control 20
position encoder 24
power factor 22
power loss ride through 21, 23
predetermined switching pattern 21, 30
pump 21, 22, 23
33 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
1
PWM 11, 12, 16, 18, 19, 23, 24, 26, 30
PWM AC drive 16, 23, 24, 26, 30
R
reliability 20
restart 21
retrofit 21
S
saturation coefficient 29
scalar control 27
sensorless 25
servo drive 20, 25
signal processing 24, 25
signal processing time 24
speed 8, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26,
27, 28, 29, 30, 31
speed accuracy 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 29
speed control 26, 28, 30, 31
Speed Controller 31
Speed Control Loop 28
speed control output 31
speed response 24
stability 27
start 21, 22, 28
starting 21, 22
static accuracy 20
static speed accuracy 19, 29
stator 24, 29, 30, 31
stator flux 24, 30, 31
stator resistance 29
stress 21, 23
switching pattern 21, 25, 30
switching pulses 25
T
tacho 16, 20, 24, 29
tachometer 16, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29
time constant 25
torque 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31
- control 9, 12, 14, 20, 23, 28
- loop 25
- repeatability 20
- response 20, 25, 26, 30
- ripple 26
Torque and Flux Comparator 30
Torque Comparator 30, 31
Torque Control Loop 28
Torque Reference Controller 31
trip 21, 22, 26
U
universal 20, 22
V
variable speed drives 15, 22
ventilating 22
voltage 16, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 29, 31
W
water 22
web machine 23
winder 19, 23
Z
zero speed 18, 20, 21, 25, 27
Index
34 Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 22 22681
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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EU Council Directives and adjustable speed
electrical power drive systems
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2 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
33 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
ABB drives
EU Council Directives and adjustable speed
electrical power drive systems
Technical guide No. 2
3AFE61253980 REV D
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.
2
4 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
55 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 9
This guide’s purpose .................................................................................... 9
How to use this guide ................................................................................. 10
Responsibilities and actions .................................................................. 10
Tickboxes ............................................................................................. 10
Cross-referencing .................................................................................. 10
Chapter 2 - General questions and answers ....................................... 11
What are these EU Council Directives? .................................................. 11
How does EMC affect me? ................................................................... 11
What is EMC? ....................................................................................... 11
What is an electromagnetic environment? ............................................. 12
How does electromagnetic interference show up? ................................ 12
What emissions can drives cause? ........................................................ 12
How is this emission seen? ................................................................... 13
How do I avoid electromagnetic interference? ....................................... 13
Drives manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then? ............. 13
If a drive is CE marked, I need not worry. True? ..................................... 13
Chapter 3 - CE marking ....................................................................... 15
What is CE marking and how relevant is it for drives? ................................. 15
What is CE marking for? ........................................................................ 15
Is CE marking a quality mark? ............................................................... 16
What is the legal position regarding CE marking? .................................. 16
What is the importance of CE marking for purchasers of drives? ........... 16
If I buy a CE marked drive, will I meet the technical requirements
of the directives? ................................................................................... 16
What happens if, as an end-user, I put together a system -
do I have to put CE marking on? ........................................................... 17
What about spare parts that I buy for a drive?
Do I negate the CE mark if I replace a component? ............................... 17
If drives are classed as components, on subassemlies they
cannot be EMC certified or carry a CE mark. Is this true? ...................... 17
In summary ................................................................................................ 18
Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an
apparatus by the end users ................................................................... 18
Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an
apparatus by the other manufacturer or assembler ................................ 18
Finished appliance ................................................................................. 19
Finished appliance intended for the end users ....................................... 19
Finished appliance intended for the other manufacturer or assembler .... 19
Systems (Combination of finished appliances) ....................................... 19
6 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
All provisions of the EMC Directive, as defined for apparatus,
apply to the combination as a whole. .................................................................... 20
Apparatus ............................................................................................. 20
Fixed installation .................................................................................... 20
Equipment............................................................................................. 20
Chapter 4 - Purchasing decisionsfor PDSs .......................................... 21
What you need to know and do ................................................................. 21
If you are a machine builder buying a PDS... ............................................... 25
Actions you must take ........................................................................... 26
When buying a PDS... ................................................................................ 28
Path 1 ................................................................................................... 29
Actions you must take ........................................................................... 29
Path 2 ................................................................................................... 30
Actions you must take ........................................................................... 30
Path 3 ................................................................................................... 30
Actions you must take ........................................................................... 31
If you are an end-user buying a CDM/BDM or PDS .................................... 31
...You have the following responsibilities ................................................ 31
Actions you must take ........................................................................... 32
If you are a panelbuilder buying a CDM/BDM ............................................. 32
Additional actions .................................................................................. 34
If you are a distributor buying a CDM/BDM... .............................................. 35
If you are an installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS....................................... 35
Chapter 5 - Terminology ...................................................................... 36
Technical documentation (TD) ..................................................................... 36
What is technical documentation? ......................................................... 36
Why is technical documentation deemed to be important? .................... 36
Will customers always receive a copy of technical documentation? ....... 37
What is the shelf life of technical documentation? .................................. 37
How do I ensure that tests are always carried out? ................................ 37
Can drive manufacturers help more? ..................................................... 37
How to make up a TD ................................................................................ 38
1. Description of the product ................................................................. 38
2. Procedures used to ensure product conformity ................................. 38
3. If chosen a statement from notified body ........................................... 39
4. Actions by the notified body .............................................................. 39
Technical file (for mechanical safety aspects) .............................................. 40
What is a technical file? ........................................................................ 40
How to make up a technical file .................................................................. 40
Drawings and diagrams ......................................................................... 40
Health and safety .................................................................................. 40
Machine design ..................................................................................... 40
Other certificates required ..................................................................... 40
Certificate of Adequacy .............................................................................. 41
What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? ..................................... 41
How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy ..................................................... 41
77 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Statement .................................................................................................. 41
When the statement is needed .............................................................. 41
How to obtain a report ............................................................................... 42
Declaration of conformity (for EMC and electrical safety aspects) .......... 43
How to obtain a Declaration of conformity ............................................. 43
What is a Declaration of incorporation? ................................................. 44
Is there no way out of this type of declaration? ...................................... 45
What a Declaration of incorporation contains ......................................... 45
Type certification ......................................................................................... 46
How to obtain type certification .................................................................. 46
Chapter 6 - Authorities and bodies ...................................................... 47
Competent authority ................................................................................... 47
Notified body .............................................................................................. 47
Chapter 7 - Standards and directives .................................................. 48
Directive or standard? ................................................................................ 48
Harmonised standards for PDSs ................................................................ 48
How to recognise a European standard ................................................. 49
Your questions answered ........................................................................... 50
Which standards directly relate to drives? .............................................. 50
What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives? .................................... 50
What are the solutions to radiated emissions? ....................................... 51
Do I have to conform to the standards? ................................................ 51
Can I be fined for not conforming? ............................................................ 51
The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3 ............................................... 51
PDS of category C1: ............................................................................. 52
PDS of category C2: ............................................................................. 52
PDS of category C3: ............................................................................. 53
PDS of category C4: ............................................................................. 53
Examples concerning applications of different approaches .................... 54
Machinery Directive 98/37/EC .................................................................... 55
How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive? ............................... 55
Where can I obtain a Machinery Directive copy? .................................... 56
Low Voltage Directive ................................................................................. 56
How does the LVD affect my drive? ....................................................... 56
Why is the Declaration of conformity important? .................................... 57
EMC Directive ............................................................................................ 57
How does the EMC Directive affect my drive? ....................................... 57
Who has the responsibility to ensure CE marking? ................................ 58
Summary of responsibilities ................................................................... 59
Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives ...................................... 60
Index ................................................................................................... 61
8 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
99 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Chapter 1 - Introduction
This guide’s purpose
The aim of this Technical guide No. 2* is to give a straight-forward
explanation of how the various EU Council Directives relate to
power drive systems (PDSs). For an explanation of the terminolo-
gy of PDSs, see pages 21 and 22.
While Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the subject of
most concern within the industry, it must be realised that the
EMC Directive is only part of the overall EU initiative on com-
mon safety standards.
It is the intention of this guide to offer users of AC or DC power
drive systems - whether machine builders, system designers,
distributors, OEMs, end-users or installers - some clear practical
guidelines and courses of action.
*Notes
1 The content of this technical guide is ABB Oy’s, Drives in-
terpretation of events as of July 2007. However, we reserve
the right to develop and evolve these interpretations as more
details become available from notified bodies (see chapter
6), competent authorities (see chapter 6), organisations and
from our own tests.
2 Other technical guides available in this series include:
Technical guide No. 1 -
Direct torque control (3AFE58056685)
Technical guide No. 3 -
EMC compliant installation and configuration for a power
drive system (3AFE61348280)
Technical guide No. 4 -
Guide to variable speed drives (3AFE61389211)
Technical guide No. 5 -
Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
(3AFE64230247)
Technical guide No. 6 -
Guide to harmonics with AC drives (3AFE64292714)
Technical guide No. 7 -
Dimensioning of a drive system (3AFE64362569)
10 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Introduction
Technical guide No. 8 -
Electrical braking (3AFE64362534)
Technical guide No. 9 -
Guide to motion control drives (3AFE68695201)
How to use this guide
The guide is divided into 7 sections.
Section 4 looks at purchasing decisions for PDSs. Please note
the following about the structure of this section:
Responsibilities and actions
Each type of purchaser is offered an explanation of their respon-
sibilities. This is for awareness. No action is needed.
Following the responsibilities is a set of actions. If the purchaser
follows these actions, step-by-step, then conforming to the
relevant directives will be straightforward.
Tickboxes
Alongside the actions are tickboxes. Purchasers can photocopy
the relevant pages and use them as a checklist with each item
being ticked off as it is achieved.
Cross-referencing
Because of the complexity of conforming to each directive, this
guide inevitably carries a lot of cross-references to other sec-
tions. In the margin you will come across:
Defined on page XX
You are advised to turn to the page number reference.
You will also notice other references within the text. These
can be referred to if the item is unclear but is not essential for
achieving compliance.
Key point:
Within the text you will see:
Key point
These are key observations that must be observed.
11 11 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Chapter 2 - General questions and
answers
It is very important that users of PDSs fully understand all the
various rules and regulations and how they apply to PDSs. That
is the purpose of this guide.
What are these EU Council Directives?
It is important to realise that EMC cannot be divorced from
other European legislation. So before answering this question,
we need to look at the other legislation and how it affects the
purchase and installation of drives.
Quite simply there are three directives that mainly affect a
drive’s safety against risks and hazards. These are:
But more on each of these directives later. Let us first explain
EMC and look at some concerns of the industry.
How does EMC affect me?
From January 1, 1996 the EU Council’s Electromagnetic Com-
patibility Directive (89/336/EEC and it’s successor 2004/108/EC)
has been compulsory. It applies to all electrical and electronic
equipment sold within the EU and affects virtually all manufac-
turers and importers of electrical and electronic goods.
Key point:
Electrical equipment that does not conform to the regulations
may not be sold anywhere in the EEA (European Economic
Area).
What is EMC?
EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. It is the abil-
ity of electrical/electronic equipment to operate problem-free
within an electromagnetic environment. Likewise, the equipment
Directive Mandatory Page
Machinery Directive 1995-01-01 pg 55
Low Voltage Directive 1997-01-01 pg 56
EMC Directive 1996-01-01 pg 57
12 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
General questions and answers
must not disturb or interfere with any other products or systems
within its locality.
What is an electromagnetic environment?
The electromagnetic environment is everywhere but it varies
from place to place. The reason is that there are many different
sources of disturbance which can be natural or man-made.
Natural sources consist of electrical discharge between clouds,
lightning or other atmospheric disturbances. While we cannot
influence these sources we can protect our products and sys-
tems from their effects.
Man-made disturbances are those generated by, for exam-
ple, electrical contacts and semiconductors, digital systems
like microprocessors, mobile radio transmitters, walkie-talkies,
portable car telephones and power drive systems.
Such a variety of equipment, each with its own emission char-
acteristics, is often used so near to other electrical equipment
that the field strengths they create may cause interferences.
Key point:
It is important that all PDSs are immune to these natural and
man-made disturbances. While drives manufacturers strive to
make their products immune, the directive lays down minimum
standards for immunity, thereby ensuring all manufacturers
achieve the same basic level.
How does electromagnetic interference show up?
Electromagnetic interference shows up in a variety of ways.
Typical examples of interference include a poorly suppressed
automobile engine or dynamo; an electric drill causing patterning
on the TV screen; or crackling from an AM radio.
The microprocessor and power electronic component, switch
rapidly and therefore, can cause interference at high frequen-
cies, unless proper precautions are taken.
What emissions can drives cause?
The normal operation of any drive involves rapid switching of
high voltages and this can produce radio frequency emission.
It is this radiation and emission that have been seen to have
the potential to disturb other circuits at frequencies below 200
MHz.
13 13 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
General questions and answers
Modern equipment contains considerable communications and
other digital electronics. This can cause considerable emissions
at frequencies above 200 MHz.
How is this emission seen?
The main emission is via conduction to the mains. Radiation
from the converter and conducting cables is another type of
emission and it is especially demanding to achieve the radiated
emission limits.
How do I avoid electromagnetic interference?
You need to ensure two things:
• that the equipment generates minimum emission.
• that the equipment is immune to outside effects.
Key point:
In the case of power drive systems, a lot hinges on the quality
of the installation.
Electromagnetic interference needs to be conducted to earth
(ground potential) and no system can work unless it is properly
connected.
Drives manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then?
Unfortunately, the process is not that simple. Virtually everyone
in the supply chain has a responsibility to ensure a product, a
system and an installation complies with the essential require-
ments of the EMC Directive.
The key is to clearly understand who has responsibility for
what. In the forthcoming pages we take a look at various types
of purchasers and examine the steps each should take to meet
all three directives mentioned on page 11.
Everyone from manufacturer to installer to user has a respon-
sibility in complying with EMC rules.
If a drive is CE marked, I need not worry. True?
Again this is a big misconception. Just because a drive has CE
marking does not necessarily mean it meets the EMC Direc-
tive.
14 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Key point:
This will all become clear by referring to the section purchasing
decisions for PDSs, page 21.
CE marking according to the EMC Directive cannot normally
be applied to a module that is no more than a chassis with
exposed terminals.
General questions and answers
15 15 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Chapter 3 - CE marking
What is CE marking and how relevant is it for drives?
CE marking, shown below, is the official signature of the Dec-
laration of conformity (see pages 43 and 44) as governed by
the European Commission. It is a very specific graphic symbol
and must be separated from other marks.
CE marking is a system of self certification to identify equipment
that complies with the relevant applicable directives.
If a drive is the subject of several directives and, for example,
conforms with the Low Voltage Directive (see page 56), then,
from 1997, it is compulsory that it shows CE marking. That
marking shall indicate that the drive also conforms to the EMC
Directive (page 57). CE marking shall indicate conformity only
to the directive(s) applied by the manufacturer.
Key point:
NOTE: There must be technical documentation supporting the
Declaration of conformity.
For more on technical documentation, please refer to pages
from 36 to 40.
What is CE marking for?
CE marking is mainly for the benefit of authorities throughout
the EU and EEA countries who control the movement of goods.
CE marking shows that the product complies with the essential
requirements of all relevant directives, mainly in the area of
16 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
CE marking
technical safety, compatibility issues and conformity assess-
ment. There are three directives that are relevant to drives, but
CE marking may be attached to indicate compliance with one
of them only (see the previous page).
Is CE marking a quality mark?
Most definitely not. As CE marking is self certification, you can
be assured that certification has been carried out.
What is the legal position regarding CE marking?
Anyone applying CE marking is legally liable and must be able
to prove the validity of his actions to the authorities. CE marking
confirms compliance with the directives listed in the Declaration
of conformity (see pages 43 and 44).
What is the importance of CE marking for purchasers of drives?
As far as a purchaser of a drive is concerned, anything that car-
ries the CE mark must have a functional value to him.
Thus, a complete drive product, which can be safely cabled and
powered up on its own, shall carry the CE marking.
If I buy a CE marked drive, will I meet the technical requirements
of the directives?
In practice, you will see drive products with CE marking. But it
is important to understand just why the product was given CE
marking in the first place.
Basically a drive has no functional value. It is only of practical
use when connected to, say, a motor which in turn is connected
to a load.
Therefore, as far as the Machinery Directive is concerned a
drive cannot have CE marking unless it is part of a “process”
comprising the drive, motor and load.
As for the EMC Directive, the equipment that make up a “proc-
ess” include cabling, drives and motor. CE marking can only
be affixed if all items forming such a “process” conform to the
requirements of the directive. Therefore, the drive manuals in-
clude detailed instructions for installation.
However, in the eyes of the Low Voltage Directive, a built drive
does have functionality. That is, through the drive’s parameters
you can program the drive and obtain an input and output
17 17 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
CE marking
signal. Thus, if a drive conforms to the Low Voltage Directive it
can carry CE marking. Refer to pages from 58 to 60 for explana-
tions of the three directives.
What happens if, as an end-user, I put together a system -
do I have to put CE marking on?
Yes. Anyone putting together a system and commissioning it is
responsible for the appropriate CE marking.
Key point:
Turn to page 31 for more details about the end-user’s respon-
sibilities.
What about spare parts that I buy for a drive? Do I negate the CE
mark if I replace a component?
Equipment supplied before the application of the directives,
can be repaired and supplied with spare parts to bring it back
to the original specification. However, it cannot be enhanced or
reinstalled without meeting the directives.
For equipment supplied after the application of the directives,
the use of the manufacturer’s spare parts should not negate the
CE marking. However, the manufacturer or supplier should be
consulted about upgrading, as some actions could affect the
CE marking criteria.
If drives are classed as components, on subassemlies they cannot
be EMC certified or carry a CE mark. Is this true?
You need to first understand the terminology now being applied
to drives. See below and pages 21 and 22 for this.
A Complete Drive Module (CDM) is normally a component in a
system and as such has no functional value unless it is con-
nected to the motor when it becomes a PDS.
The CDM shall be CE marked if it is to be installed with simple
connections and adjustments that do not require any EMC-
knowledge.
If awareness of the EMC implication is needed in order to install
a CDM, it is not considered as an apparatus. Thus, it shall not
be CE marked according to the EMC directives.
If a CDM or BDM is intended for incorporation in PDS by profes-
sional manufacturers only (panel builders, machine builders), it
18 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
shall not be CE marked, nor is Declaration of conformity given by
the CDM/BDM manufacturer. Instead installation instructions shall
be supplied in order to help the professional manufacturers.
In summary
The EMC Directive defines equipment as any apparatus or fixed
installation. As there are separate provisions for apparatus and
fixed installations, it is important that the correct category of
the equipment is determined.
In technical-commercial classifications the following terminology is
frequently used: components, sub-assemblies, finished appliances
(i.e. finished products), a combination of finished appliances (i.e. a
system), apparatus, fixed installations and equipment.
The key issue here is whether the item to be considered is for
end users or not:
• If it meant for end users, the EMC directive applies
• If it meant for manufacturers or assemblers, the EMC direc-
tive does not apply
Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an
apparatus by the end users
A manufacturer may place components or sub-assemblies on
the market which are:
• For incorporation into an apparatus by the end-user,
• Available to end users and likely to be used by them.
These components or sub-assemblies are to be considered as
apparatus with regard to the application of the EMC. The instruc-
tions for use accompanying the component or sub-assembly
should include all relevant information, and should assume that
adjustments or connections can be performed by an end-user
not aware of the EMC implications.
In such case the component is considered equivalent to appa-
ratus. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this
category, e.g. a drive with enclosure and sold as a complete
unit (CDM) to the enduser who installs it into his own system. All
provisions of the EMC Directive will apply (CE mark, Declaration
of conformity and technical documentation).
Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an
apparatus by the other manufacturer or assembler
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into
an apparatus or an other sub-assembly by other manufacturers
or assemblers are not considered to be “apparatus” and are
CE marking
19 19 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
therefore not covered by the EMC Directive. These components
include resistors, cables, terminal blocks, etc.
Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category
as well, e.g. basic drive module (BDM). These are meant to be
assembled by a professional assembler (e.g. panel builder or
system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery
of the manufacturer of the BDM. According to the EMC Directive,
the requirement for the BDM supplier is to provide instructions
for installation and use.
Note:
The manufacturer or assembler of the panel or system is re-
sponsible for CE mark, Declaration of conformity and technical
documentation.
Finished appliance
A finished appliance is any device or unit containing electrical
and/or electronic components or sub-assemblies that delivers a
function and has its own enclosure. Similarly than components,
the interpretation finished appliance can be divided into two
categories: it can be intended for the end users, or for the other
manufacturers or assemblers.
Finished appliance intended for the end users
A finished appliance is considered as apparatus in the sense of
the EMC Directive, if it is intended for the end-user and thus has
to fulfill all the applicable provisions of the Directive.
Finished appliance intended for the other manufacturer or assembler
When the finished appliance is intended exclusively for an
industrial assembly operation for incorporation into other ap-
paratus, it is not an apparatus in the sense of the EMC Directive
and consequently the EMC Directive does not apply for such
finished appliances.
Systems (Combination of finished appliances)
A combination of several finished appliances which is combined,
and/or designed and/or put together by the same person (i.e.
the system manufacturer) and is intended to be placed on the
market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end-user
and intended to be installed and operated together to perform
a specific task.
CE marking
20 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
CE marking
All provisions of the EMC Directive, as defined for apparatus, apply
to the combination as a whole.
Apparatus
Apparatus means any finished appliance or combination thereof
made commercially available (i.e. placed on the market) as a
single functional unit, intended for the end-user, and liable to
generate electromagnetic disturbance, or the performance of
which is liable to be affected by such disturbance.
Fixed installation
A particular combination of several types of apparatus, equip-
ment and/or components, which are assembled, installed and
intended to be used permanently at a predefined location.
Equipment
Any apparatus or fixed installation
21 21 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Chapter 4 - Purchasing decisions
for PDSs
What you need to know and do
Starting on page 23, we offer a step-by-step guide re-
lating to your purchasing requirements for power drive
systems.
Key point:
Before turning to page 23, you need to know the following terms
for PDSs and their component parts, which may be unfamiliar
to many users.
1. Basic Drive Module (BDM) consists of the converter
section and the control circuits needed for torque or
speed. A BDM is the essential part of the power drive
system taking electrical power from a 50 Hz constant
frequency supply and converting it into a variable form
for an electric motor.
2. Complete Drive Module (CDM) consists of the drive
system without the motor and the sensors mechanically
coupled to the motor shaft. The CDM also includes the
Basic Drive Module (BDM) and a feeder section. Devices
such as an incoming phase-shift transformer for a 12-
pulse drive are considered part of the CDM.
3. Power Drive System, or PDS, is a term used through-
out this technical guide. A PDS includes the frequency
converter and feeding section (the CDM and BDM),
motors, sensors, all cabling, filters, panels and any
other components needed to make the PDS work ef-
fectively.
Note: The load is not considered part of the PDS, but
the CDM can incorporate the supply sections and
ventilation.
TERMS THAT YOU MUST KNOW
22 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Now we strongly advise you turn to page 23, to discover the type of
person you are.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
Power drive system ( PDS)
CDM
( Complete drive module)
Feeder section
Field supply
Auxiliaries
Others
Motor & sensors
Driven equipment
or load
Installation or part of installation
HOW THE TERMS
FIT TOGETHER
BDM ( Basic drive
module)
Control section
Converter section
System control and sequencing
23 23 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
To make this technical guide easy to use, we have also
identified certain types of people who will be involved in
the purchasing of drives.
Please identify the type nearest to your job function and turn
to the relevant section
2
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
25
WHO ARE YOU?
IF THIS IS
YOU, TURN
NOW TO
PAGE.....
Machine builder
is a person who buys either a PDS, CDM or BDM and
other mechanical or electrical component parts, such as
a pump, and assembles these into a machine.
Note: A machine is defined as an assembly of linked
parts or components, at least one of which moves. It
includes the appropriate actuators, control and power
circuits joined together for a specific application, in
particular for processing, treatment, moving or packaging
of a material.
System designer
carries out all the electrical design of the power drive
system, specifying all component parts which comprise
a PDS.
28
End-user
is the final customer who will actually use the machine,
PDS or CDM/BDM.
31
Panelbuilder
constructs enclosures into which a panelbuilder will
install a variety of components, including a CDM/BDM
and sometimes the motor. However, the built enclosure
does not constitute a machine.
32
24 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
End-user - page 31
Drive manufacturer
Panelbuilder
- p.32
Distributor
- p.35
System designer
- p.28
Panelbuilder
- p.32
Machine
builder
or OEM
- p.25
Installer - p.35 Installer - p.35
IF THIS IS
YOU, TURN
NOW TO
PAGE........
25
28
32
Distributor
acts as the sales distribution channel between the CDM/
BDM manufacturer and the end-user, machine builder,
OEM, panelbuilder or System Designer.
Installer
carries out the entire electrical installation of the PDS.
Original Equipment Manufacturer ( OEM)
For the purposes of purchasing drives, an OEM will
normally fall into the category of a machine builder,
system designer or panelbuilder. Therefore, if you identify
yourself as an OEM, refer to the relevant pages for each
of these job functions.
35
35
WHO ARE YOU?
25 25 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
NOTE: Before reading this section we strongly urge you
to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages
21-24.
If you are a machine builder buying a PDS...
...You have the following responsibilities:
1. Because you are building a complete machine, which in-
cludes coupling up the motors to the PDS and providing the
mechanical guarding and so on, you are liable for the total
mechanical and electrical safety of the machine as specified
in the Machinery Directive.
Therefore, the PDS is ultimately your responsibility. You need
to ensure that the entire PDS meets the Machinery Direc-
tive. Only then can CE marking be applied to the whole
machine.
2. You are also responsible for the electrical safety of all parts
of the PDS as specified in the Low Voltage Directive.
3. You must ensure electrical equipment and components are
manufactured in accordance with the EMC Directive. The
manufacturer of these parts is responsible for EMC for that
particular part. Nevertheless you are responsible for EMC for
the machine. You may choose electrical parts not in accord-
ance with the EMC directive, but then you have the respon-
sibility for compliance of parts.

Note: Be aware that combining CE marked sub-assemblies
may not automatically produce an apparatus that meets the
requirements.
4. You must ensure that the PDS or its component parts carry
declarations of conformity in accordance with the electrical
safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive.
5. You must be able to assure an authority and customers
that the machine has been built according to the Machinery
Directive, the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Direc-
tive. It may be necessary to issue technical documentation
to demonstrate compliance. You must keep in mind that you
and only you have responsibility for compliance with direc-
tives.
6. A Declaration of conformity according to the directives
above must be issued by the machine builder and CE mark-
ing must then be affixed to the machine or system.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
26 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
7. Any machine that does not comply must be withdrawn from
the market.
Actions you must take
To meet the Machinery Directive (see page 55) you need to:
a. Comply with the following mechanical safety checklist.
The aim is to eliminate any risk of accident throughout the
machinery’s life. This is not a complete list, the detailed list
is contained within the Machinery Directive:
Eliminate risk as far as possible, taking the necessary
protective measures if some risks cannot be eliminated.
Inform users of the residual risks; indicate whether any
training is required and stress the need for personal
protective equipment.
Machinery design, construction and instructions must
consider any abnormal use.
Under the intended conditions of use, the discomfort,
fatigue and stress of the operator must be reduced.
The manufacturer must take account of the operator’s
constraints resulting from the use of personal protective
equipment.
Machinery must be supplied with all essential equipment
to enable it to be used without risk.
b. Comply with the following electrical safety checklist: To ensure
the electrical safety of all parts of the PDS as specified in the
Low Voltage Directive (refer to page 56) you need to comply
with the following safety checklist, which is not necessarily
complete.
The electricity supply should be equipped with a discon-
necting device and with emergency devices for prevention
of unexpected start-up.
The equipment shall provide protection of persons against
electric shock from direct or indirect contact.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
27 27 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
The equipment is protected against the effects of:
overcurrent arising from a short circuit.
overload current.
abnormal temperatures.
loss of, or reduction in, the supply voltage.
overspeed of machines/machine elements.
The electrical equipment is equipped with an equipotential
bonding circuit consisting of the:
• PE terminal.
• conductive structural parts of the electrical equipment and
the machine.
• protective conductors in the equipment or the machine.
The control circuits and control functions ensure safe
operation including the necessary inter-lockings,
emergency stop, prevention of automatic re-start, etc.
Defined on page 40
c. Compile a technical file for the machine, including the
PDS.
Key point:
Generally, must carry CE marking and have a Declaration of
conformity.
For machines that pose a high risk of accident, a type certi-
fication (see page 46) is required from a notified body. Such
machinery is included in Annex IV of the Machinery Direc-
tive.
The type certificate issued should be included in the tech-
nical file for the machine or safety component. Refer now to
page 40.
2. Declarations of conformity from each of the
component suppliers whose products make up the PDS
and incorporate them into the technical documenta-
tion, referring to all three directives. If buying a PDS
from a system designer (see below), he should be able
to provide all declarations. If system designer or
component supplier cannot provide a Declaration of
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
28 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
conformity, the responsibility of demonstrating
compliance according to EMC Directive or Low
Voltage Directive lies on machine builder.
3. Pass this technical documentation to a notified
body. The machine builder SHOULD NOT pass
the file on to an end-user. Based on the technical
documentation, obtain a Certificate of Adequacy or
technical report from a notified body.
Defined on pages 43, 45 and 46
4. Issue a Declaration of conformity for the entire
machine. Only then can you apply CE marking.
5. Pass the Declaration of conformity related to all
three directives on to the end-user of the machine.
6. Apply CE marking to the machine.
7. Congratulations! You have successfully complied with
the main requirements for safe and efficient operation
of a machine.
When buying a PDS...
...You have the following responsibilities:
1. The PDS is a complex component of the machine. Therefore,
the Machinery Directive has to be complied with by issuing
a Declaration of incorporation.
2. Because a PDS is not a machine, the only directives which
need to be complied with are the Low Voltage Directive and
the EMC Directive.
3. The responsibility for Declaration of conformity and apply-
ing CE marking rests with both the system designer and the
supplier of the component parts which make up the power
drive system.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
29 29 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
The system designer has to decide if he is going to place his
delivery on the market as a single functional unit or not
• if the answer is YES, the delivery shall be classified as a
system.
• if the answer is NO, the delivery shall be classified as an
installation.
A. If the delivery is classified as a system, the system designer
has to choose one of two paths to follow:
Path 1
All components have EMC compliance
1. EMC behaviour is based on a component’s perform-
ance.
2. Responsibility lies with the component suppliers for CE
marking of individual complex components
3. PDS is an system according to the EMC Directive (as placed
on the market as a single functional unit).
4. The Declaration of conformity as well as the instructions for
use must refer to the system as whole. The system designer
assumes responsibility for compliance with the Directive.
Note 1: The system designer is responsible for producing the
instructions for use for the particular system as whole.
Note 2: Be aware that combining two or more CE marked sub-
assemblies may not automatically produce a system that meets
the requirements.
5. No CE marking is required for a system as whole, as long as
each part bears the CE mark.
Actions you must take
1. Follow all installation guidelines issued by each of
the component suppliers.
2. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the
system.
3. Issue technical documentation for the system.
4. Issue a Declaration of conformity.
5. DO NOT issue a CE mark.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
30 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Path 2
Components without EMC compliance
1. EMC behaviour is designed at the system level
(no accumulated cost by device specific filters etc).
2. Responsibility lies with the system designer who decides
the configuration (place or a specific filter etc).
3. PDS is a system according to the EMC Directive
(as placed on the market as a single functional unit).
4. Declaration of conformity and CE marking are required
for the system.
Actions you must take
1. Follow the installation guidelines issued by each
of the component suppliers.
2. Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure
the design meets the required EMC behaviour, i.e. the
location of filters.
Defined on pages 36 - 46
3. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the
system.
4. Issue technical documentation for the system.
5. Issue a Declaration of conformity and CE mark.
B. If the delivery is an installation, the system designer has one
path to follow:
Path 3
All components have EMC compliance
1. EMC behaviour is based on a component’s performance.
2. Responsibility lies with the component suppliers for CE
marking of individual complex components.
3. PDS is an installation according to the EMC Directive.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
31 31 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
4. No Declaration of conformity or CE marking is required
for a fixed installation, (such as an outside broadcast radio
station) DOC and CE marking are needed.
Actions you must take
1. Follow all installation guidelines issued by each of
the component suppliers.
2. Transfer all installation guidelines and Declaration
of conformity for each of the components, as issued
by suppliers, to the machine builder.
3. DO NOT issue a Declaration of conformity or CE
marki ng as t hi s i s not al l owed f or f i xed
installations.
If you are an end-user buying a CDM/ BDM or PDS
Key point:
An end-user can make an agreement with the drive’s supplier
so that the supplier acts as the machine builder. However, the
end-user is still responsible for the machine’s safety.
The supplier who acts as the machine builder will issue a
Declaration of conformity when the work is complete.
Once an intermediary panelbuilder incorporates a CDM/BDM
into a panel, he creates a part of a PDS.
The panelbuilder then has the same responsibilities as the
drive’s manufacturer.
...You have the following responsibilities
1. For the total mechanical and electrical safety of the machine
of which the drive is part of, as specified in the Machinery
Directive.
2. For the electrical safety of the drive as specified in the Low
Voltage Directive.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
32 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
3. To ensure the drive carries a Declaration of conformity in
accordance with the electrical safety requirements of the Low
Voltage Directive.
4. To be able to demonstrate to the authorities that the machine
to which the drive is being fitted has been built to both the
Machinery Directive and Low Voltage Directive.
5. The manufacturer of the drive is responsible for determining
the EMC behaviour of the drive.
6. The resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the as-
sembler of the final product, by following the manufacturer’s
recommendations and guidelines.
Actions you must take
The following needs to be completed by either the end-user
directly or the third party engaged to build the machine.
1. To meet the Machinery Directive (refer to page 55) you
need to follow the actions listed for a machine builder
on pages 25-28.
2. Follow installation instruction issued by manufacturers in
order to fulfill the requirements of the EMC Directive and
the Low Voltage Directive.
3. Ensure that equipment (CDM/BDM/PDS) is operated accord-
ing to manufacturer’s instruction in order to guarentee right
way of operation.
If you are a panelbuilder buying a CDM/ BDM
...You have the following responsibilities:
1. The panelbuilder has two options:
Option A - To buy non- CE marked components
This could save the panelbuilder money because he buys
components which are not tested for EMC or safety. However,
the responsibility is then the panelbuilder’s and this will incur
considerable costs as the entire panel needs to be tested.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
33 33 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
If the panelbuilder buys non-CE marked components, the
drive may be made to conform without further testing if the
components themselves have been tested. However, tested
components do not carry the CE mark but must carry suitable
instructions for installation. It is these instructions which must
be demonstrably met.
Option A - Actions to meet these responsibilities
1. Follow the installation guidelines issued by each of
the component suppliers.
2. Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure
the design meets the required EMC behaviour, i.e. the
location of filters.
3. Issue technical documentation for the system.
4. If you choose to assess yourself you must make
reference to EMC Directives:
2004/108/EC;
And to harmonised standard:
EN 61800-3
And you must make reference to LVD Directive:
2006/95/EC
And corresponding harmonized standard:
EN 61800-5-1 or EN 50178
Defined on pages 36-46
5. Once testing is completed, the results need to be
included in the technical documentation ( TD)
for the panel.
6. Technical documentation shall be assessed by
youself in order to demonstrate compliance. You
may use Notified Body for assessment as well.
7. You must then issue the Declaration of conformity
and CE marking for the panel.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
34 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Option B - To buy CE marked components
Option B - Actions to meet these responsibilities
1. Buying CE marked components creates a system or
an apparatus (refer to page 17-20) depending on the
nature of the panel.
2. Although the panelbuilder does not have to carry out
tests, he must ensure he conforms to the installation
guidelines given by each of the component
manufacturers.
Note: Be aware that combining two or more CE-
marked components may not automatically produce
a system, which meets the requirements.
3. Beware! These guidelines could differ greatly from
those given for normal installation purposes because
the components will be in close proximity to each
other.
4. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the
system or apparatus.
5. Issue technical documentation.
6. Issue a Declaration of conformity.
7. Apply CE marking to your panel in the case of an
apparatus. In the case of a system DO NOT apply CE
marking.
Additional actions
The panel can be either sold on the open market or use as part
of a machine. For each option there is a different requirement:
1. If you know that the panel is to be used as part of a
machine then you must request from the CDM / BDM
manufacturer a Declaration of incorporation.
2. The Declaration of incorporation must be supplied
with the panel to the machine builder, but CE
marking based on Machinery Directive MUST NOT be
affixed. This is because CE marking always needs a
Declaration of conformity.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
35 35 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Key point:
The Declaration of incorporation CAN NOT be used to apply
CE marking.
3. The machine builder will need this Declaration of
incorporation because he has to construct a
technical documentation ( TD) for the machine and
in that file all the declarations need to be included.
If you are a distributor buying a CDM/ BDM...
...You have the following responsibilities:
1. If a distributor is selling boxed products, like CDMs and BDMs
(drives), direct from the manufacturer, his only responsibility
is to pass on the installation guidelines to the end-user,
machine builder or system designer. In addition, the
Declaration of conformity must be passed to the machine
builder or system designer.
2. Both the installation guidelines and the Declaration of
conformity are available from the manufacturer.
Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities
1. Pass all installation guidelines and declaration of con-
formities to either the end-user, machine builder or sys-
tem designer.
If you are an installer buying a CDM/ BDM or PDS...
...You have the following responsibilities:
1. You must ensure that the installation guidelines of the
machine builder and/or system designer are adhered to.
Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities
1. Follow machinery builder and/or system designer Instal-
lation guidelines.
2. See Technical guide No. 3 for recommended installation
guidelines.
Purchasing decisions for PDSs
36 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Chapter 5 - Terminology
Technical documentation ( TD)
APPLIED TO: electrical equipment
RESPONSIBILITY: electrical equipment manufacturer,
system designer, panelbuilder, OEM,
installer
REQUIRED BY: EMC Directive, Low Voltage Directive
What is technical documentation?
Technical documentation ( TD) must be provided for the entire
equipment or system and if required is to show a competent
authority that you have met the essential requirements of the
EMC Directive (see page 57) and Low Voltage Directive (see
page 56).
The TD consists of three parts:
1. A description of the product.
2. Procedures used to ensure conformity of the product to the
requirements.
3. A statement from a notified body, if third party assessment
route is chosen.
Note: Using a notified body is voluntary and can be decided
by the manufacturer
Key point:
The full content of the technical documentation are given on
pages 36-39.
Why is technical documentation deemed to be important?
Anyone placing a product onto the market within the EU must
be able to show that the product meets the requirements of the
appropriate EU Council Directive and must be able to demon-
strate this to a competent authority without further testing.
Technical documentation allows the appropriate Declaration
of conformity to be drawn up.
37 37 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Will customers always receive a copy of technical documentation?
The content of the technical documentation is meant for the
authorities, and thus the electrical equipment manufacturer
does not have to give the technical documentation or any part
of it to the customer.
However, as the customer needs to know whether the product
is in conformance, he will obtain this assurance from the docu-
mentation delivered with the product. It is not required to supply
a declaration of conformity with the product, but the end-user
may ask for this from the manufacturer.
What is the shelf life of technical documentation?
Any technical documentation must be accessible to the ap-
propriate authorities for 10 years from the last relevant product
being delivered.
How do I ensure that tests are always carried out?
The whole system is based on self certification and good faith.
In various parts of Europe the methods of ensuring compliance
will vary. Supervision of these regulations is achieved through
market control by a competent authority. If the equipment fails
to meet the requirements of the EMC and Low Voltage Direc-
tives competent authorities can use the safeguard clause of the
Directives (withdraw the product from the market, take legal
action).
Can drive manufacturers help more?
Manufacturers accept that there is a need to work more closely
with OEMs and machine builders where the converter can be
mounted on the machine. A standard assembly or design should
be achieved so that no new parts of technical documentation
need to be created.
However, the idea of mounting drives in motor control centres
( MCCs) must be much more carefully thought out by system
specifiers.
The concept of mounting several drives in a motor control
centre must be more carefully thought out, as the summing of
high frequency emissions to determine the effects at the MCC
terminals is a complex issue and the possibilities of cross cou-
pling are multiplied.
Terminology
38 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
How to make up a TD
1. Description of the product
(Note: You can photocopy these pages and use as a tickbox
checklist)
i. identification of product
a. brand name.
b. model number.
c. name and address of manufacturer or agent.
d. a description of the intended function of the apparatus.
e. any limitation on the intended operating environment.
ii. a technical description
a. a block diagram showing the relationship between
the different functional areas of the product.
b. relevant technical drawings, including circuit diagrams,
assembly diagrams, parts lists, installation
diagrams.
c. description of intended interconnections with
other products, devices, etc.
d. description of product variants.
2. Procedures used to ensure product conformity
i. details of significant design elements
a. design features adopted specifically to address EMC
and electrical safety problems.
b. relevant component specifications.
c. an explanation of the procedures used to control variants
in the design together with an explanation of the
procedures used to assess whether a particular change
in the design will require the apparatus to be re-tested.
d. details and results of any theoretical modelling of
performance aspects of the apparatus.
Terminology
39 39 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Terminology
e. a list of standards applied in whole or part.
f. the description of the solution adopted in order to
comply with the directive.
ii. test evidence where appropriate
a. a list of the EMC and electrical safety tests performed
on the product, and test reports relating to them,
including details of test methods, etc.
b. an overview of the logical processes used to decide
whether the tests performed on the apparatus were
adequate to ensure compliance with the directive.
c. a list of the tests performed on critical sub-assemblies,
and test reports or certificates relating to them.
3. If chosen a statement from notified body
This will include:
i. reference to the exact build state of the apparatus
assessed
ii. comment on the technical documentation.
iii. statement of work done to verify the contents and
authenticity of the design information.
iv. statement, where appropriate, on the procedures
used to control variants, and on environmental,
installation and maintenance factors that may be
relevant.
4. Actions by the notified body
The notified body will study the technical documentation and
issue the statement and this should be included in the techni-
cal documentation.
Note: When compiling the technical documentation you may
need all Declarations from suppliers, i.e. Declaration of
conformity and Declaration of incorporation depending on
the parts, to ensure they carry CE marking.
40 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Technical file (for mechanical safety aspects)
APPLIED TO: machines and safety components
RESPONSIBILITY: machine builder / system designer
REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive
What is a technical file?
A technical file is the internal design file which should show how
and where the standards are met and is all that is needed if self
certifying the equipment by the standards compliance route.
If a Declaration of incorporation is included in a set of papers
and this claims to meet the appropriate parts of the standards
and simply instructs the user to meet the standards with other
parts of his machine, it is possible to use this as a part of a
technical file.
How to make up a technical file
Drawings and diagrams
1. Overall drawings of the machine.
2. Control circuit diagrams.
Health and safety
1. All drawings, calculations and test results used to check
the machine’s conformity with essential health and safety
requirements.
Machine design
1. Lists of the essential health and safety requirements, harmo-
nised standards, other standards and technical specifica-
tions used when designing the machine.
2. Description of methods used to eliminate hazards presented
by the machine.
Other certificates required
1. A technical report or certificate issued by a notified body
- if required.
Terminology
41 41 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
2. A copy of the instructions for the machine.
3. For series produced machines, the control measures that
are used to ensure that subsequent manufacture remains in
conformity with the directive.
Certificate of Adequacy
APPLIED TO: machines / safety components
RESPONSIBILITY: notified body / machine builder
REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive
What if standards cannot be wholly implemented?
In this case the adequacy of the technical file is proved by a
Certificate of Adequacy issued by a notified body.
How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy
The Certificate of Adequacy is a document drawn up by a
notified body. Once the body has established that the techni-
cal file contains all the necessary information, the Certificate
of Adequacy will be issued.
Key point:
The Certificate of Adequacy provided should be included in
the technical file.
Statement
APPLIED TO: electrical equipment
RESPONSIBILITY: notified body
REQUIRED BY: EMC Directive
When the statement is needed
The primary way for manufacturer (or his authorised repre-
sentative in the Community) to demonstrate the compliance is
to use internal production control method. If the manufacturer
chooses, he may use other method based on an assessment
of a notified body.
Terminology
42 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
How to obtain the statement
The manufacturer shall present the technical documentation
to the notified body and request the notified body for an as-
sessment thereof. The manufacturer shall specify to the noti-
fied body which aspects of the essential requirements must
be assessed.
The notified body shall review the technical documentation
and assess whether the technical documentation properly
demonstrates that the requirements of the Directive. If the
compliance of the apparatus is confirmed, the notified body
shall issue a statement confirming the compliance of the ap-
paratus.
Key point:
The statement provided shall be included in the technical
documentation.
Report
APPLIED TO: electrical equipment
RESPONSIBILITY: notified body / competent body
REQUIRED BY: Low Voltage Directive
What if standards cannot be wholly implemented?
In the event of a challenge the manufacturer or importer may
submit a report issued by a notified body. This report is based
on the technical file.
How to obtain a report
The report is a document drawn up by a notified body. Once
the body has established that the technical documentation
contains all the necessary information and the equipment fulfils
the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive, the report will
be issued.
Key point:
The report provided should be included in the technical docu-
mentation.
Terminology
43 43 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Declaration of conformity
(for EMC and electrical safety aspects)
APPLIED TO: electrical equipment and electrical
equipment of machines
RESPONSIBILITY: equipment manufacturer
REQUIRED BY: Low Voltage
Directive and EMC Directive
How to obtain a Declaration of conformity
You need to provide the following:
1. a reference to the Directive(s),
2. an identification of the apparatus to which it refers (including
name, type and serial number),
3. the name and address of the manufacturer and, where appli-
cable, the name and address of his authorised representative
in the Community,
4. a dated reference to the specifications under which conformity
is declared,
5. the date of the declaration,
6. the identity and signature of the person empowered to bind
the manufacturer or his authorised representative.
Declaration of conformity (for mechanical safety aspects)
APPLIED TO: machines
RESPONSIBILITY: machine builder
REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive
How to obtain a Declaration of conformity
You need to provide the following:
1. business name and full address of the manufacturer or, his
authorised representative;
Terminology
44 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2. name and address of the person authorised to compile the
technical file, who must be established in the Community;
3. description and identification of the machinery, including
generic denomination, function, model, type, serial number
and commercial name;
4. a sentence expressly declaring that the machinery fulfils all
the relevant provisions of the machinery Directive
5. where appropriate, the name, address and identification
number of the notified body which carried out the EC type-
examination and the number of the EC type-examination
certificate;
6. where appropriate, the name, address and identification
number of the notified body which approved the full quality
assurance system;
7. a list to the harmonised standards or the other technical
standards and specifications used;
9. the place and date of the declaration as well as the iden-
tity and signature of the person empowered to draw up the
declaration on behalf of the manufacturer or his authorised
representative.
Declaration of incorporation
APPLIED TO: machines or equipment intended for
incorporation into other machinery
RESPONSIBILITY: drives manufacturer / machine builder /
panelbuilder
REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive
What is a Declaration of incorporation?
Drives manufacturers must meet the appropriate parts of the
Machinery Directive and provide a Declaration of incorporation
which states that the drive does not comply on its own and must
be incorporated in other equipment.
This declaration will show the standards that have been applied
to the parts of the system within the manufacturer’s scope.
This declaration includes a statement restricting the user from
putting the equipment into service until the machinery into which
it is to be incorporated, or of which it is to be a component, has
Terminology
45 45 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
been found, and declared, to be in conformity with the provi-
sions of the Machinery Directive and the national implementing
legislation, i.e. as a whole including the equipment referred to
in this declaration.
The declaration then lists the standards relating to the Machinery
and Low Voltage Directives which the manufacturer has met.
It concludes that the entire equipment must meet the provisions
of the directive.
Quite simply, the manufacturer passes on the responsibility to
the machine or system builder.
Is there no way out of this type of declaration?
No. You must understand that because the manufacturer may
be supplying only one part in a machinery, such as the inverter,
the manufacturer is legally obliged to ensure that whoever puts
the system together must check that it is safe.
Only then can the machine or system builder use the Declaration
of incorporation in his technical file of the machine.
Key point:
Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of incorporation
covering the Machinery Directive for all built PDS products.
What a Declaration of incorporation contains
1. business name and full address of the manufacturer or his
authorised representative;
2. description and identification of the partly completed machin-
ery including generic denomination, function, model, type,
serial number and commercial name;
3. a sentence declaring which essential requirements of the
Directive are applied and fulfilled;
4. an undertaking to transmit, in response to a reasoned request
by the national authorities, relevant information on the partly
completed machinery;
5. a statement that the partly completed machinery must not
be put into service until the final machinery into which it is
to be incorporated has been declared in conformity with the
provisions of the Directive;
Terminology
46 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
6. the place and date of the declaration as well as the iden-
tity and signature of the person empowered to draw up the
declaration on behalf of the manufacturer or his authorised
representative.
Type certification
APPLIED TO: machines and safety components
RESPONSIBILITY: machine builder / approved body
REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive
How to obtain type certification
Type certification is carried out by an notified body who will
establish that the unit supplied, along with a technical file,
may be used safely and that any standards have been cor-
rectly applied.
Once the type certification has established this, a type ex-
amination certificate will be issued.
Terminology
47 47 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Chapter 6 - Authorities and bodies
The responsibility for product conformity is given to the manu-
facturer. If there is any doubt about conformity, then the Authori-
ties can demand technical documentation to show that a product
complies with the directives concerning the product.
When assessing product conformity, a manufacturer can use a
third party to examine the conformity.
The following types of authorities and bodies exist:
Competent authority
A competent authority in any EU or EEA country supervises
markets to prevent hazardous products being sold and mar-
keted. They can also withdraw such products from markets.
Notified body
A notified body issues type certificates for products, which
have their own directives and/or require type testing.
To find a suitable competent authority or notified body you
can contact:
EU Commission
Enterprise and Industry DG
Information and Documentation Centre
BREY 5 / 150
B-1049 Brussels
Belgium
Ph: +32 2 296 45 51
Or you may find contact through web.site: http://ec.europa.
eu/enterprice/electr_equipment/
48 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Chapter 7 - Standards and directives
The use of standards is voluntary, but compliance with direc-
tives without the use of harmonised standards is extremely
difficult.
There are two ways to show that a power drive system or part
of it conform:
• Use of harmonised standards (EN).
• By way of a technical documentation when no harmonised
standards exist, or if all parts of a harmonised standard can-
not be applied.
Key point:
It is recommended to use technical documentation even when
standards are harmonised as it makes it easier to show conform-
ity afterwards, if required by authorities.
Directive or standard?
The legislation of the European Union is defined by different
directives.
The directives concerning power drive systems are known as
new approach directives, which means that they do not include
exact figures or limits for products. What they do include is es-
sential requirements mainly for health and safety which make the
application of the relevant harmonised standards mandatory.
The requirements of directives are firmly established in stand-
ards. Standards give exact figures and limits for products.
The responsibility for defining standards in Europe rests with
three committees: CEN, for areas of common safety, CENELEC,
for electrical equipment and ETSI, for telecommunications.
Harmonised standards for PDSs
To remove technical barriers to trade in EU or EEA countries,
the standards are harmonised in member states.
In the harmonisation procedure, all member states are involved
in developing the Committee’s proposals for their own national
standard. A standard becomes harmonised when published in
the Official Journal of the EU.
49 49 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
The idea is that if a product conforms to the harmonised
standard, it is legally manufactured and when placed onto
the market in one country, it must be freely marketed in other
member countries.
How to recognise a European standard
Harmonised standards come in the following format:
XX EN 60204-1
where
XX = the national prefix (eg BS = UK; SFS = Finland)
EN = the abbreviation of Euronorm
60204-1 = an example of a standard number
The numbering of European standards follows a well structured
and organized sequence:
• EN 50225:1996 (the year of availability of the EN is separated
from the number by a colon)
• EN 50157-2-1:1996 (the part number is indicated by a hy-
phen)
The first two numerals indicate the origin of the standard:
• 40xxx to 44xxx cover domains of common CEN/ CENELEC
activities in the IT field
• 45xxx to 49xxx cover domains of common CEN/ CENELEC
activities outside the IT field
• 50xxx to 59xxx cover CENELEC activities, where
• EN 50xxx refer to the standards issued by CENELEC
only
• EN 55xxx refer to the implementation of CISPR docu-
ments
• 60000 to 69999 refer to the CENELEC implementation of IEC
documents with or without changes
European standards are adopted and confirmed by CENELEC
member countries by adding national prefix before the stand-
ard id (for example: SFS-EN 60601-1, DIN EN 60601-1, BS EN
60601-1).
There is also some clue as to a standard’s status:
prEN 50082-2 = proposal for standard sent to member states
ENV 50 = pre-standard which is in force for 3 years to
obtain practical experience from member
states
Standards and Directives
50 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Your questions answered
Which standards directly relate to drives?
At the moment, there are three Product Specific Standards
(see page 50) which relate to the compliance with EU directives.
They are called as “EN 61800-3 Adjustable speed electrical
power drive systems. Part 3: EMC product standard includ-
ing specific test methods”, which relates to EMC Directive,
“EN 61800-5-1 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems.
Part 5-1: Safety requirements. Electrical, thermal and energy”,
which relates to Low Voltage Directive and EN 61800-5-2,
Part 5-1: Safety requirements. Electrical, thermal and energy”,
which relates to Low Voltage Directive and “EN 61800-5-2
Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems. Part 5-2: Safety
requirements. Functional safety”, which relates to Machinery
Directive.
In addition there are other standards which need to be taken
account:
• EN 60204-1, Electrical Equipment of Machines, which, in
addition to being a Low Voltage Directive standard for all
electrical equipment, is also an electrical safety standard
under the Machinery Directive.
• EN 50178 according to Low Voltage Directive and
• EN 61800-1/2/4, which give rating specifications for Power
Drive Systems (LV DC, LV AC and MV AC PDS respec-
tively).
• EN 61000-3-2 and EN 61000-3-12 which give requirements
for harmonic current caused by equipment
What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives?
For emissions there are two main aspects to be considered:
Conducted emissions: these are seen on the power supply
cables and will also be measured on the control connections,
while radiated emissions are air borne.
Conducted emissions at low frequencies are known as har-
monics which have been a familiar problem to many users of a
PDS. Where harmonics are concerned EN 61800-3 refers to EN
61000-3-2 which applies for equipment under 16 A per phase.
In addition, the harmonics standard EN 61000-3-12 applies up
to 75 A per phase.
At the moment following groups can be separated
• Below 16 A per phase
• Professional, over 1kW => No limits.
• Other > the limits specified.
Standards and Directives
51 51 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Standards and Directives
• Between 16 A and 75 A per phase
• Equipment for public low voltage systems => the limits
specified.
• Equipment for other systems => the limits specified
Conformity with conducted emissions can be helped by good
product design and is readily achieved, in most situations, using
filters, providing this is for a single drive.
Radiated emissions: These are more problematic. While it is
possible to make the drive enclosure into a Faraday cage and
thereby have all radiation attenuated to earth, in practice it is
the outgoing connections where inadequate cabling radiates
emissions and cross couples with other cables in the vicinity.
Important attenuation methods are shielded cables and 360
o
grounding.
What are the solutions to radiated emissions?
The most important solutions are good installation practice, tight
enclosure, shielded cables and 360
o
grounding. (See Technical
guide No. 3 for tips and advice).
Do I have to conform to the standards?
The use of standards is voluntary, but compliance with a Direc-
tive without the use of Harmonised Standards is difficult in
the majority of cases.
Can I be fined for not conforming?
Yes. Failure to comply with any of the Directives will be a crimi-
nal offence.
The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3
This standard defines the required emission and immunity levels
of PDSs and the test methods to measure the levels. In Europe,
the standard takes precedence over all generic or product family
EMC standards previously applicable.
The standard defines two environments where equipment can
be used:
first environment
• environment that includes domestic premises, it also includes
establishments directly connected without intermediate
transformers to a low-voltage power supply network which
supplies buildings used for domestic purposes. Houses,
apartments, commercial premises or offices in a residential
building are examples of this kind of locations.
52 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
second environment
• environment that includes all establishments other than
those directly connected to a low voltage power supply net-
work which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes.
Industrial areas, technical areas of any building fed from a
dedicated transformer are examples of second environment
locations
The standard divides PDSs and their component parts into four
categories depending on the intended use
PDS of category C1:
A PDS with rated voltage less than 1000V and intended
for use in the first environment. A (PDS (or CDM) sold “as
built” to the End-User.
Description
Placed on the market. Free movement based on compliance
with the EMC Directive. The EC Declaration of Conformity
and CE Marking are required.
The PDS manufacturer is responsible for EMC behaviour of the
PDS under specified conditions. Additional EMC measures are
described in an easy-to-understand way and can be imple-
mented by a layman.
When PDS/CDM is going to be incorporated with another prod-
uct, the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the respon-
sibility of the assembler of the final product, by following the
manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines.
PDS of category C2:
PDS with rated voltage less than 1 000 V, which is neither
a plug in device nor a movable device and is intended to
be installed and commissioned only by a professional.
A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an ap-
paratus, system or installation.
Description:
Placed on the market. Intended only for professional assemblers
or installers who have the level of technical competence of EMC
necessary to install a PDS (or CDM/BDM) correctly. The manu-
facturer of the PDS (or CDM/BDM) is responsible for providing
Installation Guidelines. The EC Declaration of Conformity
and CE Marking are required.
Standards and Directives
53 53 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
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Standards and Directives
When a PDS/CDM/BDM is to be incorporated with another
product, the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the
responsibility of the assembler of the final product.
PDS of category C3:
PDS with rated voltage less than 1 000 V, intended for use
in the second environment.
A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold “as built” to the End-User or
in order to be incorporated into an apparatus, system or
installation.
Description
Placed on the market. Free movement based on compliance
with the EMC Directive. The EC Declaration of Conformity
and CE Marking are required.
The PDS manufacturer is responsible for EMC behaviour of the
PDS under specified conditions. Additional EMC measures are
described in an easy-to-understand way and can be imple-
mented by a layman.
When PDS/CDM is going to be incorporated with another prod-
uct, the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the respon-
sibility of the assembler of the final product, by following the
manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines.
PDS of category C4:
PDS with rated voltage equal to or above 1 000 V, or rated
current equal to or above 400 A, or intended for use in
complex systems in the second environment.
A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an ap-
paratus, system or installation.
Description
Category C4 requirements include all other EMC requirements
but radio frequency emission. They assessed only when it is
installed in its intended location. Therefore category C4 PDS is
treated as a fixed installation, and thus has no requirement for
EC Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking.
The EMC directive requires the accompanying documentation
to identify the fixed installation, its electromagnetic compat-
ibility characteristics and responsible person, and to indicate
the precautions to be taken in order not to compromise the
conformity of that installation.
54 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
In order to comply the above requirements in the case of cat-
egory C4 PDS (or CDM/BDM), the user and the manufacturer
shall agree on an EMC plan to meet the EMC requirements of
the intended application. In this situation, the user defines the
EMC characteristics of the environment including the whole in-
stallation and the neighborhood. The manufacturer of PDS shall
provide information on typical emission levels and installation
guidelines of the PDS which is to be installed. Resulting EMC
behaviour is the responsibility of the Installer (e.g. by following
the EMC plan).
Where there are indications of non-compliance of the category
C4 PDS after commissioning, the standard includes procedure
for measuring the emission limits outside the boundary of an
installation.
Examples concerning applications of different approaches
1. BDM used in domestic or industrial premises, sold with-
out any control of the application.
The manufacturer is responsible that sufficient EMC will be
achieved even by a layman. Although the EMC Directive ap-
plies to the apparatus and fixed installations only (generally
components are excluded), it states that the components which
are intended for incorporation into apparatus by the end user
and which liable to generate electromagnetic disturbances are
included. Thus, if members of the public (End-Users) buy a com-
ponent off the shelf, they will not have to worry about compliance
when they fit it to their machine. Therefore, the responsibility
for compliance and CE Marking such components under EMC
lies with the manufacturer. Depending of intended installation
location category C1 or C3 equipment is allowed.
2. PDS or CDM/BDM for domestic or industrial purposes,
sold to professional assembler.
This is sold as a sub-assembly to a professional assembler who
incorporates it into a machine, apparatus or system. Condi-
tions of use are specified in the manufacturer’s documentation.
Exchange of technical data allows optimisation of the EMC
solutions. In addition of categories C1 and C3, also category
C2 is allowed.
3. PDS or CDM/BDM for use in installations.
The conditions of use are specified at the time by the purchase
order; consequently an exchange of technical data between
supplier and client is possible. It can consist of different com-
mercial units (PDS, mechanics, process control etc).
Standards and Directives
55 55 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Standards and Directives
The combination of systems in the installation should be con-
sidered in order to define the mitigation methods to be used to
limit emissions. Harmonic compensation is an evident example
of this, both for technical and economical reasons.
In addition of categories C1, C2 and C3, also category C4 is
allowed.
4. PDS or CDM/BDM for use in machine.
PDS or CDM/BDM combined with application device (machine)
such as a vacuum cleaner, fan, pump or such like, i.e. ready
to use apparatus. Similarly inverters (E.Q. subassemblies of
BDMs) come under this class of components. On their own
they do not have an intrinsic function for the End-User, but
are sold to professional Installers who incorporate them into
a machine, apparatus or system. They are not on sale directly
to the End-User.
Therefore for EMC Directive point of view the PDS/CDM/BDM
here is a component which is excluded from the directive. The
machine builder is responsible for all EMC issues. The manufac-
turer of PDS/CDM/BDM is responsible for providing installation,
maintenance and operation instructions to the machine builder
in order to achieve compliance with EMC Directive.
Nevertheless, it is recommended to use category C1, C2, C3
or C4 PDS/CDM/BDM rather than drives without any compli-
ance.
Machinery Directive 98/37/EC
How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive?
This directive concerns all combinations of mechanically joined
components, where at least one part is moving and which have
the necessary control equipment and control and power input
circuits.
The directive concerns all machines but not those like lifts, which
have a specific directive.
The new machinery Directive 2006/42/EC has been published.
Since the old directive 98/37/EC can be used until December
29
th
, 2009, the changes due to the new directive will be consider
in the future editions of this Guide.
56 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Standards and Directives
Key point:
As far as drives are concerned, the new version of EN 60204-1,
ed.5, is already published. The old and the new versions can be
used until June 1
st
, 2009. After that date only the new version
shall be applied.
On its own, the Complete Drive Module (CDM) does not have a
functional value to the user. It always needs its motor coupled to
the driven load before it can function effectively. Thus, it cannot
carry the CE marking based on the Machinery Directive.
Where can I obtain a Machinery Directive copy?
To obtain a copy of the Machinery Directive you can contact
a local competent authority or download it from European
Unions web-site related to the legislation (http://europa.eu.int/
eur-lex/).
Low Voltage Directive
How does the LVD affect my drive?
2006/95/EC
This directive concerns all electrical equipment with nominal
voltages from 50 V to 1 kV AC and 75 V to 1.5 kV DC.
The aim of the directive is to protect against electrical, mechani-
cal, fire and radiation hazards. It tries to ensure only inherently
safe products are placed on the market.
All parts of a PDS from converters and motors to control gear
must conform with the Low Voltage Directive.
To guarantee that a product complies, the manufacturer must
provide a Declaration of conformity. This is a Declaration that
the product conforms to the requirements laid down within this
Directive.
If a product conforms to the Directive and has a Declara-
tion of conformity, then it must carry the CE marking.
In the case of a power drive system, the Declaration of con-
formity is needed for each of its component parts. Thus, the
Declaration of conformity for the complete drive module
(CDM) and for the motor have to be given separately by the
manufacturer of each product.
57 57 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Standards and Directives
Key point:
Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of conformity
covering the Low Voltage Directive for all built PDS/CDMs.
These are drives built into an enclosure, which can be wired
up to the supply and switched on without any further work be-
ing undertaken. This is in contrast to an open chassis ( BDM),
which is a component and needs an enclosure.
Why is the Declaration of conformity important?
Key point:
Without the Declaration of conformity the CDM could not
carry the CE marking and therefore it could not be sold within
EEA countries and therefore could not be used legally in any
system.
EMC Directive
How does the EMC Directive affect my drive?
2004/108/EC
The intention of the EMC Directive is, as its name implies, to
achieve EMC compatibility with other products and systems.
The directive aims to ensure emissions from one product are
low enough so as not to impinge on the immunity levels of
another product.
There are two aspects to consider with the EMC Directive:
• the immunity of the product.
• the emissions from that product.
Although the directive expects that EMC should be taken into ac-
count when designing a product, in fact EMC cannot be handled
by design only – it shall be measured quantitatively as well.
Key point:
Most drives bear CE-marking. Newertheless, some cases
drives are part of the machinery or process equipment/system
and classified as components they are not included into the
EMC directive.
The machine builder, therefore, has the final responsibility to
ensure that the machine including any PDS and other electrical
devices, meets the EMC requirements.
58 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Standards and Directives
At each stage of the manufacturing process, from component
to system, each manufacturer is responsible for applying the
appropriate parts of the directive. This may be in the form of
instructions on how to install or fit the equipment without causing
problems. It does not imply that there is a string of Declarations
of conformity to be compiled into a manual.
Who has the responsibility to ensure CE marking?
A frequency converter is likely to be only a part of a power drive
system.
Yet it is the entire system or machinery that must meet the re-
quirements of the EMC Directive.
So, drives manufacturers are in a position to choose whether to
put CE marking on to a frequency converter to indicate com-
pliance with the EMC Directive or to deliver it as a component
without CE marking.
Key point:
It is the responsibility of the person who finally implements the
system to ensure EMC compliance.
Either the machine builder or system supplier has the final
responsibility that the machine or system including the drive
and other electrical and electronic devices will meet the EMC
requirements.
A drive manufacturer is able to help machine builder or system
supplier by providing BDM/CDM/PDS which are according to
the EMC directive and CE-marked.
59 59 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Summary of responsibilities
Summary of manufacturer’s responsibilities in the application
of EC Directives to systems containing a PDS:
If some of the directives result in CE marking, the PDS (or CDM
or BDM) can be CE marked with the corresponding Declaration of
conformity.
Warnings & guide
Power drive system
Machinery Directive Low Voltage
Directive
EMC Directive
Any safety relevant
standard such as
EN 61800-5-2,
EN 60204-1, etc
TECHNICAL FILE
Apply Harmonised
Standards as far as
possible
Declaration of
Incorporation
No CE marking
as the PDS is a
component of the
machine
EN 61800-5-1
EN 50178
EN 60204-1
EN 61800-3
TECHNICAL FILE TECHNICAL
DOCUMENTATION
Apply Harmonised
Standards
Apply Harmonised
Standards
EU Declaration of
Conformity
EU Declaration of
Conformity
CE mark applied CE mark applied
An analogue of this procedure occurs for each end product which is
to be combined with a PDS. However, check all directives applicable
to the end product.
Standards and Directives
60 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives
Machine
PDS
Declaration
of
conformity
Technical
documenta-
tion
Competent authority
Statement
* Only if required during market surveillance
** Optional procedure, if chosen by the manufacturer
*
**
Notified
body
for
MD,
EMCD
and LVD
** ** *
Standards and Directives
61 61 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
2
Index
L
Low Voltage Directive 11, 56, 57, 59
M
machine builder 23, 24, 25, 40, 41, 46
machinery builder 35
Machinery Directive 11, 40, 41, 46, 55,
59
MCC 37
microprocessor 12
mobile radio transmitters 12
motor 22
motor control centre 37
N
notified body 40, 41
O
OEM 24
overload current 27
P
panelbuilder 23, 24, 32
parameters 16
PDS 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,
30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 48, 57, 59, 60
phase-shift transformer 21
portable car telephones 12
Power Drive System 22, 59
S
safety component 40, 41, 46
screen 12
self certification 15, 16, 37
sensor 22
short circuit 27
single functional unit 29, 30
standards 39, 40, 46, 48, 50, 51
system designer 23, 24, 30, 35
systems 1, 3, 9, 12, 13, 21, 48, 50, 51,
53, 55, 57, 59
T
TD 33, 35, 36, 38
technical construction file 38
technical documentation 15, 28, 29, 30,
33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 47, 48
technical file 27, 59, 60
type certificate 27
type certification 46
type examination certificate 46
W
walkie-talkies 12
A
abnormal temperatures 27
apparatus 34, 38
B
Basic Drive Module 22
BDM 22, 31, 32, 35, 57, 59
C
CDM 22
CE mark 32, 34, 59
CEN 48, 49
CENELEC 48, 49
certificate of adequacy 41
competent authority 47, 60
Complete Drive Module 22
components 30, 34
component supplier 29, 30, 33
conducted emissions 51
control circuit diagrams 40
D
Declaration of conformity 29, 30, 31,
34, 57, 59
Declaration of incorporation 34, 35, 59
distributor 24
drive 22, 24
E
EEA 11, 15, 47, 48, 57
electrical safety 25, 26, 31, 32, 50
electromagnetic compatibility 53
EMC 11, 29, 30, 33, 36, 39, 57, 59
EMC Directive 30
EN61800-3 33, 50
end user 23, 24
ETSI 48
EU 11, 49, 59
EU Council Directives 1, 11
European Union 48
F
Faraday cage 51
filter 30, 33
frequency converter 21, 58
H
harmonics 9, 50
harmonised standard 48, 49
I
IEC 49
indirect contact 26
installation 22
installation guidelines 29, 30
installation instructions 18
installer 24
62 Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 22 22681
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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2 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.
3
ABB drives
EMC compliant installation and
configuration for a power drive system
Technical guide No. 3
3AFE61348280 REV D
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
4 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
5 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7
General ........................................................................................................ 7
Purpose of this guide ................................................................................... 7
Directives concerning the drive ..................................................................... 7
Who is the manufacturer? ............................................................................ 7
Manufacturer’s responsibility ......................................................................... 7
OEM customer as a manufacturer ................................................................ 8
Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer.................................... 8
Definitions .................................................................................................... 8
Practical installations and systems ................................................................ 8
Earthing principles ........................................................................................ 9
Product-specific manuals ............................................................................. 9
Chapter 2 - Definitions ........................................................................ 10
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of PDS .............................................. 10
Immunity .................................................................................................... 10
Emission .................................................................................................... 10
Power drive system .................................................................................... 11
Types of equipment .................................................................................... 12
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation ........................ 12
into an apparatus by the end users ............................................................ 12
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation ........................ 12
into an apparatus by other manufacturers or assemblers ............................ 12
Finished appliance ...................................................................................... 13
Finished appliance intended for end users .................................................. 13
Finished appliance intended for other manufacturer or assembler ............... 13
Systems (combination of finished appliances) ............................................. 14
Apparatus .................................................................................................. 14
Fixed installation ......................................................................................... 14
Equipment .................................................................................................. 14
CE marking for EMC ................................................................................... 14
Installation environments ............................................................................ 15
First environment ........................................................................................ 15
Second environment .................................................................................. 16
EMC emission limits ................................................................................... 16
PDS of category C1 .............................................................................. 16
PDS of category C2 .............................................................................. 16
PDS of category C3 .............................................................................. 16
PDS of category C4 .............................................................................. 17
Chapter 3 - EMC solutions................................................................... 19
General ...................................................................................................... 19
Solutions for EMC compatibility .................................................................. 19
Emissions ................................................................................................... 19
6 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Conducted emission .................................................................................. 19
Radiated emission ...................................................................................... 20
Enclosure .............................................................................................. 20
Cabling & wiring .................................................................................... 20
Installation ............................................................................................. 21
Clean and dirty side .................................................................................... 21
RFI filtering ................................................................................................. 22
Selecting the RFI filter ................................................................................. 23
Installation of the RFI filter ........................................................................... 23
Selection of a secondary enclosure ............................................................ 23
Holes in enclosures .................................................................................... 24
360° HF earthing ........................................................................................ 25
HF earthing with cable glands .................................................................... 25
HF earthing with conductive sleeve............................................................. 26
360° earthing at motor end ........................................................................ 27
Conductive gaskets with control cables ...................................................... 28
The shielding should be covered with conductive tape. .............................. 28
Installation of accessories ........................................................................... 29
Internal wiring ............................................................................................. 29
Control cables and cabling ......................................................................... 31
Power cables ............................................................................................. 32
Transfer impedance .................................................................................... 33
Use of ferrite rings ...................................................................................... 33
Simple installation ....................................................................................... 35
Typical installation ....................................................................................... 35
Chapter 4 - Practical examples ........................................................... 35
Example of by-pass system <100 kVA ....................................................... 36
Typical example of 12-pulse drive ............................................................... 37
Example of EMC plan ................................................................................. 39
Chapter 5 - Bibliography ...................................................................... 41
Chapter 6 - Index ................................................................................. 42
7 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3
Chapter 1 - Introduction
General
This guide assists design and installation personnel when trying
to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC Directive
in the user’s systems and installations when using AC drives.
Purpose of this guide
The purpose of this guide is to guide Original Equipment Manu-
facturers (OEM), system integrators and panel builders ( as-
semblers) in designing or installing AC drive products and their
auxiliary components into their own installations and systems.
The auxiliaries include contactors, switches, fuses, etc. By fol-
lowing these instructions it is possible to fulfill EMC requirements
and give CE marking when necessary.
Directives concerning the drive
There are three directives that concern variable speed drives.
They are the Machinery Directive, Low Voltage Directive and
EMC Directive. The requirements and principles of the directives
and use of CE marking are described in Technical guide No. 2
“EU Council Directives and adjustable electrical power drive
systems”. This document deals only with the EMC Directive.
Who is the manufacturer?
According to the EMC Directive (2004/108/EC), the definition
of a manufacturer is following: “This is the person responsible
for the design and construction of an apparatus covered by the
Directive with a view to placing it on the EEA market on his own
behalf. Whoever modifies substantially an apparatus resulting
in an “as-new” apparatus, with a view to placing it on the EEA
market, also becomes the manufacturer.”
Manufacturer’s responsibility
According to the EMC Directive the manufacturer is responsible
for attaching the CE mark to each unit. Equally the manufacturer
is responsible for writing and maintaining technical documenta-
tion (TD).
8 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
OEM customer as a manufacturer
It is well known that OEM customers sell equipment using their
own trademarks or brand labels. Changing the trademark, brand
label or the type marking is an example of modification resulting
in “as new” equipment.
Frequency converters sold as OEM products shall be consid-
ered components ( Complete Drive Module CDM or Basic Drive
Module BDM). Apparatus is an entity and includes any docu-
mentation (manuals) intended for the final customer. Thus, the
OEM-customer has sole and ultimate responsibility concerning
the EMC of equipment, and he shall issue a Declaration of Con-
formity and technical documentation for the equipment.
Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer
According to the EMC Directive, a system is defined as a
combination of several types of equipment, finished products,
and/or components combined, designed and/or put together by
the same person ( system manufacturer) intended to be placed
on the market for distribution as a single functional unit for an
end- user and intended to be installed and operated together to
perform a specific task.
A panel builder or system integrator typically undertakes this
kind of work. Thus, the panel builder or system integrator has
sole and ultimate responsibility concerning the EMC of the sys-
tem. He cannot pass this responsibility to a supplier.
In order to help the panel builder/system integrator, ABB Oy
offers installation guidelines related to each product as well as
general EMC guidelines (this document).
Definitions
The EMC Product Standard for Power Drive Systems, EN 61800-3
(or IEC 61800-3) is used as the main standard for variable speed
drives. The terms and definitions defined in the standard are
also used in this guide.
Practical installations and systems
This guide gives practical EMC examples and solutions that are
not described in product specific manuals. The solutions can be
directly used or applied by the OEM or panel builder.
Introduction
9 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3
Earthing principles
The earthing and cabling principles of variable speed drives are
described in the manual “Grounding and cabling of the drive
system”, code 3AFY61201998. It also includes a short descrip-
tion of interference phenomena.
Product-specific manuals
Detailed information on the installation and use of products,
cable sizes etc. can be found in the product specific manuals.
This guide is intended to be used together with product specific
manuals.
Introduction
10 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Disturbance
level
Independent variable e.g.frequency
Immunity level
Immunity limit
Emission limit
Emission level
Compatibility
margin
Chapter 2 - Definitions
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of PDS
EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. It is the ability
of electrical/electronic equipment to operate without problems
within an electromagnetic environment. Likewise, the equipment
must not disturb or interfere with any other product or system
within its locality. This is a legal requirement for all equipment
taken into service within the European Economic Area ( EEA). The
terms used to define compatibility are shown in figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1 Immunity and emission compatibility.
As variable speed drives are described as a source of interfer-
ence, it is natural that all parts which are in electrical or airborne
connection within the power drive system (PDS) are part of the
EMC compliance. The concept that a system is as weak as its
weakest point is valid here.
Immunity
Electrical equipment should be immune to high-frequency and
low-frequency phenomena. High-frequency phenomena include
electrostatic discharge (ESD), fast transient burst, radiated elec-
tromagnetic field, conducted radio frequency disturbance and
electrical surge. Typical low-frequency phenomena are mains
voltage harmonics, notches and imbalance.
Emission
The source of high-frequency emission from frequency convert-
ers is the fast switching of power components such as IGBTs and
control electronics. This high-frequency emission can propagate
by conduction and radiation.
11 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Installation or part of installation
Power drive system PDS
Basic drive module
BDM control, converter
and protection
Feeding section
auxiliaries and others
Motor
and
sensors
Driven
equipment
Complete drive module CDM
System control and
sequencing
3
Power drive system
The parts of a variable speed drive controlling driven equip-
ment as a part of an installation are described in EMC Product
Standard EN 61800-3. A drive can be considered as a Basic
Drive Module (BDM) or Complete Drive Module (CDM) accord-
ing to the standard.
It is recommended that personnel responsible for design and
installation have this standard available and be familiar with this
standard. All standards are available from the national stand-
ardization bodies.
Systems made by an OEM or panel builder can consist more
or less of the PDS parts alone, or there can be many PDSs in
a configuration.
The solutions described in this guide are used within the defini-
tion of power drive system, but the same solutions can, or in
some cases, should, be extended to all installations. This guide
gives principles and practical EMC examples, which can be ap-
plied to a user’s system.
Figure 2-2 Abbreviations used in drives.
Definitions
12 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Types of equipment
The EMC Directive (2004/108/EC) defines equipment as any
apparatus or fixed installation. As there are separate provi-
sions for apparatus and fixed installations, it is important that
the correct category of the equipment (PDM, CDM or BDM) is
determined.
In technical-commercial classifications the following terminol-
ogy is frequently used: components, sub-assemblies, finished
appliances (i.e. finished products), a combination of finished
appliances (i.e. a system), apparatus, fixed installations and
equipment.
The key issue here is whether the item is meant for end users
or not:
• if it is meant for end users, the EMC directive applies;
• if it is meant for manufacturers or assemblers, the EMC
directive does not apply.
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation
into an apparatus by the end users
A manufacturer may place components or sub-assemblies on
the market, which are:
• for incorporation into an apparatus by the end-user,
• available to end-users and likely to be used by them.
These components or sub-assemblies are to be considered as
apparatus with regard to the application of the EMC. The instruc-
tions for use accompanying the component or sub-assembly
should include all relevant information, and should assume that
adjustments or connections can be performed by an end user
not aware of the EMC implications.
In such case the component is considered equivalent to appa-
ratus. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this
category, e.g. a drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit
(CDM) to the end user who installs it into his own system. All
provisions of the EMC Directive will apply ( CE mark, EC declara-
tion of conformity and technical documentation).
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation
into an apparatus by other manufacturers or assemblers
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into
an apparatus or another sub-assembly by other manufacturers
or assemblers are not considered to be “apparatus” and are
therefore not covered by the EMC Directive. These components
include resistors, cables, terminal blocks, etc.
Definitions
13 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3
Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category
as well, e.g. basic drive modules (BDM). These are meant to be
assembled by a professional assembler (e.g. panel builder or
system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery
of the manufacturer of the BDM. According to the EMC Directive,
the requirement for the BDM supplier is to provide instructions
for installation and use.
Note:
The manufacturer or assembler of the panel or system is re-
sponsible for the CE mark, the EC Declaration of Conformity,
and the technical documentation.
Finished appliance
A finished appliance is any device or unit containing electrical
and/or electronic components or sub-assemblies that delivers
a function and has its own enclosure. Similarly to components,
the interpretation “finished appliance” can be divided into two
categories: it can be intended for end users, or for other manu-
facturers or assemblers.
Finished appliance intended for end users
A finished appliance is considered as apparatus in the sense of
the EMC Directive if it is intended for the end-user and thus has
to fulfill all the applicable provisions of the Directive.
Variable speed power drive products that fall into this category
are whole power drive systems (PDS) or complete drive mod-
ules (CDM). In this case all provisions of the EMC Directive will
apply (CE mark, EC Declaration of Conformity, and technical
documentation). The drive product manufacturer is responsible
for the CE mark, EC Declaration of Conformity, and technical
documentation.
Finished appliance intended for other manufacturer or
assembler
When the finished appliance is intended exclusively for an
industrial assembly operation for incorporation into other ap-
paratus, it is not an apparatus in the sense of the EMC Directive
and consequently the EMC Directive does not apply for such
finished appliances.
The variable speed power drive products that fall into this
category are basic drive modules (BDM). The approach is the
same as for components or sub-assemblies when they are
Definitions
14 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
intended for incorporation into an apparatus by another manu-
facturer or assembler. Thus the manufacturer or assembler of
the panel or system is responsible for all actions relating to
the EMC Directive.
Systems (combination of finished appliances)
A combination of several finished appliances which is combined,
and/or designed and/or put together by the same party (i.e.
the system manufacturer) and is intended to be placed on the
market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end- user
and intended to be installed and operated together to perform
a specific task.
All provisions of the EMC Directive, as defined for apparatus,
apply to the combination as a whole. The variable speed power
drive products that fall into this category are power drive sys-
tems (PDS). Thus the manufacturer of the PDS is responsible
for all actions relating to the EMC Directive.
Apparatus
Apparatus means any finished appliance or combination thereof
made commercially available (i.e. placed on the market) as a
single functional unit, intended for the end-user, and liable to
generate electromagnetic disturbance, or the performance of
which is liable to be affected by such disturbance.
Fixed installation
A particular combination of several types of apparatus, equip-
ment and/or components, which are assembled, installed and
intended to be used permanently at a predefined location.
Equipment
Any apparatus or fixed installation
CE marking for EMC
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into
an apparatus by the end users need to carry the CE marking
for EMC.
Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into
an apparatus by another manufacturer or assembler do not need
to carry the CE marking for EMC.
Note: The products may carry the CE marking for other direc-
tives than EMC.
Definitions
15 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Medium voltage network
Point of measurement for
conducted emission
1
st
environment
Equipment PDS
Public low-voltage network Industrial low-voltage network
Point of measurement
2
nd
environment
3
Apparatus and systems must be CE marked.
Fixed installations are required to satisfy various parts of the
Directives, but are not required to be CE marked.
Figure 2-3 The CE mark.
Installation environments
The PDSs can be connected to either industrial or public power
distribution networks. The environment class depends on the
way the PDS is connected to power supply. The environment
classes are first and second environment according to the
EN61800-3 standard.
First environment
“The first environment includes domestic premises. It also
includes establishments directly connected without intermedi-
ate transformer to a low-voltage power supply network which
supplies buildings used for domestic purposes.”
Figure 2-4 Illustration of environment classes.
Definitions
16 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Second environment
“The second environment includes all establishments other than
those directly connected to a low-voltage power supply network
which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes”.
EMC emission limits
The product standard EN 61800-3 divides PDSs into four cat-
egories according to the intended use. In Europe, the standard
takes precedence over all generic or product family EMC stand-
ards previously applicable. Limits for certain conditions can be
selected by using the flow chart shown in figure 2-5.
PDS of category C1
A PDS (or CDM) with rated voltage less than 1000 V and intended
for use in the first environment. A PDS (or CDM) sold “as built” to
the end user.
The PDS manufacturer is responsible for the EMC behavior of
the PDS under specified conditions. Additional EMC measures
are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be imple-
mented by a layman.
When PDS/CDM is to be incorporated with another product, the
resulting EMC behavior of that product is the responsibility of the
assembler of the final product, by following the manufacturer’s
recommendations and guidelines.
PDS of category C2
A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage less than 1,000 V, which is
neither a plug in device nor a movable device and is intended to be
installed and commissioned only by a professional. A PDS (or CDM/
BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus, system or installation.
When a PDS/CDM/BDM is to be incorporated with another
product, the resulting EMC behavior of that product is the re-
sponsibility of the assembler of the final product.
PDS of category C3
A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage less than 1,000 V, intended
for use in the second environment. A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold
“as built” to the end user or in order to be incorporated into an
apparatus, system or installation.
Definitions
17 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3
The PDS manufacturer is responsible for the EMC behavior of
the PDS under specified conditions. Additional EMC measures
are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be imple-
mented by a layman.
When a PDS/CDM is to be incorporated with another product,
the resulting EMC behavior of that product is the responsibility
of the assembler of the final product, by following the manufac-
turer’s recommendations and guidelines.
PDS of category C4
A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage equal to or above 1,000 V, or
rated current equal to or above 400 A, or intended for use in complex
systems in the second environment. A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be
incorporated into an apparatus, system or installation.
Category C4 requirements include all other EMC requirements
except for radio frequency emission. They are assessed only
when it is installed in its intended location. Therefore a category
C4 PDS is treated as a fixed installation, and thus has no require-
ment for an EC Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking.
The EMC directive requires the accompanying documentation to
identify the fixed installation, its electromagnetic compatibility
characteristics and the person responsible, and to indicate the
precautions to be taken in order not to compromise the con-
formity of that installation.
In order to comply with the above requirements in the case of a
category C4 PDS (or CDM/BDM), the user and the manufacturer
shall agree on an EMC plan to meet the EMC requirements for
the intended application. In this situation, the user defines the
EMC characteristics of the environment including the whole
installation and the neighborhood. The PDS manufacturer shall
provide information on typical emission levels and installation
guidelines for the PDS to be installed. The resulting EMC be-
havior is the responsibility of the installer (e.g. by following the
EMC plan).
Where there are indications of non-compliance of the category
C4 PDS after commissioning, the standard includes a procedure
for measuring the emission limits outside the boundary of an
installation.
Definitions
18 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
EN 61800-3
EMC product standard for PDS
1
st
environment
(public low-voltage network)
2
nd
environment
(industrial network)
EMC plan
C
O
N
D
U
C
T
E
D
R
A
D
I
A
T
E
D
Disturbance
Figure 2-5 Emission limits for PDS.
Definitions
19 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Radiated emission
Supply
network
Conducted
emission
Earth
Control
Process
Motor
connection
Motor
3
Chapter 3 - EMC solutions
General
The solutions used to fulfill immunity and both radiated and con-
ducted emission requirements are described in this chapter.
Solutions for EMC compatibility
There are some basic principles which must be followed when
designing and using drive systems incorporating AC drive prod-
ucts. These same principles were used when these products
were initially designed and constructed, where such issues as
printed circuit board layout, mechanical design, wire routing,
cable entries and other special points were all considered in
great detail.
Emissions
The emissions can be classified into two types; conducted emis-
sion and radiated emission. The disturbances can be emitted in
various ways as shown in the following figure:
Figure 3-1 Emissions.
Conducted emission
Conducted disturbances can propagate to other equipment via
all conductive parts including cabling, earthing and the metal
frame of an enclosure.
20 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Conductive emissions can be reduced in the following way:
• By RFI filtering for HF disturbances
• Using ferrite rings in power connection points
• Using an AC or DC choke (even meant against harmonics,
it reduce HF disturbances as well.
• Using an LCL filter in the case of regenerative drives
• Using a du/dt filter
Radiated emission
To be able to effectively prevent disturbance through the air, all
parts of the power drive system should form a Faraday cage
against radiated emissions. The installation of a PDS includes
cabinets, auxiliary boxes, cabling, motors, etc.
Some methods for ensuring the continuity of the Faraday cage
are listed as follows:
Enclosure
• The enclosure must have an unpainted non-corroding
surface finish at every point where other plates, doors,
etc. make contact.
• Unpainted metal-to-metal contacts shall be used through-
out, with conductive gaskets, where appropriate.
• Use unpainted installation plates, bonded to a common
earth point, ensuring all separate metal items are firmly
bonded to achieve a single path to earth.
• Use conductive gaskets in doors and covers. Separate
the radiative i.e. “dirty” side from the “clean side” by
metal covers and design.
• Holes in enclosure should be minimized.
Cabling & wiring
• Use special HF cable entries for high frequency earthing
of power cable shields.
• Use conductive gaskets for HF earthing of control cable
shield.
• Use shielded power and control cables. See product
specific manuals.
• Allow no breaks in the cable shields.
• Select low impedance shield connections on the MHz
range.
• Route power and control cables separately.
• Use twisted pairs to avoid disturbances.
• Use ferrite rings for disturbances, if necessary.
• Select and route internal wires correctly.
• See product specific manuals
EMC solutions
21 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Rectifier
RFI
filter
Dirty side
Clean side
3
Installation
• Auxiliaries used with complete drive modules (CDMs) should
be CE marked products conforming to both the EMC & Low
Voltage Directives, NOT ONLY to the LV directive, unless they
are intended for incorporation into an apparatus by another
manufacturer or assembler.
• Selection and installation of accessories in accordance with
manufacturers’ instructions.
• For wall-mounted units, strip the sheathing of a motor cable
back far enough to expose the copper wire screen so that
the screen can be twisted into a pigtail. Keep the short pigtail
short and connect it to the ground.
• For cabinet –models, lead the cables into the inside of the
enclosure. Apply 360° grounding of the cable shield at the
entry into the cabinet. See product specific manuals.
• 360° earthing at motor end. See motor manuals.
Clean and dirty side
The circuit before the point where the supply power is connected
to the CDM and where the filtering starts is referred to as the
clean side. The parts of the BDM that can cause disturbances
are described as the dirty side.
Enclosed wall-mounted drives are designed so that the circuit
followed by the output connection is the only dirty part. That is
the case if the installation instructions of the drive are followed.
To be able to keep the clean side “clean”, the dirty parts are
separated into a Faraday cage. This can be done either with
separation plates or with cabling.
Figure 3-2 “Clean” and “dirty” sides of the BDM
EMC solutions
22 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Line Line
When using separation plates, the rules for enclosure holes are
applicable (see Holes in enclosures section later in this chapter).
When the Faraday cage is formed by cabling, the rules for
cabling must be applied (see sections on cabling and wiring
in this chapter and follow the product specific instructions for
the drive).
The use of additional components, e.g. contactors, isolators,
fuses, etc. in some cases makes it difficult to keep the clean
and the dirty side separate.
This can happen when contactors or switches are used in cir-
cuits to change over from clean to dirty side (e.g. by-pass).
Some examples of solutions are described in chapter 4, Practi-
cal examples.
RFI filtering
RFI filters are used to attenuate conducted disturbances in a
line connecting point where the filter leads the disturbances to
earth.
Output filters attenuate disturbances at the output of a PDS.
E.g. du/dt and common mode filters help somewhat, even if
they have not been designed for RFI.
Filters cannot be used in a floating network (IT-network) where
there is high impedance or no physical connection between the
phases and the earth.
Figure 3-3 Example of filtering integrated in drive module.
Figure 3-3 shows an example of integral, distributed filtering.
Some drive products need a separate filter (see product specific
instructions).
EMC solutions
23 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3
EMC solutions
Selecting the RFI filter
An RFI filter is selected to attenuate the conducted disturbances.
It is not possible to compare the disturbances measured from
a source, and the insertion loss for a filter, as the measurement
base for the two items of information will not correspond.
It is always necessary to test a filter in conjunction with the
source of disturbance to ensure adequate attenuation and to
meet applicable emission limits.
Installation of the RFI filter
Reliable HF/low impedance connections are essential to ensure
proper functioning of the filter, therefore the following instruc-
tions are to be followed.
• The filter shall be assembled on a metal plate with un-
painted connection points all in accordance with the filter
manufacturer’s instructions.
• The orientation of the filter must be such that it provides
enough distance between the input and output wiring of
the filter in order to prevent cross-coupling between the
clean and dirty side.
• The length of the cable between the filter and the drive
must be minimized.
• The input cable of the filter shall be separated from the
cable which connects the filter to the drive
• The input cable of the filter shall be separated from the
motor cable
Selection of a secondary enclosure
Where the BDM is to be installed, (e.g. an IP00 open chassis
converter), or if additional components are to be connected to
the dirty side of an otherwise compliant unit, it is always neces-
sary to provide an EMC enclosure.
For enclosed chassis modules where the motor connections
are made directly to the converter output terminals and all the
internal shielding parts are fitted, there are no requirements for
special enclosures.
If drives are fitted with output switching devices, for example,
then an EMC enclosure will be needed, as the integral Faraday
cage will no longer apply.
As a reminder, EMC is only one part of enclosure selection. The
enclosure is sized according to several criteria:
• Safety
• Degree of protection (IP rating)
24 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
FARADAY CAGE
Unpainted back
plates
Enough locks
at the door
Gland / bottom
plates
Conductive
sleeves
Limited hole size
Conductive
sealing
at the door
Conductive
gasket for
control cables
• Heat rejection capability
• Space for accessory equipment
• Cosmetic aspects
• Cable access
• EMC compliance
• General requirements for EMC compatibility
The manufacturer’s guidelines for construction and earthing
must be followed.
Figure 3-4 Typical enclosure aperture detail.
Holes in enclosures
In most cases, some holes must be made in the enclosure e.g.
for door devices, louvers, locks, cables, etc.
When an EMC enclosure is to be used, the maximum diagonal
or diameter for any hole is 100 mm, which equates to 1/10th
of the wavelength of a 300 MHz frequency. This dimension has
been found acceptable in EMC tests.
Holes bigger than 100 mm must be covered with a metal frame
surrounding the aperture and earthed to the enclosure.
Larger viewing holes can be covered by proprietary glazing with
conductive coating.
EMC solutions
25 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Maximum size 72x72 mm
instrument
Twisted pair
<100 mm
Install locks to
unpainted door
Check that there is no holes >100 mm
Metal cover for
holes >100 mm
3
Glazing must be connected to non-painted metal surrounds with
conductive double-sided tape or conductive gasket.
Figure 3-5 Essential points of power connections.
360° HF earthing
360° HF earthing should be done everywhere where cables enter
the drive enclosure, auxiliary connection box or motor. There
are different ways to implement the HF earthing. The solutions
used in ABB’s CDM/BDM products are described here.
HF earthing with cable glands
The cable glands, which are specially designed for 360° HF
earthing, are suitable for power cables with a diameter less
than 50 mm.
Cable glands are not normally used for control cables due to
the fact that the distance from the control connections to the
cable glands is often too long for reliable HF earthing. If the
glands are used with control cables, the cable shielding must
continue as near to the control connections as possible. Only
the outer insulation of cable should be removed to expose the
cable screen for the length of the cable gland.
To get the best possible result from HF earthing, the cable shield-
ing should be covered with a conductive tape. The tape must
cover the whole surface of the shielding, including pigtail, and
should be tightly pressed with fingers after every single turn.
EMC solutions
26 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
SUPPLY CABLE MOTOR CABLE
As short unshielded
wires as possible
Cable shielding
covered with
conductive tape
EMC cable
gland
Clamping nut
Cable
Continuity of
faraday cage
Short pigtail
Unpainted gland plate
Conductive shielding &
compression seal
Short pigtail
Note conductive tape on the cable shielding
Conductive
sleeve
Cable
Continuity of
faraday cage
Unpainted gland
plate with collars
Unpainted bottom plate
Figure 3-6 Essential points of power connections.
HF earthing with conductive sleeve
360° HF earthing in power cable entries can be done by using
a conductive sleeve around the cable shielding. The sleeve is
connected to the Faraday cage by tightening it to the specially
designed collar in the gland plate.
Figure 3-7 360° earthing with conductive sleeve.
EMC solutions
27 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Above cable clamp,
cover bare shield with
insulating tape
Cable clamp on bare shield
Motor cable Braking resistor cable
0.5...0.6 Nm (4.4...5.3 lbf in)
1.5 Nm (13 lbf in)
1.5 Nm (13 lbf in)
3
Figure 3-8 360° earthing with clamping of cable shield
The advantage of this solution is that the same sleeve can be
used for cables with different diameters.
The cable can be mechanically supported by clamps, and a
specific cable gland is not required.
Note that the sleeve does not act as a strain relief clamp.
360° earthing at motor end
The continuity of the Faraday cage at the motor end must be
ensured by the same methods as in cabinet entry, namely:
• Faraday cage and IP55 degree of protection. This includes:
• Cable gland providing galvanic contact must be used for
clamping the cable.
• Cable shielding should be sealed with conductive tape.
• Conductive gaskets should be used for sealing both the
cable gland plate and the terminal box cover
• Note: Please check availability from motor manufacturer. It
is common that this is one option for the motor
• Pigtails of earthing conductors must be as short as pos-
sible.
EMC solutions
28 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Cable shielding covered
with conductive tape
Short pigtail
EMC cable
gland
Continuity of
faraday cage
Conductive gasket
Figure 3-9 shows a Faraday cage solution at the motor end.
For motors that are not totally enclosed, such as in cooling form
IC01, IC06, etc. the continuity of the Faraday cage must be en-
sured in the same manner as for the converter enclosure.
Figure 3-9 Essential points in motor cabling.
Conductive gaskets with control cables
The 360° HF earthing for control cables can be done with conduc-
tive gaskets. In this method the shielded control cable is led through
two gaskets and pressed tightly together, as shown in figure 3-9.
When gaskets are mounted at a gland plate, the cable shielding
must continue as near to the control connections as possible. In
this case the outer insulation of the cable should be removed to al-
low connection to the shield for the length of the gasket transit.
The shielding should be covered with conductive tape.
The best HF earthing is achieved if gaskets are mounted as near
to the control connections as possible.
The gaskets must be installed to connect with the earthed un-
painted surfaces of the gland plate to which they are mounted.
All connection tails should be as short as possible, and twisted
in pairs where appropriate. The cable shield should be earthed
to the connection end by a short pigtail.
The hole size in a gland plate required by these gaskets is typi-
cally 200 x 50 mm.
EMC solutions
29 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
As short as possible
S
h
i
e
l
d
Control
connections
Wrap copper tabe around the stripped part
of the cable under the clamp. Be careful.
Do not cut the grounding wire. Clamp as
close to the terminals as possible.
3
Figure 3-10 Essential points for control cabling transit.
Installation of accessories
The variety of accessories that can be installed is so large that
only basic principles for selection and installation can be given
for them.
Accessories can, however, be divided into two categories
depending on how immune/sensitive they are. The protected
device in this context means its ability to keep the Faraday cage
closed. It is therefore recommended to use metal enclosed/
shielded devices wherever such devices are available.
The rules for holes in the enclosure must be applied if there are
devices forming a bridge between the clean side and the dirty
side, which can be disturbed.
Typical open devices are fuses, switch fuses, contactors etc.,
which do not have a metal covering around them.
In general, such devices cannot be installed into the clean side
without protective metallic shielding plates. The rules for holes
in the enclosure must then be applied.
Some examples of protected and open devices are given in the
chapter Practical examples.
Internal wiring
There are some basic rules for internal wiring:
• Always keep clean and dirty side cables separate and
shielded from one another.
• Internal clean power connections with integrally filtered
drive units, e.g. from contactor to converter input, do not
require shielded cables but may require de-coupling fer-
rite rings where they enter the converter input.
EMC solutions
30 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
CABINET
DEVICE
Analogue
Signal (V)
Analogue
Signal (mA)
POTENTIAL FREE
DIG. OUTPUT
DO
DO
DOOR DEVICE
Twist these
pairs of pairs
Use shielded cables for Analogue mA signals
For earthing rules see part Control Cabing
Don’t mix different
signal levels
Diode for DC relay
Don’t mix different signal levels
RC filter or
varistor for
AC relay
CLEAN SIDE
DIRTY SIDE
Avoid parallel running with control wires
Cross in 90°
Keep these separate (see figure 3-11)
Avoid parallel running with control wires
Cross in 90° angle
SUPPLY
CONNECTION
MOTOR
OUTPUT
Twist the pairs
up to terminals
+24 V d.c.
GND
NC
Common
NO
NC
Common
NO
NC
Common
NO
RELAY OUTPUTS
(pot. free)
ANALOGUE SIGNALS
DIGITAL INPUTS
DI1
DI3
DI6
+24 V d.c.
+24 V d.c.
GND
+10 V
GND
AI1+
AI1-
AI3+
AI3-
AO1+
AO1-
AO2+
AO2-
(0...10 V)
(4...20 mA)
230 V a.c
N
• Use twisted pair wires wherever possible.
• Use shielded twisted pairs for signal level outward and
return wires exiting from the overall enclosure.
• Avoid mixing pairs with different signal types e.g.
• 110 VAC, 230 VAC, 24 VDC, analogue, digital.
• Run wires along the metal surface and avoid wires hang-
ing in free air, which can become an antenna.
• If plastic trunking is used, secure it directly to installation
plates or the framework. Do not allow spans over free air,
which could form an antenna.
• Keep power and control wiring separate.
• Use galvanically isolated (potential free) signals.
• Keep wires twisted as near the terminal as possible.
• Keep pigtails as short as possible.
• Earthing connections should be as short as possible in
flat strip, multi-stranded or braided flexible conductors
for low RFI impedance.
Figure 3-11 Principles of wiring inside CDM.
EMC solutions
31 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Product specific manual
Motor cable
Mains cable
Signal / control cables
3
Control cables and cabling
The control cabling is a part of the Faraday cage as described
in the section Conductive gaskets with control cables.
In addition to correct HF earthing there are some basic rules
for control cabling:
• Always use shielded twisted pair cables:
• double-shielded cable for analogue signals
• single-shielded for other signals is acceptable, but
double-shielded cable is recommended.
• Don’t run 110/230 V signals in the same cable as lower signal
level cables.
• Keep twisted pairs individual for each signal.
• Earth directly on the frequency converter side.
If instructions for the device at the other end of the cable specify
earthing at that end, earth the inner shields at the end of the more
sensitive device and the outer shield at the other end.
Route signal cables according to figure 3-12 whenever possible, and
follow instructions given by the product specific manuals.
Figure 3-12 Routing principles of control cables.
There is more about control cabling in the “Grounding and cabling
of the drive system” documents” and in product specific manuals.
EMC solutions
32 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Power cables
As the cables are part of the PDS they are also part of the Fara-
day cage. To be able to meet the EMC requirements, power
cables with good shielding effectiveness must be used.
The purpose of the shield is to reduce radiated emission.
In order to be efficient, the shield must have good conductiv-
ity and cover most of the cable surface. If the cable shield is
used as protective earthing, the shield cross area (or equivalent
conductivity) must be at least 50% of the cross sectional area
of the phase conductor.
The product specific manuals describe some cable types that
can be used in mains supply and motor output.
If such types are not available locally, and because cable manu-
facturers have several different shield constructions, the types
can be evaluated by the transfer impedance of the cable.
The transfer impedance describes the shielding effectiveness of
the cable. It is commonly used with communication cables.
The cable can consist of either braided or spiral shield, and the
shield material should preferably be either copper or aluminum.
The suitability for certain drive types is mentioned in the product
specific manuals.
Figure 3-13 Galvanized steel or tinned copper wire with braided shield.
Figure 3-14 Layer of copper tape with concentric layer of copper wires.
Figure 3-15 Concentric layer of copper wires with an open helix of copper
tape.
EMC solutions
33 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Transfer
impedance
(mOhm/m)
Non-recommended cable
Galvanised steel or tinned
copper wire with braided shield
(fig. 3-12)
Layer of copper tabe with
concentric layer of copper wires
(fig. 3.13)
Corrugated shield
Frequency (MHz)
3
EMC solutions
Transfer impedance
To meet the requirements for radiated emission, the transfer
impedance must be less than 100 mΩ/m in the frequency range
up to 100 MHz. The highest shielding effectiveness is achieved
with a metal conduit or corrugated aluminum shield. Figure
3-16 shows typical transfer impedance values of different cable
constructions. The longer the cable run, the lower the transfer
impedance required.
Figure 3-16 Transfer impedance for power cables.
Use of ferrite rings
In particular cases, due to high emission levels, common mode
inductors can be used in signal cables to avoid interfacing
problems between different systems.
Common mode disturbances can be suppressed by wiring
conductors through the common mode inductor ferrite core
(figure 3-17).
The ferrite core increases inductance of conductors and mutual
inductance, so common mode disturbance signals above a cer-
tain frequency are suppressed. An ideal common mode inductor
does not suppress a differential mode signal.
34 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
EMC solutions
Figure 3-17 Ferrite ring in signal wire.
The inductance (i.e. the ability to suppress HF disturbances) can
be increased by multiple turns of the signal wire.
When using a ferrite ring with power cable, all phase conductors
should be led through the ring. The shielding and possible earth
wire must be wired outside the ring to keep the common mode
inductor effect. With power cables it is not normally possible
to make multiple turns through the ring. The inductance can be
increased by using several successive rings.
If for any reasons the installation instructions cannot be followed
and therefore additional ferrites or filters are added afterwards,
it is recommended that measurements be made to show con-
formance.
35 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Drive
INPUT OUTPUT
External brake
resistor
Motor
3
Chapter 4 - Practical examples
Simple installation
Most simple installations of PDS include three cables only: sup-
ply cable, motor cable and cable for brake resistor as shown
in Figure 4-1.
Notes:
1), 2) If shielded cable is used, use a separate PE cable (1) or a cable with a
grounding conductor (2) if the conductivity of the input cable shield
is < 50% of the conductivity of the phase conductor. Ground the other
end of the input cable shield or PE conductor at the distribution board.
3) 360 degrees grounding recommended if shielded cable
4) 360 degrees grounding required
5) Use a separate grounding cable if the conductivity of the cable
shield is < 50% of the conductivity of the phase conductor and there
is no symmetrically constructed grounding conductor in the cable.
Figure 4-1 Most simple PDS installation
Typical installation
Shielded cables are shown interconnecting the primary parts,
ensuring attenuation of radiated emissions. The supply is made
through the RFI filter.
The Faraday cage is earthed and all the emissions are drained
to earth.
In the case shown in figure 4-2, the cabinet is not required to be
EMC proof, because connections are made directly in an EMC
compliant frequency converter.
36 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Transformer
360° HF earthing
Shielded cable
Metal
frame
cabinet
Cabinet
Unpainted
mounting
plate
Drive
RFI
FILTER
Metal box
Metal box
Rectifier
BRAKE
RESISTOR
BRAKE
CHOPPER
For connection details, see
Product Specific Manual
for chopper and resistor.
For more details, see section
on 360° EARTHING AT
MOTOR END
CONTROL
1) Short pigtail
to PE, both common
and pair screen
2) 360° HF grounding
3) For rules, see part
CONTROL
CABLING
Motor
output
Figure 4-2 Typical PDS configuration.
Example of by-pass system <100 kVA
In this case it is difficult to ensure that no cross coupling oc-
curs between the dirty side of the converter and the clean side
above the Direct On Line (DOL) contactor. Contactors are not
RFI barriers, and the coil circuits are also vulnerable.
A suitable RFI filter at the supply input connections would re-
quire to be able to pass the DOL starting current, which can be
six to seven times the normal full load current, and would be
greatly oversized for normal running, which makes it difficult to
design. Ferrite cores used in the feeds to the contactor will help
attenuate the coupled noise as shown in figure 4-3.
Practical examples
37 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Transformer
360° HF earthing
Shielded cable
RADIATIVE i.e. DIRTY side
Cabinet 1
supply
connection
The ferrite in the DOL circuit is
for cross coupling of clean and
dirty side Motor Output of PDS
Ferrite
Metal box
BY-PASS
CONTROL
CONTROL
RELAYS
OR PLC
Contactor
Motor
output
Metal box
Safety sw.
For more details, see
360° MOTOR EARTHING
1) Short pigtail
tp PE, both common
and pair shield
3) For rules, see part
CONTROL
CABLING
Isolator
Isolator
RFI
FILTER
Contactor
Control
Metal box
DRIVE
MODULE
Metal
frame
cabinet
3
Practical examples
Figure 4-3 Basic scheme with by-pass.
Typical example of 12-pulse drive
In this case a 12-pulse rectifier is an IT system, unearthed due
to the delta winding; therefore any filter in the line must be at
the primary side of the phase shift transformer.
Experience has shown that, in this case, with short connec-
tions to the busbars, the earth shield between the transformer
windings is not quite adequate for conducted emissions at-
tenuation for use in the first environment. Therefore an RFI filter
may be needed at the primary side of the transformer for EMC
compliance. An RFI filter is not normally needed for the second
environment.
38 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
360° HF grounding
Shielded cable
Shielded control cables
Control & display
Enclosure, with segregation
Low voltage supply
Point of
measurement
Shielded motor
cables
RFI
FILTER
Common
earth
DRAIN FOR EMISSIONS
Incoming switch
fuse contactor
Phase shift
transformer
(if integrated)
Rectifiers Inverter Output choke
(Ferrite)
Common
earth
DRAIN FOR EMISSIONS
Incoming switch
fuse contactor
Phase shift
transformer
(if integrated)
Rectifiers Inverter Output choke
(Ferrite)
360° HF grounding
Shielded cable
Shielded control cables
Control & display
Shielded motor
cables
Enclosure,
with segregation
Point of
measurement
Medium or high voltage supply
For equipment fed from an IT system, a similar procedure can
be used. An isolating transformer allows the PDS to be earthed
and to use a suitable filter, for use in the first environment. The
point of coupling is at a medium voltage and emissions may
be considered at the next low voltage point of coupling in the
system. The level of emissions should correspond to those for
the appropriate environment. For definitions, see the Installation
environments section in chapter 2.
Note: All equipment inside must be enclosed
Figure 4-4 12-pulse converter system fed at LV.
Figure 4-5 12-pulse converter system fed at LV (CDM, transformer and switch
fuse have separate housing).
Practical examples
39 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3
Practical examples
Example of EMC plan
This is a form for making an EMC plan where the user and the
manufacturer analyze the installation and define the measures
to be taken to achieve electromagnetic compatibility. The plan
defines the responsibilities of the manufacturer, the installer and
the user of the drive. All these parties establish the plan jointly.
Fill in and answer the questions below.
Step 1: Name the parties
Manufacturer/supplier ABB Oy, Drives
End user ABC Paper company
Order no. 123456789
Type of facility
(e.g. chemical factory,
paper machine)
Paper machine PM3
Application
(e.g. pump. fan, conveyor)
Sectional drive system
Step 2: Collect power distribution and earthing data
Power
Distribution
Point of coupling: identification code for
distribution panel, switchgear or trans-
former
Transformerc T11
Type of distribution system TN-C,
TN-S TT,
IT
Earth Bus How and where bonded?
At supply transformer T11
40 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Step 3: Collect EMC data (High frequency range, only)
RFI Sensi-
tive Equip-
ment in the
Facility
Any equipment in the building or
near installation location sensitive
to RF disturbances (e.g. process
control and measurement, data
buses, computers, remote control,
etc.)? Describe.
Yes No
Data handling unit for
process control
Approximate distance from PDS
and cabling of PDS
5 metres
Most likely coupling path for distur-
bance
Conducted Radiated
RFI Sen-
sitive
Equipment
Outside
the Facility
Any broadcast or communications
receiver antennas visible or near
the facility (e.g. radar, radio/TV
broadcast, amateur, microwave or
other)? Describe.
Yes No
Frequency Hz
Distances from the antenna metres
Step 4: Define the installation rules
Follow the installation rules given in the hardware manual of the drive.
Assess the following items and describe the solutions.
EMC
Effectiveness
Items to Be Considered
Cabling - cabling according to ABB cabling standards and
guidelines (cable types, installation, separate trays etc.)
- earthing according to ABB instructions
(earthing of trays etc.)
Dedicated
Transformer
- dedicated supply transformer T11 with static EMC-
shield
Signature(s) by person(s) responsible for EMC
Date 26/09/2007
Signature(s)
Joe Smith
Practical examples
41 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
3
Chapter 5 - Bibliography
Various texts are referred to in this guide. They are recommended
further reading to assist in achieving compliant installations:
EN 61800-3, Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems
- part 3, EMC product standard including specific test (pub-
lished by CENELEC, Brussels, Belgium and National Standards
organizations in EU member countries).
EN 61800-3:2004
Interference Free Electronics by Dr. Sten Benda (published by
ABB Industry Ab, Västerås, Sweden)
Technical Guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives and Adjustable
Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems, code 3AFE61253980
(published by ABB Oy Drives, Helsinki, Finland)
Grounding and cabling of the drive system, code 3AFY61201998
(published by ABB Oy Drives, Helsinki, Finland)
42 Technical guide No. 3 - EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS
Chapter 6 - Index
Symbols
12-pulse rectifier 37
A
antenna 30
apparatus 7, 12, 13, 14
appliance 12, 13, 14
assembler 7, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 21
B
Basic Drive Module 8, 11
C
cabinet 13, 20, 21, 27, 35
cable gland 25, 27
CE mark 7, 12, 14, 15
CENELEC 41
Complete Drive Module 8, 11
components 12
conducted radio frequency distur-
bance 10
conduction 10
control electronics 10
converter 23, 28, 29, 35, 36, 38
cross coupling 36
customer 8
D
delta winding 37
DOL 36
double shielded cable 31
drive 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, 20,
21, 22, 25, 29, 31, 32, 37, 39, 40
E
EEA 7, 10
electrical surge 10
Electromagnetic Compatibility 10
electromagnetic disturbance 14
electromagnetic environment 10
electrostatic discharge 10
enclosure 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24,
26, 28, 38
end user 12, 13, 16, 39
environment 10, 15, 16, 37
equipment 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 19,
24, 38, 40
F
Faraday cage 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27,
28, 29, 31, 32
fast transient burst 10
ferrite core 33
ferrite ring 33, 34
finished appliance 12, 13, 14
first environment 15, 16, 37
fixed installation 12, 14, 15, 17
frequency converter 31, 35
fuse 38
G
gasket 22, 23, 25
gland plate 25, 26, 27
H
harmonics 10
high-frequency emission 10
High-frequency phenomena 10
I
imbalance 10
isolating transformer 38
IT system 37, 38
L
low-frequency phenomena 10
low-voltage network 15
Low Voltage Directive 7
M
Machinery Directive 7
manufacturer 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17,
21, 23, 24, 27
medium voltage network 15
motor 19, 22, 25, 27, 31
N
notches 10
O
Original Equipment Manufacturers 7
P
phase shift transformer 37
pigtail 25, 27, 28
plastic trunking 30
point of coupling 38
power components 10
power distribution networks 15
power drive system 1, 3, 10, 11
power supply network 15, 16
R
radiated electromagnetic field 10
radiation 10
RFI filter 20, 23, 35, 37
S
second environment 16, 17
single functional unit 8, 14
strain relief clamp 27
sub-assembly 12
system 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16,
17, 19, 20, 31, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41
T
technical documentation 7, 8, 12, 13
transformer 15, 37, 38
twisted pair 24, 30, 31
U
unrestricted 15
user 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 222 2287
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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ABB drives
Guide to variable speed drives
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2 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
3 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
ABB drives
Guide to variable speed drives
Technical guide No. 4
3AFE61389211 REV C
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.
4
4 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
5 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7
General ........................................................................................................ 7
Chapter 2 - Processes and their requirements ...................................... 8
Why variable speed control? ......................................................................... 8
Industrial segments with VSD processes ...................................................... 9
Variables in processing systems ................................................................. 10
Machines are used to alter materials’ properties... ...................................... 11
Well defined shape ................................................................................ 11
Indefinite shape ..................................................................................... 11
...and to transport materials .................................................................. 12
Solid materials ....................................................................................... 12
Liquid materials ..................................................................................... 12
Gaseous materials ................................................................................. 12
Chapter 3 - The workhorse of industry: The electric motor ................ 13
Electric motors drive most machines .......................................................... 13
Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy ............................ 14
Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction............................. 15
The efficiency of the drive system ............................................................... 16
Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required ..................................... 17
The load, friction and inertia resist rotation .................................................. 18
The motor has to overcome the loading torque .......................................... 19
The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed ..................... 20
Chapter 4 - Variable volumes require some form of control ................ 21
Variable material flow and input/output requirements .................................. 21
Simpler control methods ............................................................................ 22
The best control method is VSD ................................................................. 23
Mechanical, hydraulic and electrical VSDs .................................................. 24
Hydraulic coupling ................................................................................. 24
DC drive ................................................................................................ 24
AC drive ................................................................................................ 24
Electrical VSDs dominate the market .......................................................... 25
Maintenance costs ................................................................................ 25
Productivity ........................................................................................... 25
Energy saving ........................................................................................ 25
Higher quality ........................................................................................ 25
The AC drives market is growing fast .......................................................... 26
Chapter 5 - AC drive: The leading control method .............................. 27
The basic functions of an AC drive ............................................................. 27
A motor’s load capacity curves with an AC drive......................................... 28
6 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
AC drive features for better process control ................................................ 29
Reversing .............................................................................................. 30
Torque control ....................................................................................... 30
Eliminating mechanical vibrations .......................................................... 30
Power loss ride-through ........................................................................ 31
Stall function ......................................................................................... 31
Slip compensation ................................................................................. 32
Flying start............................................................................................. 32
Environmental features .......................................................................... 33
EMC ...................................................................................................... 33
Chapter 6 - Cost benefits of AC drives ................................................ 34
Technical differences between other systems and AC drives ...................... 35
No mechanical control parts needed .......................................................... 36
Factors affecting cost ................................................................................. 37
Investment costs: Mechanical and electrical components ........................... 38
The motor ............................................................................................. 38
The AC drive ......................................................................................... 38
Installation costs: Throttling compared to AC drive ..................................... 39
Operational costs: Maintenance and drive energy ....................................... 40
Total cost comparison ................................................................................ 41
Chapter 7 - Index ................................................................................. 42
7 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Chapter 1 - Introduction
General
This guide continues ABB’s technical guide series, describing
different variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in
industrial processes. Special attention has been given to electri-
cal VSDs and especially to AC Drives.
The guide tries to be as practical as possible. No special know-
ledge of VSDs is required, although basic technical
know-how is required to fully understand the terms and descrip-
tions used.
8 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Chapter 2 - Processes and their
requirements
Why variable speed control?
To understand why variable speed control is necessary, we first
need to understand the requirements of different processes.
These processes can be divided into two main categories;
material treatment and material transport, although there are
many different sub-categories that come under these two basic
headings.
Common to both main categories, however, is the need to be
able to adjust the process. This is accomplished with VSDs.
This chapter describes the main industrial and non-industrial
processes using VSDs.
9 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Industrial segments with VSD processes
Industrial processes are numerous, and the list above mentions
just some of the industrial segments with VSD processes. What
they have in common is that they all require some kind of control
using VSD.
For example, in air conditioning applications (part of HVAC),
air flow requirements change according to the humidity and
temperature in the room. These can be met by adjusting the
supply and return air fans. These adjustments are carried out
with VSDs.
Fans are also used in power plants and the chemical industry.
In both cases, the fans need to be adjusted according to the
main process. In power plants, the main process changes due
to varying demands for power at different times of the year,
day or week. Likewise, the need for VSDs differs according to
the process.
Processes and their requirements
10 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Processes and their requirements
Variables in processing systems
This diagram shows what kinds of variables affect the processing
system. These variables can be divided into energy and material
variables. In the processing system itself, material or energy is
processed by means of mechanical power, electromagnetic
influence, thermal influence, chemical and biological reactions
or even nuclear power.
Each process needs the material and energy supplied to ac-
complish the required process. The product or final material
state is the output of the process, but in every process, waste,
in the form of energy and/or material, is also produced.
In processing systems, VSDs are used to control the mechanical
power of the different machines involved in the process.
Material treatment can also be controlled by VSDs. A good ex-
ample is a drying kiln, in which the hot air temperature must be
constant. The process is controlled by controlling the speed of
the hot air fans using VSDs.
11 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Processes and their requirements
Machines are used to alter materials’ properties...
As mentioned earlier in this guide, working machine processes
can be divided into two categories. The first category is ma-
terial treatment, which is accomplished using various types
of processing apparatus to alter a material’s properties into
another form.
Well defined shape
Processing apparatus can be divided into two groups according
to the resulting shape of the material being treated. The shape
can be either well defined or indefinite. Materials with a well-
defined shape, such as paper, metal and wood, are processed
with machinery. Examples are paper machines, rolling mills and
saw mill lines.
Indefinite shape
Materials with an indefinite shape, such as various food prod-
ucts, plastics etc., are processed with plant equipment. Ex-
amples of this kind of equipment are margarine stirrers, and
different kinds of centrifuges and extruders.
12 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Processes and their requirements
...and to transport materials
The second category consists of machines which transport
material to a desired location. This group consists of conveying,
dosing and pressure changing apparatus. These machines can
be divided into three different sub-groups according to whether
the type of material being treated is a solid, liquid or gas.
Solid materials
Solid materials, such as shipping containers, metal, wood,
minerals and of course people, are transported by conveying
apparatus. Such apparatus includes cranes, conveyors and
elevators.
Liquid materials
Liquid materials, for example, water, oil or liquid chemicals, are
transported by pumps.
Gaseous materials
Gaseous materials such as air are transported using fans, com-
pressors or blowers. A special application of these machines
is air conditioning.
In the diagram above, five different types of machines are
presented. They either shape or transport different types of
material, but all of them can be potentially used with Variable
Speed Drives.
13 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Chapter 3 - The workhorse of industry:
The electric motor
All of the machines mentioned earlier in this guide are com-
monly driven by electric motors. It can be said that the electric
motor is the workhorse of industrial processes. In this chapter,
we will take a closer look at electrical motors - especially the
squirrel cage AC motor, which is the most common motor used
in industrial processes.
Electric motors drive most machines
Every machine consists of four different components, shown in
the diagram. These components are energy control, the motor,
transmission and the working machine. Together, the first three
components comprise the so called “drive system”. This drive
system can transform a given type of energy, usually electri-
cal, into mechanical energy, which is then used by the working
machine. Energy is supplied to the drive system from the power
supply.
In each of the three drive system components, variable speed
control is possible. Variable speed control can be accomplished,
for example, using a frequency converter as the energy control
component, a two speed motor as the motor component and
gears as the transmission component.
As mentioned earlier, most machines are driven by an electric
motor. Electric motors can be divided into AC and DC motors.
AC motors, particularly squirrel cage motors, are the most com-
monly used motors in industrial processes.
14 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
U
The workhorse of industry: The electric motor
Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy
An AC motor’s ability to convert electrical energy into mechani-
cal energy is based on electromagnetic induction. The voltage
in stator windings forms the current and magnetic flux. The
direction of this flux can be determined using the right hand
rule from the stator current.
By changing the direction of the voltage in stator windings,
the direction of the flux can also be changed. By changing the
voltage direction in the three phase motor windings in the cor-
rect order, the magnetic flux of the motor starts to rotate. The
motor’s rotor will then follow this flux with a certain slip. This is
the basic principle used to control AC motors.
This control can be achieved using a frequency converter.
As the name suggests, a frequency converter changes the
frequency of the alternating current and voltage. A frequency
converter consists of three parts. Regular 50 Hz 3-phase current
is fed in to the rectifier part, which converts it to direct current.
The DC voltage is fed into the DC bus circuit, which filters the
pulsating voltage. The inverter unit then connects each motor
phase either to the negative or the positive DC bus according
to a certain order.
To receive the flux direction shown in the diagram, switches V1,
V4 and V5 should be closed. To make the flux rotate counter-
clockwise, switch V6 has to be closed but V5 has to be open.
If switch V5 is not opened, the circuit will short circuit. The flux
has turned 60° counterclockwise.
15 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
The workhorse of industry: The electric motor
Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction
There are eight different switching positions in the inverter. In
two positions, the voltage is zero, i.e. when all the phases are
connected to the same DC bus, either negative or positive. So
in the remaining six switching positions there is voltage in the
motor windings, and this voltage creates magnetic flux.
The diagram shows these six switching positions and the flux
directions, which the voltage in the windings generates in each
case. Voltage also generates current in the windings, the direc-
tions of which are marked with arrows in each phase.
In practice, control is not quite as simple as presented here.
Magnetic flux generates currents in the rotor. These rotor cur-
rents complicate the situation. External interference, such as
temperature or load changes, can also cause some control dif-
ficulties. Nevertheless, with today’s technology and know-how,
it is possible to effectively deal with interference.
Electrical VSDs also provide many additional benefits, such as
energy savings, because the motor does not use more electrical
energy than required. Furthermore, control is better than with
conventional methods, because electrical VSDs also provide
the possibility for stepless control.
16 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
The workhorse of industry: The electric motor
The efficiency of the drive system
The total efficiency of the drive system depends on the losses in
the motor and its control. Both drive and motor losses are ther-
mal, so they appear as heat. Input power to the drive system is
electrical in form, while output power is mechanical. That is why
calculating the coefficient of efficiency (η) requires knowledge
of both electrical and mechanical engineering.
Electrical input power P
in
depends on voltage (U), current (I) and
the power factor (cosϕ). The power factor tells us what propor-
tion of the total electric power is active power and how much is
so called reactive power. To produce the required mechanical
power, active power is required. Reactive power is needed to
produce magnetisation in the motor.
Mechanical output power P
out
depends on the required torque
(T) and rotating speed (n). The greater the speed or torque re-
quired, the greater the power required. This has a direct effect
on how much power the drive system draws from the electrical
supply. As mentioned earlier, the frequency converter regulates
the voltage, which is fed to the motor, and in this way directly
controls the power used in the motor as well as in the process
being controlled.
Electrical switching with transistors is very efficient, so the effi-
ciency of the frequency converter is very high, from 0.97 to 0.99.
Motor efficiency is typically between 0.82 and 0.97 depending
on the motor size and its rated speed. So it can be said that the
total efficiency of the drive system is always above 0.8 when
controlled by a frequency converter.
17 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
The workhorse of industry: The electric motor
Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required
In some cases, reversed rotation of the motor is required.
In addition, torque direction requirements might change. These
factors combined form the so called “ four quadrant drive”. The
name comes from the four different quadrants (I to IV) shown
in the diagram.
I quadrant: In the first quadrant, the motor is rotating clockwise.
Because the torque is in the same direction as the speed, the
drive is accelerating.
II quadrant: In the second quadrant, the motor is still rotating
clockwise, but the torque is in the opposite direction, so the
drive is decelerating.
III & IV quadrants: In the third and fourth quadrant, the motor is
rotating counterclockwise and the drive is again accelerating or
decelerating, depending on the torque direction.
With a frequency converter, torque direction changes can be im-
plemented independent of the direction of rotation. To produce
an efficient four quadrant drive, some kind of braking arrange-
ment is required. This kind of torque control is especially required
in crane applications, where the rotation direction might change,
but the torque direction remains the same.
18 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
The workhorse of industry: The electric motor
The load, friction and inertia resist rotation
The motor must produce the required torque to overcome the
load torque. Load torque consists of friction, inertia of the moving
parts and the load itself, which depends on the application. In
the example in the diagram, the motor torque has to be greater
than the load torque, which is dependent on the mass of the
box, if the box is to rise.
Load factors change according to the application. For example,
in a crusher, the load torque is dependent not only on friction
and inertia, but also on the hardness of the crushed material. In
fans and blowers, air pressure changes affect the load torque,
and so on.
19 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
The workhorse of industry: The electric motor
The motor has to overcome the loading torque
In any case, the loading torque has to be known before select-
ing the motor for the application. The required speed also has
to be known. Only then can a suitable motor be selected for
the application.
If the motor is too small, the requirements cannot be met and
this might lead to serious problems. For example, in crane ap-
plications, a motor that is too small may not be able to lift the
required load quickly enough to the desired height. It might even
drop the load completely, as shown in the diagram. This could
be disastrous for people working at the harbour or site where
this crane would be used. To calculate the rated torque of the
motor the following formula can be used:
T[Nm]=9550 x
P[kW]
n[1/min]
20 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
The workhorse of industry: The electric motor
The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed
A motor’s torque/speed curve is unique and has to be calculated
for every motor type separately. A typical torque/speed curve
is shown in the graph as T
m
. As can be seen, the maximum load
torque is reached just below nominal speed.
Load torque T
l
usually increases with speed. Depending on the
application it can be linear or quadratic. The motor will auto-
matically accelerate until the load torque and motor torque are
equal. This point is shown on the graph as the intersection of
T
m
and T
l
. Actual torque (T
act
) is shown on the y-axis and actual
speed (n
act
) on the x-axis.
These are the principles that govern how an ordinary squirrel
cage motor works. With a frequency converter, optimal control
performance can be obtained from the motor and the whole
drive system. This will be introduced later in this guide.
21 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Chapter 4 - Variable volumes require
some form of control
In most processes there is at least one variable. This variable
causes the need for process adjustment. Therefore variable
processes and material volumes need some form of control.
In this chapter we will look at processes and their variables. We
will also examine different control methods.
Variable material flow and input/output requirements
There may be many different parameters involved in a process,
the most common being input, output and interference. These
parameters may need to be constant or they may need to be
changed according to a preset pattern. As discussed in the first
chapter, there are always inputs and outputs present in a process
and, in almost every case, interference as well.
In some processes there is no interference and the input is con-
stant. This kind of process works without any variable speed
control. However, if the output parameters need to be changed,
the input is variable or there is interference present, then vari-
able speed control might be the solution to fulfilling the process
requirements.
The above table lists some processes in which variable speed
control is required. It also shows the reasons for the control;
input, interference or output.
22 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Variable volumes require some form of control
Simpler control methods
There are many simpler control methods in existence such as
throttling or bypass control. The construction of such equip-
ment is usually very simple and the investment may look cost
effective at first.
However, there are many drawbacks. For example the optimal
process capacity, which gives the best quality of the process, is
very difficult to achieve with simple control. An increase in produc-
tion capacity usually requires reconstruction of the whole process
and with each direct on-line start-up there is a risk of electrical
and/or mechanical damage.
The simple control methods are also energy consuming, so
in addition to the total operating cost being higher than with
VSDs, the environmental effects, such as CO
2
emissions from
power plants, also increase. Therefore, the total life-cycle cost
of investment in simple control methods is much higher than
with VSDs.
23 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Variable volumes require some form of control
The best control method is VSD
The best control method for most systems is VSD. Imagine you
are driving a car for example. If you are driving on a highway
and entering a populated area, you need to reduce speed so
that you don’t risk your own and other peoples’ lives.
The best possible way to do this is of course to reduce motor
rotation speed by taking your foot off the gas pedal and, if nec-
essary, changing to a lower gear. Another possibility would be
to use the same gear, keep your foot on the gas and reduce speed
simply by braking. This would not only cause wear on the engine
and brakes, but also use a lot of fuel and reduce your overall
control of the vehicle. Furthermore, the original goal of reducing
speed without risking your own and other peoples’ lives would
not have been achieved.
24 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Variable volumes require some form of control
Mechanical, hydraulic and electrical VSDs
Above are the four most common VSDs in the industrial sec-
tor. Mechanical variable speed control usually uses belt drives,
and is controlled by moving conical pulleys manually or with
positioning motors.
Hydraulic coupling
In hydraulic coupling, the turbine principle is used. By changing
the volume of oil in the coupling, the speed difference between
the driving and driven shafts changes. The oil amount is control-
led with pumps and valves.
DC drive
In the DC drive, a DC converter changes the motor supply volt-
age fed to the DC motor. In the motor, a mechanical inverter, a
commutator, changes direct current to alternating current.
AC drive
In the frequency converter or AC drive, a standard squirrel
cage motor is used, so no mechanical inverters are required.
The speed of the motor is regulated by a frequency converter
that changes the frequency of the motor voltage, as presented
earlier in this guide. The frequency converter itself is controlled
with electrical signals.
The diagram shows the location of the control equipment for
each type of VSD. In mechanical and hydraulic VSDs, the con-
trol equipment is located between the motor and the working
machine, which makes maintenance very difficult.
In electrical VSDs, all control systems are situated in an electri-
cal equipment room and only the driving motor is in the process
area. This is just one benefit of electrical VSDs. Other benefits
are presented on the following page.
25 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Variable volumes require some form of control
Electrical VSDs dominate the market
Here are the four most important arguments for using electrical
VSDs, presented along with estimated VSD market shares in
Europe in 2000. The four main benefits of using electrical VSDs
are highlighted at the turning points of the speed curve.
Maintenance costs
Direct on-line starting stresses the motor and also the electrical
equipment. With electrical VSDs, smooth starting is possible and
this has a direct effect on maintenance costs.
Productivity
Process equipment is usually designed to cater for future pro-
ductivity increases. Changing constant-speed equipment to
provide higher production volumes requires money and time.
With the AC drive, speed increases of 5 to 20 percent are not a
problem, and the production increase can be achieved without
any extra investment.
Energy saving
In many processes, production volumes change. Changing pro-
duction volumes by mechanical means is usually very inefficient.
With electrical VSDs, changing the production volume can be
achieved by changing the motor speed. This saves a lot of en-
ergy particularly in pump and fan applications, because the shaft
power is proportional to the flow rate to the power of three.
Higher quality
The accurate speed control obtainable with electrical VSDs
results in process optimisation. The optimal process control
leads to the best quality end product, which means the best
profit for the customer.
26 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Due to these benefits, electrical VSDs are dominating the market,
as can be seen from the table above. AC and DC drives together
account for over 75%, and AC drives for more than 50%, of the
total VSD market in Europe in 2000.
Variable volumes require some form of control
The AC drives market is growing fast
This diagram shows the projected development of the electrical
VSDs market to the year 2000. As can be seen, the AC drives
market is growing at almost 10% per year, which accounts for
the entire growth of the electrical and VSD market. The market
share of DC drives is diminishing, and the total DC market size
remains approximately constant. This progress is due to the
development of AC drives technology.
As presented earlier in this guide, the AC drive has many benefits
over other process control methods. The difference between
the AC and the DC motor is that the DC motor has a mechani-
cal commutator, utilising carbon brushes. These brushes need
regular maintenance and the commutator itself complicates the
motor structure and consumes energy. These are the main rea-
sons why the AC drives market share is growing in comparison
to DC drives.
27 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Chapter 5 - AC drive: The leading
control method
Taking into account everything presented so far, we can con-
fidently say that the AC drive is the leading control method. In
the following chapter we will take a closer look at the different
features of the AC drive, and the levels of performance the
drive can offer.
The basic functions of an AC drive
In this diagram, the basic functions of an AC drive are presented.
There are four different components in AC drive motor control.
These components are the user interface, the motor, the electri-
cal supply and the process interface.
An electrical supply feeds the required electricity to the drive;
one selection criteria for the drive is the supply voltage and its
frequency. The AC drive converts the frequency and voltage and
feeds the motor. This conversion process is controlled by signals
from the process or user via the process and user interfaces.
The user interface provides the ability to observe the AC drive
and obtain different process information via the drive. This
makes the drive easy to integrate with other process control
equipment and overriding process control systems.
28 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
AC drive: The leading control method
A motor’s load capacity curves with an AC drive
If the motor is driven without a frequency converter, its load
capacity curves cannot be modified. It will produce a speci-
fied torque at certain speed and maximum torque cannot be
exceeded.
With a frequency converter drive, there are different loading op-
tions. The standard curve, Curve 1 in the diagram, can be used
continuously. Other curves can only be used for certain periods
of time, because the motor’s cooling system is not designed for
this kind of heavy use.
These higher load capacity levels might be needed, for example,
during start-up. In certain applications, as much as twice the
amount of torque is required when starting. With a frequency
converter this is possible, meaning that a motor can be dimen-
sioned according to its normal use. This reduces the investment
cost.
To be able to use these features it is very important that the load,
the AC drive and the motor are compatible. Otherwise the motor
or the converter will overheat and be damaged.
29 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Important features:
• inputs and outputs
• reversing function
• ramp times acceleration/deceleration
• variable torque V/Hz settings
• torque boosting
• eliminating mechanical vibrations
• load limits to prevent nuisance faults
• power loss ride-through
• stall function
• slip compensation
• flying start
4
AC drive: The leading control method
AC drive features for better process control
AC drives also have other internal features and functions which
are sometimes required for better process control. Examples of
these features are listed in the diagram. With inputs and outputs
for example, different kinds of process information can be fed to
the drive and it will control the motor accordingly. Alternatively,
the load can be limited to prevent nuisance faults and to protect
the working machine and the whole drive system.
In the following sections the listed features are presented in
more detail.
30 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
AC drive: The leading control method
Reversing
Reversing the motor rotation is simple to accomplish with
an AC drive. With ABB’s frequency converters it can be achieved
simply by pressing one button. Furthermore, it is possible to
set different acceleration and deceleration ramp times. The ramp
form can also be modified according to the user’s wishes. In
the diagram (above, left) an S-ramp has been presented. Another
possibility could be a linear ramp.
Torque control
Torque control is relatively simple with an AC drive. Torque
boosting, which was presented earlier, is necessary if a very
high starting torque is required. Variable torque U/f settings
mean that maximum torque can be achieved at a lower speed
of rotation than normal.
Eliminating mechanical vibrations
Mechanical vibrations can be eliminated by by-passing critical
speeds. This means that when a motor is accelerated close to its
critical speed, the drive will not allow the actual speed of the
motor to follow the reference speed. When the critical point
has been passed, the motor will return to the regular curve very
quickly and pass the critical speed.
31 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
AC drive: The leading control method
Power loss ride-through
The power loss ride-through function is used if the incoming
supply voltage is cut off. In such a situation, the AC drive will
continue to operate using the kinetic energy of the rotating
motor. The drive will be fully operational as long as the motor
rotates and generates energy for the drive.
Stall function
With an AC drive, the motor can be protected in a stall situation
with the stall function. It is possible to adjust supervision limits
and choose how the drive reacts to the motor stall condition.
Protection is activated if three conditions are met at the same
time.
1. The drive frequency has to be below the preset stall fre-
quency.
2. The motor torque has to rise to a certain limit, calculated by
the drive software.
3. The final condition is that the motor has been in the stall limit
for longer than the time period set by the user.
32 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
AC drive: The leading control method
Slip compensation
If the motor load torque is increased, the speed of the motor will
decrease as shown in the diagram (above, left). To compensate
for this slip, the torque/speed curve can be modified with the fre-
quency converter so that torque increase can be accomplished
with the same speed as previously.
Flying start
The flying start feature is used when a motor is connected to a
flywheel or a high inertia load. The flying start works even with-
out a speed feedback. In case of rotating motor, the inverter is
first started with a reduced voltage and then synchronised to
the rotating rotor. After synchronised the voltage and the speed
are increased to the corresponding levels.
33 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
AC drive: The leading control method
Environmental features
Any drive system has to handle different environmental stresses
such as moisture or electrical disturbances. The squirrel cage
motor is very compact and can be used in very hostile condi-
tions. The IP54 degree of protection guarantees that it can work
in a dusty environment and that it can bear sprinkling water
from any direction.
The frequency converter usually has an IP21 degree of protec-
tion. This means that it is not possible to touch the live parts
and that vertically dripping water will not cause any harm. If
a higher degree of protection is required, it can be obtained,
for example, by installing the drive inside a cabinet with the
required degree of protection. In such cases, it is essential to
ensure that the temperature inside the cabinet will not exceed
the allowed limits.
EMC
Another important environmental feature is electromagnetic
compatibility ( EMC). It is very important that a drive system fulfills
the EMC directives of the European Union. This means that the
drive system can bear conductive and radiative disturbances,
and that it does not send any conductive or radiative distur-
bances itself either to the electrical supply or the surrounding
environment.
If you require more information about the EMC directives and
their effects on drives, please refer to ABB’s Technical Guide
No. 3, EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power
Drive System.
34 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Chapter 6 - Cost benefits of AC drives
In addition to their technical advantages, AC drives also provide
many cost benefits. In this chapter, these benefits are reviewed,
with the costs divided into investment, installation and opera-
tional costs.
At the moment there are still plenty of motors sold without vari-
able speed AC drives. This pie chart shows how many motors
below 2.2 kW are sold with frequency converters, and how
many without. Only 3% of motors in this power range are sold
each year with a frequency converter; 97% are sold without an
AC drive.
This is astonishing considering what we have seen so far in
this guide. Even more so after closer study of the costs of an
AC drive compared to conventional control methods. But first
let’s review AC drive technology compared to other control
methods.
35 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Cost benefits of AC drives
Technical differences between other systems and AC drives
AC drive technology is completely different from other, simpler
control methods. It can be compared, for example, to the dif-
ference between a zeppelin and a modern airplane.
We could also compare AC drive technology to the develop-
ment from a floppy disk to a CD-ROM. Although it is a simpler
information storage method, a floppy disk can only handle a
small fraction of the information that a CD-ROM can.
The benefits of both these innovations are generally well known.
Similarly, AC drive technology is based on a totally different
technology to earlier control methods. In this guide, we have
presented the benefits of the AC drive compared to simpler
control methods.
36 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Cost benefits of AC drives
No mechanical control parts needed
To make a proper cost comparison, we need to study the
configurations of different control methods. Here we have used
pumping as an example. In traditional methods, there is always
a mechanical part and an electrical part.
In throttling you need fuses, contactors and reactors on the
electrical side and valves on the mechanical side. In On/Off
control, the same electrical components are needed, as well as
a pressure tank on the mechanical side. The AC drive provides
a new solution. No mechanics are needed, because all control
is already on the electrical side.
Another benefit, when thinking about cost, is that with an AC
drive we can use a regular 3-phase motor, which is much cheaper
than the single phase motors used in other control methods.
We can still use 220 V single phase supply, when speaking of
power below 2.2 kW.
37 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Conventional methods: AC drive:
- both electrical and - all in one
mechanical parts
- many electrical parts - only one electrical
component
- mechanical parts need - no mechanical parts,
regular maintenance no wear and tear
- mechanical control is - saves energy
energy consuming
4
Cost benefits of AC drives
Factors affecting cost
This list compares the features of conventional control methods
with those of the AC drive, as well as their effect on costs. In
conventional methods there are both electrical and mechanical
components, which usually have to be purchased separately.
The costs are usually higher than if everything could be pur-
chased at once.
Furthermore, mechanical parts wear out quickly. This directly
affects maintenance costs and in the long run, maintenance is
a very important cost item. In conventional methods there are
also many electrical components. The installation cost is at least
doubled when there are several different types of components
rather than only one.
And last but not least, mechanical control is very energy con-
suming, while AC drives practically save energy. This not only
helps reduce costs, but also helps minimise environmental
impact by reducing emissions from power plants.
38 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Cost benefits of AC drives
Investment costs: Mechanical and electrical components
In this graph, the investment structure as well as the total price of
each pump control method is presented. Only the pump itself is
not added to the costs because its price is the same regardless
of whether it’s used with an AC drive or valves. In throttling, there
are two possibilities depending on whether the pump is used in
industrial or domestic use. In an industrial environment there are
stricter requirements for valves and this increases costs.
The motor
As can be seen, the motor is much more expensive for traditional
control methods than for the AC drive. This is due to the 3-phase
motor used with the AC drive and the single phase motor used
in other control methods.
The AC drive
The AC drive does not need any mechanical parts, which reduc-
es costs dramatically. Mechanical parts themselves are almost
always less costly than a frequency converter, but electrical parts
also need to be added to the total investment cost.
After taking all costs into account, an AC drive is almost always
the most economical investment, when compared to differ-
ent control methods. Only throttling in domestic use is as low
cost as the AC drive. These are not the total costs, however.
Together with investment costs we need to look at installation
and operational costs.
39 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Throttling AC drive
Installation material 20 USD 10 USD
Installation work 5h x 65 USD = 1h x 65 USD =
325 USD 65 USD
Commissioning 1h x 65 USD = 1h x 65 USD =
work 65 USD 65 USD
Total 410 USD 140 USD
Savings in installation: 270 USD!

4
Cost benefits of AC drives
Installation costs: Throttling compared to AC drive
Because throttling is the second lowest investment after the AC
drive, we will compare its installation and operating costs to the
cost of the AC drive. As mentioned earlier, in throttling there are
both electrical and mechanical components. This means twice
the amount of installation material is needed.
Installation work is also at least doubled in throttling compared to
the AC drive. To install a mechanical valve into a pipe is not that
simple and this increases installation time. To have a mechanical
valve ready for use usually requires five hours compared to one
hour for the AC drive. Multiply this by the hourly rate charged
by a skilled installer to get the total installation cost.
The commissioning of a throttling-based system does not usu-
ally require more time than commissioning an AC drive based
system. One hour is usually the time required in both cases. So
now we can summarise the total installation costs. As you can
see, the AC drive saves up to USD 270 per installation. So even
if the throttling investment costs were lower than the price of a
single phase motor (approximately USD 200), the AC drive would
pay for itself before it has even worked a second.
40 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Throttling AC drive
saving 50%
Power required 0.75 kW 0.37 kW
Annual energy 4000 hours/year 3000 kWh 1500 kWh
Annual energy cost with 0.1 300 USD 150 USD
USD/kWh
Maintenance/year 40 USD 5 USD
Total cost/year 340 USD 155 USD
Savings in one year: 185 USD!

Cost benefits of AC drives
Operational costs: Maintenance and drive energy
In many surveys and experiments it has been proved that a 50%
energy saving is easily achieved with an AC drive. This means
that where power requirements with throttling would be 0.75
kW, with the AC drive it would be 0.37 kW. If a pump is used
4000 hours per year, throttling would need 3000 kWh and the
AC drive 1500 kWh of energy per year.
To calculate the savings, we need to multiply the energy con-
sumption by the energy price, which varies depending on the
country. Here USD 0.1 per kWh has been used.
As mentioned earlier, mechanical parts wear a lot and this is
why they need regular maintenance. It has been estimated
that whereas throttling requires USD 40 per year for service,
maintenance costs for an AC drive would be USD 5. In many
cases however, there is no maintenance required for a frequency
converter.
Therefore, the total savings in operating costs would be
USD 185, which is approximately half of the frequency convert-
er’s price for this power range. This means that the payback time
of the frequency converter is two years. So it is worth considering
that instead of yearly service for an old valve it might be more
profitable to change the whole system to an AC drive based
control. To retrofit an existing throttling system the pay-back
time is two years.
41 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
Cost benefits of AC drives
Total cost comparison
In the above figure, all the costs have been summarised. The
usual time for an operational cost calculation for this kind of
investment is 10 years. Here the operational costs are rated to
the present value with a 10% interest rate.
In the long run, the conventional method will be more than twice
as expensive as a frequency converter. Most of the savings with
the AC drive come from the operational costs, and especially
from the energy savings. It is in the installation that the high-
est individual savings can be achieved, and these savings are
realised as soon as the drive is installed.
Taking the total cost figure into account, it is very difficult to
understand why only 3% of motors sold have a frequency con-
verter. In this guide we have tried to present the benefits of the
AC drive and why we at ABB think that it is absolutely the best
possible way to control your process.
42 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
Chapter 7 - Index
A
ABB 30, 33, 41
AC drive 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41
AC drives market 26
AC motor 13, 14
active power 16
B
belt drives 24
blowers 18
braking 17, 23
bypass control 22
C
coefficient of efficiency 16
Commissioning 39
commutator 24, 26
contactors 36
crane 17, 19
critical speed 30
crusher 18
current 14, 15, 16, 24
D
DC bus 14, 15
DC converter 24
DC drive 24, 26
DC motor 24, 26
Direct on-line starting 25
drive frequency 31
drive software 31
drive system 16, 20, 29, 33
E
electrical disturbances 33
electrical equipment room 24
electrical supply 16, 27, 33
electromagnetic compatibility 33
electromagnetic induction 14, 15
EMC 33
EMC directives 33
energy 14, 15, 22, 25, 26, 31, 37,
40, 41
F
fans 18
flux 14, 15
flying start 29, 32
flywheel 32
four quadrant drive 17
frequency converter 14, 16, 17, 20,
24, 28, 32, 33, 34, 40, 41
friction 18
fuses 36
H
harbour 19
hydraulic coupling 24
I
industrial processes 13
inertia 18, 32
input power 16
interference 15, 21
inverter 14, 15, 24
IP21 33
IP54 33
L
linear ramp 30
load capacity curves 28
M
machine 11, 13, 24, 29
magnetic flux 14, 15
maintenance 24, 25, 26, 37, 40
mechanical power 16
mechanical vibrations 29, 30
motor load 32
motor losses 16
motor phase 14
motor size 16
motor stall condition 31
motor windings 14, 15
N
nuisance faults 29
O
output power 16
P
power factor 16
power loss ride-through 29, 31
power plants 22, 37
process control 25, 26, 27, 29
processing system 10
pump 24, 25, 36, 40
R
rated speed 16
Reactive power 16
reactive power 16
reactors 36
rectifier 14
reference speed 30
reversing function 29
right hand rule 14
43 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
4
S
S-ramp 30
slip 14, 29, 32
squirrel cage motor 20, 24, 33
stall frequency 31
stall function 29, 31
stator 14
stepless control 15
T
temperature 15, 33
throttling 22, 36, 39, 40
torque 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 28, 29,
30, 31, 32
transistors 16
V
valve 40
valves 24, 36
variable speed control 8, 21, 24
Variable Speed Drives 1, 3
voltage 14, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31
VSD 9, 15, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26
Index
44 Technical guide No. 4 - Guide to variable speed drives
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 22 22681
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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Bearing currents in
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2 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
3 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.
ABB drives
Bearing currents in
modern AC drive systems
Technical guide No. 5
3AFE64230247 REV C EN
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
5
4 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7
General ....................................................................................................... 7
Avoiding bearing currents ............................................................................ 7
Chapter 2 - Generating bearing currents .............................................. 8
High frequency current pulses ..................................................................... 8
Faster switching .......................................................................................... 9
How are HF bearing currents generated? ..................................................... 9
Circulating current .................................................................................. 9
Shaft grounding current .......................................................................... 9
Capacitive discharge current ................................................................. 10
Common mode circuit ................................................................................ 10
Stray capacitances .................................................................................... 11
How does the current flow through the system? ......................................... 12
Voltage drops ............................................................................................. 13
Common mode transformer ....................................................................... 14
Capacitive voltage divider ........................................................................... 15
Chapter 3 - Preventing high frequency bearing current damage ........ 17
Three approaches ...................................................................................... 17
Multicore motor cables .......................................................................... 17
Short impedance path .......................................................................... 17
High frequency bonding connections ................................................... 18
Follow product specific instructions ........................................................... 19
Additional solutions .............................................................................. 19
Measuring high frequency bearing currents ................................................ 19
Leave the measurements to the specialists................................................. 20
Chapter 4 - References ....................................................................... 21
Chapter 5 - Index ................................................................................. 22
6 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
7 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Chapter 1 - Introduction
General
Some new drive installations can have their bearings fail only
a few months after start-up. Failure can be caused by high fre-
quency currents, which flow through the motor bearings.
While bearing currents have been around since the advent
of electric motors, the incidence of damage they cause has
increased during the last few years. This is because modern
variable speed drives with their fast rising voltage pulses and
high switching frequencies can cause current pulses through
the bearings whose repeated discharging can gradually erode
the bearing races.
Avoiding bearing currents
To avoid damage occurring, it is essential to provide proper
earthing paths and allow stray currents to return to the inverter
frame without passing through the bearings. The magnitude of
the currents can be reduced by using symmetrical motor cables
or inverter output filtering. Proper insulation of the motor bearing
construction breaks the bearing current paths.
8 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
Chapter 2 - Generating bearing currents
High frequency current pulses
Bearing currents come in several different guises. However,
while modern motor design and manufacturing practices have
nearly eliminated the low frequency bearing currents induced
by the asymmetry of the motor, the rapid switching in modern
AC drive systems may generate high frequency current pulses
through the bearings. If the energy of these pulses is sufficiently
high, metal transfers from the ball and the races to the lubricant.
This is known as electrical discharge machining or EDM. The
effect of a single pulse is insignificant, but a tiny EDM pit is an
incontinuity that will collect more pulses and expand into a typi-
cal EDM crater. The switching frequency of modern AC drives is
very high and the vast number of pulses causes the erosion to
quickly accumulate. As a result, the bearing may need replacing
after only a short time in service.
High frequency bearing currents have been investigated by ABB
since 1987. The importance of system design has been high-
lighted in the last few years. Each individual item involved, such
as the motor, the gearbox or the drive controller, is the product
of sophisticated manufacturing techniques and normally carries
a favourable Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) rate. It is when
these components are combined and the installed system is looked
upon as a whole, that it becomes clear that certain installation
practices are required.
Figure 1: Bearing currents can cause “ bearing fluting”, a rhythmic pattern on
the bearing’s races.
9 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Faster switching
Current AC drive technology, incorporating Insulated Gate Bipo-
lar Transistors (IGBT), creates switching events 20 times faster
than those considered typical ten years ago. Recent years have
seen a rising number of EDM-type bearing failures in AC drive
systems relatively soon after start up, within one to six months.
The extent to which this occurs depends on the AC drive system
architecture and the installation techniques used.
How are HF bearing currents generated?
The source of bearing currents is the voltage that is induced
over the bearing. In the case of high frequency bearing currents,
this voltage can be generated in three different ways. The most
important factors that define which mechanism is prominent,
are the size of the motor and how the motor frame and shaft are
grounded. The electrical installation, meaning a suitable cable
type and proper bonding of the protective conductors and the
electrical shield, plays an important role. Du/dt of the AC drive
power stage components and the DC-link voltage level affect
the level of bearing currents.
Circulating current
In large motors, high frequency voltage is induced between the
ends of the motor shaft by the high frequency flux circulating
around the stator. This flux is caused by a net asymmetry of
capacitive current leaking from the winding into the stator frame
along the stator circumference. The voltage between the shaft
ends affects the bearings. If it is high enough to overcome the
impedance of the bearings’ oil film, a current that tries to com-
pensate the net flux in the stator starts to flow in the loop formed
by the shaft, the bearings and the stator frame. This current is
a circulating type of high frequency bearing current.
Shaft grounding current
The current leaking into the stator frame needs to flow back to
the inverter, which is the source of this current. Any route back
contains impedance, and therefore the voltage of the motor
frame increases in comparison to the source ground level. If the
motor shaft is earthed via the driven machinery, the increase of
the motor frame voltage is seen over the bearings. If the voltage
rises high enough to overcome the impedance of the drive-end
bearing oil film, part of the current may flow via the drive-end
bearing, the shaft and the driven machine back to the inverter.
This current is a shaft grounding type of high frequency bear-
ing current.
Generating bearing currents
10 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
Capacitive discharge current

In small motors, the internal voltage division of the common
mode voltage over the internal stray capacitances of the mo-
tor may cause shaft voltages high enough to create high fre-
quency bearing current pulses. This can happen if the shaft is
not earthed via the driven machinery while the motor frame is
earthed in the standard way for protection.
Common mode circuit
High frequency bearing currents are a consequence of the current
flow in the common mode circuit of the AC drive system.
A typical three-phase sinusoidal power supply is balanced and
symmetrical under normal conditions. That is, the vector sum of
the three phases always equals zero. Thus, it is normal that the
neutral is at zero volts. However, this is not the case with a PWM
switched three-phase power supply, where a dc voltage is con-
verted into three phase voltages. Even though the fundamental
frequency components of the output voltages are sy mmetrical
and balanced, it is impossible to make the sum of three output
voltages instantaneously equal to zero with two possible output
levels available. The resulting neutral point voltage is not zero.
This voltage may be defined as a common mode voltage source.
It is measurable at the zero point of any load, eg. the star point
of the motor winding.
Figure 2: This schematic shows the phase voltages of a typical three phase
PWM power supply and the average of the three, or neutral point voltage,
in a modern AC drive system. The neutral voltage is clearly not zero and its
presence can be defined as a common mode voltage source. The voltage is
proportional to the DC bus voltage, and has a frequency equal to the inverter
switching frequency.
Generating bearing currents
11 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Figure 3: An example of the common mode current at the inverter output.
The pulse is a superposition of several frequencies due to the different
natural frequencies of the parallel routes of common mode current.
Stray capacitances
A capacitance is created any time two conductive components
are separated by an insulator. For instance, the cable phase wire
has capacitance to the PE-wire separated by PVC insulation,
for example, and the motor winding turn is insulated from the
frame by enamel coating and slot insulation, and so has a value
of capacitance to the motor frame. The capacitances within a
cable and especially inside the motor are very small. A small
capacitance means high impedance for low frequencies, thus
blocking the low frequency stray currents. However, fast rising
pulses produced by modern power supplies contain frequencies
so high that even small capacitances inside the motor provide
a low impedance path for current to flow.
Any time one of the three inverter outputs is changed from one
of the possible potentials to another, a current proportional
to this voltage change is forced to flow to earth via the earth
capacitances of all the components of the output circuit. The
current flows back to the source via the earth conductor and
stray capacitances of the inverter, which are external to the
three phase system. This type of current, which flows through
the system in a loop that is closed externally to the system, is
called common mode current.
Generating bearing currents
12 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
Figure 4: Simplified loop of the common mode current of a PWM inverter and
induction motor. The inverter power supply acts as a common mode voltage
source (V
cm
). Common mode current (CMC) flows through the common mode
cable and motor inductances, L
c
L
m
and through the stray capacitances
between the motor windings and motor frame, combined to be C
m
. From the
motor frame, the current proceeds through the factory earth circuit which
has the inductance L
g
. L
g
is also fed common mode current from the stray
cable capacitance C
c
. The inverter frame is connected to the factory earth
and couples the common mode current/earth currents through stray inverter
to frame capacitances, combined as C
in
, back to the common mode voltage
source.
How does the current flow through the system?

The return path of the leakage current from the motor frame
back to the inverter frame consists of the motor frame, cable
shielding or PE-conductors and possibly steel or aluminium
parts of the factory building structure. All these elements contain
inductance. The flow of common mode current through such
inductance will cause a voltage drop that raises the motor frame
potential above the source ground potential at the inverter frame.
This motor frame voltage is a portion of the inverter’s common
mode voltage. The common mode current will seek the path of
least impedance. If a high amount of impedance is present in
the intended paths, like the PE-connection of the motor frame,
the motor frame voltage will cause some of the common mode
current to be diverted into an unintended path, through the
building. In practical installations a number of parallel paths
exist. Most have a minor effect on the value of common mode
current or bearing currents, but may be significant in coping
with EMC-requirements.
Generating bearing currents
13 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Voltage drops

If the value of this inductance is high enough, the reactance at
the upper range of typical common mode current frequencies,
50 kHz to 1 MHz, can support voltage drops of over 100 volts
between the motor frame and the inverter frame. If, in such a
case, the motor shaft is connected through a metallic coupling
to a gearbox or other driven machinery that is solidly earthed
and near the same earth potential as the inverter frame, then
it is possible, that part of the inverter common mode current
flows via the motor bearings, the shaft and the driven machinery
back to the inverter.
Figure 5: A schematic presentation showing the circulating current and shaft
grounding current, the latter resulting from high motor frame voltage with
superior machine earthing.
If the shaft of the machinery has no direct contact to the ground
level, current may flow via the gearbox or machine bearings.
These bearings may be damaged before the motor bearings.
Figure 6: Source of circulating high frequency bearing current. Current
leakage through distributed stator capacitances gives a non-zero current
sum over the stator circumference. This leads to a net magnetising effect and
flux around the motor shaft.
Generating bearing currents
14 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
Common mode transformer

The largest share of the motor’s stray capacitance, is formed
between the stator windings and the motor frame. This capaci-
tance is distributed around the circumference and length of the
stator. As the current leaks into the stator along the coil, the
high frequency content of the current entering the stator coil is
greater than the current leaving.
This net current produces a high frequency magnetic flux that
will circulate in the stator laminations, inducing an axial voltage
in the shaft ends. If the voltage becomes large enough, a high
frequency circulating current can flow, internal to the motor,
through the shaft and both bearings. The motor can, in this case,
be thought of as a transformer, where the common mode current
flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary and induces the
circulating current into the rotor circuit or secondary. This bear-
ing current is considered to be the most damaging with typical
peak values of 3 to 20 amps depending on the rated power of
the motor, du/dt of the AC drive power stage components and
DC-link voltage level.
Figure 7: The high frequency axial shaft voltage can be thought of as the
resultant of a transformer effect, in which the common mode current flowing
in the stator frame acts as a primary, and induces the circulating current into
the rotor circuit or secondary.
Another version of circulating bearing current occurs when,
the current, instead of circulating completely inside the motor,
flows via the shaft and the bearings of the gearbox or driven
machinery and in a structural element that is both external and
common to the motor and the driven machine. The origin of the
current is the same as in the current circulating inside the mo-
tor. An example of this “vagabond” circulating bearing current
is shown in figure 8.
Generating bearing currents
15 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Generating bearing currents
Figure 8: “Vagabond” circulating bearing current, where the current loop is
external to the motor.
Capacitive voltage divider

Other stray capacitances are also present in the motor, such
as the capacitance between the stator windings and the rotor,
or that existing in the motor’s airgap between the stator iron
and the rotor. The bearings themselves may even have stray
capacitance.
The existence of capacitance between the stator windings and
the rotor effectively couples the stator windings to the rotor
iron, which is also connected to the shaft and the bearing’s in-
ner races. Fast changes in the common mode current from the
inverter can not only result in currents in the capacitance around
the circumference and length of the motor, but also between the
stator windings and the rotor into the bearings.
Figure 9: Common mode loop of variable speed drive, showing stator, rotor
and bearing stray capacitances.
The current flow into the bearings can change rapidly, as this
depends on the physical state of the bearing at any one time. For
instance, the presence of stray capacitance in the bearings is only
sustained for as long as the balls of the bearings are covered in
oil or grease and are non-conducting. This capacitance, where
16 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
the induced shaft voltage builds up, can be short-circuited if the
bearing voltage exceeds the threshold of its breakover value or if a
“high spot” on a ball breaks through the oil film and makes contact
with both bearing races. At very low speed, the bearings have
metallic contact since the balls have not risen on an oil film.
Generally, the bearing impedance governs the voltage level at
which the bearings start to conduct. This impedance is a non-lin-
ear function of bearing load, temperature, speed of rotation and
lubricant used, and the impedance varies from case to case.
Generating bearing currents
17 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Chapter 3 - Preventing high frequency
bearing current damage
Three approaches

There are three approaches used to affect high frequency bear-
ing currents: a proper cabling and earthing system; breaking the
bearing current loops; and damping the high frequency common
mode current. All these aim to decrease the bearing voltage to
values that do not induce high frequency bearing current pulses
at all, or damp the value of the pulses to a level that has no effect
on bearing life. For different types of high frequency bearing cur-
rents, different measures need to be taken.
The basis of all high frequency current mastering is the proper
earthing system. Standard equipment earthing practices are
mainly designed to provide a sufficiently low impedance connec-
tion to protect people and equipment against system frequency
faults. A variable speed drive can be effectively earthed at the
high common mode current frequencies, if the installation follows
three practices:
Multicore motor cables

Use only symmetrical multicore motor cables. The earth (protective
earth, PE) connector arrangement in the motor cable must be sym-
metrical to avoid bearing currents at fundamental frequency. The
symmetricity of the PE- conductor is achieved by a conductor sur-
rounding all the phase leads or a cable that contains a symmetrical
arrangement of three phase leads and three earth conductors.
Figure 10: Recommended motor cable with symmetrical core configuration.
Short impedance path
Define a short, low impedance path for common mode current
to return to the inverter. The best and easiest way to do this
is to use shielded motor cables. The shield must be continu-
ous and of good conducting material, i.e. copper or aluminium
and the connections at both ends need to be made with 360°
termination.
18 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems





Preventing high frequency bearing current damage
Figures 11a and 11b show 360° terminations for European and
American cabling practices.
Figure 11 a: Proper 360° termination with European cabling practice.
The shield is connected with as short a pigtail as possible to the PE terminal.
To make a 360° high frequency connection between the EMC sleeve and the
cable shield, the outer insulation of the cable is stripped away.
Figure 11 b: Proper 360° termination with American cabling practice.
An earthing bushing should be used on both ends of the motor cable to
effectively connect the earth wires to the armour or conduit.
High frequency bonding connections
Add high frequency bonding connections between the installa-
tion and known earth reference points to equalise the potential
of affected items, using braided straps of copper 50 - 100 mm
wide; flat conductors will provide a lower inductance path than
round wires. This must be made at the points where discontinu-
ity between the earth level of the inverter and that of the motor
is suspected. Additionally it may be necessary to equalise the
potential between the frames of the motor and the driven ma-
chinery to short the current path through the motor and the driven
machine bearings.
19 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Figure 12: HF Bonding Strap.
Follow product specific instructions
Although the basic principles of installations are the same,
for different products suitable installation practices may dif-
fer. Therefore, it is essential to carefully follow the installation
instructions given in product specific manuals.
Additional solutions
Breaking the bearing current loops is achieved by insulating the
bearing construction. The high frequency common mode current
can be damped by using dedicated filters. As a manufacturer of
both inverters and motors, ABB can offer the most appropriate
solution in each case as well as detailed instructions on proper
earthing and cabling practices.
Measuring high frequency bearing currents

Monitoring the bearing condition must be conducted with
established vibration measurements.
It is impossible to measure bearing currents directly from a
standard motor. But if high frequency bearing currents are
suspected, field measurements can be taken to verify the exist-
ence of suspected current loops. Measuring equipment needs
to have wide bandwidth (minimum 10 kHz to 2 MHz) capable of
detecting peak values of at least 150 to 200 A and RMS values
at least down to 10 mA. The crest factor of measured signals is
seldom less than 20. The current may flow in unusual places,
such as rotating shafts. Thus, special equipment and experi-
enced personnel are needed.
ABB uses a specially designed, flexible, air-cored, Rogowski-
type current sensor with dedicated accessories and has vast
experience of over one thousand measured drives in different
applications worldwide.
Preventing high frequency bearing current damage
20 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
The most important measurement points are within the motor.
During measurements, the motor speed needs to be at least
10% of the nominal for the bearings to rise on the oil film. As an
example, basic measurements are shown in figure 13. Figure 14
shows examples of measured current waveforms. GTO inverters
were used mainly in the 1980s and IGBT inverters are used today.
Note the different scale in the various graphs.
Figure 13: Basic measurements: A) circulating current measured with a
jumper, B) shaft grounding current.
A) Circulating current
GTO-inverter, 5 μs/div, 2 A/div IGBT-inverter, 5 μs/div, 2 A/div
B) Shaft grounding current
GTO-inverter, 2 μs/div, 10 A/div IGBT-inverter, 5 μs/div, 500 mA/div
Figure 14: Examples of current waveforms at the measuring points shown in
Figure 13.
Leave the measurements to the specialists
Since suitable commercial measurement equipment is not
available on the market and specialised experience is needed
to make the measurements and interpret the results, it is advis-
able that bearing current measurements are made by dedicated
personnel only.
Preventing high frequency bearing current damage
21 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
Chapter 4 - References
1. Grounding and Cabling of the Drive System,
ABB Industry Oy, 3AFY 61201998 R0125
2. A New Reason for Bearing Current Damage in Variable
Speed AC Drives
by J. Ollila, T. Hammar, J. Iisakkala, H. Tuusa. EPE 97, 7th
European Conference on Power Electronics and Applica-
tions, 8-10 September 1997. Trondheim, Norway.
3. On the Bearing Currents in Medium Power Variable Speed
AC Drives
by J. Ollila, T. Hammar, J. Iisakkala, H. Tuusa. proceedings
of the IEEE IEDMC in Milwaukee, May 1997.
4. Minimizing Electrical Bearing Currents in Adjustable Speed
Drive Systems
by Patrick Link. IEEE IAS Pulp & Paper
Conference Portland, ME, USA. June 1998.
5. Instruction on Measuring Bearing Currents with a
Rogowski Coil, ABB Industry Oy, 3BFA 61363602.EN.
6. Laakerivirta ja sen minimoiminen säädettyjen vaihtovirta-
käyttöjen moottoreissa,
I. Erkkilä, Automaatio 1999, 16.9.1999, Helsinki, Finland.
(In Finnish).
7. High Frequency Bearing Currents in Low Voltage
Asynchronous Motors,
ABB Motors Oy and ABB Industry Oy, 00018323.doc.
8. Bearing Currents in AC Drives
by ABB Industry Oy and ABB Motors Oy. Set of overheads
in LN database “Document Directory Intranet” on
ABB_FI01_SPK08/FI01/ABB
9. The Motor Guide
GB 98-12.
See also product specific installation manuals.
22 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
Chapter 5 - Index
Symbols
360° termination 17, 18
360° terminations 18
A
ABB 19
AC drive 9, 10
armour 18
axial shaft voltage 14, 15
axial voltage 14
B
balls 15, 16
bearing 8, 9, 15, 16
bearing current 9, 14, 20
bearing current loops 17, 19
bearing current paths 7
bearing currents 7, 9, 17, 19
bearing fluting 8
bearing races 7
bearings 7, 8, 14, 15, 16
bearing voltage 16
bonding connections 18
braided straps 18
C
cable 17
cable capacitance 12
cable shield 18
circulating current 14
common mode cable 12
common mode current 11, 12, 13,
14, 15, 17, 19
Common mode loop 15
common mode voltage 10, 12
conduit 18
crest factor 19
current pulses 7
D
DC bus voltage 10
dedicated filters 19
drive controller 8
driven machine 9, 18
driven machinery 10, 13, 14
E
earthing paths 7
EDM 9
EDM crater 8
electrical discharge machining 8
electrical shield 9
electric motors 7
F
field measurements 19
flat conductors 18
frame 18
G
gearbox 8, 13, 14
GTO inverters 20
H
high frequency bearing currents 9
high frequency bearing voltage 9
high frequency circulating current 14
high frequency current mastering 17
high frequency current pulses 8
high frequency flux 9
high switching frequencies 7
I
IGBT inverters 20
induced shaft voltage 16
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors
(IGBT) 9
internal voltage division 10
inverter 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18
inverter frame 7, 13
inverter output filtering 7
inverter power supply 12
inverter switching frequency 10
L
low frequency bearing currents 8
M
machine 13
machinery 13, 18
magnetic flux 14
Mean Time Between Failure 8
metallic coupling 13
modern drive systems 8
motor 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19
motor bearing 7
motor cable 17, 18
motor frame 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
motors 9, 10, 19
motor shaft 9, 13
motor windings 12
N
neutral point voltage 10
O
oil film 9, 20
23 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
5
P
primary 14
PWM 10, 12
R
races 8, 16
Rogowski-type current sensor 19
rotor 14, 15
rotor circuit 14
S
secondary 14
shaft 10, 14, 15
shaft ends 14
shaft voltages 10
shield 17
stator 9, 14, 15
stator frame 9, 13, 14
stator laminations 14
stator windings 14, 15
stray capacitance 10, 11, 12, 14, 15
stray currents 7
symmetrical motor cables 7
symmetrical multicore motor cables 17
T
three-phase sinusoidal power supply 10
three phase power supply 10
transformer 14
V
variable speed drive 15, 17
voltage drop 12, 13
voltage pulses 7
W
winding 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15
Index
24 Technical guide No. 5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 22 22681
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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2 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
3 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
ABB drives
Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Technical guide No. 6
3AFE64292714 REV C EN
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.
6
4 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
5 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
6
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7
General ........................................................................................................ 7
Chapter 2 - Basics of the harmonics phenomena.................................. 8
Chapter 3 - Harmonic distortion sources and effects.......................... 10
Chapter 4 - Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize
software .............................................................................. .................11
4.1 Circuit diagram for the calculation example ........................................... 11
4.2 Input data for motor load ...................................................................... 11
4.3 Motor selection .................................................................................... 12
4.4 Inverter selection .................................................................................. 12
4.5 Inverter supply unit data ....................................................................... 12
4.6 Network and Transformer data input..................................................... 13
4.7 Calculated harmonic current and voltage .............................................. 13
4.8 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form .................................... 13
4.9 Part of the printed report ...................................................................... 14
Chapter 5 - Standards for harmonic limits .......................................... 15
5.1 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power drive
systems ........................................................................ ..............................15
5.2 IEC1000-2-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .............................. 16
5.3 IEC1000-2-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .............................. 16
5.4 IEC1000-3-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ............................... 16
5.5 IEC1000-3-4, ...................................................................................... 16
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .......................................................... 16
5.6 IEEE519, IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for
harmonic control in electrical power systems .............................................. 17
Chapter 6 - Evaluating harmonics ....................................................... 19
Chapter 7 - How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications
in the AC drive system..... ................................................... .................20
7.1 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics ......................... 20
7.2 Table: List of the different factors and their effects ................................ 21
7.3 Using 6-pulse diode rectifier ................................................................. 21
7.4 Using 12-pulse or 24-pulse diode rectifier ............................................ 22
7.5 Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier ............................................... 22
7.6 Using IGBT bridge ................................................................................ 23
7.7 Using a larger DC or AC inductor ......................................................... 24
6 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Chapter 8 - Other methods for harmonics reduction .......................... 27
8.1 Tuned single arm passive filter ............................................................. 27
8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter .......................................................... 27
8.3 External active filter .............................................................................. 28
Chapter 9 - Summary of harmonics attenuation .................................. 30
9.1 6-pulse rectifier without inductor ........................................................... 30
9.2 6-pulse rectifier with inductor ................................................................ 30
9.3 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer ........................................... 30
9.4 12-pulse with double wound transformer ............................................. 30
9.5 24-pulse rectifier with 2 3-winding transformers.................................... 31
9.6 Active IGBT rectifier .............................................................................. 31
Chapter 10 - Definitions ...................................................................... 32
Index .......................................................................................................
34
7 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
6
Chapter 1 - Introduction
General
This guide continues ABB’s technical guide series, describing
harmonic distortion, its sources and effects, and also distortion
calculation and evaluation. Special attention has been given to
the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives.
8 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
, where
the total RMS current and
direct current output from the rectifier.
(valid for ideal filtered DC current)
is(t) = i1(t) + Σ ih(t)
Converter
load
Other
loads
Point of Common
Coupling (PCC)
Mains Transformer
Rs Ls
u(t)
Chapter 2 - Basics of the harmonics
phenomena
Harmonic currents and voltages are created by non-linear loads
connected on the power distribution system. Harmonic distor-
tion is a form of pollution in the electric plant that can cause
problems if the sum of the harmonic currents increases above
certain limits.
All power electronic converters used in different types of elec-
tronic systems can increase harmonic disturbances by injecting
harmonic currents directly into the grid. Figure 2.1 shows how
the current harmonics (ih) in the input current (is) of a power
electronic converter affect the supply voltage (ut).
Figure 2.1 Plant with converter load, mains transformer and other loads.
The line current of a 3-phase, 6-pulse rectifier can be calculated
from the direct output current by using the following formula.
The fundamental current is then
9 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Order of harmonic component
Harmonic-
Current
(%)
The rms values of the harmonic components are:
where
6
In a theoretical case where output current can be estimated as
clean DC current, the harmonic current frequencies of a 6-pulse
three phase rectifier are n times the fundamental frequency (50
or 60 Hz). The information given below is valid in the case when
the line inductance is insignificant compared to the DC reactor
inductance. The line current is then rectangular with 120° blocks.
The order numbers n are calculated from the formula below:
Basics of the harmonics phenomena
and the harmonic components are as shown in Figure 2.2.
Figure 2.2 The harmonic content in a theoretical rectangular current of a
6-pulse rectifier.
The principle of how the harmonic components are added to
the fundamental current is shown in figure 2.3, where only the
5
th
harmonic is shown.
Figure 2.3 The total current as the sum of the fundamental and 5
th
harmonic.
10 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Chapter 3 - Harmonic distortion
sources and effects
Common non-linear loads include motor starters, variable speed
drives, computers and other electronic devices, electronic light-
ing, welding supplies and uninterrupted power supplies.
The effects of harmonics can be overheating of transformers,
cables, motors, generators and capacitors connected to the
same power supply with the devices generating the harmonics.
Electronic displays and lighting may flicker, circuit breakers can
trip, computers may fail and metering can give false readings.
If the cause of the above mentioned symptoms is not known,
then there is cause to investigate the harmonic distortion of the
electricity distribution at the plant. The effects are likely to show
up in the customer’s plant before they show on the utility system.
This Technical guide has been published to help customers to
understand the possible harmonic problems and make sure the
harmonic distortion levels are not excessive.
11 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Supply
Sk = 150 MVA
U = 22 kV
Transformer:
S = 400 kVA
U
1
= 22 kV
U
2
= 415 V
z = 4,5%
Cable:
Length = 60 m
R = 0,007 mΩ/m
Motor:
P = 100 kW
I
N
= 200 A
S’k
Xk
Xt
X’k
I
Motor load
Load type
Overload type
Speed [rpm]
Power [kW]
Overload [%]
Const. torque/power
One overload
min base max
0
0
1450
100
100
100
100
1500
60 600 Overload time [s] every [s]
6
Chapter 4 - Harmonic distortion
calculation by using DriveSize software
The harmonic currents cause a distortion of the line voltage. In
principle the voltage harmonics can be calculated at any point
of the network if the harmonic currents and the corresponding
source impedance are known. The circuit diagrams in figure
4.1. show the network supplying the converter and the other
essential parts of the installation. ABB DriveSize software is
used for the calculation.
4.1 Circuit diagram for the calculation example
Figure 4.1. Network supplying a frequency converter in the middle and its
equivalent diagram on the right. The data for this example is on the left.
4.2 Input data for motor load
Figure 4.2. The most important motor load data for harmonics calculation is
the base power in kW.
12 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Selected motor data
M2BA 315 SMC 6
Selection
Voltage [V]
Connection
Frequency [Hz]
Power [kW]
Poles
Speed [rpm]
Max mech.speed [rpm]
Current [A]
Torque [Nm]
T max/Tn
Power factor
Efficiency [%]
Insulation class
DriveSize
415
D
50
110
992
6
2300
197
1060
3,2
0,82
95,6
F
Selection
Selection method
Voltage [V]
Drive power [kVA]
Pn [kW]
Normal Icont [A]
Normal Imax [A]
Phd [kW]
Heavyduty Icont [A]
Heavyduty Imax [A]
Pulse
Frame type
P&F 12Nsq [A]
Selected inverter data
ACS607-0140-3
User
Current (normal)
400
140
110
238
216
90
178
267
6
R8
260
Supply unit data
Pulse #
Lv [μH]
Cdc [mF]
Udc [V]
Idc [A]
6
110
4,95
560
191
Figure 4.5. The supply unit data is defined by DriveSize according to the
inverter type selected.
4.3 Motor selection
Figure 4. 3. The software makes the motor selection for the defined load. If
required there is an option to select a different motor than that selected by
the DriveSize.
4.4 Inverter selection
Figure 4.4. The inverter selection is based on the previous motor selection
and here also the user has an option to select the inverter manually.
4.5 Inverter supply unit data
Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software
13 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Network and Transformer data
Primary voltage [V] Secondary voltage [V]
Frequency [Hz]
Network Sk [MVA]
Transformer Sn [kVA]
Transformer Pk [kW]
Transformer Zk [%]
Supply cable type Cable Busbar
Cable quantity
Cable lenght [m]
Impedance [μΩ]
unknow
22000
50
150
400
3,0
3,8
3
60
415
70
THD
Data
Show Mode
Voltage Current
Result
IEEE Calc
IEEE Limit
47,1% 0,2%
0,2%/ 0,2%/
15,0% 0,5%
Primary side
Secondary
Table
Graph
n
1
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
50
250
350
550
650
850
950
1150
1250
1450
1550
1750
1850
2,8
1,2
0,6
0,2
0,2
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
100,0%
0,6%
41,2%
19,5%
8,6%
5,6%
4,2%
2,7%
2,3%
1,4%
1,2%
0,8%
0,5%
21996,6
32,9
21,7
15,1
11,7
11,3
8,1
8,2
5,5
5,3
3,7
3,0
3,3
f [Hz] Current [A] In/I1 Voltage [V]
50
[%]
Frequency [Hz]
40
30
20
10
0
2
5
0
3
5
0
5
5
0
6
5
0
8
5
0
9
5
0
1
1
5
0
1
2
5
0
1
4
5
0
1
5
5
0
1
7
5
0
1
8
5
0
6
4.6 Network and Transformer data input
Figure 4.6. The network and transformer data input is given here.
For standard ABB transformers the data is shown automatically.
4.7 Calculated harmonic current and voltage
Figure 4.7. The harmonics are calculated by making discrete Fourier
transformation to the simulated phase current of the incoming unit.
Different kinds of circuit models are used, one for SingleDrive with AC
inductors and one for diode and thyristor supply with DC inductors.
There are also models for 6, 12 and 24 pulse connections.
4.8 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form
Figure 4.8. The results of calculations can be shown in table form as
above or as a graph.
Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software
14 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Network check
Network and Transformer data
ACS607-0140-3
Supply unit data
Normal voltage [V]
Frequency [Hz]
Network Sk [MVA]
Transformer Sn [kVA]
Transformer Pk [kW]
Transformer Zk [%]
Supply cable type
Cable quantity
Cable lenght
22000 (primary side)
50
150
400
3,0
3,8
Cable
3
60
Pulse #
Lv [μH]
Cdc [mF]
Udc [V]
Idc [A]
6
110
4,95
560
191
Result
Cosfii
Tot. power factor
Unmax mot.
0,999
0,90
98%
THD Current
THD Voltage
47,1%
0,2%
THD Current
THD Voltage
IEEE 519 limits calc/limit
0,2%/15,0%
0,2%/5,0%
Figure 4.9. The input data and calculated results can be printed out as a
report, which is partly shown here.
4.9 Part of the printed report
Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software
15 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
6
Chapter 5 - Standards for harmonic limits
The most common international and national standards setting
limits on harmonics are described below. Figure 5.1 is shown
as an example for harmonic distortion limits.
5.1 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical
power drive systems
Part 3: EMC product standard including specific test
methods
The countries of the European Economic Area (EEA) have agreed
on common minimum regulatory requirements in order to ensure
the free movement of products within the EEA. The CE marking
indicates that the product works in conformity with the directives
that are valid for the product. The directives state the principles
that must be followed. Standards specify the requirements that
must be met. EN61800-3 is the EMC product standard of adjust-
able speed electrical power drive systems (PDS). Meeting the
requirements of this standard, is the minimum condition for free
trade of power electronics converters inside the EEA.
EN61800-3 states, that the manufacturer shall provide in the
documentation of the PDS, or on request, the current harmonic
level, under rated conditions, as a percentage of the rated fun-
damental current on the power port. The referenced values shall
be calculated for each order at least up to the 25
th
. The current
THD (orders up to and including 40), and its high- frequency
component PHD (orders from 14 to 40 inclusive) shall be evalu-
ated. For these standard calculations, the PDS shall be assumed
to be connected to a PC with Rsc = 250 and with initial voltage
distortion less than 1%. The internal impedance of the network
shall be assumed to be a pure reactance.
In a low voltage public supply network, the limits and require-
ments of IEC1000-3-2 apply for equipment with rated current
≤ 16 A. The use of the future IEC1000-3-4 is recommended for
equipment with rated current > 16 A. If PDS is used in an in-
dustrial installation, a reasonable economical approach, which
considers the total installation, shall be used. This approach
is based on the agreed power, which the supply can deliver at
any time. The method for calculating the harmonics of the total
installation is agreed and the limits for either the voltage distor-
tion or the total harmonic current emission are agreed on. The
compatibility limits given in IEC1000-2-4 may be used as the
limits of voltage distortion.
16 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
5.2 IEC1000-2-2,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Part 2: Environment - Section 2: Compatibility levels for
low frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in
public low- voltage power supply systems
This standard sets the compatibility limits for low- frequency
conducted disturbances and signalling in public low- voltage
power supply systems. The disturbance phenomena include
harmonics, inter-harmonics, voltage fluctuations, voltage dips
and short interruptions voltage inbalance and so on. Basically
this standard sets the design criteria for the equipment manu-
facturer, and amounts to the minimum immunity requirements
of the equipment. IEC1000-2-2 is in line with the limits set in
EN50160 for the quality of the voltage the utility owner must
provide at the customer’s supply-terminals.
5.3 IEC1000-2-4,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Part 2: Environment - Section 4: Compatibility levels in indus-
trial plants for low frequency conducted disturbances
IEC1000-2-4 is similar to IEC1000-2-2, but it gives compat-
ibility levels for industrial and non-public networks. It cov-
ers low- voltage networks as well as medium voltage supplies
excluding the networks for ships, aircraft, offshore platforms
and railways.
5.4 IEC1000-3-2,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Part 3: Limits - Section 2: Limits for harmonic current
emissions (equipment current <16 A per phase)
This standard deals with the harmonic current emission limits of
individual equipment connected to public networks. The date
of implementation of this standard is January 1
st
2001, but there
is extensive work going on at the moment to revise the standard
before this date. The two main reasons for the revision are the
need for the standard to cover also the voltage below 230 V and
the difficulties and contradictions in applying the categorisation
of the equipment given in the standard.
5.5 IEC1000-3-4,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
This standard has been published as a Type II Technical report.
Work is going on to convert it into a standard. It gives the har-
monic current emission limits for individual equipment having a
rated current of more than 16 A up to 75 A. It applies to public
Standards for harmonic limits
17 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
132 kV Net
33 kV Net
11 kV Net
400 kV Net
Typical Values
Min’m
Rsce
66
120
175
250
350
450
>600
12
15
20
30
40
50
60
10
12
14
18
25
35
40
9
12
12
13
15
20
25
6
8
8
8
10
15
18
2.36
1.69
1.25
1.06
0.97
1.02
<=0.91
I5 I7 I11 I13
VOLTAGE
% THD
STAGE 2 LIMITS
% I
1
MAXIMUM LOAD
12p 6p
# 6.66 MW
(5.0 MW)
# 2.50 MW
(5.0 MW)
#
# 4.40 MW
(3.3 MW)
# 1.65 MW
(3.3 MW)
# 1.11 MW
(830 kW)
# 415 kW
(830 kW)
# 760 kW
(215 kW)
# 108 kW
(215 kW)
PCC
**Contribution to existing
THD level at selected
PCC
(26 MVA Assumed)
(100 MVA Assumed)
(400 MVA Assumed)
(600 MVA Assumed)
**
6
networks having nominal voltages from 230 V single phase to
600 V three phase.
The standard gives three different stages for connection pro-
cedures of the equipment. Meeting the individual harmonic
limits of stage 1 allows the connection of the equipment at any
point in the supply system. Stage 2 gives individual harmonic
current limits as well as THD and its weighted high frequency
counterpart PWHD. The limits are classified and tabulated by
the short circuit ratio. The third stage of connection is based on
an agreement between the user and the supply authority, based
on the agreed active power of the consumer’s installation. If the
rated current is above 75 A, stage 3 applies in any case.
The structure of this standard is generally seen to be good, but
it may justly be questioned whether single and three-phase
equipment should have different limits in stage 2. It is very
probable that the structure of the standard will remain as it is,
but the version having the status of actual standard, will contain
different limits for single and three-phase equipment.
Figure 5.1 Limits on harmonics in the proposed EN61000-3-4.
5.6 IEEE519, IEEE Recommended practices and requirements
for harmonic control in electrical power systems
The philosophy of developing harmonic limits in this recom-
mended practice is to limit the harmonic injection from individual
customers so that they will not cause unacceptable voltage
distortion levels for normal system characteristics and to limit
overall harmonic distortion of the system voltage supplied by
the utility. This standard is also recognised as American National
Standard and it is widely used in the USA, especially in the mu-
nicipal public works market.
Standards for harmonic limits
18 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
The standard does not give limits for individual equipment, but
for individual customers. The customers are categorised by the
ratio of available short circuit current (Isc) to their maximum
demand load current (IL) at the point of common coupling. The
total demand load current is the sum of both linear and non-linear
loads. Within an industrial plant, the PCC is clearly defined as
the point between the non-linear load and other loads.
The allowed individual harmonic currents and total harmonic
distortion are tabulated by the ratio of available short circuit
current to the total demand load current (Isc/IL) at the point
of common coupling. The limits are as a percentage of IL for
all odd and even harmonics from 2 to infinity. Total harmonic
distortion is called total demand distortion and also it should
be calculated up to infinity. Many authors limit the calculation
of both the individual components and TDD to 50.
The table 10.3 of the standard is sometimes misinterpreted to
give limits for the harmonic emissions of a single apparatus
by using Rsc of the equipment instead of Isc/IL of the whole
installation. The limits of the table should not be used this way,
since the ratio of the short circuit current to the total demand
load current of an installation should always be used.
Standards for harmonic limits
19 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Verification measurements
and calculations (if necessary)
UTILITY
Calculate average maximum
demand load current (I
L
)
Choose PCC
Calculate short circuit
capacity (S
SC
, I
SC
)
Calculate short circuit ratio
(SCR=(I
SC
/I
L
)
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Is power
factor correction existing
or planned?
Stage 1:
Is detailed evaluation
necessary?
No
Estimate weighted disturbing
power (S
DW
) or% non-linear load
Stage 2:
Does facility meet
harmonic limits?
Characterise harmonic levels
(measurements, analysis)
Design power factor correction
and/or harmonic control
equipment
(include resonance concerns)
CUSTOMER
6
Chapter 6 - Evaluating harmonics
The “Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power Systems”
P519A/D6 Jan 1999 introduces some general rules for evaluating
harmonic limits at an industrial facility. The procedure is shown
in the flowchart in figure 6.1.
Figure 6.1 Evaluation of harmonic distortion.
20 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
LINE
TRANSFORMER
AC DRIVE
LOAD
Short circuit power
Rated power and
impedance
Type of rectifier
DIODE, THYRISTOR; INVERTER:
MVA
MVA
%
mH
PWM;CSI
kW
%
6-p, 12-p, 24-p
Reactor inductance
Type of inverter
Rated power and
load
Inverter
Motor
Alternative
7.1 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics
Harmonics reduction can be done either by structural modifi-
cations in the drive system or by using external filtering. The
structural modifications can be to strengthen the supply, to use
12 or more pulse drive, to use a controlled rectifier or to improve
the internal filtering in the drive.
Figure 7.1 shows the factors in the AC drive system which have
some influence on harmonics. The current harmonics depend on
the drive construction and the voltage harmonics are the current
harmonics multiplied by the supply impedances.
Chapter 7 - How to reduce harmonics by
structural modifications in the AC drive
system
Figure 7.1 Drive system features affecting harmonics
21 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
The cause The effect
The larger the motor… the higher the current harmonics
The higher the motor load… the higher the current harmonics
The larger the DC or AC inductance… the lower the current harmonics
The higher the number of pulses in
the rectifier… the lower the current harmonics
The larger the transformer… the lower the voltage harmonics
The lower the transformer impedance… the lower the voltage harmonics
The higher the short circuit capacity
of supply… the lower the voltage harmonics
6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier
Current waveform Current waveform Current waveform
6
7.2 Table: List of the different factors and their effects
7.3 Using 6-pulse diode rectifier
The connections for different rectifier solutions are shown in
figure 7.2. The most common rectifier circuit in 3-phase AC
drives is a 6-pulse diode bridge. It consists of six uncontrollable
rectifiers or diodes and an inductor, which together with a DC-
capacitor forms a low-pass filter for smoothing the DC-current.
The inductor can be on the DC- or AC-side or it can be left totally
out. The 6-pulse rectifier is simple and cheap but it generates a
high amount of low order harmonics 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
especially with
small smoothing inductance.
The current form is shown in figure 7.2. If the major part of the
load consists of converters with a 6-pulse rectifier, the supply
transformer needs to be oversized and meeting the require-
ments in standards may be difficult. Often some harmonics
filtering is needed.
Figure 7.2 Harmonics in line current with different rectifier constructions.
How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system
22 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier
Harmonic order
I
n
I
1
7.4 Using 12-pulse or 24-pulse diode rectifier
The 12-pulse rectifier is formed by connecting two 6-pulse
rectifiers in parallel to feed a common DC-bus. The input to
the rectifiers is provided with one three-winding transformer.
The transformer secondaries are in 30° phase shift. The benefit
with this arrangement is that in the supply side some of the
harmonics are in opposite phase and thus eliminated. In theory
the harmonic component with the lowest frequency seen at the
primary of the transformer is the 11
th
.
The major drawbacks are special transformers and a higher cost
than with the 6-pulse rectifier.
The principle of the 24-pulse rectifier is also shown in figure 7.2.
It has two 12-pulse rectifiers in parallel with two three- winding
transformers having 15° phase shift. The benefit is that practi-
cally all low frequency harmonics are eliminated but the draw-
back is the high cost. In the case of a high power single drive or
large multidrive installation a 24-pulse system may be the most
economical solution with lowest harmonic distortion.
Figure 7.3 Harmonic components with different rectifiers.
7.5 Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier
A phase controlled rectifier is accomplished by replacing the
diodes in a 6-pulse rectifier with thyristors. Since a thyristor
needs a triggering pulse for transition from nonconducting to
conducting state, the phase angle at which the thyristor starts
to conduct can be delayed. By delaying the firing angle over 90
o
,
the DC-bus voltage goes negative. This allows regenerative flow
of power from the DC-bus back to the power supply.
How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system
23 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Supply
type
6-pulse
rectifier
12-pulse
rectifier
IGBT supply
unit
Current
TDH (%)
30
10
4
Voltage
TDH (%)
RSC=20
10
6
8
Voltage
TDH (%)
RSC=100
2
1.2
1.8
Current waveform
Distortion is in% of RMS values
6
Standard DC-bus and inverter configurations do not allow
polarity change of the DC- voltage and it is more common to
connect another thyristor bridge anti-parallel with the first one
to allow the current polarity reversal. In this configuration the
first bridge conducts in rectifying mode and the other in regen-
erating mode.
The current waveforms of phase controlled rectifiers are similar
to those of the 6-pulse diode rectifier, but since they draw power
with an alternating displacement power factor, the total power
factor with partial load is quite poor. The poor power factor
causes high apparent current and the absolute harmonic cur-
rents are higher than those with a diode rectifier.
In addition to these problems, phase-controlled converters
cause commutation notches in the utility voltage waveform.
The angular position of the notches varies along with the firing
angle.
Figure 7.4 Distortion of different supply unit types. Values may vary
case by case.
7.6 Using IGBT bridge
Introducing a rectifier bridge, made of self commutated com-
ponents, brings several benefits and opportunities compared
to phase commutated ones. Like a phase commutated recti-
fier, this hardware allows both rectification and regeneration,
but it makes it possible to control the DC- voltage level and
displacement power factor separately regardless of the power
flow direction.
The main benefits are:
- Safe function in case of mains supply disappearance.
- High dynamics of the drive control even in the field weakening
range.
- Possibility to generate reactive power.
- Nearly sinusoidal supply current with low harmonic content.
How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system
24 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Line generating unit
3~
Line generating unit
Harmonic order
In
I1
Current without
inductor
Current with
inductor
Measured results for one drive is shown in figure 7.5. When
comparing with figure 7.3 we can see a clear difference. IGBT
has very low harmonics at lower frequencies, but somewhat
higher at higher frequencies.
- Voltage boost capability. In case of low supply voltage the DC
voltage can be boosted to keep motor voltage higher than
supply voltage.
The main drawback is the high cost coming from the IGBT bridge
and extra filtering needed.
Figure 7.5 Harmonics in line current IGBT line generating unit.
7.7 Using a larger DC or AC inductor
The harmonics of a voltage source AC drive can be significantly
reduced by connecting a large enough inductor in its AC input
or DC bus. The trend has been to reduce the size of converter
while the inductor size has been also reduced, or in several
cases it has been omitted totally. The effect of this can be seen
from the curve forms in figure 7.6.
Figure 7.6 The effect of the inductor on the line current.
How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system
25 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
415 V, 50 Hz
5th
7th
11th
13th
17th
19th
23rd
25th
THD
DC Inductance/mH = this figure/motor kW
H
a
r
m
o
n
i
c

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
p
u
)
Load 60 A, Transformer power 50-315 kVA, line fault level 150 MVA
T
H
D

o
f

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
%
)
Short Circuit Ratio
No inductor, 6-pulse
Small inductor,
6-pulse
Large inductor,
6-pulse
Large inductor,
12-pulse
6
The chart in figure 7.7 shows the effect of the size of the DC
inductor on the harmonics. For the first 25 harmonic components
the theoretical THD minimum is 29%. That value is practically
reached when the inductance is 100 mH divided by the motor
kW or 1 mH for a 100 kW motor (415 V, 50 Hz). Practically sen-
sible is about 25 mH divided by motor kW, which gives a THD
of about 45%. This is 0,25 mH for a 100 kW motor.
Figure 7.7 Harmonic current as function of DC inductance.
The voltage distortion with certain current distortion depends on
the short circuit ratio Rsc of the supply. The higher the ratio, the
lower the voltage distortion. This can be seen in Figure 7.8.
Figure 7.8 THD voltage vs type of AC drive and transformer size.
How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system
26 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
A = Large DC- Inductance
B, C = Small DC- Inductance
D, E = Without DC- Inductance
Example: 45 kW Motor is connected to ”a
200 kVA transformer. ”THD = ca. 3% with a
“Large Inductor Drive” and ca. 11% with a
“No Inductor Drive”
T
o
t
a
l

H
a
r
m
i
n
i
c

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

D
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
Input data to calculations:
Rated motor for the dfrive
Constant torque load
Voltage 415 V
Drive efficiency = 97%
Supply Impedance = 10%
of transformer impedance
Supply
transformer
(kVA)
STOP
TURN LEFT
START
TURN LEFT
TURN UP
Motor kW
No DC-Inductor,
6-pulse
Small DC-
Inductor,6-pulse
Large DC-
Inductor, 6-pulse
Large DC-
Inductor, 12-pulse
Figure 7.9 introduces a simple nomogram for estimation of har-
monic voltages. On the graph below right select first the motor
kilowatt, then the transformer kVA and then move horizontally
to the diagonal line where you move upwards and stop at the
curve valid for your application. Then turn left to the y-axis and
read the total harmonic voltage distortion.
Figure 7.9 Total harmonic distortion nomogram.
Results from laboratory tests with drive units from different
manufacturers are shown in figure 7.10. Drive A with large DC
inductor has the lowest harmonic current distortion, drives with
no inductor installed have the highest distortion.
Figure 7.10. Harmonic current with different DC-inductances.
How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system
27 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Detuned - Single tuning frequency
Above tuned frequency harmonics absorbed
Below tuned frequency harmonics may be amplified
Harmonic reduction limited by possible over compensation
at the supply frequency and network itself
6
Chapter 8 - Other methods for
harmonics reduction
Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant
when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or
as a total solution in a new plant. There are two basic methods:
passive and active filters.
8.1 Tuned single arm passive filter
The principle of a tuned arm passive filter is shown in figure 8.1.
A tuned arm passive filter should be applied at the single lowest
harmonic component where there is significant harmonic genera-
tion in the system. For systems that mostly supply an industrial
load this would probably be the fifth harmonic. Above the tuned
frequency the harmonics are absorbed but below that frequency
they may be amplified.
Figure 8.1 Tuned singel arm passive filter
8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter
This kind of filter consists of an inductor in series with a capacitor
bank and the best location for the passive filter is close to the
harmonic generating loads. This solution is not normally used
for new installations.
The principle of this filter is shown in figure 8.2. This filter has
several arms tuned to two or more of the harmonic components
which should be the lowest significant harmonic frequencies in
the system. The multiple filter has better harmonic absorption
than the one arm system.
28 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Fundamental only i
distortion
i
compensation
Load
Active
filter
Current waveforms
Supply
Capacitive below tuned frequency/Inductive above
Better harmonic absorption
Design consideration to amplification harmonics by filter
Limited by KVAr and network
Figure 8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter.
The multiple arm passive filters are often used for large DC
drive installations where a dedicated transformer is supplying
the whole installation.
8.3 External active filter
A passive tuned filter introduces new resonances that can
cause additional harmonic problems. New power electronics
technologies are resulting in products that can control harmonic
distortion with active control. These active filters, see figure 8.3,
provide compensation for harmonic components on the utility
system based on existing harmonic generation at any given
moment in time.
Figure 8.3 External active filter principle diagram.
The active filter compensates the harmonics generated by
nonlinear loads by generating the same harmonic components
in opposite phase as shown in figure 8.4. External active filters
are most suited to multiple small drives. They are relatively ex-
pensive compared to other methods.
Other methods for harmonics reduction
29 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Clean
feeder
current
Load
current
Active filter
current
H
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
s
W
a
v
e
f
o
r
m
s
6
Figure 8.4 External active filter waveforms and harmonics.
Other methods for harmonics reduction
30 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
There are many options to attenuate harmonics either inside
the drive system or externally. They all have advantages and
disadvantages and all of them show cost implications. The best
solution will depend on the total loading, the supply to the site
and the standing distortion.
In the following tables different internal actions are compared
to the basic system without inductor. The harmonic content is
given with 100% load. The costs are valid for small drives. For
multidrive the 12-pulse solution is quite a lot cheaper.
9.1 6-pulse rectifier without inductor
Manufacturing cost 100%
Typical harmonic current components.
Fundamental 5
th
7
th
11
th
13
th
17
th
19
th

100% 63% 54% 10% 6,1% 6,7% 4,8%
9.2 6-pulse rectifier with inductor
Manufacturing cost 120%. AC or DC choke added
Typical harmonic current components.
Fundamental 5
th
7
th
11
th
13
th
17
th
19
th

100% 30% 12% 8,9% 5,6% 4,4% 4,1%
9.3 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer
Manufacturing cost 200%
Typical harmonic current components.
Fundamental 5
th
7
th
11
th
13
th
17
th
19
th

100% 11% 5,8% 6,2% 4,7% 1,7% 1,4%
9.4 12-pulse with double wound transformer
Manufacturing cost 210%
Typical harmonic current components.
Fundamental 5
th
7
th
11
th
13
th
17
th
19
th

100% 3,6% 2,6% 7,5% 5,2% 1,2% 1,3%
Chapter 9 - Summary of harmonics
attenuation
31 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
6
9.5 24-pulse rectifier with 2 3-winding transformers
Manufacturing cost 250%
Typical harmonic current components.
Fundamental 5
th
7
th
11
th
13
th
17
th
19
th

100% 4,0% 2,7% 1,0% 0,7% 1,4% 1,4%
9.6 Active IGBT rectifier
Manufacturing cost 250%. Not significant if electrical braking
is anyway needed.
Typical harmonic current components.
Fundamental 5
th
7
th
11
th
13
th
17
th
19
th

100% 2,6% 3,4% 3,0% 0,1% 2,1% 2,2%
Summary of harmonics attenuation
32 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Chapter 10 - Definitions
S: Apparent power
P: Active power
Q: Reactive power
Rsc: Short circuit ratio is defined as the short circuit power of
the supply at PCC to the nominal apparent power of the
equipment under consideration. Rsc = Ss / Sn.
ω1: Angular frequency of fundamental component ω1 = 2*π*f1,
where f1 is fundamental frequency (eg. 50 Hz or 60 Hz).
n: Integer n = 2, 3, ... ∞. Harmonic frequencies are defined
as wn = n*ω1.
In: RMS-value of n:th harmonic component of line current.
Zn: Impedance at frequency n*ω1.
%Un: Harmonic voltage component as a percentage of
fundamental (line) voltage.
THD: Total Harmonic Distortion in the input current is defined
as:
where I
1
is the rms value of the fundamental frequency current.
The THD in voltage may be calculated in a similar way. Here is
an example for the 25 lowest harmonic components with the
theoretical values:
PWHD: Partial weighted harmonic distortion is defined as:
33 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
6
PCC: Point of Common Coupling is defined in this text as such
a point of utility supply which may be common to the
equipment in question and other equipment. There are
several definitions of PCC in different standards and even
more interpretations of these definitions in literature. The
definition chosen here is seen as technically most
sound.
PF: Power Factor defined as PF = P/S (power / volt-ampere)
= I
1
/ Is * DPF (With sinusoidal current PF equals to
DPF).
DPF: Displacement Power Factor defined as cosφ1, where φ1 is
the phase angle between the fundamental frequency
current drawn by the equipment and the supply voltage
fundamental frequency component.
Definitions
34 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
Index
Symbols
12-pulse rectifier 21, 22, 23, 30
24-pulse rectifier 21, 22, 31
3-winding 31
5th harmonic 9
6-pulse rectifier 8, 9, 21, 22, 23, 30
6-pulse three phase rectifier 9
A
ABB 7, 11, 13
AC inductor 13, 24
active filter 27, 28, 29
active power 17, 32
American National Standard 17
anti-parallel 23
apparent power 32
attenuation 30, 31
C
calculation 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19
CE marking 15
circuit breaker 10
common DC-bus 22
commutation notch 23
compatibility limit 15, 16
computer 10
consumer’s installation 17
converter 8, 11, 15, 21, 23, 24
converter load 8
D
DC-capacitor 21
DC-current 21
displacement power factor 23, 33
distortion calculation 7, 11, 12, 13, 14
distortion nomogram 26
DriveSize 11, 12, 13, 14
E
effect 7, 10, 20, 21, 24, 25
Electromagnetic compatibility 16
electronic device 10
Electronic display 10
electronic lighting 10
EMC product standard 15
European Economic Area 15
external filtering 20
F
filtering 20, 21, 24, 27
frequency 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
17, 22, 27, 28, 32, 33
fundamental frequency 9, 32, 33
H
harmonic component 9, 22, 25, 27,
28, 32
Harmonic currents 8
harmonic currents 8, 11, 13, 18, 23
harmonic distortion 7, 8, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 22, 26, 27,
28, 32
harmonic limit 16, 17, 18, 19
harmonics phenomena 8, 9
harmonics reduction 20, 27, 28, 29
harmonic voltage 26, 32
I
IGBT bridge 23, 24
inductance 9, 20, 21, 25, 26
inductor 13, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30
industrial installation 15
installation 11, 15, 17, 18, 22, 27, 28
inverter selection 12
Inverter supply unit data 12
L
laboratory test 26
line current 8, 9, 21, 24, 32
low-pass filter 21
M
mains transformer 8
Manufacturing cost 30, 31
metering 10
motor load 11, 21
motor selection 12
motor starter 10
multiple arm passive filter 27, 28
N
network 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 27, 28
non-linear load 8, 10, 18, 19
O
overheating 10
P
passive filter 27, 28
phase commutated rectifier 23
point of common coupling 18, 33
power distribution 8
power drive system 15
power factor 12, 14, 19, 23, 33
power port 15
public supply 15
PWHD 17, 32
35 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
6
R
reactive power 23, 32
rectifier 8, 9, 20, 21, 22, 23, 30, 31
rectifying mode 23
regenerating mode 23
report 14, 16
S
short circuit power 20, 32
short circuit ratio 17, 19, 25, 32
source 7, 10, 11, 24
source impedance 11
standard 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, 33
structural modification 20, 21, 22, 23,
24, 25, 26
supply authority 17
Supply cable 13, 14
supply transformer 21
supply voltage 8, 24, 33
T
TDD 18
THD 13, 14, 15, 17, 25, 32
three-winding transformer 22
THYRISTOR 20
thyristor 13, 22, 23
total demand distortion 18
total harmonic distortion 18, 26, 32
transformer 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 21,
22, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31
tuned arm passive filter 27
V
variable speed drives 10
voltage 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32, 33
Voltage boost 24
Index
36 Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 22 22681
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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ABB drives
Dimensioning of a drive system
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2 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
3 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
ABB drives
Dimensioning of a drive system
Technical guide No. 7
3AFE64362569 REV C EN
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.
7
4 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
5 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7
General ........................................................................................................ 7
Chapter 2 - Drive system ....................................................................... 8
Chapter 3 - General description of a dimensioning procedure .............. 9
Chapter 4 - an induction (AC) motor .................................................... 11
4.1 Fundamentals ...................................................................................... 11
4.2 Motor current ....................................................................................... 13
4.2.1 Constant flux range ...................................................................... 14
4.2.2 Field weakening range .................................................................. 15
4.3 Motor power ........................................................................................ 16
Chapter 5 - Basic mechanical laws ..................................................... 17
5.1 Rotational motion ................................................................................. 17
5.2 Gears and moment of inertia ................................................................ 20
Chapter 6 - Load types ........................................................................ 22
Chapter 7 - Motor loadability ............................................................... 25
Chapter 8 - Selecting the frequency converter and motor .................. 26
8.1 Pump and fan application (Example) ..................................................... 27
8.2 Constant torque application (Example) ................................................ 29
8.3 Constant power application (Example) ................................................. 31
Chapter 9 - Input transformer and rectifier ......................................... 35
9.1 Rectifiers .............................................................................................. 35
9.2 Transformer .......................................................................................... 36
Chapter 10 - Index ............................................................................... 38
6 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
Chapter 1 - Introduction
General
Dimensioning of a drive system is a task where all factors have
to be considered carefully. Dimensioning requires knowledge
of the whole system including electric supply, driven machine,
environmental conditions, motors and drives etc. Time spent at
the dimensioning phase can mean considerable cost savings.
8 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Chapter 2 - Drive system
A single AC drive system consists typically of an input trans-
former or an electric supply, frequency converter, an AC motor
and load. Inside the single frequency converter there is a rectifier,
DC-link and inverter unit.
Figure 2.1 A single frequency converter consists of 1) rectifier, 2) DC-link,
3) inverter unit and 4) electric supply.
In multi-drive systems a separate rectifier unit is commonly used.
Inverter units are connected directly to a common DC-link.
Figure 2.2 A drive system which has 1) a separate supply section,
2) common DC-link, 3) drive sections and 4) electric supply.
9 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
This chapter gives the general steps for dimensioning the motor
and the frequency converter.
1) First check the initial conditions.
In order to select the correct frequency converter and mo-
tor, check the mains supply voltage level (380 V to 690 V)
and frequency (50 Hz to 60 Hz). The mains supply network’s
frequency doesn’t limit the speed range of the application.
2) Check the process requirements.
Is there a need for starting torque? What is the speed range
used? What type of load will there be? Some of the typical
load types are described later.
3) Select the motor.
An electrical motor should be seen as a source of torque.
The motor must withstand process overloads and be able to
produce a specified amount of torque. The motor’s thermal
overloadability should not be exceeded. It is also necessary
to leave a margin of around 30% for the motor’s maximum
torque when considering the maximum available torque in
the dimensioning phase.
4) Select the frequency converter.
The frequency converter is selected according to the initial
conditions and the selected motor. The frequency converter’s
capability of producing the required current and power should
be checked. Advantage should be taken of the frequency
converter’s potential overloadability in case of a short term
cyclical load.
Chapter 3 - General description of a
dimensioning procedure
10 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Dimensioning phase Network Converter Motor Load
1) Check the initial
conditions of the
network and load
2) Choose a motor
according to:
• Thermal loadability
• Speed range
• Maximum needed
torque
3) Choose a frequency
converter according to:
• Load type
• Continous and
maximum current
• Network conditions
f
N
= 50 Hz, 60 Hz
U
N
= 380...690 V
T
load
T
n min n max
T
load
T
T
S
n min n max
I
max
I
N
n min n max
T
S
General description of a dimensioning procedure
Figure 3.1 General description of the dimensioning procedure.
11 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
Chapter 4 - an induction (AC) motor
Induction motors are widely used in industry. In this chapter
some of the basic features are described.
4.1 Fundamentals
An induction motor converts electrical energy into mechanical
energy. Converting the energy is based on electromagnetic in-
duction. Because of the induction phenomenon the induction
motor has a slip.
The slip is often defined at the motor’s nominal point ( frequency
( f
n
), speed ( n
n
), torque ( T
n
), voltage ( U
n
), current ( I
n
) and
power ( P
n
)). At the nominal point the slip is nominal:
where n
s
is the synchronous speed:
When a motor is connected to a supply with constant voltage
and frequency it has a torque curve as follows:
Figure 4.1 Typical torque/ speed curve of an induction motor when connected
to the network supply (D.O.L., Direct-On-Line). In the picture a) is the locked
rotor torque, b) is the pull-up torque, c) is the maximum motor torque, T
max

and d) is the nominal point of the motor.
(4.1)
(4.2)
12 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Torque
Speed
An induction (AC) motor
A standard induction motor’s maximum torque ( T
max
, also
called pull-out torque and breakdown torque) is typically
2-3 times the nominal torque. The maximum torque is available
with slip s
max
which is greater than the nominal slip. In order to
use an induction motor efficiently the motor slip should be in
the range - s
max
... s
max
. This can be achieved by controlling volt-
age and frequency. Controlling can be done with a frequency
converter.
Figure 4.2 Torque/ speed curves of an induction motor fed by a frequency
converter. T
max
is available for short term overloads below the field weakening
point. Frequency converters, however, typically limit the maximum available
torque to 70% of T
max
.
The frequency range below the nominal frequency is called a
constant flux range. Above the nominal frequency/ speed the
motor operates in the field weakening range. In the field weak-
ening range the motor can operate on constant power which
is why the field weakening range is sometimes also called the
constant power range.
The maximum torque of an induction motor is proportional to
the square of the magnetic flux ( T
max

~ ψ
2
). This means that the
maximum torque is approximately a constant at the constant
flux range. Above the field weakening point the maximum
torque decrease is inversely proportional to the square of the
frequency
( T
max
~ ).
13 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Constant flux range
Speed
Field weekening range
Flux
T
max
Voltage
7
Figure 4.3 Maximum torque, voltage and flux as a function of the relative
speed.
4.2 Motor current
An induction motor current has two components: reactive cur-
rent ( i
sd
) and active current ( i
sq
). The reactive current component
includes the magnetizing current ( i
magn
) whereas the active cur-
rent is the torque producing current component. The reactive and
active current components are perpendicular to each other.
The magnetizing current ( i
magn
) remains approximately constant
in the constant flux range (below the field weakening point). In
the field weakening range the magnetizing current decrease is
proportional to speed.
A quite good estimate for the magnetizing current in the con-
stant flux range is the reactive ( i
sd
) current at the motor nominal
point.

Figure 4.4 Stator current ( i
s
) consists of reactive current ( i
sd
) and active
current ( i
sq
) components which are perpendicular to each other. Stator flux
is denoted as ψ
s
.
An induction (AC) motor
14 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
, when 0.8 * T
n
≤ T
load
≤ 0.7 * T
max
An induction (AC) motor
4.2.1 Constant flux range
Below the field weakening point the current components can
be approximated as follows:
The total motor current is:
It can be seen that with zero motor torque the active current
component is zero. With higher torque values motor current
becomes quite proportional to the torque. A good approxima-
tion for total motor current is:
Example 4.1:
A 15 kW motor’s nominal current is 32 A and power factor is
0.83. What is the motor’s approximate magnetizing current at
the nominal point? What is the total approximate current with
120% torque below the field weakening point.
Solution 4.1:
At the nominal point the estimate for the magnetizing current
is:
The approximate formula for total motor current with 120% torque
gives:
The approximate formula was used because torque fulfilled the
condition 0.8 * T
n
≤ T
load
≤ 0.7 * T
max
(4.5)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.6)
15 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
4.2.2 Field weakening range
Above the field weakening point the current components also
depend on speed.
Total motor current is:
The motor current can be approximated quite accurately within a
certain operating region. The motor current becomes proportional
to relative power. An approximation formula for current is:
Approximation can be used when:
and
(4.8)
(4.7)
(4.10)
(4.9)
(4.11)
(4.12)
In the field weakening range the additional current needed in
order to maintain a certain torque level is proportional to rela-
tive speed.
Example 4.2:
The motor’s nominal current is 71 A. How much current is needed
to maintain the 100% torque level at 1.2 times nominal speed
(T
max
= 3 * T
n
).
Solution 4.2:
The current can be calculated by using the approximation
formula:
An induction (AC) motor
16 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
4.3 Motor power
The motor’s mechanical (output) power can be calculated from
speed and torque using the formula:
Because motor power is most often given in kilowatts
(1 kW = 1000 W) and speed in rpm revolutions per minute,
1 rpm = rad/s), the following formula can be used:
The motor’s input power can be calculated from the voltage,
current and power factor:
The motor’s efficiency is the output power divided by the input
power:
Example 4.3:
The motor nominal power is 15 kW and the nominal speed is
1480 rpm. What is the nominal torque of the motor?
Solution 4.3:
The motor’s nominal torque is calculated as follows:
Example 4.4:
What is the nominal efficiency of a 37 kW (P
n
= 37 kW,
U
n
=380 V, I
n
=71 A and cos(ϕ
n
) = 0.85) motor?
Solution 4.4:
The nominal efficiency is:
An induction (AC) motor
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
17 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
Chapter 5 - Basic mechanical laws
5.1 Rotational motion
One of the basic equations of an induction motor describes the
relation between moment of inertia ( J [kgm
2
]), angular velocity
( ω [rad/s]) and torque ( T [Nm]). The equation is as follows:
In the above equation it is assumed that both the frequency and
the moment of inertia change. The formula is however often giv-
en so that the moment of inertia is assumed to be constant:
Torque T
load
represents the load of the motor. The load consists
of friction, inertia and the load itself. When the motor speed
changes, motor torque is different from T
load
. Motor torque can
be considered as consisting of a dynamic and a load compo-
nent:
If the speed and moment of inertia are constants the dynamic
component ( T
dyn
) is zero.
The dynamic torque component caused by acceleration/de-
celeration of a constant moment of inertia (motor’s speed is
changed by Δn [rpm] in time Δt [s], J is constant) is:
The dynamic torque component caused by a variable moment
of inertia at constant speed n[rpm] is:
If the moment of inertia varies and at the same time the motor is
accelerating the dynamic torque component can be calculated
using a certain discrete sampling interval. From the thermal di-
mensioning point of view it is however often enough to take into
account the average moment of inertia during acceleration.
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
18 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Basic mechanical laws
Example 5.1:
The total moment of inertia, 3 kgm
2
, is accelerated from a speed
of 500 rpm to 1000 rpm in 10 seconds. What is the total torque
needed when the constant load torque is 50 Nm?
How fast will the motor decelerate to 0 rpm speed if the motor’s
electric supply is switched off?
Solution 5.1:
The total moment of inertia is constant. The dynamic torque
component needed for acceleration is:
Total torque during acceleration is:
If the motor’s electric supply is switched off at 1000 rpm the
motor decelerates because of the constant load torque (50 Nm).
Following equation holds:
Time to decelerate from 1000 rpm to 0 rpm:
Example 5.2:
Accelerating of a fan to nominal speed is done with nominal
torque. At nominal speed torque is 87%. The fan’s moment of
inertia is 1200 kgm
2
and the motor’s moment of inertia is 11 kgm
2
.
The load characteristics of the fan T
load
is shown in figure 5.1.
Motor nominal power is 200 kW and nominal speed is 991 rpm.
19 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Speed
T
o
r
q
u
e
7
Figure 5.1 Torque characteristics of a fan. Speed and torque are shown using
relative values.
Calculate approximate starting time from zero speed to nominal
speed.
Solution 5.2:
Motor nominal torque is:
The starting time is calculated by dividing the speed range into
five sectors. In each sector (198.2 rpm) torque is assumed to be
constant. Torque for each sector is taken from the middle point
of the sector. This is quite acceptable because the quadratic
behaviour is approximated to be linear in the sector.

The time to accelerate the motor ( fan) with nominal torque can
be calculated with formula:
Basic mechanical laws
20 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Direction of energy
Basic mechanical laws
Acceleration times for different speed sections are:
0-198.2 rpm
198.2-396.4 rpm
396.4-594.6 rpm
594.6-792.8 rpm
792.8-991 rpm
The total starting time 0-991 rpm is approximately 112 seconds.
5.2 Gears and moment of inertia
Gears are typical in drive systems. When calculating the motor
torque and speed range gears have to be taken into account.
Gears are reduced from load side to motor side with following
equations (see also figure 5.2 ):
Figure 5.2 A gear with efficiency η. Gear ratio is n
1
:n
2
.
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
21 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
Also all the moments of inertia ( J [kgm
2
]) within the system have
to be known. If they are not known they can be calculated which
is rather difficult to do accurately. Typically machine builders
can give the necessary data.
Example 5.3:
A cylinder is quite a common shape for a load ( rollers, drums,
couplings, etc.). What is the inertia of a rotating cylinder
(mass=1600 kg, radius=0.7 m)?
Solution 5.3:
The inertia of a rotating cylinder (with mass m [kg] and radius r
[m]) is calculated as follows:
In the case of a gear, the moment of inertia to the motor shaft
has to be reduced. The following example shows how to reduce
gears and hoists. In basic engineering books other formulas
are also given.
Example 5.4:
Reduce the moment of inertia to the motor shaft of the following
hoist drive system.
Figure 5.3 A Hoist drive system used in example 5.4.
Solution 5.4:
The total moment of inertia consists of J
1
=10 kgm
2
,
J
2
=30 kgm
2
, r=0.2 m and m=100 kg.
The moment of inertia J
2
and mass m are behind a gearbox with
gear ratio n
1
:n
2
=2:1.
The moment of inertia J
2
is reduced by multiplying with the
square of the inverse of the gear ratio. The mass m of the hoist
is reduced by multiplying it with square of the radius r and be-
cause it is behind the gearbox it has to be multiplied with the
square of the inverse of the gear ratio, too.
Thus the total moment of inertia of the system is:
Basic mechanical laws
22 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Chapter 6 - Load types
Certain load types are characteristic in the industrial world.
Knowing the load profile ( speed range, torque and power) is es-
sential when selecting a suitable motor and frequency converter
for the application.
Some common load types are shown. There may also be com-
binations of these types.
1. Constant torque
A constant torque load type is typical when fixed volumes
are being handled. For example screw compressors, feed-
ers and conveyors are typical constant torque applications.
Torque is constant and the power is linearly proportional to
the speed.

Figure 6.1 Typical torque and power curves in a constant torque application.
2. Quadratic torque
Quadratic torque is the most common load type. Typical
applications are centrifugal pumps and fans. The torque is
quadratically, and the power is cubically proportional to the
speed.
Figure 6.2 Typical torque and power curves in a quadratic torque application.
23 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
3. Constant power
A constant power load is normal when material is being rolled
and the diameter changes during rolling. The power is con-
stant and the torque is inversely proportional to the speed.
Figure 6.3 Typical torque and power curves in a constant power application.
4. Constant power/ torque
This load type is common in the paper industry. It is a combi-
nation of constant power and constant torque load types. This
load type is often a consequence of dimen-sioning the system
according to the need for certain power at high speed.
Figure 6.4 Typical torque and power curves in a constant power/ torque
application.
5. Starting/ breakaway torque demand
In some applications high torque at low frequencies is needed.
This has to be considered in dimensioning. Typical applica-
tions for this load type are for example extruders and screw
pumps.
Load types
24 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Figure 6.5 Typical torque curve in an application where starting torque is
needed.
There are also several other load types. They are however hard to
describe in a general presentation. Just to mention a few, there
are different symmetrical ( rollers, cranes, etc.) and unsymmetri-
cal loads. Symmetry/non-symmetry in torque can be for example
as a function of angle or time. These kinds of load types must
be dimensioned carefully taking into account the overloadability
margins of the motor and the frequency converter, as well as
the average torque of the motor.
Load types
25 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
T / T
n
Relative speed
7
Chapter 7 - Motor loadability
Motor thermal loadability has to be considered when dimension-
ing a drive system. The thermal loadability defines the maximum
long term loadability of the motor.
A standard induction motor is self ventilated. Because of the self
ventilation the motor thermal loadability decreases as the motor
speed decreases. This kind of behaviour limits the continuous
available torque at low speeds.
A motor with a separate cooling can also be loaded at low
speeds. Cooling is often dimensioned so that the cooling effect
is the same as at the nominal point.
With both self and separate cooling methods torque is thermally
limited in the field weakening range.
Figure 7.1 A standard cage induction motor’s typical loadability in a frequency
controlled drive 1) without separate cooling and 2) with separate cooling.
An AC motor can be overloaded for short periods of time without
overheating it. Short term overloads are mainly limited by T
max

(check the safety margin).
Generally speaking, a frequency converter’s short term load-
ability is often more critical than the motor’s. The motor thermal
rise times are typically from 15 minutes (small motors) to several
hours (big motors) depending on the motor size. The frequency
converter’s thermal rise times (typically few minutes) are given
in the product manuals.
26 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Chapter 8 - Selecting the frequency
converter and motor
The motor is selected according to the basic information about
the process. Speed range, torque curves, ventilation method and
motor loadability give guidelines for motor selection. Often it is
worth comparing different motors because the selected motor
affects the size of the frequency converter.
When selecting a suitable frequency converter there are several
things to be considered. Frequency converter manufacturers
normally have certain selection tables where typical motor pow-
ers for each converter size are given.
The dimensioning current can also be calculated when the
torque characteristics is known. The corresponding current
values can be calculated from the torque profile and compared
to converter current limits. The motor’s nominal current gives
some kind of indication. It isn’t however always the best pos-
sible dimensioning criteria because motors might for example
be derated (ambient temperature, hazardous area, etc.).
The available supply voltage must be checked before selecting
the frequency converter. Supply voltage variations affect the
available motor shaft power. If the supply voltage is lower than
nominal the field weakening point shifts to a lower frequency
and the available maximum torque of the motor is reduced in
the field weakening range.
The maximum available torque is often limited by the frequency
converter. This has to be considered already in the motor selec-
tion phase. The frequency converter may limit the motor torque
earlier than stated in the motor manufacturer’s data sheet.
The maximum available torque is also affected by transform-
ers, reactors, cables, etc. in the system because they cause a
voltage drop and thus the maximum available torque may drop.
The system’s power losses need to be compensated also by
the frequency converter rating.
27 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
8.1 Pump and fan application (Example)
Some stages in pump and fan application dimensioning:
• Check the speed range and calculate power with highest speed.
• Check the starting torque need.
• Choose the pole number of the motor. The most economic
operating frequency is often in the field weakening range.
• Choose motor power so that power is available at maximum
speed. Remember the thermal loadability.
• Choose the frequency converter. Use pump and fan rating. If
the pump and fan rating is not available choose the frequency
converter according to the motor current profile.
Example 8.1:
A pump has a 150 kW load at a speed of 2000 rpm. There is no
need for starting torque.
Solution 8.1:
The necessary torque at 2000 rpm is:
It seems that 2-pole or 4-pole motors are alternative choices
for this application.
Figure 8.1 Motor loadability curves in a pump and fan application.
Comparison of 1) 2-pole and 2) 4-pole motors.
1) motor p=2
For a 2-pole motor the loadability at 2000 rpm according to the
loadability curve is about 95%. The motor nominal torque must
be at least:
Selecting the frequency converter and motor
28 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Selecting the frequency converter and motor
The corresponding nominal power must then be at least:
A 250 kW (400 V, 431 A, 50 Hz, 2975 rpm and 0.87) motor is
selected. The nominal torque of the motor is:
The motor current at 2000 rpm speed ( constant flux range) is
approximately:
The minimum continuous current for the frequency converter
is then 384 A.
2) motor p=4
For a 4-pole motor the loadability at 2000 rpm is 75%.
The minimum nominal torque of the motor is:
The minimum power for a 4-pole motor is:
A 160 kW motor (400 V, 305 A, 50 Hz, 1480 rpm and 0.81) fulfills
the conditions. The approximated current at a speed of 2000
rpm (66.7 Hz) is:
The exact current should be calculated if the selected frequency
converter’s nominal current is close to the approximated motor
current.
A 4-pole motor requires less current at the pump operation
point. Thus it is probably a more economical choice than a 2-
pole motor.
29 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
8.2 Constant torque application (Example)
Some stages in dimensioning of a constant torque application:
• Check the speed range.
• Check the constant torque needed.
• Check the possible accelerations. If accelerations are needed
check the moments of inertia.
• Check the possible starting torque required.
• Choose the motor so that torque is below the thermal
loadability curve (separate/self ventilation?). Typically the
nominal speed of the motor is in the middle of the speed
range used.
• Choose a suitable frequency converter according to the
dimensioning current.
Example 8.2:
An extruder has a speed range of 300-1200 rpm. The load at
1200 rpm is 48 KW. The starting torque requirement is 200 Nm.
Acceleration time from zero speed to 1200 rpm is 10 seconds.
The motor is self-ventilated and the nominal voltage is 400 V.
Solution 8.2:
The constant torque requirement is:
A suitable motor is a 4-pole or a 6-pole motor.
Figure 8.2 Motor loadability curves in a constant torque application.
comparison of 1) 4-pole and 2) 6-pole motors.
Selecting the frequency converter and motor
30 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Selecting the frequency converter and motor
1) Motor p=4
At 300 rpm speed the thermal loadability is 80%.
The estimated minimum nominal torque is:
The minimum motor nominal power is:
A suitable motor is for example a 75 kW (400 V, 146 A, 50 Hz,
1473 rpm and 0.82) motor. The motor nominal torque is:
Motor current is approximately (T/T
n
≈ 0.8):
According to the calculated motor current a suitable frequency
converter can be selected for constant torque use.
The starting torque requirement (200 Nm) is not a problem for
this motor.
If the motor’s moment of inertia is 0.72 kgm
2
the dynamic torque
in acceleration is:
Thus the total torque during acceleration is 391 Nm which is
less than the nominal torque of the motor.
2) Motor p=6
At speeds of 300 rpm and 1200 rpm the motor loadability is 84%.
Thus the minimum nominal torque of the 6-pole motor is:
The minimum value of the motor nominal power is:
31 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
A suitable motor could be for example a 55 kW (400 V, 110 A,
50 Hz, 984 rpm and 0.82) motor. The motor nominal torque is:
The dimensioning current can be approximated at a speed of
1200 rpm:
The nominal (continuous) current of the frequency converter
must be over 96 A.
The starting torque requirement is less than motor’s nominal
torque.
If the inertia of the motor is 1.2 kgm
2
the dynamic torque in ac-
celeration is:
The total torque needed during acceleration is 397 Nm which is
less than the nominal torque of the motor.
A 6-pole motor current is 19 A smaller than with a 4-pole motor.
The final frequency converter/motor selection depends on the
motor and frequency converter frame sizes and prices.
8.3 Constant power application (example)
Some stages in dimensioning of a constant power applica-
tion:
• Check the speed range.
• Calculate the power needed. Winders are typical constant
power applications.
• Dimension the motor so that the field weakening range is
utilized.
Example 8.3:
A wire drawing machine is controlled by a frequency converter.
The surface speed of the reel is 12 m/s and the tension is 5700
N. The diameters of the reel are 630 mm (empty reel) and 1250
(full reel). There is a gear with gear ratio n
2
:n
1
=1:7.12 and the
efficiency of the gear is 0.98.
Select a suitable motor and converter for this application.
Selecting the frequency converter and motor
32 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
Selecting the frequency converter and motor
Solution 8.3:
The basic idea of a winder is to keep the surface speed and the
tension constant as the diameter changes.
Figure 8.3 Basic diagram of a winder.
In rectilinear motion the power is: P = Fv
In rotational motion the power is: P = Tω
The relation between surface speed and angular velocity is:
Torque is a product of force and radius: T = Fr
By using the above formulas the motor can be selected:
33 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
The gear must be taken into account before choosing the motor.
Speeds, torques and power have to be reduced:
1) Motor p=2
If a 2-pole motor is selected loadability at a speed of 1305 rpm
is about 88% and 97% at 2590 rpm. The minimum nominal
power of the motor is:
A 200 kW (400 V, 353 A, 50 Hz, 2975 rpm and 0.86) motor is
selected. The motor nominal torque is:
The dimensioning current is calculated according to a torque
of 511 Nm:
2) Motor p=4
If a 4-pole motor is selected it can be seen from the loadability
curve that loadability at a speed of 1305 rpm is about 98% and
about 60% at 2590 rpm. The minimum nominal power of the
motor is:
Selecting the frequency converter and motor
34 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
A 90 kW (400 V, 172 A, 50 Hz, 1473 rpm and 0.83) is selected.
The motor nominal torque is:
Dimensioning in this case is done according to the motor current
at 1305 rpm. The motor current is:
With a 2-pole motor the field weakening ( constant power) range
was not utilized which led to unnecessary overdimensioning. A
4-pole motor is a better choice for this application.
Selecting the frequency converter and motor
35 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
TORQUE
LINE CURRENT
7
Chapter 9 - Input transformer and
rectifier
There are several types of input rectifiers. The rectifier type
might limit the operation.
A conventional rectifier is a 6 or 12 pulse diode rectifier. Diode
rectifiers only support motoring loads where the power flow is
one way only.
In certain processes where the load can also be generating, the
energy needs to be absorbed. For short generating loads the
traditional solution has been a braking resistor where the power
generated has been transformed into heat losses. If however
the load is generating all the time, a true 4-quadrant rectifier is
needed.
Both the input transformer and the rectifier are dimensioned
according to the motor shaft power and system losses. For
example if high torque at low speed is delivered the mechani-
cal power is nevertheless quite low. Thus high overloads do not
necessarily mean high power from the rectifier point of view.
Figure 9.1 Line current in a constant torque application. Line current is small
at low speed.
9.1 Rectifiers
Rectifiers are dimensioned according to motor shaft power. A
single drive’s input rectifier can be selected using the approxi-
mation formula:
In drive systems where there is a common DC-link, there can
be motoring and generating power at the same time. Rectifier
power is then calculated approximately as follows:
(9.1)
(9.2)
36 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
9.2 Transformer
An input transformer’s power can be calculated as follows:
In the above formulas:
P
total
is the total motor shaft power
k is the transformer loadability (k-factor)
1.05 stands for transformer voltage drop (impedance)
η
r
is the rectifier efficiency
cos(α) is the rectifier control angle (=1.0 for diode
rectifier)
η
c

is the AC choke (if there is one) efficiency
η
i

is the inverter efficiency
η
m

is the motor efficiency
Typically total shaft power is multiplied by a coefficient
1.2 - 1.35.
Example 9.1:
In a constant torque application the maximum shaft power
needed is 48 kW at a speed of 1200 rpm. A 55 kW motor and
70 kVA inverter unit was selected.
Specify the rectifier and input transformer. A 6-pulse diode sup-
ply is used ( efficiency 0.985), there is a DC-choke in the DC-link,
inverter efficiency is 0.97 and motor efficiency is 0.95.
Solution 9.1:
For the rectifier the estimated power is:
Input transformer and rectifier
(9.3)
The choke efficiency is included in the inverter efficiency. Because
of diode supply unit cos(α) =1. The power of the input transformer
(k=0.95) is:
37 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
7
Symbols
4-quadrant 35
A
acceleration 17, 18, 29, 30, 31
AC motor 8
active current 13, 14
angular velocity 17, 32
C
centrifugal pumps 22
constant flux range 12, 13, 28
constant power 12, 23, 31, 34
constant torque 22, 23, 29, 30, 35, 36
coupling 21
cubically 22
cyclical load 9
D
DC-link 8, 35, 36
decelerate 18
drum 21
E
efficiency 16, 20, 31, 36
electric supply 7, 8, 18
F
fan 18, 19, 22, 27
field weakening range 12, 13, 15, 25,
26, 27, 31
flux range 12, 13, 14, 28
frequency 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 22,
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32,
33, 34
friction 17
G
gear 20, 21, 31, 32
generating 35
I
induction 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
17, 25
induction motor 11, 12, 13, 17, 25
input transformer 8, 35, 36
inverter 8, 36
K
kilowatt 16
L
load 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33,
35, 36
load profile 22
load type 9, 22, 23, 24
locked rotor torque 11
M
maximum torque 9, 12, 26
mechanical 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 35
motor 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34,
35, 36
motoring 35
N
nominal point 11, 13, 14, 25
O
overloadability 9, 24
P
power 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 22,
23, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34,
35, 36
power factor 14, 16
pull-out torque 12
pull-up torque 11
Q
quadratically 22
quadratic torque 22
R
reactive current 13
rectifier 8, 35, 36
rectifier unit 8
roller 21, 24
S
separate cooling 25
shaft power 26, 35, 36
slip 11, 12
speed 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 35, 36
speed range 19, 20, 22, 27, 29, 31
starting torque 9, 24, 27, 29, 30, 31
supply 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 26, 36
supply voltage 9, 26
T
thermal loadability 25, 27, 29, 30
Torque 12, 17, 19, 22, 32
torque 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,
27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36
transformer 8, 26, 35, 36
V
voltage 9, 11, 12, 13, 16, 26, 29, 36
Chapter 10 - Index
38 Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 22 22681
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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2 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
3 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
ABB drives
Electrical Braking
Technical guide No. 8
3AFE64362534 REV B EN
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.
8
4 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
5 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7
1.1 General .................................................................................................. 7
1.2 Drive applications map according to speed and torque .......................... 7
Chapter 2 - Evaluating braking power ................................................... 9
2.1 General dimension principles for electrical braking .................................. 9
2.2 Basics of load descriptions ................................................................... 10
2.2.1 Constant torque and quadratic torque .......................................... 10
2.2.2 Evaluating brake torque and power .............................................. 10
2.2.3 Summary and conclusions ........................................................... 14
Chapter 3 - Electrical braking solution in drives ................................. 15
3.1 Motor flux braking ................................................................................ 15
3.2 Braking chopper and braking resistor ................................................... 16
3.2.1 The energy storage nature of the frequency converter .................. 16
3.2.2 Principle of the braking chopper ................................................... 17
3.3 Anti-parallel thyristor bridge configuration ............................................. 19
3.4 IGBT bridge configuration ..................................................................... 21
3.4.1 General principles of IGBT based regeneration units ..................... 21
3.4.2 IGBT based regeneration - control targets .................................... 21
3.4.3 Direct torque control in the form of direct power control ............... 22
3.4.4 Dimensioning an IGBT regeneration unit ....................................... 24
3.5 Common DC ........................................................................................ 24
Chapter 4 - Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of
electrical braking ................................................................................. 26
4.1 Calculating the direct cost of energy ..................................................... 26
4.2 Evaluating the investment cost ............................................................. 26
4.3 Calculating the life cycle cost ................................................................ 27
Chapter 5 - Symbols and Definitions ................................................... 31
Chapter 6 - Index ................................................................................. 32
Contents
6 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
7 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
Chapter 1 - Introduction
1.1 General
This guide continues ABB’s technical guide series, describ-
ing the practical solutions available in reducing stored energy
and transferring stored energy back into electrical energy. The
purpose of this guide is to give practical guidelines for different
braking solutions.
1.2 Drive applications map according to speed and torque
Drive applications can be divided into three main categories
according to speed and torque. The most common AC drive
application is a single quadrant application where speed and
torque always have the same direction, i.e. the power flow (which
is speed multiplied by torque) is from inverter to process. These
applications are typically pump and fan applications having
quadratic behaviour of load torque and thus often called variable
torque applications. Some single quadrant applications such as
extruders or conveyors are constant torque applications, i.e. the
load torque does not inherently change when speed changes.
The second category is two-quadrant applications where the
direction of rotation remains unchanged but the direction of
torque can change, i.e. the power flow may be from drive to
motor or vice versa. The single quadrant drive may turn out to
be two quadrants for example if a fan is decelerated faster than
mechanical losses could naturally achieve. In many industries
also the requirement for emergency stopping of machinery may
require two-quadrant operation although the process itself is
single quadrant type.

The third category is fully four-quadrant applications where the
direction of speed and torque can freely change. These appli-
cations are typically elevators, winches and cranes, but many
machinery processes such as cutting, bending, weaving, and
engine test benches may require repetitive speed and torque
change. One can also mention single quadrant processes where
the power flow is mainly from machinery to inverter such as in
a winder or an uphill to downhill conveyor.
It is commonly understood that from the energy saving point
of view the AC motor combined with inverter is superior to
mechanical control methods such as throttling. However, less
attention is paid to the fact that many processes may inherently
include power flow from process to drive, but how this braking
energy could be utilised in the most economical way has not
been considered.
8 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Decelerating Accelerating
Accelerating Decelerating
Figure 1.1 Drive applications map according to speed and torque.
Introduction
9 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
2.1 General dimension principles for electrical braking
The evaluation of braking need starts from the mechanics. Typi-
cally, the requirement is to brake the mechanical system within
a specified time, or there are subcycles in the process where
the motor operates on the generator side at constant or slightly
varying speed.
It is important to note that devices used in electrical braking
are dimensioned according to braking power. The mechanical
braking power depends on braking torque and speed, formula
(2.1). The higher the speed the higher the power. This power is
then transferred at a certain specified voltage and current. The
higher the voltage the less current is needed for the same power,
formula (2.2). The current is the primary component defining the
cost in low voltage AC drives.
In formula (2.2) we see the term cosφ. This term defines how
much motor current is used for magnetising the motor. The
magnetising current does not create any torque and is therefore
ignored.
On the other hand, this motor magnetising current is not taken
from the AC supply feeding the converter, i.e. the current to
the inverter is lower than the current fed to the motor. This fact
means that on the supplying side the cosφ is typically near 1.0.
Note that in formula (2.2) it has been assumed that no loss oc-
curs when DC power is converted to AC power. There are some
losses in this conversion, but in this context the losses can be
ignored.
Chapter 2 - Evaluating braking power
(2.1)
(2.2)
10 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Evaluating braking power
2.2 Basics of load descriptions
Typically loads are categorised as constant torque or quadratic
torque type. Quadratic load torque means that the load torque
is proportional to the square of the speed. It also means that
the power is speed to the power of three. In constant torque
applications, the power is directly proportional to speed.
2.2.1 Constant torque and quadratic torque
Constant torque:
C: constant
Quadratic torque:
2.2.2 Evaluating brake torque and power
In the case of steady state operation (the angular acceleration
α is zero) the motor torque has to make friction torque cor-
respond proportionally to the angular speed and load torque
at that specific angular speed. The braking torque and power
need in respect to time varies greatly in these two different load
types.
(2.7)
Let us first consider the case where the load is constant torque
type and the drive system is not able to generate braking torque,
i.e. the drive itself is single quadrant type. In order to calculate
the braking time needed one can apply the following equation.
Please note that formula (2.7) underlines that the torque needed
for inertia accelerating (or decelerating), friction and load torque
is in the opposite direction to the motor torque.
(2.8)
In practice, it is difficult to define the effect of friction exactly.
By assuming friction to be zero the time calculated is on the
safe side.
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.5)
(2.6)
11 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
P
o
w
e
r

[
1
0

*

k
W
]
,

T
i
m
e

[
s
]
,

T
o
r
q
u
e

[
1
0
0

*

N
m
]
Cumulative time
Natural braking
power [kW]
*
10
Natural braking
torque [Nm]
*
100
Speed [rpm]
8
Figure 2.1 Cumulative braking time, braking load power and torque as a
function of speed.
(2.9)
(2.11)
(2.10)
By solving t one ends up with the formula:
Assuming that the load inertia is 60 kgm
2
and the load torque
is 800 Nm over the whole speed range, if the load is running at
1000 rpm and the motor torque is put to zero, the load goes to
zero speed in the time:
This applies for those applications where the load torque remains
constant when the braking starts. In the case where load torque
disappears (e.g. the conveyor belt is broken) the kinetic energy
of the mechanics remains unchanged but the load torque that
would decelerate the mechanics is now not in effect. In that
case if the motor is not braking the speed will only decrease as
a result of mechanical friction.
Now consider the case with the same inertia and load torque at
1000 rpm, but where the load torque changes in a quadratic
manner. If the motor torque is forced to zero the load torque
decreases in quadratic proportion to speed. If the cumulative
braking time is presented as a function of speed, one sees that
Evaluating braking power
12 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Natural braking curve with quadratic load
P
o
w
e
r

[
1
0

*

k
W
]
,

T
i
m
e

[
s
]
,

T
o
r
q
u
e

[
1
0
0

*

N
m
]
Braking power
[kW]
*
10
Braking torque
[Nm]
*
100
Speed [rpm]
T
i
m
e

[
s
]
Braking time
Natural braking curve with quadratic load
Speed [rpm]
the natural braking time at the lower speed, e.g. from 200 rpm
to 100 rpm, increases dramatically in comparison to the speed
change from 1000 rpm to 900 rpm.
Figure 2.2 Natural braking curve for a 90 kW fan braking load power and
torque as a function of speed.
A natural braking curve can easily be drawn based on the power
and speed at the nominal point applying the formulas (2.5) and
(2.6).
Figure 2.3 Cumulative braking time for, e.g., a 90 kW fan.
Let us now consider the case where the requirement specifies
the mechanical system to be braked in a specified time from a
specified speed.
Evaluating braking power
13 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
The 90 kW fan has an inertia of 60 kgm
2
. The nominal operating
point for the fan is 1000 rpm. The fan is required to be stopped
within 20 seconds. The natural braking effect caused by the load
characteristics is at its maximum at the beginning of the braking.
The maximum energy of inertia can be calculated from formula
(2.12). The average braking power can be calculated by divid-
ing this braking energy by time. This value is, of course, on the
very safe side due to the fact that the fan load characteristics
are not taken into account.
(2.12)
(2.13)
When the braking chopper is dimensioned for this 16.4 kW value
and the motor braking capability at a higher speed is far more
than 16.4 kW, the drive has to include a supervision function
for maximum regeneration power. This function is available in
some drives.
If one wants to optimise the dimensioning of the brake chopper
for a specific braking time one can start by looking at figure (2.3).
The speed reduces quickly from 1000 to 500 rpm without any
additional braking. The natural braking effect is at its maximum
at the beginning of the braking. This clearly indicates that it is
not necessary to start braking the motor with the aforementioned
16 kW power in the first instance. As can be seen from figure
(2.3) the speed comes down from 1000 rpm to 500 rpm without
any additional braking within less than 10 seconds. At that point
of time the load torque is only 25% of nominal and the kinetic
energy conserved in the fan is also only 25% of the energy at
1000 rpm. If the calculation done at 1000 rpm is repeated at 500
rpm, it can be seen that the braking power in order to achieve
deceleration from 500 rpm to 0 rpm is appr. 8 kW. As stated in
previous calculations this is also on the safe side because the
natural braking curve caused by the load characteristics is not
taken into account.
To summarise, the target for a 20 second deceleration time
from 1000 rpm down to 0 rpm is well achieved with a braking
chopper and resistor dimensioned for 8.2 kW. Setting the drive
regenerative power limit to 8.2 kW sets the level of braking power
to an appropriate level.
Evaluating braking power
14 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
2.2.3 Summary and conclusions
There are two basic load types: constant and quadratic load
torque.
Constant torque application:
• The load torque characteristic does not depend on the
speed. The load torque remains approximately the same
over the whole speed area.
• The power increases linearly as the speed increases and
vice versa.
• Typical constant torque applications: cranes and conveyors.
Quadratic torque application:
• The load torque increases to speed to the power of two.
• When the speed increases, the power increases to speed to
the power of three.
• Typical quadratic torque applications: fans and pumps.
Braking power evaluation:
• The quadratic load characteristics mean fast natural decel-
eration between 50-100% of nominal speeds. That should
be utilised when dimensioning the braking power needed.
• The quadratic load torque means that at low speeds the
natural deceleration is mainly due to friction.
• The constant load torque characteristic is constant natural
deceleration.
• The braking power is a function of torque and speed at
that specified operating point. Dimensioning the braking
chopper according to peak braking power typically leads to
overdimensioning.
• The braking power is not a function of motor nominal cur-
rent (torque) or power as such.
• If the load torque disappears when braking starts the natural
braking effect is small. This affects the dimen sioning of the
braking chopper.
Evaluating braking power
(2.14)
(2.15)
15 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
Chapter 3 - Electrical braking solution
in drives
The modern AC drive consists of an input rectifier converting
AC voltage to DC voltage stored in DC capacitors. The inverter
converts the DC voltage back to AC voltage feeding the AC
motor at the desired frequency. The process power needed
flows through the rectifier, DC bus and inverter to the motor.
The amount of energy stored in DC capacitors is very small
compared with the power needed, i.e. the rectifier has to con-
stantly deliver the power needed by the motor plus the losses
in drive system.
3.1 Motor flux braking
Flux braking is a method based on motor losses. When braking
in the drive system is needed, the motor flux and thus also the
magnetising current component used in the motor are increased.
The control of flux can be easily achieved through the direct
torque control principle (for more information about DTC see
Technical Guide No. 1). With DTC the inverter is directly control-
led to achieve the desired torque and flux for the motor. During
flux braking the motor is under DTC control which guarantees
that braking can be made according to the specified speed ramp.
This is very different to the DC injection braking typically used in
drives. In the DC injection method DC current is injected to the
motor so that control of the motor flux is lost during braking. The
flux braking method based on DTC enables the motor to shift
quickly from braking to motoring power when requested.
In flux braking the increased current means increased losses
inside the motor. The braking power is therefore also increased
although the braking power delivered to the frequency converter
is not increased. The increased current generates increased
losses in motor resistances. The higher the resistance value
the higher the braking energy dissipation inside the motor. Typi-
cally, in low power motors (below 5 kW) the resistance value of
the motor is relatively large in respect to the nominal current
of the motor. The higher the power or the voltage of the motor
the less the resistance value of the motor in respect to motor
current. In other words, flux braking is most effective in a low
power motor.
16 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Braking torque (%)
No flux braking
Flux braking
Rated motor power
Figure 3.1 Percentage of motor braking torque of rated torque as a function
of output frequency.
The main benefits of flux braking are:
• No extra components are needed and no extra cost, using
DTC control method.
• The motor is controlled during braking unlike in the DC
injection current braking typically used in drives.
The main drawbacks of flux braking are:
• Increased thermal stress on the motor if braking is repeated
over short periods.
• Braking power is limited by the motor characteristics e.g.
resistance value.
• Flux braking is useful mainly in low power motors.
3.2 Braking chopper and braking resistor
3.2.1 The energy storage nature of the frequency converter
In standard drives the rectifier is typically a 6-pulse or 12-pulse
diode rectifier only able to deliver power from the AC network to
the DC bus but not vice versa. If the power flow changes as in
two or four quadrant applications, the power fed by the process
charges the DC capacitors according to formula (3.1) and the
DC bus voltage starts to rise. The capacitance C is a relatively
low value in an AC drive resulting in fast voltage rise, and the
components of a frequency converter may only withstand volt-
age up to a certain specified level.
Electrical braking solution in drives
17 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
In order to prevent the DC bus voltage rising excessively, two
possibilities are available: the inverter itself prevents the power
flow from process to frequency converter. This is done by limit-
ing the braking torque to keep a constant DC bus voltage level.
This operation is called overvoltage control and it is a standard
feature of most modern drives. However, this means that the
braking profile of the machinery is not done according to the
speed ramp specified by the user.
The energy storage capacity of the inverter is typically very
small. For example, for a 90 kW drive the capacitance value is
typically 5 mF. If the drive is supplied by 400 V AC the DC bus
has the value of 1.35 * 400 = 565 V DC. Assuming that the ca-
pacitors can withstand a maximum of 735 V DC, the time which
90 kW nominal power can be fed to the DC capacitor can be
calculated from:
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
This range of values applies generally for all modern low volt-
age AC drives regardless of their nominal power. In practice
this means that the overvoltage controller and its ‘work horse’
torque controller of the AC motor has to be a very fast one. Also
the activation of the regeneration or braking chopper has to be
very fast when used in drive configuration.
3.2.2 Principle of the braking chopper
The other possibility to limit DC bus voltage is to lead the brak-
ing energy to a resistor through a braking chopper. The braking
chopper is an electrical switch that connects DC bus voltage to
a resistor where the braking energy is converted to heat. The
braking choppers are automatically activated when the actual
DC bus voltage exceeds a specified level depending on the
nominal voltage of the inverter.
Electrical braking solution in drives
18 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
UDC+
UDC-
R+
R-
V1
C1
Control
Circuit
Figure 3.2 Circuit diagram example of braking chopper. UDC represents DC
bus terminals and R the resistor terminals.
The main benefits of the braking chopper and resistor solution
are:
• Simple electrical construction and well-known technol-
ogy.
• Low fundamental investment for chopper and resistor.
• The chopper works even if AC supply is lost. Braking during
main power loss may be required, e.g. in elevator or other
safety related applications.
The main drawbacks of the braking chopper and resistor are:
• The braking energy is wasted if the heated air can not be
utilised.
• The braking chopper and resistors require additional
space.
• May require extra investments in the cooling and heat
recovery system.
• Braking choppers are typically dimensioned for a certain cy-
cle, e.g. 100% power 1/10 minutes, long braking times require
more accurate dimensioning of the braking chopper.
• Increased risk of fire due to hot resistor and possible dust
and chemical components in the ambient air space.
• The increased DC bus voltage level during braking causes
additional voltage stress on motor insulation.
When to apply a braking chopper:
• The braking cycle is needed occasionally.
• The amount of braking energy with respect to motoring
energy is extremely small.
• Braking operation is needed during main power loss.
Electrical braking solution in drives
19 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Forward Reverse
U
dc
3
8
When to consider other solutions than braking chopper and
resistor:
• The braking is continuous or regularly repeated.
• The total amount of braking energy is high in respect to the
motoring energy needed.
• The instantaneous braking power is high, e.g. several
hundred kW for several minutes.
• The ambient air includes substantial amounts of dust or
other potentially combustible or explosive or metallic com-
ponents.
3.3 Anti-parallel thyristor bridge configuration
In a frequency converter the diode rectifier bridges can be
replaced by the two thyristor controlled rectifiers in antiphase.
This configuration allows changing the rectifier bridge according
to the power flow needed in the process.
The main components of the thyristor supply unit are two 6-
pulse thyristor bridges. The forward bridge converts 3-phase
AC supply into DC. It feeds power to the drives (inverters) via
the intermediate circuit. The reverse bridge converts DC back to
AC whenever there is a need to pass the surplus motor braking
power back to the supply network.
Figure 3.3 Line diagram of anti-parallel thyristor supply unit.
Only one bridge operates at a time, the other one is blocked.
The thyristor-firing angle is constantly regulated to keep the
intermediate circuit voltage at the desired level. The forward/re-
verse bridge selection and intermediate circuit voltage control
are based on the measurement of the supply current, supply
voltage and the intermediate circuit voltage. The DC reactor
filters the current peaks of the intermediate circuit.
Electrical braking solution in drives
20 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

/

V
,

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

/

A
Time / ms
The main benefits of the anti-parallel thyristor bridge are:
• Well known solution.
• Less investment needed than for an IGBT solution.
• The DC voltage can be controlled to a lower value than
the network. In certain special applications this can be an
advantage.
The main drawbacks of the anti-parallel thyristor bridge are:
• The DC bus voltage is always lower than AC supply voltage
in order to maintain a commutation margin. Thus the
voltage fed to the motor remains lower than the incoming
AC. However, this can be overcome by using a step-up au-
totransformer in the supply.
• If the supplying AC disappears a risk of fuse blowing exists,
due to the failure in thyristor commutation.
• The cosφ varies with loading.
• Total harmonic distortion higher than in IGBT regenerative
units.
• The current distortion flows through other network imped-
ance and can cause undesired voltage distortion for other
devices supplied from the point where voltage distortion
exists.
• The braking capability is not available during main power
loss.
Figure 3.4. Example of anti-parallel bridge current and voltage waveforms
during braking.
Electrical braking solution in drives
Sinusoidal
phase voltage
Distorted
phase voltage
Line current
21 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
3.4 IGBT bridge configuration
3.4.1 General principles of IGBT based regeneration units
The IGBT based regeneration is based on the same principles as
power transmission within a power network. In a power network
several generators and load points are connected together. One
can assume that at the point of connection the power network
is a large synchronous generator having a fixed frequency.
The input IGBT bridge of the drive (later line converter) can be
considered as another AC voltage system connected through a
choke to the generator. The principle of power transfer between
two AC systems having voltage U and connected to each other
can be calculated from figure (3.4).
(3.4)
The formula indicates that in order to transfer power between
these two systems there has to be a phase difference in the
angle between the voltages of the two AC systems. In order to
control the power flow between the two systems the angle has
to be controlled.
Figure 3.5. Typical line current waveform and harmonics of an IGBT line
generating unit.
3.4.2 IGBT based regeneration - control targets
There are three general control targets in IGBT based regenera-
tion units. The first one is to keep the DC bus voltage stable
regardless of the absolute value of power flow and the direction
of power flow. This ensures that inverters feeding AC motors can
work in an optimum way regardless of the operation point thanks
to a stable DC bus voltage. The DC bus voltage is stable when
the power flow into the DC bus equals the power flow out of the
DC bus. This control of appropriate power flow is achieved by
controlling the power angle between the two AC systems.
Electrical braking solution in drives
Line generating unit
Line generating unit
Harmonic order
22 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Figure 3.6. Fast change from regenerating to motoring operation. Note how
stable the DC bus voltage is during this transition.
The second control target is to minimise the supply current
needed, i.e. to operate at cosϕ = 1.0. This is achieved by con-
trolling the output voltage of the line converter. In some applica-
tions it is desired that the IGBT line converter also works as an
inductive or as a capacitive load.
The third control target is to minimise the harmonic content of the
supply current. The main design criteria here are the impedance
value of the choke and an appropriate control method.
3.4.3 Direct torque control in the form of direct power control
Direct torque control (DTC) is a way to control an AC motor fed
by an inverter. The control principal turns IGBT switches on and
off directly based on the difference between the actual AC mo-
tor torque and the user’s reference torque (Technical Guide No.
1). The very same principle can be applied in a line converter
controlling the power flow from power network to drive and
vice versa. The power is torque multiplied by angular frequency,
which in the network is constant, i.e. controlling torque means
also control of power flow.
(3.5)
Figure 3.7. Fundamental control diagram for DTC based IGBT regeneration unit.
Electrical braking solution in drives
Times / ms
DC Measurement
Power
P
o
w
e
r

/

k
W
,

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

/

1
0

*


V
Load step
Torque_REF
Direct torque and flux
Hysteresis control
Flux_REF
Hysteresis
Torque_BITS
Flux_BITS
Control_BITS
S1, S2, S3
Optimal
Switching
Logic
ASICS
DC-Voltage
S1, S2, S3
Current
Flux_ACT Torque_ACT
Model of power
transmission
Calculate
actual values
DC voltage control
L
23 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Times / ms
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

/

V
8
The DTC control method combined with IGBT technology con-
tributes to a low amount of current harmonics. For that reason
the IGBT supply unit can be used to replace single quadrant
12-pulse or 18-pulse supply configurations, which are typically
used for reducing current harmonics on the supply side. An
IGBT supply unit is therefore also a solution for those cases
where current harmonics rather than the handling of braking
energy is the issue.
The main benefits of an IGBT regeneration unit are:
• Low amount of supply current harmonics in both motoring
and regeneration.
• High dynamics during fast power flow changes on the
load side.
• Possibility to boost the DC voltage higher than the respec-
tive incoming AC supply. This can be used to compensate
for a weak network or increase the motor’s maximum torque
capacity in the field weakening area.
• Full compensation of system voltage drops thanks to volt-
age boost capability.
• Possibility to control the power factor.
• Power loss ride through operation with automatic synchro-
nisation to grid.
• DC bus voltage has approximately the same value during
motoring or braking. No extra voltage stress on insulation
of motor winding during braking.
Figure 3.8. Boosting capability of supplying voltage.
The main drawbacks of an IGBT regeneration unit are:
• Higher investment cost.
• The braking capability is not available during main power
loss.
• High frequency voltage harmonics due to high switching
frequency. These several kilohertz voltage components can
excite small capacitors used in other electrical devices. With
appropriate design and arrangement of feeding transformers
for different devices these phenomena are eliminated.
Electrical braking solution in drives
Actual DC voltage
Reference DC voltage
24 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
When to use an IGBT regeneration unit:
• The braking is continuous or repeating regularly.
• The braking power is very high.
• When space savings can be achieved compared to the brak-
ing resistor solution.
• When network harmonics limits are critical.
3.4.4 Dimensioning an IGBT regeneration unit
The supply current dimensioning of the IGBT unit is based on
power needed. Let us assume that the motoring shaft power
needed is 130 kW and braking power 100 kW. To dimension the
IGBT supply unit the maximum value of motoring or braking power
is selected, in this case 130 kW. The motor voltage is 400 V. The
minimum value for the supplying network is 370 V.
In this case the voltage boost capability can be utilised; the DC
bus voltage is raised to correspond to an AC voltage of 400 V.
However, the required supply current is calculated based on the
370 level. Assuming that there are 5% system losses in the motor
and drive, the total power needed from the grid is 136.5 kW. The
supplying current can be calculated from the formula:
(3.6)
The IGBT regeneration unit is selected based solely on the
calculated current value.
3.5 Common DC
When a process consists of several drives where one motor may
need braking capability when others are operating in motoring
mode, the common DC bus solution is a very effective way to
reuse the mechanical energy. A common DC bus solution drive
system consists of a separate supply rectifier converting AC to
DC, and inverters feeding AC motors connected to the com-
mon DC bus, i.e. the DC bus is the channel to move braking
energy from one motor to benefit the other motors. The basic
configuration of the common DC bus arrangement can be seen
from figure (3.9).
Electrical braking solution in drives
25 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Supply section Braking sections Drive sections
Auxilliary
control
unit
ACU ICU FIU
24 V
AC
Incoming
unit
Filter unit
with IGBT
supply only
DSU/TSU/
IGBT
Supply
unit
Braking unit (optional)
Common DC bus
Supply
unit
Chopper
R
e
s
i
s
t
o
r
Inverter Inverter
8
Figure 3.9. The basic configuration of the common DC bus solution.
The main benefits of the common DC bus solution are:
• Easy way to balance power flow between drives.
• Low system losses in conversion of braking energy thanks
to common DC bus.
• Even if the instantaneous braking power is higher than mo-
toring power the braking chopper and resistor do not need
to be dimensioned for full braking power.
• If braking power is likely to be needed for long periods a
combination of rectifiers can be used.
The main drawbacks of the common DC bus solution with single
quadrant rectifier are:
• The instantaneous motoring power has to be higher than or
equal to braking power.
• The braking chopper and resistor are needed if instantaneous
braking power exceeds motoring power.
• If the number of motors is small the additional cost of a
dedicated inverter disconnecting the device from the DC
bus raises the investment cost.
When to use common DC bus solution with single quadrant
rectifier:
• The number of drives is high.
• The motoring power is always higher than braking power or
only low braking power is needed by the braking chopper.
Electrical braking solution in drives
26 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
Chapter 4 - Evaluating the life cycle cost
of different forms of electrical braking
It has become increasingly important to evaluate the total
life cycle cost when investing in energy saving products. The
AC drive is used for controlling speed and torque. This basic
function of AC drives means savings in energy consumption in
comparison to other control methods used. In pump and fan
type applications braking is seldom needed. However, modern
AC drives are increasingly being used in applications where a
need for braking exists.
Several technical criteria are mentioned above. The following
examines the economic factors for different electrical braking
approaches.
4.1 Calculating the direct cost of energy
The direct cost of energy can be calculated based, for example, on
the price of energy and the estimated brak-ing time and power per
day. The price of energy varies from country to country, but a typical
estimated price level of 0.05 Euros per kilowatt-hour can be used.
1 Euro ~ 1 USD. The annual cost of energy can be calculated
from the formula:
(4.1)
For example, a 100 kW drive is running 8000 hours per year and
braking with 50 kW average power for 5 minutes every hour, i.e.
667 hours per year. The annual direct cost of braking energy is
1668 Euros.
4.2 Evaluating the investment cost
The required investment objects needed for different braking
methods vary. The following investment cost components should
be evaluated.
Braking chopper:
• The additional investment cost of braking chopper and
resistor plus the cost of additional space needed for those
components.
• The investment cost of additional ventilation needed for the
braking chopper.
27 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
Thyristor or IGBT based electrical braking:
• The additional investment cost of thyristor or IGBT regen-
erative braking in respect to the same power drive without
electrical braking capability.
Common DC bus:
• The additional investment cost of braking chopper and re-
sistor including the space needed for those components
if needed in a common DC bus solution.
• The investment cost difference between common DC bus
solution and the respective single drive solution.
4.3 Calculating the life cycle cost
The life time cost calculation supports the purely economic
decision in making an investment. The price level of energy
as well as the price of drives varies depending on the country,
utility, size of company, interest ratio, the time the investment
is used and the overall macroeconomic situation. The absolute
values of prices given in the following examples are solely used
to illustrate the calculation principles.
Case 1 - Occasional braking

Consider the following application case:
The continuous motoring power is 200 kW at a shaft speed of
1500 rpm. In the event of an emergency stop command the ap-
plication is required to ramp down within 10 seconds. Based
on the experience of the process an emergency stop happens
once every month. The inertia J of the drive system is 122 kgm
2
.
When the emergency stop is activated the load torque can be
neglected.
Calculating the braking torque needed for the motor:
(4.2)
The typical torque value for a 200 kW, 1500 rpm motor is about
1200 Nm. A normal AC motor instantaneously controlled by
an inverter can be run with torque at 200% of nominal value.
To achieve higher torque values a proportionally higher motor
current is also needed.
Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking
28 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
The braking power is at its maximum at the beginning of the
braking cycle.
(4.3)
The braking chopper and resistor have to withstand instante-
nously the current for a power of 300 kW. The average braking
power is calculated below.
(4.4)
(4.5)
Cost of resistor braking:
The braking chopper needed is for a maximum braking power
of 300 kW. If the drive has a power limitation function the brak-
ing resistor can be dimensioned according to the 150.3 kW.
The additional cost of the braking chopper and resistor is 4000
Euros.
The braking resistor requires 0.4 m
2
additional floor space. The
cost of floor space is 500 Euros/m
2
.
Due to the small total heating energy and emergency use of brak-
ing, the cost of additional cooling is considered negligible.
The total additional investment cost consists of:
• Braking chopper and resistor in cabinet, 4000 Euros.
• Floor space 0.4 m
2
* 500 Euros/m
2
, 200 Euros.
The total cost of wasted energy during one braking is:
(4.6)
In this case the cost of braking energy is negligible.
Cost of 4Q drive:
The additional cost of a respective investment for electrical
braking with anti-parallel thyristor bridge in comparison with
a drive with braking chopper is 7000 Euros. As expected, the
energy savings cannot be used as an argument to cover the
additional investment required.

Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking
29 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
Case 2 - Crane application
Consider following application case:
Crane with hoisting power of 100 kW. The crane needs full power
on both the motoring and generating side. The longest hoist
operation time can be 3 minutes. The average on duty time over
one year for the hoist is 20%.
Cost of resistor braking:
The braking chopper and resistor have to be dimensioned for
continuous 100 kW braking due to the 3 minutes maximum brak-
ing time. Typically the maximum braking chopper dimensioning
is made for a braking time of 1 minute in 10 minutes.

• Braking chopper and resistor in cabinet 7800 Euros.
The mechanical construction of the crane allows having cabinets
with braking chopper. No extra cost due to floor space.
It is assumed that for 50% of the duty time the crane operates
on the generator side, i.e. an average 2.4 h/day. The total cost
of wasted energy is:
(4.7)
Cost of 4Q drive:
The IGBT 4Q drive is recommended for crane applications.
The additional investment cost for electrical braking with IGBT
input bridge in comparison to drive with braking chopper is
4000 Euros.
The direct payback calculation indicates that an additional 4000
Euros investment brings the same amount of energy savings
during the first year of use.
Case 3 - Centrifuge application
Consider the following application case:
Sugar Centrifuge with 6 pole motor 160 kW rating. The motor
needs full torque for a period of 30 seconds to accelerate the
charged basket to maximum speed of 1100 r/min, centrifuge
then spins liquor off the charge for 30 seconds at high speed.
Once the charge is dry motor decelerates the centrifuge as fast
as possible to allow discharge and recharging.
Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking
30 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
In a batch cycle the charge, spin and discharge times are fixed,
so the only opportunity to increase production is to increase the
rates of acceleration and deceleration. This is achieved by us-
ing an IGBT 4Q drive as the DC link voltage can be boosted for
operation in the field weakening range (1000 to 1100 r/min). This
can save around 3 seconds per cycle, therefore reducing cycle
time from 110 seconds to 107 seconds. This allows an increase
in throughput meaning that the productivity of the process is
improved. The cost premium for IGBT is 10%.
Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking
31 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
8
Chapter 5 - Symbols and Definitions
AC: Alternating current or voltage
B: Friction coefficient
C: Constant or coefficient
cosφ: Cosine of electrical angle between the fundamental
voltage and current
DC: Direct current or voltage
DPF: Displacement Power Factor defined as cosφ1, where
Ø1 is the phase angle between the fundamental
frequency current drawn by the equipment and the
supply voltage fundamental frequency component.
I: Current [Ampere, A]
J: Inertia [kgm
2
]
n: Rotation speed [revolutions per minute,rpm]

P: Power [Watt, W]
PF: Power Factor defined as PF = P/S (power/voltampere)
= I
1
/ I
s
* DPF (With sinusoidal current PF is equal to
DPF).
T: Torque (Newton meter, Nm)
t: Time
THD: Total harmonic distortion in the current is defined as
(5.1)
where I
1
is the rms value of the fundamental
frequency current. The THD in voltage may be
calculated in a similar way.
U: Voltage [V]
W: Energy [Joule, J]
ω: Angular speed [radian/second, 1/s]
32 Technical guide No. 8 - Electrical Braking
A
AC power 9
B
Braking chopper 16, 26, 28
braking chopper 13, 14, 17, 18, 19,
25, 26, 27, 28, 29
Braking power 14, 16
braking power 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
15, 19, 24, 25, 28
C
Centrifuge 29
centrifuge 29
Common DC 24, 27
common DC 24, 25, 27
Constant torque 10, 14
constant torque 7, 10, 14
conveyors 7, 14
cosφ 9, 20, 31
Crane 29
crane 29
D
DC injection braking 15
DC power 9
Direct torque control 22
direct torque control 15
E
energy storage 16, 17
F
fans 14
Flux braking 15, 16
flux braking 15, 16
four-quadrant 7
Friction 31
friction 10, 11, 14
H
harmonic distortion 20, 31
I
IGBT 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 29, 30
impedance 20, 22
Inertia 31
inertia 10, 11, 13, 27
inverter 7, 9, 15, 17, 22, 25, 27
L
line converter 21, 22
N
Natural braking 12
natural braking 12, 13, 14
O
overvoltage control 17
P
pumps 14
Q
Quadratic torque 10, 14
quadratic torque 10, 14
R
rectifier 15, 16, 19, 24, 25
S
single quadrant 7, 10, 23, 25
T
thyristor bridge 19, 20, 28
two-quadrant 7
Chapter 6 - Index
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 22 22681
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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ABB drives
Guide to motion control drives
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2 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
3 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
ABB drives
Guide to motion control drives
Technical guide No. 9
3AFE68695201 REV B EN
EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008
© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.
4 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
5 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7
1.1. Motion control versus speed control ...................................................... 7
1.2. Decentralized or centralized control ....................................................... 8
1.3. Comparison between decentralized and centralized systems ................ 9
1.4. Main functional parts of machine ........................................................... 9
1.5. Machine components .......................................................................... 10
Chapter 2 - Drive and motor combination ........................................... 11
2.1. Brush-type DC .................................................................................... 11
2.2. Brushless DC ..................................................................................... 11
2.3. Asynchronous servo ............................................................................ 12
2.4. Synchronous servo ............................................................................. 13
Chapter 3 - Synchronous technology .................................................. 14
3.1. Measuring performance ....................................................................... 14
3.2. How synchronous servo motors differ from induction motors .............. 15
Chapter 4 - Synchronous servo motor – principle of operation ........... 16
4.1. Special conditions during start up ........................................................ 17
4.2. Traditional speed and current control ................................................... 17
Chapter 5 - Typical servo motors data ................................................. 19
5.1. Torque constant .................................................................................. 19
5.2. Back EMF ........................................................................................... 19
5.3. Torque curve ....................................................................................... 19
5.4. Typical motor data ............................................................................... 20
Chapter 6 - Feedback devices ............................................................. 21
6.1. Resolver .............................................................................................. 21
6.2. Incremental encoders .......................................................................... 22
6.3. SinCos encoder .................................................................................. 22
Chapter 7 - Motion control .................................................................. 24
7.1. General ............................................................................................... 24
7.2. Motion control – basic blocks .............................................................. 24
7.3. Motion control formulas and profiles .................................................... 25
7.4. Motion profile ..................................................................................... 25
7.5. Position interpolator ............................................................................. 25
6 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Chapter 8 - Typical motion functions ................................................... 26
8.1. Positioning .......................................................................................... 26
8.2. Absolute positioning ............................................................................ 26
8.3. Relative positioning .............................................................................. 26
8.4. Synchronization ................................................................................... 27
8.5. Rollover axis ........................................................................................ 28
8.6. Dynamic limiter .................................................................................... 28
8.7. CAM disk ............................................................................................ 28
8.8. Homing ............................................................................................... 29
8.9. Cyclic corrections ................................................................................ 31
8.10. Encoder gear functions ..................................................................... 32
8.11. Virtual master/axis ............................................................................. 33
Chapter 9 - Application examples, distributed control ........................ 34
9.1. Cyclic correction for material handling. ................................................ 34
9.2. Constant gap maintaining .................................................................... 35
9.3. Cut to length ....................................................................................... 36
9.4. Rotary knife ......................................................................................... 37
9.5. Cyclic correction, packing application .................................................. 38
9.6. Flying shear, angled ............................................................................. 39
9.7. Flying shear, parallel ............................................................................ 40
9.8. Lathe ................................................................................................... 41
9.9. Material filling ....................................................................................... 42
9.10. Slitter ................................................................................................. 43
9.11. Picking and stacking ......................................................................... 44
9.12. Warehouse automation ...................................................................... 45
9.13. Winding ............................................................................................. 46
9.14. Wrapping .......................................................................................... 47
Chapter 10 - Motion control – *Glossary of terms ............................... 48
Chapter 11 - Index ............................................................................... 62
7 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Chapter 1 - Introduction
This guide aims to give users an overview of high performance
drives and motion control. Although written in a simple style
to make it relevant to most applications, readers need to have
a basic understanding of AC drive technology to benefit from
this guide.
When considering a motion control application it is important
to consider all elements in the system including drives, motors,
mechanical power transmission components, software, etc.
A high performance system has one or more of the following
characteristics:
• high dynamic performance
• high accuracy reference following and repeatability
• high accuracy motion functions
• capability to run different motor types
1.1. Motion control versus speed control
Standard variable speed drives normally control the motor by
giving a speed command. The system typically has no feedback
and speed reference is preset speeds, 0 to 10 Volts, 4-20 mA,
or fieldbus.
With motion control, there is always feedback of the real posi-
tion. This is compared to the reference value and the difference
is corrected continuously by the motion controller’s profile
generator.
Positioning is a good example that highlights this difference.
If a standard drive is used for positioning, the motor normally
runs at high speed, then decelerates to a lower speed and
stops. Alternatively, the drive can follow an analog signal. Either
way, no reference profile is followed, compared for errors or
corrected. This results in low accuracy.
Accuracy can be improved if the controller is a high perform-
ance motion controller but in this case, the dynamics and the
sample time (generally several milliseconds) of the standard
drive become limiting factors.
8 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Introduction
1.2. Decentralized or centralized control
In a system with centralized control, one unit contains all the
software and the drives just follow the reference value. There
is no intelligence within the drive.
Figure 1.1 Simplified centralized system.
In a decentralized system, the field devices also have intelli-
gence. This means that the cost of the control unit is reduced,
as far less performance is required centrally.

Figure 1.2 Simplified decentralized system.
Motion controller
Speed
reference
Higher level commands
I/O
9 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Introduction
Feature Decentralized Centralized Benefits of
decentralized
control
Number of control
wires
Low High Less cabling
– lower cost
Fewer potential
faults wires
Cabinet Less components,
smaller size
More components
installed
Labour and material
cost saving
Programmable
Logic Controller
( PLC)
Control distributed All control,
additional hardware
cost
Cost saving in PLC
hardware
Time levels Motion loop is
closed in drive*
Motion loop is
closed in controller
Good cost/
performance ratio
Drive-to-drive
communication
Fast drive-to-drive
communication
improves
communication
Not used Less hardware
1.3. Comparison between decentralized and centralized
systems
*This means that feedback is connected directly to drive. It
does not go to PLC or motion controller for calculation which
might cause delay.
More detailed information of motion control in chapter 7.
1.4. Main functional parts of machine
Machines using motion control and/or high performance drives
consist of the following, all of which have a deciding influence
on the performance of the system:
• Motion control hardware: this controls the operation of the
system; it can be centralized or decentralized
• Motion control software: determines the functions of the
machine by receiving input data and handling this according
to the instructions set out in the software code
• Drive or amplifier – receives commands from the motion
control software
• Motor – provides mechanical energy with the required speed
and torque to drive the load in the specified way
• Mechanical power transmission components – belts, gear-
boxes, clutches, ballscrews etc.
10 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Figure 1.3 Constant gab maintaining.
1.5. Machine components
Figure 1.3 shows a basic setup. The distance between boxes on
the conveyor belt varies and the purpose of the motion control
software is to accelerate or decelerate the belt and space the
boxes equally.
Main components:
• Drives and cables (power, feedback, control)
• Overriding control by PLC
• Motor encoder monitoring closed loop motor control and
position information for cyclic correction
• Master encoder, giving speed reference of production line
• Fibre optic cable for communication between drives
• Fieldbus, encoder and drive-to-drive link
• Sensor giving 24 V on/off information to drive
• Synchronous encoder
Introduction
Follower drive Upper control
system ( PLC)
Master drive
Motor
cable
Fieldbus
Master/follower
Fibres Hard wired probe
for standard I/O
Motor cable
Synchronous motor encoder
Master encoder
Fieldbus option module
Encoder option module
Drive-to-drive link
Encoder option module
I/O option module
I/O extension
11 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Chapter 2 - Drive and motor combination
The drive and motor are normally supplied as a package to suit
the application. The main drive, motor types and features are
described here.
2.1. Brush-type DC
The basic principle is the same as in industrial high power DC
drives, the main difference being that there is no magnetizing
circuit. Instead, the motor carries permanent magnets on the
stator side. Rotor current and voltage is supplied by brushes
and a commutator.
Normally, it is not possible to use the supply voltage. Instead, a
transformer is used to reduce the voltage. Some drives have a
rectifier circuit, while others need an external voltage rectifier.
The electronics are relatively simple and only speed feedback
is required for the speed controller. Brush-type DC drives is one
of a small number of control platforms that actually use a tacho
as a feedback device for the speed reference.
When this type of drive and motor combination is used in mo-
tion control, a pulse encoder is quite often fitted to the motor
shaft. Pulses are sent to the motion controller for calculating
the position.
The benefit of brush-type technology is the simple and inexpen-
sive controller. The drawback is that the commutator and the
brushes are mechanical components and have limited lifetime.
Especially in applications where the motor always stops in the
same position, the commutator gets worn in one particular place,
thereby reducing its life even more.
The main players in the drives industry do not use this technol-
ogy anymore. Typically these kinds of products are based on
old analogue platform.
2.2. Brushless DC
The power circuit of a brushless DC servo drive is similar to that
of an AC drive. Input current is rectified and filtered in a diode
bridge with associated DC-link capacitance. The inverter unit
consists of six power devices.
However, with a brushless DC drive the output voltage is not
modulated to form sinusoidal current, unlike in an AC drive.
12 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Instead, six possible switching combinations are used to form
a trapezoidal vector diagram. Typically, hall sensors (hall sensor
is a device that senses magnetic field are used to identify rotor
position) and a tacho generator gives feedback to the speed
controller.
Figure 2.1 Rotational voltage vectors in trapezoidal control.
In the AC drive, the motor’s back EMF (Electro Magnetic Force)
tends to be sinusoidal, while brushless DC servo motors have
a trapezoidal back EMF.
The brushless DC servo control algorithm does not need as
much computing power as a sinusoidal drive. The tacho also
provides fast input to the speed controller.
However, with faster, more powerful and reasonably priced
processors, very high performance drives with sinusoidal output
has been developed.
The main problem with trapezoidal control is torque ripple, es-
pecially at low speeds. There are ways to improve the perform-
ance but it seems that this technology is disappearing from the
main marketplace.
2.3. Asynchronous servo
The amount of slip forces current to the rotor determines the
torque. This motor type has a light and small diameter rotor to
minimize inertia. This means that the inertia, which is inversely
proportional to acceleration, is lower than in induction motors,
although it is higher than in permanent magnet servo motors.
Suitable control methods are closed loop vector or DTC control.
This method gives performance equal to that of drives with asyn-
chronous servo motors. The main limiting factor is the motor.
This drive can often be referred to as a servo drive, due to the
nature of the motor or a closed loop control for standard AC
induction motors.
However, feedback from an incremental encoder, resolver or
SinCos encoder is always needed.
Drive and motor combination
13 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
2.4. Synchronous servo
This type of motor is quite often called AC brushless servo.
Synchronous servo motors have a rotor with permanent mag-
nets and a stator for three phase supply. The rotor has very low
inertia and can achieve fast dynamic performance. The motor
operation is synchronous and the feedback device has to be
able to deliver continuous position and speed information to
the amplifier.
In chapter 3 (page 15) the AC synchronous servo motor is
explained in more detailes.
Drive and motor combination
14 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Chapter 3 - Synchronous technology
The drive or amplifier delivers a sinusoidal output modulated
from the DC-link voltage (traditional modulator or an advanced
method like DTC). This makes the power circuit identical to that
of a conventional drive. Using permanent magnet motors, the
basic algorithm only needs to produce current for the torque
- no magnetizing current is needed.
Servo motors, like induction motors, are manufactured with dif-
ferent numbers of poles. Taking a 6-pole motor as an example,
the name plate states 940 rpm nominal speed (standard induc-
tion) and therefore the synchronous speed is 1000 rpm. This is
achieved at 50 Hz input frequency and at higher speeds, the
motor operates in its field weakening area. This is slightly sim-
plified because some asynchronous servo motors are designed
to run at other than 50 Hz field weakening point.
Synchronous motors use sinusoidal wave form and constant
torque up to nominal speed but in such a way that the frequency
at nominal speed is, for example, 150 Hz for the motor at 3000
rpm nominal speed (six pole winding).
3.1. Measuring performance
The key performance indicator is the bandwidth of different
control loops.
Typical good speed control loop has bandwidth of 100 Hz and
torque loop has 800 Hz.
Increasing the frequency means that the amplifier tends to loose
its ability to respond. Normally, the bandwidth is measured up
to a level where the output is 3 db less than the reference level.
Bandwidth of a signal is a measure of how rapidly it fluctuates
with respect to time. Hence, the greater the bandwidth, the faster
the variation in the signal may be.
Figure 3.1 Amplifier’s response variation as a function of frequency.
15 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
The other problem is phase delay in the amplifier circuit. As the
frequency increases, the amplifiers tend to loose the original
phase.
Figure 3.2 Amplifier’s phase delay as a function of frequency.
3.2. How synchronous servo motors differ from induction
motors
The main difference between synchronous servo motors and
induction motors is in the motor shaft performance. With syn-
chronous servo motors, rotor mass and diameter are minimized,
leading to low inertia which in turn means the rotor does not
need much torque to accelerate. Most of the torque produced
can be used to run the load.
Typical features of synchronous servo motors:
• The motor efficiency is typically over 95% at full power.
• The motor has high power density – there is no rotor current
and thus no build-up of heat in the rotor.
• The motors can run with high temperature rise, for example,
at 40 degrees ambient, temperature rise/class H=125 ˚C
is allowed.
• IP65 is the typical protection degree, compared to IP54 for
standard induction motors.
• Standard AC induction motors are inexpensive. But for higher
performance, additional feedback devices are needed and
these can be costly.
• Other costs include encoders, fans making asynchronous
servo motor a more attractive choice.
• High torque overload capability depends on the basic motor
design and its magnetic materials. Generally, synchronous
servo motor motors can deliver up to 2-5 times or more
overload during short periods.
• Resolver, incremental encoder with commutation channels or
various types of SinCos encoders can be used as feedback
devices. Full digital feedback systems are also available.
• Recent development of drives and motion control systems,
along with lower cost magnetic materials, has increased the
market and number of applications for synchronous servo
motor rapidly.
AC brushless technology
16 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Chapter 4 - Synchronous servo motor –
principle of operation
The synchronous servo motor does not have commutator or
brushes. The drive (amplifier) maintains correct current distribu-
tion at the right vector angles and the right angular speed.
The rotor of synchronous servo motor is not symmetrical but
has a magnetic polarity. The stator provides the three- phase
sinusoidal current. The stator current forms the composite flux
vector.

U phase V phase W phase
Figure 4.1 Magnetic fields at two positions.
The flux produced by permanent magnets and the flux produced
by stator currents must be at exact opposites to maximize the
repulsive and attractive forces of the magnetic fields.
These are the forces that build up torque and cause the motor
shaft to rotate. This operation needs a feedback device that
senses angular position of the shaft at all times, enabling the
amplifier to set up sine output to the right angles.
17 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
4.1. Special conditions during start up
New motors can sometimes have a difference between the ac-
tual rotor position and that given by the feedback device. This
needs to be corrected, otherwise inaccurate feedback results
in the motor not being able to produce full torque and optimum
performance.
The phase error can be resolved in different ways:
Initial start up:
• The drive features phasing error software which identifies
the error during the commissioning run and uses its control
algorithm to compensate for the error
• Error information from the motor manufacturer is entered as a
parameter into the drive. This becomes important if a spare mo-
tor is installed and a non-load trial run is difficult to perform
• Some motor producers build in zero phase error during
manufacture – this is the preferred option as it avoids the
above tasks
Start up after power down:
• When powering up, the rotor position is known if the feedback
device (such as resolvers and some SinCos encoders with
communication bus) can give absolute position within one
revolution.
• However, if an incremental encoder is used, then commuta-
tion channels are required. At start up, the motor is controlled
in the trapezoidal manner, as long as the position is identified
using the commutation signals. See also chapter 6, page 21
for feedback devices.
4.2. Traditional speed and current control
Figure 4.2 shows the basic principle of speed and current
control.
Synchronous servo motor – principle of operation
PID speed
controller
PI current
controller
Current ref.
to motor
Inverter
Current measurement
feedback
Speed
reference
Figure 4.2 Speed and current control loop.
18 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
The role of the servo drive or amplifier is to make sure that the
motor speed and torque follows the reference value. The motor´s
feedback gives actual speed to the speed controller. The speed
controller is typically a PID controller comparing reference and
feedback signals.
The error signal is passed to the current controller. The current
controller, typically a PI amplifier, sets up the correct current
so that the right torque is available to keep the speed at the
reference level.
Synchronous servo motor – principle of operation
19 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Chapter 5 - Typical servo motors data
5.1. Torque constant
The torque constant is an important measure given to the syn-
chronous servo motor. It is expressed as Nm/A and determines
how much torque is produced per ampere.
5.2. Back EMF
The permanent magnet motor acts like generator and builds
up back EMF voltage which is related to angular speed. Back
EMF is opposite to the supply voltage and is in direct relation
to the angular speed.
Ke is voltage constant and is typically expressed in V/1000 rpm
(voltage rms value).
5.3. Torque curve
Short term overload
area
Continous torque
Speed (rpm)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
N
m
)
Figure 5.1 Torque curves of a synchronous servo motor.
The picture shows a typical torque curve of an synchronous
servo motor. It consists of a continuous torque curve and a
short term overload curve. Typical values given as part of the
motor data are:
• T stall which is nominal torque at zero speed
• T nominal which is nominal torque at nominal speed
• T peak which is maximum torque which is typically 2 to 5
times nominal torque.
Synchronous servo motors are normally selected so that the
highest running speed is close to the nominal speed. One im-
portant limiting factor is back EMF.
20 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
When the speed increases, the back EMF increases. This means
there is a limit where the back EMF would be equal to or higher
than the drive’s maximum output voltage.
Synchronous servo motors normally run at a voltage which is far
lower than the drive’s maximum output voltage. For example,
560 V may be used for the DC link drive and 300 V nominal for
the motor. The reason is that the motor has to be able to recover
from peak loads very quickly.
On the other hand there are technical solutions that make it
possible to run synchronous motors in field weakening area.
This means that motor needs more current to the motor wind-
ings. This is achieved by increasing the voltage and thus there
must be margin between nominal and maximum voltage. This is
also the reason why maximum torque output starts to decrease
when the speed becomes closer to nominal speed.
Synchronous servo motors do not typically have cooling fan.
Some suppliers offer cooling fans as option. It increases the
nominal and thus RMS torque, but not peak torque.
5.4. Typical motor data
Type Continuous
torque
zero
speed
M
0
[Nm]
(3)
Current at
continuous
torque
I
0
[A]
(1) (2) (3)
Rated
torque
M
N
[Nm]
(3)
Rated
current
I
N
[A]
(1) (2) (3)
Rated
speed
n
N
[revi/min]
Mechanical
rated
power
P
N
[kW]
(3)
Peak
torque
M
max
Current
at peal
torque
I
ma
x
[A]
(1)
Motor
current
limit
I
limit
[A]
8C1.1.30 1.3 2.1 1.2 2 3000 0.38 4.6 8.1 13.8
Type Torque
constant
K
t0
[Nm/A]
(1) (2) (3)
B.e.m.f. between
phases at rated
speed
V
[V]
(1) (2) (3)
Resistance
at
terminals
R
UV
[W]
(1) (3)
Inductance
at
terminals
L
UV
[mH]
(4)
Moment of
inertia of rotor
J
m
[revi/min]
Weight
m
[kg]
Curves
(5)
8C1.1.30 1.05 190 20.8 47 0.9 3.1 501000
Typical servo motors data
This is a summary of typical nominal values and other motor data.
The reference values are for ABB Servomotors series 8C.
21 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Chapter 6 - Feedback devices
High performance drives often use rotational feedback devices
to give:
• speed feedback to the amplifier’s speed controller
• position information to internal/external position control
• shaft position to the amplifier
• position information when acting as second encoder
• absolute position after black out
6.1. Resolver
A resolver is a rotational transformer. The most common type
is a brushless resolver.
The resolver has a three coil arrangement. The reference signal,
for instance an 8 kHz sine wave, is connected to the rotating part
of the device via a transformer. This enables the coil carrying
reference to rotate at the same speed as the shaft.
Two other coils are placed in 90 degrees phase shift. The ro-
tational coil induces voltage in these coils. Output signals are
fed to the amplifier and the speed and the position of the rotor
is resolved by using these signals.
Frequently, resolver signals are converted to a pulse train for
an external motion controller. In other words there is output
that emulates encoder channels A, B and Z pulses. Read also
encoder information.
Cos winding
S4
S2
S3
S1
Vs = Vr Sin (θ)
Vc = Vr Cos (θ)
Sin
winding
Rotary
transformer
R1
Vr
R2
Figure 6.1 The principle of a resolver.
22 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
6.2. Incremental encoders
Incremental encoders are widely used in various machine build-
ing applications.
The basic operation is based on a light source, a disk and a
photo cell (sensor). The disk is installed between the light source
and the sensor. The disk has a very fine mesh, enabling light
to be visible or obscured to the sensor. The sensor output is
digitized to form a square pulse when light is seen. When the
disk rotates, the sensor produces a pulse train. The frequency
of the pulse train is in relation to the speed of the axis and the
receiving end can calculate this.
There are various specifications for encoders, but for motion
control, two channels plus a zero channel is the most commonly
used. Each channel is typically differential so that the output is
A, A inversion, B, B inversion and Z, Z inversion.
Differential encoder
Figure 6.2 Typical circuits and cables
X2
SH
SH
A+
A-
B+
B-
Z+
Z-
X1
0 V
0 V
V out
+ 15 V
V in
+24 V
Pulse order in forward
rotation: A-pulse first
A+
A-
B+
B-
Forward rotation clockwise
from the shaft end
Internal connection in the
option module
Output voltage
selection with
jumper
Feedback devices
6.3. SinCos encoder
The SinCos encoder operates in a similar way to the incremental
encoder. It typically has three channels, A, B and Z. While the
output from an incremental encoder is a digitized square wave,
the SinCos encoder output is a number representing the full sine
and cosine waves. The number of cycles can be, for example,
1024 full cycles, often also called “increments”. The receiving
circuit of the drive calculates the increments and interpolates
between these signals to improve the resolution. The interpola-
tion depends on the sample time of the drive. For example, if
the sample time is 250 us, a sample of sinus and cosine is taken
every 250 us; the lower the speed, the higher resolution can be
achieved (and visa versa). From a mathematical point of view,
the angle is arctan (sinα/cosα).
23 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Feedback devices
SINE
commutation track
Typically, the drive hardware outputs a quadrate signal of sine/
cosine signals, so that what is seen is a pulse train input for
calculation. The rising and falling edges of both channels can be
utilized, giving four signals per cycle. This results in a number of
signals that is four times higher than the number cycles speci-
fied in the encoder data.
Figure 6.3 Output of SinCos encoder with commutation channel.
The absolute position of the rotor is also needed at start up. This
can be established by using a data link (next chapter) or by an
additional sine/cosine channel. This channel provides one full
sine and cosine cycle per revolution and makes it possible to
find the rotor position. The Z-pulse position can be checked by
ensuring that the Z pulse is “high” when the sine/cosine chan-
nels show zero position.
Figure 6.4 Interpolation within one cycle in SinCos encoder (1024 cycles per
revolution)
SinCos encoders are also available with data bus. A data
bus can give absolute position after power-down, a common
requirement in today’s applications. This eliminates the need
for homing routines after power-down. This makes the machine
design simpler and increases the machine’s production time.
Data of absolute position is also used at start-up to identify the
rotor position.
COSINE
commutation track
SINE & COSINE incremental tracks
Z-marker pulse Z-marker pulse
angle = tan
-1
x
y
pulse 256 pulse 257
0,351°
24 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Chapter 7 - Motion control
7.1. General
Motion control covers many different functions. This chapter deals
with basics of speed and motion and functional differences.
7.2. Motion control – basic blocks
Speed controlled drives change speed mainly in steps and the
response is not very fast. Speed reference commands are given
in certain levels and the drive frequently has its own ramp to
move from one level to another. The drive does not follow a
continuously changing reference track.
In motion control, the situation is different. The motor follows a
continuously changing reference. The reference is created in a
profile generator and this profile is compared to the feedback.
P-amplifier compares signals and feeds the reference to the
speed controller.
Positioning
interpolator
Electronic gear and CAM
disk for synchronising
Torque
reference
Position
reference
Master
position
Speed
reference
Position
controller
Speed
controller
P PID
Pulse
encoder
Inverter
Figure 7.1 Motion control loop.
Figure 7.2 Position, speed and current control.
PID speed
controller
PI current
controller
Current ref.
to motor
Inverter
Current measurement
feedback
POS
position
controller
Speed
reference
25 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
7.3. Motion control formulas and profiles
The following formulas are the key motion parameters.
Target position
Return
position
t
Maximum
velocity
t
Maximum
acceleration
t
Maximum
deceleration
t
J
e
r
k
,
u
n
i
t
s
/
s
3
3
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,
u
n
i
t
s
/
s
2
2
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
u
n
i
t
s
/
s
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
u
n
i
t
s
7.4. Motion profile
The illustration shows how the position advances against a set
target. It also shows the velocity profile and the corresponding
acceleration and deceleration rates.
Distance (θ) = velocity x time
= ∫ v · dt (integral of velocity x time)
Velocity (ν) = distance/time
= dθ/dt (rate of change of distance)
= ∫ α · dt (internal of acceleration x time)
Acceleration (α) = velocity/time
= dv/dt (rate of change of velocity)
= ∫ γ · dt (integral of jerk x time)
Jerk (γ) = acceleration/time
= dα/dt (rate of change of acceleration)
Figure 7.3 Positioning motion profile references.
7.5. Position interpolator
The position interpolator calculates the speed from which the
drive can decelerate to a stop within the target distance, using
the defined deceleration reference. The calculated speed is used
to generate an optimized position reference, which guides the
drive to its target position. The illustration refered to shows how
the position interpolator generates a position reference.
The typical parameters that are set by the user are
• Acceleration
• Run speed
• Deceleration
• Target position
Motion control
26 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Chapter 8 - Typical motion functions
8.1. Positioning
Positioning is one of the most frequently used motion functions.
It is used when moving material from point A to point B along a
pre-defined track, then on to point C and so on.
Positioning can also be divided into linear and roll-over posi-
tioning. Roll-over positioning means position calculation within
one revolution.
Linear positioning is used for linear movement. There are two main
principles in positioning, absolute and relative positioning.
8.2. Absolute positioning
Figure 8.1 Positioning absolute.
8.3. Relative positioning
Speed
Distance
Total travel 10 revs
First ref 5 revs Second ref 10 revs
5 revs from position target one but 10
revs from home position
P
1
5 revs
Home
Figure 8.2 Positioning relative.
Speed
Total travel 15 revs
First ref 5 revs Second ref 10 revs
10 revs from position target one but
15 revs from home position
P
2
10 revs
P
0
Distance
Home
P
1
5 revs
P
2
15 revs
P
0
27 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
8.4. Synchronization
Synchronization means that a follower drive reads speed and
positional reference from an external encoder or from the other
drives. The gear ratio can normally be adjusted to suit the ap-
plication. Synchronization can be absolute or relative and works
for linear/rollover axes.
Speed
Figure 8.3 Relative synchronization.
Linear axis (Figure 8.3), relative synchronization: The follower
drive starts to accelerate and continues to increase the speed
to catch up with the speed of the master. When areas A and B
are equal, the follower has caught up.
MAX POSITION SPEED
Master speed
Follower speed
A=B
MAX POSITION DECELERATION
Synchronized
t
MAX POSITION ACCELERATION
Speed
MAX POSITION SPEED
Master speed
Follower speed
A=B
MAX POSITION DECELERATION
Synchronized
t
MAX POSITION ACCELERATION
Figure 8.4 Absolute synchronization.
Linear axis, absolute synchronization: In this case, the reference
is the total travel distance the master drive has to complete.
The follower drive will run at a higher speed for long enough to
catch up with the position of the master drive.
Typical motion functions
28 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Typical motion functions
8.5. Rollover axis
Rollover axis mode is such that only one revolution is calculated
and then calculation starts all over again.
Speed
MAX POSITION SPEED
Master speed
Follower speed
MAX POSITION DECELERATION
Synchronized
t
MAX POSITION ACCELERATION
Figure 8.6 Dynamic limiter controls follower’s speed.
8.7. CAM disk
Cam functions used to be achieved by mechanical means in the
past. Traditionally, this method incorporates a rotational, non-
symmetrical tool that forms a reference to another tool.
This type of system is not very flexible and contains mechanical
parts that loose accuracy with wear.
Speed
MAX POSITION SPEED
Master speed
Follower speed
POSITION DECELERATION
STOP
t
POSITION SPEED
Master speed
A=B
Figure 8.5 Rollover synchronization.
The illustration shows how the follower drive catches up with
the master drive’s position.
8.6. Dynamic limiter
The picture shows a situation where the master speed is so
high that a synchronization error is built up between the master
and the follower drives. In this example, the error is corrected
when a stop command is given. A dynamic limiter controls the
speed of the follower until the positioning speed is reached
and the follower runs to the position it should have according
to parameter settings.
29 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
In most cases these mechanical systems can be replaced by
electrical CAM systems. The CAM profile is created in a CAM
table where the user enters the values. Each master position
has corresponding slave position.
The cam function is very useful in for example flying shears.
Figure 8.7 CAM disk table values vs CAM profile.
8.8. Homing
Homing is required at start up and if position is lost due to power
loss of system. If absolute encoder is used the real position is
known as soon as power comes back. One way around is to
use auxiliary power supply (typically 24 V).
What ever the system is home position has to be determined
at start up. Following discuss applications without absolute
encoder and explains some typical homing routines.
If there is only homing limit switch, software checks the status
of switch. If switch is on the load must move towards positive
speed until switch turns off and then load is at home position.
CAM disk table
Master
position
Follower
position
0 0
20 20
40 20
60 40
80 40
100 60
120 90
140 120
160 150
180 180
200 150
220 120
240 90
260 60
280 40
300 40
320 20
340 20
360 0
Follower position (degrees)
Master position (degrees)
Homing switch
Forward H/W limit
switch
Reverse H/W
limit switch
Figure 8.8 Homing started with homing switch on.
Typical motion functions
30 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Vice versa if switch is off load must drive to negative direction
until switch turns on and then back up slightly until switch turns
off again.
Figure 8.9 Homing started with homing switch off.
The better result or say accuracy can be achieved by using zero
pulse and pre latch function. This works in the following way:
• At commissioning the absolute position of zero pulse is know
or can be set up
• The distance between proximity switch and zero pulse must
be within one revolution
• As soon as proximity switch becomes active software starts
to seek zero pulse and stops at zero pulse or to determined
distance from it. The idea is that mechnical switch might be
inaccurate, due to mechanical stress for example and thus
gives rough positional information. Zero pulse is then very
accurate and free of drift.
Homing switch
Forward H/W limit
switch
Reverse H/W
limit switch
Homing switch
Forward H/W limit
switch
Reverse H/W limit
switch
Prelatch
Z-pulse
Home position
Figure 8.10 Homing with prelatch and zero pulse.
Typical motion functions
31 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
8.9. Cyclic corrections
Cyclic corrections are used in many applications where, due drift
or material misplacement, the position needs to be corrected.
This is valid for both roll over and linear movement.
Cyclic corrections always need latch information of position. This
could come from an external sensor or Z-pulse of the encoder.
A few examples are the best way to show functionality.
Figure 8.11 Master/follower conveyor lines
In Figure 8.11, a master/follower set-up is described. The pur-
pose is to make sure that cans on two conveyors have the cor-
rect distance between each other, 10 mm in this example.
The follower needs to know the speed of master. There are two
ways to set this up:
1. Read the master´s speed from the encoder. This means that
the follower has connections for two encoders. The master is
running in open loop mode.
2. The other solution is to use communication between drives
like fibre optical DDCS link. The master has a feedback con-
nection (encoder) and this information is fed via optical link to
the follower.
What ever the communication method, proximity switches are
connected to the follower’s (programmable) digital I/O. The fol-
lower compares the distance difference seen by the sensors and
corrects the distance, in this example to be 10 mm.
MASTER
DDCS
FOLLOWER
LATCHED ACT POS
LATCHED MAS REF
EXT M1 Di1
Di5
Encoder 2
Encoder 1
Proximity
switch
Proximity
switch
10 mm
Typical motion functions
32 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
8.10. Encoder gear functions
Motion control applications always need feedback. This can be
connected to the motor, the load or both.
Motor Gear Load Encoder
Motor Gear Load Encoder 1
Motor Gear Load Encoder 1 Encoder 2
If there is no encoder on the load side, load gear ratio has to
be set up according to gear ratio, as the drive must control the
actual position of the load, using feedback from the motor.
Figure 8.12 Motor encoder gear ratio to be used.
Figure 8.13 Load encoder gear ratio to be used.
Figure 8.14 Both motor and load have an own encoder.
Typical motion functions
33 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
8.11. Virtual master/axis
Virtual master means that the reference values are applied to a
model of a rotational axis that runs in the software. The virtual
axis gives its speed reference to all its followers. The virtual axis
gives full noise-free speed and positional signal in applications
where two or more drives are synchronized.
Virtual axis is also very useful during system commissioning,
as parts of machines can be tested without running the whole
process.
Typical motion functions
34 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
The purpose of this machine is to correct any angular error of the
material. Two drives are used in a master/follower set-up. The
master determines the main line speed. The follower receives a
speed reference. Two sensors are connected to digital inputs.
The follower calculates the error distance in number of pulses
between two sensor signals. This error is corrected by increas-
ing or decreasing the speed of the follower.
Depending on the application, different types of motors can be
selected. Feedback will always be required.
Chapter 9 - Application examples,
distributed control
This chapter briefly describes some typical motion control ap-
plications. Most of illustrations include a PLC the role of the PLC
is to handle overriding control information. The control actions
are executed in the distributed controlled drives.
9.1. Cyclic correction for material handling.
35 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
9.2. Constant gap maintaining
This conveyor has a feed belt, an adjusting belt and a receiving
belt. The boxes arrive with random spacing. The drive receives
the line speed reference from the encoder. The sensor follows
the rises and falls of the top line of the boxes. When the sensor
detects a box, it follows the top edge of the box until length of
the box is run. The dropping edge is seen by the sensor and
the distance to the next rising edge is the actual gap between
boxes. This is compared to the required gap and the software
makes the necessary correction by altering the speed of the
adjusting belt.
Application examples, distributed control
36 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Application examples, distributed control
9.3. Cut to length
There are many methods to cut different materials to the required
length. Here, we cover the most common methods. These are
examples only; there are many other configurations.
In applications where the line is stopped to make the cut, both
axes use the positioning feature of drive. The drive that is fed
the material first runs a determined number of revolutions cor-
responding to the required material length. When the target
position has been reached, the drive signals to the PLC that it
is in the required position. The cutting motor runs the required
number of revolutions to execute the guillotine operation. Its
drive the gives the feed motor permission to run. As in other
applications, the dynamic performance requirements of the
system have to guide the motor selection.

37 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
9.4. Rotary knife
A rotary knife is used to cut material into required length or cut off
unwanted material. The simplest rotary knives are synchronized
to the line speed using an electrical gear. However, in many ap-
plications, this will not give satisfactory performance.
There are a number of considerations to take into account for
rotary knife operations. Firstly, if the cutting length varies, it must
be decided whether the tool should be at standstill or rotate
continuously. Secondly, when the tool hits the material, it will in
most cases need to have the same speed as the line. Thirdly, it
is important to determine where to place the cut.
For more sophisticated applications, the knife must form a
motion profile during the cycle. When the knife is at standstill
and a cut command is given, it has to accelerate to reach the
position and then decelerate to cutting speed. After cutting, the
tool should return to the home position as fast as possible to
be ready for the next cut.
In some cases, the tool may not be able to stop but has to start
another cut “on the fly”. This means using two profiles that are
added together. Cam profiles with flexible parameter setting are
normally used in these situations.
Application examples, distributed control
38 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9.5. Cyclic correction, packing application
From a software perspective, this is same operation as example
13.1, “Cyclic correction for material handling”. The difference is
the physical set-up. In both examples, there is master-follower
set-up and sensors for actual position checking and software
correction. The system has two feeding conveyors. The items
on them must be arranged to the correct distance between
each other.
Application examples, distributed control
39 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Application examples, distributed control
9.6. Flying shear, angled
A flying shear is a cutting machine that allows constant material
flow during cutting. It is base on right-angle trigonometry. When
the speed of the line and the speed of the saw are known, the
angle of the cut can be calculated and adjusted accordingly. In
this illustration, the angle means that blade moves in the direc-
tion of the line when the saw operates. Saw speed control is
not critical; even an uncontrolled motor can be used; however
the most practical solution would be to use a general machinery
drive.
The cutting point can be indicated by a mark on the material or
through rotational measurement by encoder. Typically, synchro-
nizing or CAM functions are used.
This setup is often used in applications where the material must
be cut by a saw rather than a knife/guillotine.
40 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Application examples, distributed control
9.7. Flying shear, parallel
This is another version of the flying cut. As described earlier,
the cut point is read from a mark or an encoder. The carriage
waits for a “cut” command. When the command is given, the
carriage accelerates to line speed whilst synchronizing itself
to the cutting point. Typically, synchronizing or CAM functions
are used and a guillotine performs the cutting. The illustration
shows a system with two motors. Both drives run at synchro-
nous speed using the master/follower function. There are also
systems using only one motor.
41 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Application examples, distributed control
9.8. Lathe
Although this illustration is very simplified, it shows the three
main motion functions of a lathe.
The line speed must be constant. This means the speed of the
spindle motors must be controlled and adjusted in relation the
changing diameter of the material. This can be controlled by a
PLC or distributed to a drive with winding software.
The two main motors run as master at master follower set up.
This is particularly critical in plywood manufacturing, where the
spindle heads are connected to the material on a screw thread.
If the motors run at different speeds, one of two screw heads
will begin to open until eventually, the log flies off.
The carriage with the blade is running in synchronous mode.
The gearing ratio is set up in relation to the material thickness.
It is very easy to set up the required thickness just by adjusting
the gear ratio parameters; these are typically converted so that
user can specify units in millimeters from the HMI.
42 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Application examples, distributed control
9.9. Material filling
This application is very similar to the one described in chapter
13.3, “Cut to length”, although in this case, the follower drive
runs dosing unit.
This is only one of many possible configurations; there are sev-
eral other ways of filling packets and bottles.
43 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Application examples, distributed control
9.10. Slitter
This illustration describes the cutting and winding part of a
slitter, showing the operation of the cutting tools. Each tool is
individually connected to the screw. When a tool is engaged,
the PLC sends the address to the drive. The distributed control
system ensures correct positioning.

44 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Application examples, distributed control
9.11. Picking and stacking
This application uses distributed control in three shafts. The
overriding controller gives commands to each shaft to make
the material flow of the plates fluent. The plates are picked
up with the picking tool using position control. The plate, still
in position control, is moved forward to the stacking place.
Finally the plate is positioned down to build up the stack. The
plates feeding conveyor can run in continuous speed or posi-
tion control mode.
45 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Application examples, distributed control
9.12. Warehouse automation
Warehouse automation applications can be configured very
cost-effectively using distributed control. The overriding control
system is part of the full factory automation system and knows
where the pallets need to go.
In most cases, high speed and torque performance is needed
at and from zero speed. This means that closed loop control
is required.
System dynamic requirements differ between applications and
motor selection ranges from standard AC motors with feed-
back to AC brushless induction or permanent magnet servo
motors.
This type of systems can have large physical dimensions and
motor feedback will not be sufficiently accurate for position
control in all cases. This is overcome by using a second encoder
that monitors the actual position.
46 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Application examples, distributed control
9.13. Winding
The application picture here is much simplified. The purpose is
to show the main principle of traverse control. Traverse control is
an electronic gear function where the gear ratio is set up so that
traverse linear movement is locked to the build-up of material.
The illustration does not show the limit switches that typically
control the turning point action.
Winding and unwinding are well-established applications and
there are many dedicated software packages commercially
available.
47 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Application examples, distributed control
9.14. Wrapping
The illustration shows a simple packaging application.
The electrical gear is formed between two motors.
48 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Chapter 10 - Motion control –
*Glossary of terms
Acceleration
The rate of increase of velocity, usually expressed as meters per
second per second, or meters per second
2
(m/s
2
).
Accuracy
The measured value compared to the desired value. In motion
control, this will most often refer to a position description, de-
fined in terms a plus or minus deviation from the commanded
value, or in terms of a range of values around the set point.
Active front end
A front end processor which receives data from both upstream
and downstream equipment and makes changes without refer-
ence to external controls.
Actual position
The position of an axis compared to the desired position. This
can be either the final position at the end of the move or the lag
between the commanded position and the measured position
at any point during the move. The latter is commonly known as
following error.
AC servo
A motor drive that generates sinusoidal shaped motor cur-
rents.
Alarm
A warning that a parameter has moved out of acceptable or
defined limits or an indication that a component has failed or is
malfunctioning. It can either warn or advise an operator or be
in the form of an output signal that can initiate corrective action
or switch a process off.
Analog servo
Most commonly found in hydraulic and similar systems, an
analog servo uses analog control and feedback systems such
as voltage variation and changes in pressure.
Analog signal
A signal that varies in step with the parameter being measured.
Typical examples include a 0-10 volt motor control signal and a
pneumatic control pressure.
49 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Axes of motion
The major directions along which controlled movement of a
machine part or component occurs. These axes are usually
defined as follows:
X: Linear motion in positioning direction
Y: Linear motion perpendicular to positioning direction
Z: Vertical linear motion
A: Angular motion around X (roll)
B: Angular motion around Y (pitch)
C: Angular motion around Z (yaw)
Axis
The main directions along which a tool, component or workpiece
will move.
Brushless servo
A servo drive which uses electronic commutation of the cur-
rent rather than achieving it through mechanical brushes and
a commutator.
Bus
A series of conductors acting as path to send information be-
tween control elements and components.
Centralized control
A system with the software located in one physical unit. All input
information from sensors and feedback devices are connected
to this unit and control commands are sent from it.
Circular interpolation
A process of moving a component in a circle by moving along
two axes in a series of straight lines generated by software.
Close motion loop
The reference signal is compared to the feedback signal and
the discrepancy is corrected in an amplifier circuit.
Collision detection
Describes the process of using sensors to detect a possible col-
lision between parts or components. The sensors can produce
alarms to stop the movement or slow it to produce a low speed
mating of the components.
Commutation
Ensuring that the correct motors phase receive the correct cur-
rents or voltages. It can be done electromechanically via the
brushes and commutator as in brush type motors, or electroni-
cally as used in brushless motors.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
50 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Motion control – Glossary of terms
Converter
Changing AC to DC or DC to AC, most often with a diode
rectifier or thyristor rectifier circuit. The term “converter” may
also refer to the process in an adjustable frequency drive. This
consists of a rectifier, a DC intermediate circuit, an inverter and
a control unit.
Co-ordination
Integration two or more axes of motion to produce an otherwise
impossible motion. Sensors and other internal or external com-
mands may also be used to assist the movements.
Current controller
An electronic function which gives the proper instant current
needed by the load. The current is controllable to limit the
maximum current and reduce the danger of overloads damag-
ing the motor.
Cut to length
An algorithm that feeds material a set distance so that a proc-
ess can be performed on a correctly sized length. Feedback
systems are usually used to ensure that the selected length is
repeated accurately.
DC bus
A common communications circuit that uses a DC voltage as
reference. The term may also refer to a power distribution system
shared by several components.
Deceleration
The rate of decrease of velocity. Usually measured in units of
velocity change for each unit of time, i.e. meters/sec/sec or,
meters/sec
2
.
Decentralized control
A control method made up of separated control elements dis-
tributed over an area or process. The individual elements are
essentially independent of each other, although they will have
some means of communicating.
Deterministic scan time
The frequency at which a Programmable Logic Controller ( PLC)
executes a Program. Normally measured in milliseconds this will
include the time required to read a specific set of instructions
and return to the initial instruction.
Device level network
A common network cable that eliminates individual links be-
tween the PLC and each device.
51 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Diagnostic code
A code displayed on an operator interface or in a program, used
to indicate a fault condition as well as usually its position.
Digital motion control
A motion control system that uses binary code for calculating.
Digital servo
A servo motor that uses binary code for all calculations and
feed back.
Digital signal
A signal in the form of binary pulses if information, based on
voltage levels that represent the values 0 and 1.
Drive
An electronic device that controls the electric current supplied
to a motor.
Efficiency
The efficiency of a motor compares the mechanical output to the
electrical input and is a measure of how well the motor turns the
electrical energy it receives into a useful mechanical output.
Electronic cam profiles
A technique that replaces mechanical cams with electronics to
perform non-linear motion.
Electronic clutch
A method of using electronic cams or gearing functions to pro-
duce a slave profile based on a master position.
Electronic gearing
Simulating mechanical gears by electrically synchronizing one
closed loop axis to a second.
Electronic line shaft
A virtual axis which synchronizes other axes either through using
electronic gearing or camming profiles.
Encoder
A feedback device that translates mechanical motion into elec-
trical signals that indicate position. Incremental and absolute
encoders are used to indicate incremental or absolute changes
of position respectively.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
52 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Encoder resolution
The number of electrically identified positions in a 360 degree
rotation of a shaft.
EnDat
A standard interface for serial data transfer, particularly for posi-
tion and parameters.
EMC/CE
European Directive that sets standards and limits for conducted
and radiated emissions. Drives may need line filters or other
components to conform to the directive.
Emergency Stop
An emergency stop function must meet all of the following
requirements:
• It must override all other functions and operations under all
conditions
• Power to machine actuators that can cause hazard must
be interrupted as quickly as possible without creating other
hazard
• Reset must not initiate a restart
• The emergency stop shall be either a Category 0 or a Category
1 stop. The choice of emergency stop must be decided in
accordance with the requirements of the application
Ethernet
A very widely used open networking standard. Normally used
for office automation and operating at a communications speed
of 1.5 megabits/sec, newer versions are capable of up 100
megabits/sec.
Event
When an input parameter changes state, such as at the trigger-
ing of a limit switch or proximity sensor.
Fault
A condition a drive or control is in having attempted an illegal
process and becoming disabled.
Feedback
When a controlled machine sends a signal to inform that it has
responded to a control signal.
Feedback device
Give information of the actuators’ real speed and position to
the motion controller.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
53 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Feed forward
A method that compensates for known errors in a control loop.
It depends only on the command, not the measured error.
Fiber optic
A glass or plastic fiber guide that transmits light that is trans-
lated into current or used to determine the open/close state of
a current path.
FieldBus
A local area network, as defined by ISA standard S50.02 and
which is used to connect control elements and sensors to each
other.
Flying restart
When a motor is restarted while spinning, normally done by
sampling the motor speed, encoder input, or back EMF.
Flying virtual master
The ability of a motion controller to switch from one virtual en-
coder to another instantaneously. This feature makes it possible
to use advanced synchronizing features.
Following error
The difference between the commanded position of an axis
and its actual position, a difference that varies with the speed
of the axis.
Frameless motor
A motor consisting of only the stator and rotor. This allows a
manufacturer to incorporate it into a machine directly, cutting
the need for any shafts or other mechanical transmissions.
Gantry
An overhead framework that can move in the X, Y, and/or Z axes,
carrying a variety of tools or devices to perform tasks.
G code
Software used for programming machining processes, such as
3-axis milling and 2-axis wire cutting.
Hard, real-time control
The ability of a controller to respond to an event immediately. PLCs
are designed for this, though PCs pose more of a problem.
Hardware limit switch
A switch that alters the electric circuit associated with the
machine or equipment and which is operated by some part or
motion of a power-driven machine or equipment.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
54 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Holding brake
A friction device which sets a brake when power is removed.
Home position
A position which acts as a reference for all absolute positioning
movements. It is normally set at power-up and remains valid as
long as the control system is operational.
Homing
The act of calibrating axes by finding a unique reference posi-
tion, usually at power up.
Human-machine interface (HMI)
A console which displays data and receives commands, allow-
ing the operator to control the drive.
IGBT- Insulated Gate BiPolar Transistor
The IGBT is usually used in switching power supplies and in
motor control applications and forms the basis of the most
modern and capable variable speed drives.
Inching
Advancing a motor in small steps through repeated closure of
a switch.
Indexer
An electronic device that allows a PLC to control the movements
of a stepping motor.
Indexing
An axis or axes moving to a pre-programmed position.
Inertia
A property of matter in which a body continues in a state of rest
or uniform motion unless acted on by an external force.
In position window
A range of acceptable positions around the commanded posi-
tion point.
Interpolation
When two or more axes move in a co-ordinated way to produce
a linear or circular motion.
Inverter
A device that converts DC power to AC power. Typically used
as a part of the frequency converter.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
55 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Jerk limitation
A feature that limits the rate of change of acceleration with the
aim of eliminating mechanical jerking during speed changes.
Jitter free synchronization
The process of matching the acceleration and deceleration of
a driven slave drive to the master drive to provide a smooth
transition.
Jog
An axis moving at a fixed velocity and acceleration/deceleration
rate, in a chosen direction, but with no specific destination.
KP
Velocity Loop Proportional Gain. Determines how much veloc-
ity error the servo system will allow during a move. See also:
Tuning
KV
Position Loop Gain. Determines how much positioning error,
or following error, will be allowed by the servo system during a
move. See also: Tuning
Length Units
The linear units for programming and configuring an axis, often
defined in inches, feet, meters, or millimeters.
Linear
Where the output varies in direct proportion to the input.
Loop Update Times
The time required to calculate the process variable from the
following error.
Motion control
Any tool or actuator controlled by motion software. The system
can be hydraulic, pneumatic, electronic or any combination of
these. Whatever the system, the profile for movement is writ-
ten into the software code and the actuator has to follow this
as accurately as possible. The actual movement and the refer-
ence are always compared by feedback devices and the motion
controller aims to minimize the discrepancy.
Modulo Value
The position increment at which a rotary axis position returns
to 0, i.e. 360 degrees.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
56 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Noise
An unwanted electrical signal, usually the result of radio fre-
quency or electromagnet i.e. interference from devices such
as AC power lines, motors, generators, transformers and radio
transmitters.
Offset
Distance between the actual zero reference point and a pro-
grammed zero reference point.
Open architecture
Hardware and/or software with standard features that numerous
vendors can incorporate into their own products, which can then
connect to each other and work together easily.
Open loop/close loop
Open loop control is where a control system has no external
references with which to govern its speed or position. A closed
loop control system is one which uses signals fed back from
external sensors in order to correct the position or velocity and
make it conform to the commanded value.
Overcurrent
A current above the rated current of the drive, applied to maintain
a set position or move to a new position.
Override
The act of forcing an axis to move during a fault condition. It
is often used to force an axis to move away from an overtravel
limit switch.
Overshoot
Where the output of a system goes beyond the desired value.
Over temperature
A warning or alarm that indicates that a motor or drive is too
hot, most often the result of too high current demand.
PC
Personal Computer
Phasing
Adjusting the position of one axis with respect to others, to
correct for small registration problems, usually done while the
axes are moving.
PLC
Programmable Logic Controller. A computer that uses fast,
repeatable deterministic scan times to control equipment.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
57 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
PLS
Programmable Limit Switch. A device that converts the rotary
motion of a shaft into digital signals. It is typically used to im-
prove positioning accuracy.
Point-to-point wiring
Wiring each drive directly to the PLC. The method cuts out the
communication delays introduced by a network.
Position error
Error caused when the difference between the actual position
and the command position is greater than a set amount.
Positioning
When a move is specified by target position, velocity and ac-
celeration. The target position can be an absolute position, or
one relative to the current position.
Position loop
Signals that generate position information based on position
feedback.
Printmark synchronization
A method of controlling speed by comparing the position of a
mark on a product with its expected position and then compen-
sating for the difference.
Profile
A graphical representation of movement, with axes of position
vs. time, velocity vs. time or torque vs. time.
Programmable Limit Switch
See PLS
Programming language
A stylized communication method for controlling the behavior
of a machine.
Protocol
A specified method of encoding information for transmission.
Pulse width frequency
The switching rate of an IGBT.
Pulse-width modulation
A switch-mode control method based on varying on/off times
of the voltage pulses applied to the transistors.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
58 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Quadrature
A technique used to detect direction of motion based on sepa-
rating signal channels by 90’ (electrical).
Ramp function generator
Device or mathematical model that produces a square, triangular
or sinusoidal wave output.
Rated speed
The maximum speed at which a motor can rotate.
Real master
Feedback that provides position information for a synchronized
axis.
Rectifier
A device that converts AC power into DC for use by converter
drives.
Referencing
The setting of a feedback device relative to the real world.
Regen
A motor /drive system can produce regenerative power during
deceleration, power that can be fed to other machines on the
network.
Resolver
A type of position transducer that uses magnetic coupling to
measure absolute shaft position.
Rollfeed
A function that keeps the linear speed of the feed material con-
stant as the diameter of the rotary axis changes.
Rotary
Moving in a circular way, with measurement of position based
on degrees.

Safe off
A method of ensuring that power will not travel from the drive
to the motor.
SCADA-Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition.
A system of software and hardware that controls a production
process and collects data on its efficiency.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
59 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
S curve
A way of accelerating and decelerating a motor slowly to reduce
mechanical shock. Although more sophisticated than linear ac-
celeration, it does not have the performance of camming.
Sequence of operation
A series of steps that causes a machine to perform an action.
SERCOS
Serial Real-time Communications Standard. An open communi-
cations protocol for motion-control networks, with transmission
speeds over a fiber-optic cable of up to 4 megabits/sec.
Serial communications
The transmission of digital 1s and 0s in a series over a single
cable.

Servo mechanism
An automatic, closed-loop motion control system that uses
feedback to control a desired output, for example position,
velocity, or acceleration.
Servo motor
A motor that can be precisely controlled. The drive that pow-
ers it gets accurate feedback on the motor’s position from a
resolver or encoder.
Shielded cable
A cable that has a metallic sleeve encasing the conductors at its
centre The metal sleeve is grounded to prevent electrical noise
affecting the signals on the cable.
SinCos
An encoder used in servo control. It outputs both digital and
high resolution analog signals.
Software limit switch
A switch based on software rather than a physical object. It
is used to turn physical outputs on and off, depending on the
level of a particular input, from devices such as servo motors,
resolvers or encoders.
SSI
Acronym for Serial Synchronous Interface. A type of multi-turn
absolute encoder that sends position information as a serial
string in Gray code format.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
60 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Synchronization
When several functions of a machine follow a common control
signal.
Tachometer
An electromagnetic feedback transducer that provides an analog
voltage signal proportional to the rotational speed of a motor.
Task
A software system control that determines the execution rates
and priority levels for software modules running in a drive or
PLC.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A method of
encoding data into a series of “packets” for transmission over
a network, initially designed for the Internet but now often used
in production control.
Teach position
The position of an axis that is “taught” into the motion control
program. Once the axis is moved to the desired position, the
“teach position” is entered into the motion program automati-
cally by the control.
Telegram
A data packet used to communicate between controller and
device.
TeleService
A feature that allows a controller or PLC to be serviced.
TN
Velocity Loop Integral Action Time. Associated with KP. When
the measured velocity moves beyond the tolerance value set in
KP, TN determines how quickly the drive will bring the velocity
back within the specified tolerance. See also: Tuning
Torque limitation
A servo function that allows the current supplied to a servo
motor to be monitored and limited.
Tuning
Adjusting the servo drive’s internal characteristics to give it the
ability to control the reflected inertia and give the axis a smooth
position/ velocity profile.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
61 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
Twisted pair
Two wires twisted together with the aim of eliminating electri-
cal noise.
VxWorks
TM
VxWorks
TM
is a real-time operating systems that guarantees
an absolutely deterministic response. Its benefits include real-
time behavior, stability, operating time and an efficient memory
efficiency.
Velocity
The speed at which a motor or mechanical system runs.
Velocity loop
A servo control function that adds a velocity command signal
to a speed feedback signal. The resultant signal is output as a
torque command signal.
Virtual master
An encoder signal created in software of a motion control to
allow several servo systems to be synchronized.
Warning
An error condition received from a drive or a controller, indicating
that a fault will occur if the problem is not rectified.
Wintel
Microsoft’s Windows
TM
operating system running on Intel’s
microprocessors, an industry standard for PCs.
Zero point of feedback
The point at which the encoder position and the physical posi-
tion of a servo motor line up.
* Glossary of terms resource list:
OMAC Motion for Packaging Working Group, Education
Subcommittee, Glossary of Motion Control Terms, August
2001.
Motion control – Glossary of terms
62 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
Chapter 11 - Index
A
absolute positioning 54
acceleration 12, 25, 55, 57, 59
AC drive technology 7
algorithm 12, 14, 17, 50
analogue 11
asynchronous 12, 14, 15
asynchronous servo motor 15
B
back EMF 12, 19, 20, 53
brushes 11, 16, 49
brushless 11, 49
brushless DC 11, 12
C
CAM functions 39, 40
centralized control 8
centralized system 8
centrally 8
coils 21
commutator 11, 16, 49
composite flux vector 16
computing power 12
control system 10, 43, 45, 51, 54,
56, 59
control unit 8, 50
cyclic correction 10
D
DC-link capacitance 11
decentralized control 9
decentralized system 8
distance 10, 25, 27, 30, 31, 34, 35,
38, 50
DTC control 12
dynamic 7, 13, 28, 36, 45
E
efficiency 15, 51, 58, 61
electronic 46, 49, 51, 54, 55
encoders 15, 17, 22, 31, 51, 59
F
fans 15, 20
feedback 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15,
16, 17, 18, 21, 24, 31, 32, 45, 48,
49, 51, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
fieldbus 7
flux 16
flying shear 39
H
hardware 9, 58
heat 15
high performance drives 7, 9, 12
high power DC drives 11
I
induction 12, 14, 15, 45
J
jerk 25
L
lathe 41
linear and roll-over positioning 26
M
magnetizing circuit 11
magnetizing current 14
material handling 34, 38
motion control 1, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15,
22, 24, 34, 48, 51, 59, 60, 61
motion control application 7
motion controller 7, 9, 11, 21, 52, 53,
55
motion loop 49
O
overload 15, 19
P
packing application 38
performance 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15,
17, 21, 36, 37, 45, 59
permanent magnets 11, 16
phase 13, 15, 16, 17, 21, 49
phase delay 15
phasing error 17
PLC 9, 10, 34, 36, 41, 43, 50, 54, 56,
57, 60
poles 14
position 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 21,
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36,
37, 38, 45, 48, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56,
57, 58, 59, 60, 61
position control 21, 45
positioning 7, 26, 28, 36, 43, 49, 54,
55, 57
position interpolator 25
profile generator 7, 24
pulse encoder 11
R
reference profile 7
reference value 7, 8, 18
resolver 12, 21, 59
rotary knife 37
rotor 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 53
rotor current 15
rotor position 12, 17
63 Technical guide No. 9 - Motion control
9
S
sample time 7
second encoder 21, 45
sensor 12, 22, 31, 34, 35, 52
servo 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
20, 45, 48, 49, 51, 55, 59, 60, 61
sinusoidal 11, 12, 14, 16, 48, 58
slip 12
slitter 43
speed controller 11, 12, 17, 18, 21, 24
synchronous servo motor 13, 15, 16, 19
synchronous servo motors 15
T
temperature rise 15
V
vector 12, 16
velocity 25, 48, 50, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60,
61
W
winding 14, 21, 41, 43
Z
zero pulse 30
Index
ABB Oy
Drives
P. O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 22 22681
Internet www.abb.com/drives
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1 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
ABB drives
Functional safety
Technical guide No. 10
3AUA0000048753 REV C
EFFECTIVE: 9.4.2010
© Copyright 2010 ABB. All rights reserved.
2 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
3 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
About this document ............................................................................... 7
Part 1 – Theory and background .............................................................. 8
Safety and functional safety ............................................................................ 8
Machinery Directive ........................................................................................ 9
Changes in the new Machinery Directive ...................................................... 10
Hierarchy of the European harmonized standards system............................. 12
Part 2 – New approach ........................................................................... 14
Two standards – IEC and ISO ....................................................................... 15
Standards for risk minimization ..................................................................... 16
Standards for electronic safety systems ........................................................ 16
Product-specific safety standards (type-C standards) ................................... 18
Specific standard for safety-related drive systems ........................................ 18
Standardized safety functions ....................................................................... 19
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements .................... 22
STEP 1: Management of functional safety .................................................... 23
STEP 2: Risk assessment ............................................................................. 24
STEP 3: Risk reduction ................................................................................. 26
STEP 4: Establishing safety requirements ..................................................... 28
STEP 5: Implementing functional safety system ............................................ 32
STEP 6: Verifying a functional safety system ................................................. 33
STEP 7: Validating functional safety system .................................................. 37
STEP 8: Documenting functional safety system ............................................ 37
STEP 9: Proving compliance ........................................................................ 38
Glossary ................................................................................................. 40
Index ...................................................................................................... 42
Contents
4 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Disclaimer
This document is an informative guide intended to assist the
users, specifiers and manufacturers of machinery and the related
people in achieving a better understanding of the requirements
of the EU Machinery Directive, and the measures required
to achieve conformity with the directive and the harmonized
standards under it.
This document is not intended to be used verbatim, but rather
as an informative aid.
The information and examples in this guide are for general use
only and do not offer all of the necessary details for implementing
a safety system.
ABB Oy Drives does not accept any liability for direct or indirect
injury or damage caused by the use of information found in
this document. The manufacturer of the machinery is always
responsible for the safety of the product and its suitability under
the applicable laws. ABB hereby disclaims all liabilities that may
result from this document.
5 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
About this document
This document introduces the Machinery Directive and the
standards that must be taken into account when designing a
machine, in order to ensure operational safely.
The aim of the document is to explain, in general terms, how the
process for meeting the requirements of the Machinery Directive
is carried out and CE marking is obtained. CE marking indicates
that the machinery conforms to the requirements of the Directive.
Note:
This document gives only an overview of the process for
meeting the essential requirements of the Machinery Directive.
The manufacturer of the machinery always remains ultimately
responsible for the safety and compliance of the product.
The document is divided into three parts:
• Part 1 – Theory and Background – introduces the idea behind
functional safety and how to comply with the Machinery
Directive. It also presents the upcoming changes in the
new Machinery Directive and explains the hierarchy of the
European harmonized standards system.
• Part 2 – New Approach – presents the new Machinery
Directive related standards that are replacing old standards. It
also introduces the two standard systems and lists a number
of safety relevant standards and safety functions.
• Part 3 – Steps to Meet Machinery Directive Requirements –
introduces nine steps that help in the process of fulfilling the
essential requirements of the Machinery Directive.
6 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Part 1 – Theory and background
The national laws of the European Union require that machines
meet the Essential Health and Safety Requirements ( EHSR)
defined in the Machinery Directive and in the harmonized
standards under the Directive. This means that all new machinery
must fulfill the same legal requirements when supplied
throughout the EU. The same standards are also recognized in
many areas outside Europe, for example through equivalency
charts, which facilitates machinery trade and machine shipments
between countries within and even outside the EU.
Why must machinery meet these requirements? Because
conformity helps to prevent accidents and consequent injury.
Furthermore, by complying with the Machinery Directive and the
relevant harmonized standards, machine manufacturers can rest
assured they have met their obligations to design and deliver
safe machines that comply with national laws.
For manufacturers, new and improved safety strategies
are becoming a way of improving their productivity and
competitiveness in the market. The aim of conventional safety
systems has been to achieve comprehensive operational safety
and meet legal obligations. This has been done by using add-
on electrical and mechanical components, even at the cost of
productivity. Operators can, in certain circumstances, override
these systems when attempting to improve productivity, which
can lead to accidents.
With modern safety systems, the safety of the processes and
the operator can be taken into account while maintaining
productivity. One example of this is keeping the machine running
but at a lower speed to maintain safe operation. With modern
safety solutions, safety can be an integrated part of machine
functionality, and safety solutions are not just afterthoughts,
added in order to meet regulations.
Safety systems can be implemented effectively through defined
processes, to achieve specific safety performance and use
certified subsystems as building blocks for safety systems.
Meeting safety standards is expected in the industry, and
certified subsystems such as drives are becoming a must in the
marketplace. Machine safety is one of the most rapidly growing
areas of importance in industrial automation.
Safety and functional safety
The purpose of safety is to protect people and the environment
from accidents and, in this case, from machinery. Functional
7 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
Part 1 – Theory and background
safety systems do this by lowering the probability of undesired
events, so that mishaps are minimized when operating machinery.
Safety standards define safety as freedom from unacceptable
risk. What is acceptable is defined by society. Machine builders
should always use the same (the most stringent) acceptability
criteria for all market areas, regardless of regional differences.
The most effective way to eliminate risks is to design them
away. But if risk reduction by design is not possible or practical,
safeguarding through static guards or functional safety is often
the best option. When machines are stopped quickly and safely
or operated at a reduced speed during specific times, in order
to reduce risk, higher machine productivity, uptime and less
abrupt safety system behavior can be achieved. At the same
time, the legal obligations are met and the safety of people and
the environment is ensured.
Functional safety in machinery usually means systems that
safely monitor and, when necessary, take control of the machine
applications to ensure safe operation. A safety-related system
is a system that implements the required, necessary safety
functions. Functional safety systems are designed to detect
hazardous conditions and return operation to a safe state, or
to ensure that the desired action, such as safe stopping, takes
place.
Monitoring can include speed, stopping, direction of rotation,
and standstill. When the safety system is executing an active
safety function, for example monitoring a crawl speed, and
the system behavior deviates from that which is expected (for
example, the system runs too fast), the safety system detects
the deviation and actively returns machine operation to a safe
state. This can be done, for example, by stopping the machine
safely and lowering the torque of the motor shaft.
A safety system is not part of standard machine operation, but
any failure in the safety system will immediately increase the
risks related to machine operation.
Machinery Directive
The Machinery Directive, with the harmonized standards
listed thereunder, defines the Essential Health and Safety
Requirements ( EHSR) for machinery at European Union level.
The EHSR are listed in Annex I of the Machinery Directive.
The idea behind the Machinery Directive is to ensure that a
machine is safe and that it is designed and constructed so that
it can be used, configured and maintained throughout all phases
of its life, causing minimal risk to people and the environment.
8 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
The EHSR state that when seeking solutions for designing and
building safe machines, machine manufacturers must apply the
following principles in the given order:
• Eliminate or minimize the hazards as much as possible
by considering safety aspects in the machine design and
construction phases.
• Apply the necessary protection measures against hazards
that cannot be eliminated.
• Inform users of the risks that remain despite all feasible
protection measures being taken, while specifying any
requirements for training or personal protective equipment.
Complying with the EHSR of the Machinery Directive allows the
machine manufacturer to affix the CE marking on the machine.
With CE marking the manufacturer guarantees that the product
meets all regulations on the free movement of goods, as well as
the essential requirements of the relevant European Directives,
in this case the Machinery Directive.
Note:
CE marking according to the Machinery Directive is affixed
only on a complete machine, not to the components of which
it consists. Thus, the manufacturer of the product, or the rep-
resentative of the manufacturer, is responsible for CE marking,
not the manufacturer of the component that is included in the
final product.
The machine manufacturer is responsible for carrying out the
related risk analysis, following through the steps presented
in Part 3, and ensuring compliance with the requirements.
The component manufacturer is responsible for realizing the
safety performance (SIL / PL level) of the said component’s
safety function, when the component is appropriately used.
A component in this case could be a safety relay, or an AC drive
with integrated safety functionality.
Changes in the new Machinery Directive
A new Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC, will replace the old
Directive 98/37/EC, from December 29, 2009 onward. The new
Directive will be applied to machines launched after this date.
There are no dramatic changes between the old and the new,
revised Directive. The aim of the new Directive is to reinforce
the achievements of the old Machinery Directive on the
free circulation and safety of machinery and to improve its
application.
Highlights of the changes in the new Machinery Directive are
as follows:
Part 1 – Theory and background
9 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
• Changes in how conformity is evaluated for dangerous
machines listed in the Machinery Directive’s Annex IV.
Along with the new directive, the manufacturer can carry out
self-certification without a recognized test center. In order
to do this, the manufacturer must have a quality assurance
procedure that has been implemented according to the
requirements presented in the Machinery Directive’s Annex X.
• Changes in the Essential Health and Safety Requirements
that are presented in the Machinery Directive’s Annex I.
The manufacturer must now carry out a risk assessment on
the EHSR.
• Changes in proving the safety of different products.
The same machine regulations will apply to machinery,
exchangeable equipment, safety components etc. The
products must include CE conformity assessment,
declaration of conformity and the requisite user information.
• Changes in the requirements for part or incomplete machines.
A part or an incomplete machine is a component or a series of
components that cannot, by themselves, perform a specific
function. Such a part is attached to other parts, incomplete
machines or machines to form a machine according to the
definition in the Machinery Directive.
In addition to the manufacturer declaration, the manufacturer
must now also supply a declaration of incorporation that
defines which requirements of the directive apply to the part
or incomplete machine and have been complied with. Product
documentation must also include installation instructions.
• Changes concerning the Low Voltage Directive.
The scope of the Low Voltage Directive is now related to
a product instead of a risk. There is also now a clearer
differentiation between the Machinery Directive and the Low
Voltage Directive.
• Changes in hazard analysis.
The hazard analysis is replaced by mandatory risk assessment
and risk evaluation.
• Changes in production control.
Series machines have now internal production controls,
specified in the Machinery Directive’s Annex VIII.
• Changes in the validity of EC Type Examination certifications.
A recognized test center must inspect the certifications every
five (5) years. Manufacturers and test centers must retain the
relevant technical documents for 15 years.
Part 1 – Theory and background
10 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Hierarchy of the European harmonized standards system
The European Committee for Standardization, CEN, and the
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization,
CENELEC draw up the harmonized standards. All harmonized
standards carry the prefix “EN”.
A list of the harmonized standards can be found on the European
Commission Internet pages, http://ec.europa.eu.
The majority of harmonized standards are referenced by one
or more Directives. To ensure that the essential requirements
of the Machinery Directive are followed, it is advisable to apply
the appropriate harmonized European standards. By designing
machines according to these standards, manufacturers can
demonstrate that they comply with the Machinery Directive and,
generally, do not require certification by a third party.
Note:
Exceptions for the machines listed in Annex IV of the Machinery
Directive must be noted.

B
GROUP SAFETY STANDARDS −
Concrete statements regarding basic standards
C
PRODUCT STANDARDS
A
BASIC
SAFETY STANDARDS
Figure 1-1 Hierarchy of European harmonized standards
• Type-C standards are specific to a machine or class of
machine. If there is a type-C standard for a machine, the
associated type- B and possibly also type-A standards
become secondary. When designing safety functions, type-C
standards define additional, mandatory requirements for
Part 1 – Theory and background
11 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
the machines they are intended for. However, if no type-C
standard exists for the machine, type-B and type-A standards
offer help in designing and constructing machines that meet
the requirements of the Machinery Directive.
• Type-B standards deal with safety requirements that are
common to the design of most machines. These standards
give information on possible risks and how to handle them,
with the help of a risk reduction process. Type-B standards
can be divided into two groups, B1 and B2. Type-B1
standards deal with specific safety aspects and type-B2
standards handle safety-related equipment in general.
Type-B1 standards are, for example, EN 62061:2005 and
EN ISO 13849-1:2008. Type-B2 standards include standards
for defining emergency stops, such as EN ISO 13850:2008.
• Type-A standards handle design principles and basic
concepts for the machine. One example of a type-A standard
is the basic safety standard EN ISO 12100-1.
Note:
It is not mandatory to apply the standards, but they offer
recommendations and guidance for meeting the requirements
of the Machinery Directive, which must be conformed to.

Part 1 – Theory and background
12 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Note:
The old standard EN 954-1 has been superseded by standards
EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061 in 2006. However, the EN954-1
still provides the presumption of conformity in parallel with the
new standards EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061 during a transition
period, which ends on December 31, 2011 (original three year
transition period from 2006 to 2009 was extended by two years,
until the end of 2011).
EN ISO 13849-1
EN 954-1
EN 62061
Transition period
3 years
11/2006
12/2009
2005
New Machinery
Directive 2006/42/EC
M
a
c
h
i
n
e

b
u
i
l
d
e
r
s
12/2011
Two-year extension
Figure 2-1 Transition period from old to new standards
Replacing the EN 954-1 standard with EN ISO 13849-1 and
EN 62061 (which is applicable only to electrical control systems)
is a shift from a deterministic approach, where cause-effect
relationships were well known, towards a probabilistic or
reliability approach in safety-related systems. The new standards
take account of the probability of failure for the entire safety
function, not only of its components. Unlike the old standard
EN 954-1, these new standards also allow the use of
programmable safety systems.
The new approach continues to use the designated architectures
(categories) concept of EN 954-1, and additionally introduces new
concepts, such as life-cycle thinking, quantification – component
reliability and test quality – and common cause failure analysis.
Note:
Standard EN ISO 13849-1 has maintained the categories
introduced in EN 954-1. It provides methods for design and
verification based on the said categories. Standard EN 62061
includes similar designated architectures and methodology.
EN 954-1 has been a relatively simple standard that has offered
a straightforward and quick process for determining a safety
category for a machine. The process in standard EN ISO 13849-1
is similar, but somewhat more complex because, in addition
Part 2 – New approach
13 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
to determining the category or architecture of the system, the
machine manufacturer must now also ensure the safety of the
machine by performing assessments and calculations. Using
certified subsystems for building safety is recommended, as
they make specifying the process quicker and require fewer
calculations.
Basic concepts and terminology:
EN ISO 12100
Risk assessment:
ISO 14121-1
Safety system → Safe Machine → CE marking
Process for creating safety system Process for creating safety system
Standard for creating safety system:
EN ISO 13849-1
Standard for creating safety system:
EN 62061
Figure 2-2 Introducing standards
Two standards – IEC and ISO
There are two alternative standards that can be followed when
implementing functional safety systems in compliance with
the Machinery Directive: The International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) standard and the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) standard.
Following either of the standards leads to a very similar outcome,
and their resulting safety integrity levels ( SIL) and performance
levels ( PL) are, in fact, comparable. For more information, see
the comparison table in Part 3, step 6.
A table explaining the suitability of the two new standards for
designing systems with particular technologies can be found
in standards EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061.
Note:
It is up to the machine manufacturer to decide which – if any
– safety system creation standard is to be used (EN ISO 13849-1
or EN 62061), and then they must follow the same, chosen
standard all the way from beginning to end to ensure congruity
with the said standard.
Part 2 – New approach
14 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
CEN standards are based on ISO standards and are basically
for mechanical equipment – new standards have numbers in
the 10,000 series, while CENELEC standards are based on IEC
standards – new standards have numbers in the 60,000 series.
Note:
EN ISO standards are presented in this document using the
“ISO” mark. However, EN IEC standards are presented without
“IEC” mark, according to the convention used in the harmonized
standards list.
Standards for risk minimization
Basic safety standards for risk minimization include:
• EN ISO 12100-1:2003
(Safety of machinery – Basic concepts, general principles
for design) and
• EN ISO 14121-1:2007
(Safety of machinery – Risk assessment).
EN ISO 12100 gives designers a general framework and
guidance, providing a strategy for risk reduction (the three-step
method). EN ISO 12100-1 defines the basic terminology and
methodology used in achieving machine safety.
EN ISO 14121-1 is a new standard for risk assessment used
in the risk reduction process, which is presented in the EN ISO
12100 standard. EN ISO 14121-1 has replaced the EN 1050:1996
standard, which expired on June 24, 2008.
Note:
All other references to these standards in this document always
apply to the above mentioned versions of the standards.
Standards for electronic safety systems
The standards for electronic safety systems are as follows:
• EN ISO 13849-1:2008 (Safety of machinery – Safety-related
parts of control system – General Principles for design),
• EN 62061:2005 (Safety of machinery – Functional safety
of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable
electronic control systems),
• IEC 61508:1998-2000 (Functional safety of electrical / elec-
tronic / programmable electronic safety-related systems), and
• EN 60204-1:2006 (Safety of machinery – Electrical
equipment of machines – General requirements).
Note:
All other references to these standards in this document always
apply to the above mentioned versions of the standards.
Part 2 – New approach
15 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
EN ISO 13849-1 is a standard that provides instructions to
designers to make machines safe. These instructions include
recommendations for the design, integration and validation
of the systems. It can be used for the safety-related parts of
control systems and various kinds of machinery, regardless
of the technology and energy it uses. The standard also
includes special requirements for safety-related parts that have
programmable electronic systems. This standard covers the
entire safety function for all devices included (a complete safety
chain, for example sensor–logic–actuator).
The standard defines how the required Performance Level ( PL)
is determined and the achieved PL verified within a system. PL
describes how well a safety system is able to perform a safety
function, under foreseeable conditions. There are five possible
Performance Levels: a, b, c, d and e. Performance Level “e”
has the highest safety reliability, while PL “a” has the lowest.
EN 62061 is a standard for designing electrical safety systems.
It is a machine sector specific standard within the framework of
IEC 61508. EN 62061 includes recommendations for the design,
integration and validation of safety-related electrical, electronic
and programmable electronic control systems for machinery.
The entire safety chain – for example sensor–logic–actuator – is
covered by this standard. Individual subsystems need not be
certified, as long as the entire safety function fulfills the defined
requirements. However, using certified subsystems as building
blocks is still strongly recommended, as this will potentially save
considerable effort in the design process.
Note:
Unlike EN ISO 13849-1, EN 62061 does not cover requirements
for non-electrical safety-related control equipment for machinery.
This standard defines how a Safety Integrity Level ( SIL) is
defined. SIL is a representation of the reliability of the safety
functions. There are four possible safety integrity levels:
1, 2, 3, and 4. “SIL 4” is the highest level of safety integrity and
“SIL 1” the lowest. Only levels 1-3 are used in machinery.
IEC 61508 is a basic functional safety standard. It covers the
lifecycle of systems comprised of electrical and/or electronic
and/or programmable electronic components that are used to
perform safety functions. IEC 61508 is not a harmonized standard,
but it is the main standard that outlines the requirements and
methods for designing safety related control systems with
complex hardware and software. IEC 61508 is generally used
when designing certifiable safety subsystems. Standards
EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061 are based on the principles set
in IEC 61508.
Part 2 – New approach
16 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
EN 60204-1 offers recommendations and requirements for the
electrical equipment of machines in order to enhance safety
and usability.
Product-specific safety standards (type-C standards)
Product-specific safety standards, known as type-C standards,
handle a specific machine or class of machines and are based on
a presumption of conformity with respect to the EHSR covered
by the standard.
It should be noted that:
• The requirements specified in the type-C standards generally
overrule the requirements set by the general safety standards
(EN 62061, EN ISO 13849-1, etc.).
• Type-C standards may have set SIL / PL requirements for
some safety functions. At least these requirements must be
met, regardless of the results of the risk analysis.
Note:
Even if the lists of hazards possibly affecting the machine,
composed during the risk assessment, and the type-C standard
are identical, the standard may not take account of all of
the relevant EHSR. The standard must always be inspected
thoroughly to determine what hazards might have been excluded
from the list.
Specific standard for safety-related drive systems
A specific standard for safety-related drive system is:
• EN 61800-5-2:2007 (Adjustable speed electrical power
drive systems - functional safety requirements).
Note:
All other references to this standard in this document solely
apply to the above mentioned version of the standard.
EN 61800-5-2 gives specifications and recommendations for
power drive systems used in safety-related applications. It is a
product standard that presents safety-related aspects in terms
of the framework of IEC 61508, and introduces requirements
for power drive systems when used as subsystems in safety
systems.
Standardized safety functions
Standard EN 61800-5-2 includes definitions for numerous safety
functions. A drive may offer one or more of these functions. Here
are some examples:
Part 2 – New approach
17 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
Safe torque-off (STO)
This function brings the machine safely into a no-torque state
and / or prevents it from starting accidentally.
|n|
0
t
Function requested
Safe stop 1 (SS1)
This function stops the motor safely, initiating the STO function
below a specified speed or after a defined time limit.
|n|
0
t
Function requested
Safe stop 2 (SS2)
This function stops the motor safely, initiating the SOS function
below a specified speed or after a defined time limit.
Safe operating stop (SOS)
This function keeps the motor in a safe standstill while holding
the motor torque.
Safely-limited speed (SLS)
This function prevents the motor from exceeding the defined
speed limit.
|n|
0
t
Function requested
Safe direction (SDI)
This function prevents the motor shaft from moving in an
unwanted direction.
Part 2 – New approach
18 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
|n|
Function requested
0
t
Safe brake control (SBC)
This function provides a safe output for controlling external
(mechanical) brakes.
Safe speed monitor (SSM)
This function provides a safe output indicating that the speed
is under the specified speed limit.
|n|
0
t
Output active
Function requested
See standard EN 61800-5-2 for more examples of safety
functions.
Emergency operations
Standard EN 60204-1 introduces two emergency operations,
emergency switching-off and emergency stop.
Emergency switching off
The emergency switching-off function disconnects power to a
system or part of it should the risk of an electric shock arise.
This function requires external switching components, and can
not be accomplished with drive based functions such as Safe
torque-off (STO).
Emergency stop
An emergency stop must operate in such a way that, when it is
activated, the hazardous movement of the machinery is stopped
and the machine is unable to start under any circumstances,
even after the emergency stop is released. Releasing the
emergency stop only allows the machine to be restarted.
The emergency stop can stop hazardous movement by applying
the following actions:
• optimal deceleration rate until the machine stops,
• by using one of the two emergency stop categories, 0 or 1, or
• by employing a predefined shutdown sequence.
Part 2 – New approach
19 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
Emergency stop category 0 means that the power to the
motor is cut off immediately. Stop category 0 is equivalent
to the Safe torque-off (STO) function, as defined by standard
EN 61800-5-2.
Emergency stop category 1 means that the machine speed
is brought to a standstill through controlled deceleration and
then the power to the motor is cut off. Stop category 1 is
equivalent to the Safe Stop 1 (SS1) function, as defined by
standard EN 61800-5-2.
When actuated, the emergency stop function must not create
any additional hazards or require any further involvement by
the machine operator.
Note:
The principles for the design of an emergency stop function are
introduced in standard EN ISO 13850:2008.
Prevention of Unexpected Start-Up
Ensuring that a machine remains stopped when persons are
present in danger area is one of the most important conditions
in safe machines.
The Safe torque-off (STO) function can be used to effectively
implement the prevention of unexpected start-up functionality,
thus making stops safe by preventing the power only to the
motor, while still maintaining power to the main drive control
circuits.
The principles and requirements of the prevention of unexpected
start-up are described in the standard EN 1037:1995+A1.
Part 2 – New approach
20 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
The Machinery Directive requires machinery to be safe. However,
there is no such thing as zero risk. The objective is to minimize
the risk.
Compliance with the Machinery Directive can be achieved:
• by meeting the requirements set by the harmonized
standards or
• by having a machine acceptance investigation carried out
by an authorized third party.
The process for fulfilling the EHSR of the Machinery Directive
using harmonized standards can be divided into nine steps:
• Step 1: Management of functional safety – managing
functional safety during the lifecycle of the machine.
• Step 2: Risk assessment – analyzing and evaluating risks.
• Step 3: Risk reduction – eliminating or minimizing risks
through design and documentation.
• Step 4: Establishing safety requirements – defining what
is needed (functionality, safety performance) to eliminate the
risk or reduce it to an acceptable level.
• Step 5: Implementing functional safety system – designing
and creating safety functions.
• Step 6: Verifying functional safety system – ensuring that
the safety system meets the defined requirements.
• Step 7: Validating functional safety system – returning
to the risk assessment process and making certain that
the safety system actually succeeded in reducing risks as
specified.
• Step 8: Documenting – documenting the design, producing
user documentation.
• Step 9: Compliance – proving the machine’s compliance
with EHSR of the Machinery Directive through compliance
assessment and a technical file.
Each of these steps is explained in more detail in the following
chapters.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery
Directive requirements
21 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
Updating existing machinery
The following issues must be considered when updating safety
requirements for existing machines:
• For machines that already have a CE marking – new
components that are added to the machine must also have
a CE marking. It must be case-specifically defined how the
new components are applied to the old system according
to the Machine Directive.
• For machines that do not have a CE marking – the safety level
of the machine can be maintained by replacing components
with new ones that have a CE marking. In this case, the
Declaration of Incorporation is not delivered along with the
machine. Directive 89/655/EEC and Amendment 95/63/EC
must be fulfilled.
Ultimately, it is the relevant authority’s decision as to whether
the change was extensive enough to require an update of the
safety level.
Machinery
Directive
(EHSR)
Risk
assessment &
evaluation, risk
reduction
Architecture,
subsystems,
safety / reliability
parameters
Functional
testing,
achieved
SIL / PL level
Does the
function fulfill the
risk reduction
requirement?
Documenting
the design,
residual risk,
user instructions
Compliance
assessment,
technical file,
documentation
Specification
- Functionality
- Safety performance
(SIL, PL
T
)
LAWS, REQUIREMENTS RISK IDENTIFICATION
steps
2 - 3
step 4
step 5
step 6
step 7
step 8
step 9
SAFETY FUNCTION
IMPLEMENTATION
VERIFICATION
VALIDATION
DOCUMENTATION
COMPLIANCE
Figure 3-1 Process flow for meeting Machinery Directive requirements
STEP 1: Management of functional safety
To achieve the required functional safety, it is necessary to
implement a project management and quality management
system that is comparable to, for example, IEC 61508 or
ISO 9001 standards. This management system can be specified
in the form of a safety plan.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
22 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Safety plan
Standard EN 62061 specifies a safety plan for the process for
meeting the requirements of the Machinery Directive. This plan
needs to be designed and documented for each safety system
and updated, when necessary.
Safety plan:
• identifies all relevant activities,
• describes the policy and strategy for fulfilling functional
safety requirements,
• identifies responsibilities,
• identifies or establishes procedures and resources for
documentation,
• describes strategy for configuration management, and
• includes plans for verification and validation.
Note:
Even though the activities listed above are not particularly
specified in EN ISO 13849-1:2008, similar activities are needed
to fully meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive.
When the safety plan (according to EN 62061) has been created,
risk assessment starts.
STEP 2: Risk assessment
The risk assessment is a process whereby risks are analyzed
and evaluated. A risk is a combination of the consequence of
harm and the probability of the harm occurring when exposed
to a hazard.
Note:
According to the new Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC, it is
mandatory to perform a risk assessment for a machine.
The Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC requires that manufacturers
perform risk assessments and take the results into account
when designing a machine. Any risk considered as “high” must
be reduced to an acceptable level using design changes or by
applying appropriate safeguarding techniques.
The risk assessment process provides the machinery designer
with requirements on how to design inherently safe machinery.
It is very important to assess risks at the design phase, because
it is generally more effective than providing user instructions on
how to operate the equipment safely.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
23 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
The risk assessment process according to EN ISO 12100-1
consists of two parts: risk analysis and risk evaluation. Risk
analysis means identifying and estimating the risks and risk
evaluation means deciding whether the risk is acceptable or
risk reduction necessary.
Risk evaluation is carried out based on the results of the risk
analysis. Decisions on the necessity of risk reduction are made
according to the risk evaluation procedure.
Note:
Risk evaluation must be carried out separately for each hazard.
Risk analysis steps:
1. Determine the limits and intended use of the machine.
These limits include
• limits of use,
• spatial limits,
• ambient or environmental limits, and
• lifetime limits.
1. Identify the hazards that might be generated by the machine.
1. Estimate identified risks one at a time.
• Severity of the risk (potential consequences)
• Probability of the risk (Frequency, Probability, Avoidance)
• Evaluate the risk: Is risk reduction necessary?
• YES: Apply risk reduction measures and return to step 2
in the risk analysis.
The three-step method for risk reduction according to
EN ISO 12100-1 is presented in the next chapter.
• NO: Risk reduction target is met and risk assessment
process ends.
Document the risk assessment process and its results for each
individual hazard.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
24 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Risk assesment & evaluation
1. Determine limits / intended use
of the machine
2. Identify Hazards
3. Estimate risks one at a time
s Severity & Probability
4. Evaluate the risk:
Risk low enough (yes / no)
YES
To risk reduction
NO
End
Figure 3-2 Risk assessment and evaluation according to EN ISO 14121-1
After the risk assessment has been carried out, there are two
options, depending on the outcome of the assessment:
• If the assessment reached the conclusion that risk reduction
was not needed, the machine has reached the adequate level
of safety required by the Machinery Directive.
Note:
In order for the machine to be approved and CE marking affixed,
the remaining risks must be documented in the appropriate
operation and maintenance manuals. There is always some
residual risk.
• If the assessment revealed that the risk remains unacceptable,
the process for risk reduction is started.
STEP 3: Risk reduction
The most effective way to minimize the risks is to eliminate them
in the design phase, for example by changing the design or the
work process of the machine. If this is not possible, one way to
carry out the risk reduction process and ensure conformance
with the requirements is to apply suitable harmonized standards
under the Machinery Directive.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
25 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
If the risk assessment process concludes that risk reduction is
needed, a strategy for risk minimization is created. According
to standard EN ISO 12100-1, risk reduction can be divided into
three steps (the three-step method):
1. Inherently safe design measures – creating a safer design,
changing the process.
2. Safeguarding and complementary protective measures –
safety functions, static guarding.
3. Information on use ( residual risk management):
• on the machine – warning signs, signals and warning
devices – and
• in the operating instructions.
Back to risk assessment
From risk assessment
Risk reduction
YES
3

-

S
T
E
P

M
E
T
H
O
D
Apply risk reduction
measures
NO
NO
Risk reduction
by design changes
Risk reduction
by functional safety
Risk reduction
by processes & info
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
Adequate
reduction
(Y/N)?
1.
Design
changes
2.
Safety
technology
(Functional
Safety)
3.
Processes,
information
for use
?
?
?
Figure 3-3 The three-step method for risk reduction according to EN ISO 12100-1
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
26 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Residual risk is the risk that remains when all protective measures
have been considered and implemented. Using technology, it is
not possible to achieve a state of zero risk, since some residual
risk always remains.
All residual risks must be documented in the operating
instructions.
The user’s part of risk reduction includes information given by
the designer (manufacturer). Risk reduction measures for the
machine user / organization are as follows:
• Risk reduction measures typically taken by the organization:
• introducing safe working procedures,
• work supervision, and
• permit-to-work systems.
• Provision and use of additional safeguards.
• Use of personal protective equipment.
• Training users.
• Reading operating and safety instructions and acting
accordingly.
Designers should also seek valuable user input when defining
protective measures.
When the risk reduction has been executed, it must be examined
to ensure that the measures taken were adequate for reducing
the risk to an appropriate level. This can be done by repeating
the risk assessment process.
The following, remaining steps describe option 2 of the three-
step method: safeguarding through a functional safety solution.
STEP 4: Establishing safety requirements
After all the risk reduction that can be undertaken through design
changes has been performed, additional safeguarding needs to
be specified. Functional safety solutions can be used against
the remaining hazards as an additional risk reduction measure.
Safety functions
A safety function is a function of a machine whose failure can
result in an immediate increase in risk. Simply put, it comprises
the measures that must be taken to reduce the likelihood of an
unwanted event occurring during exposure to a hazard. A safety
function is not part of machine operation itself. This means that
if the safety function fails, the machine can operate normally,
but the risk of injury from machine operation increases.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
27 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
Defining a safety function always includes two components:
• action (what must be done to reduce the risk) and
• safety performance (Safety Integrity Level - SIL or
Performance Level - PL).
Note:
A safety function must be specified, verified (functionality and
safety performance) and validated separately for each identified
hazard.
Example of a safety function:
Requirement: An exposed rotating shaft may cause an injury if
one gets too close to the shaft.
Action: In order to prevent personal injury from the shaft, the mo-
tor must stop in one (1) second, when the safety gate is opened.
After the safety function that executes the action has been
defined, the required safety level is determined for it.
Safety performance / integrity
Safety integrity measures the performance of a safety function.
It presents the likelihood of the safety function being achieved,
upon request. The required safety integrity for a function is
determined during the risk assessment and is represented by
the achieved Safety Integrity Level (SIL) or Performance Level
(PL), depending on the standard used.
The two standards use different evaluation techniques for a
safety function, but their results are comparable. The terms and
definitions are similar for both standards.
Determining the required SIL ( EN 62061)
The process for determining the required safety integrity level
(SIL) is as follows:
1. Determine the severity of the consequence of a hazardous
event.
2. Determine the point value for the frequency and duration a
person is exposed to the harm.
3. Determine the point value for the probability of the hazardous
event occurring when exposed to it.
4. Determine the point value for the possibility of preventing or
limiting the scope of the harm.
Example:
The parameters used in determining the point values are
presented in the following example of an SIL assignment table.

Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
28 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
SIL Class
Class CI
3-4 5-7 8-10 11-13 14-15
SIL2 SIL2 SIL2 SIL3 SIL3
OM SIL1 SIL2 SIL3
OM SIL1 SIL2
OM SIL1
Fr
Frequency, duration
<= hour 5
> 1h <= day 5
> day <= 2 wks 4
> 2 wks <= 1 yr 3
> 1 yr 2
Av
Avoidance
Impossible 5
Possible 3
Likely 1
Pr
Probability of hazardous event
Very high 5
Likely 4
Possible 3
Rarely 2
Negligible 1
PROBABILITY OF OCCURENCE of harm
5 + 3 + 3 = 11
A SIL2
safety
function
is required
SEVERITY of harm
Se
Consequences (severity)
Death, losing and eye or arm 4
Permanent, losing fingers 3
Reversible, medical attention 2
Reversible, first aid 1
Figure 3-4 Example of SIL assignment table
In this example, the hazard analysis is carried out for an exposed
rotating shaft.
• The consequence of the hazard is permanent injury, possibly
losing fingers. Severity (Se) = 3.
• A person is exposed to the hazard several times a day.
Frequency (Fe) = 5.
• It is possible that the hazard will take place.
Probability (Pr) = 3.
• The hazard can be avoided. Avoidance (Av) = 3.
• 5 + 3 + 3 = 11, with the determined consequence, this equals
SIL 2.
The tables used for determining the points are presented in the
standard.
After the required SIL has been defined, the implementation of
the safety system can begin.
Determining the required PL ( EN ISO 13849-1)
To determine the required PL, select one of the alternatives from
the following categories and create a “path” to the required PL
in the chart.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
29 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
1. Determine the severity of the damage.
The severity parameters are
S1 Slight, usually reversible injury
S2 Severe, usually irreversible injury, including death
1. Determine the frequency and duration of exposure to the
hazard.
The frequency and duration parameters are
F1 Rare to often and/or short exposure
F2 Frequently to continuous and/or long exposure
1. Determine the possibility of preventing the hazard or limiting
the damage caused by the hazard.
The hazard prevention and damage limiting parameters are
P1 Possible under certain conditions
P2 Hardly possible
Example:
The resulting performance level is represented by a, b, c, d and
e in the following example of the PL risk graph.
START
HERE
High risk
Low risk
S1
Slight
S2
Severe
F1
Rare to often
Possible
Hardly possible
F2
F1
F2
P2
P1
P2
P2
P2
P1
P1
P1
Freq. to cont.
a
b
c
e
d
A PL d
safety function
is required
S2
Severe
F1
Rare to often
Possible
F2
P2
P1
P2
P1
Figure 3-5 Example of PL risk graph
In this example, the hazard analysis is carried out for an exposed
rotating shaft.
• The consequence of the hazard is a severe, irreversible injury.
Severity = S2.
• A person is exposed to the hazard several times a day.
Frequency = F2.
• It is possible to avoid or limit the harm caused by the hazard.
Possibility = P2.
The path leads to PL
r
value d. The tables used for determining
the points are presented in the standard. After the PL
r
has been
defined, the implementation of the safety system can begin.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
30 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
STEP 5: Implementing functional safety system
When designing and constructing a safety function, the idea is
to plan and construct the safety function in order to meet the
required SIL / PL specified in the previous chapter. Using certi-
fied subsystems in functional safety systems can save the safety
system designer a lot of work. Implementing safety functions
becomes more convenient when some of the safety and reliabil-
ity calculations are already made and subsystems are certified.
Note:
If certified subsystems are not used, it may be necessary to carry
out safety calculations for each of the subsystems. Standards
EN 62061 and EN ISO 13849-1 include information on the proc-
ess and calculation parameters needed.
Implementation and verification processes are iterative and run
parallel with each other. The idea is to use verification as a tool
during implementation to ensure that the defined safety level
is reached with the implemented system. For more information
on the verification processes, see the next step.
Note:
The system is only as strong as its weakest link. This means
that in order to fulfill the EHSR set by the Machinery Directive,
all the subsystems of the functional safety system must meet
at least the required SIL / PL value of the system.
There are several calculation software programs on the
market designed for verifying functional safety systems. These
programs make the whole process of creating and verifying the
system more convenient.
The general steps for implementing a functional safety system
include:
1. Defining the safety requirements in a form of SIL and PL,
according to standard EN 62061 or EN ISO 13849-1.
1. Selecting the system architecture to be used for the safety
system.
EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061 standards offer basic archi-
tectures with calculation formulas.
1. Determining:
• category B, 1, 2, 3 or 4, as presented in standard
EN ISO 13849-1, or
• designated architecture A, B, C or D, as presented in standard
EN 62061 for the subsystems and the whole system.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
31 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
For more information on designated architectures, see the
respective standards.
1. Constructing the system from safety-related subsystems –
sensor/switch, input, logic, output, and actuator.
Either:
• by using certified subsystems (recommended) or
• by performing safety calculations for each subsystem.
The safety level of the complete system is established by
adding together the subsystem safety levels.
1. Installing the safety system.
The system needs to be installed properly to avoid common
failure possibilities due to improper wiring, environmental,
or other such factors. A safety system that is not performing
correctly due to careless installation is of little or no use, or
even poses a risk in itself.
1. Verifying the functionality of the system.
Gate limit switches
Subsystem 1
Safety logic + I/O
Subsystem 2
Actuator
(Safe Torque
Off, STO)
Subsystem 3
Figure 3-6 Structure of a safety function
STEP 6: Verifying a functional safety system
Verification of the functional safety system demonstrates
and ensures that the implemented safety system meets the
requirements specified for the system in the safety requirements
phase, and whether the safety function is viable.
Verification should not be carried out after the implementation
process, but together with it, so that the implementation
can indeed produce a system that will meet the specified
requirements.
In addition to verifying the SIL or PL of the system, the correct
operation of the safety system must also be verified by carrying
out functionality testing.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
32 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Verifying SIL of safety system (EN 62061)
To verify safety integrity levels, it must be shown that the safety
performance, in other words the reliability, of the created safety
function is equal to or greater than the required performance
target set during the risk evaluation. Using certified subsystems
is advisable, because the manufacturer has already defined
values for determining systematic safety integrity (SILCL) and
random hardware safety integrity (PFH
d
) for them.
To verify the SIL of a safety system where certified subsystems
are used:
1. Determine the systematic safety integrity for the system using
SIL Claim Limit (SILCL) values defined for the subsystems.
SILCL represents the maximum SIL value the subsystem is
structurally suitable for. SILCL is used as an indicator for
determining the achieved SIL: the SILCL of the whole system
should be no higher than the SILCL for the lowest subsystem.
1. Calculate the random hardware safety integrity for the system
by using the Probability of a dangerous Failure per Hour
(PFH
d
) values defined for the subsystems. Manufacturers
of certified subsystems usually provide the PFH
d
values for
their systems.
PFH
d
is the random hardware failure value that is used for
determining the SIL.
1. Use the Common Cause Failure (CCF) checklist to make sure
that all the necessary aspects of creating the safety systems
have been considered.
CCF checklist tables can be found in EN 62061 standard,
Annex F.
Calculating the points according to the list and comparing
the overall score to the values listed in the standard EN 62061
Annex F, Table F.2 results to the CCF factor (β). This value is
used for estimating the probability value of PFH
d
.
1. Determine the achieved SIL from the table for determining SIL.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
33 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
Example of verifying SIL:
Verifying the rotating shaft functional safety system:
SIL CL = 2
PFH
d
= 2,4 x 10
-7
SIL CL = 3
PFH
d
= 9,8 x 10
-9
SIL CL = 3
PFH
d
= 2,0 x 10
-10
Gate limit switches
Subsystem 1
Safety logic + I/O
Subsystem 2
Actuator
(Safe Torque
Off, STO)
Subsystem 3
Figure 3-7 Example verification of SIL
Systematic safety integrity:
SIL CL
sys
≤ (SIL CL
subsystem
)
lowest
-> SIL Claim Limit 2
Random hardware safety integrity:
PFH
d
= PFH
d1
+PFH
d2
+PFH
d3
= 2,5 x 10
-7
< 10
-6
The system meets SIL 2.
Table for determining SIL according to PFH
d
value obtained from
the whole safety system:
SIL Probability of dangerous failures per hour (1/h)
SIL 1 ≥ 10
-6
up to < 10
-5
SIL 2 ≥ 10
-7
up to < 10
-6
SIL 3 ≥ 10
-8
up to < 10
-7
Table 3-1 Table for determining SIL
Verifying PL of safety system ( EN ISO 13849-1)
To verify the performance level, it must be established that the PL
of the corresponding safety function matches the required PL
r
. If
several subsystems form one safety function, their performance
levels must be equal or greater than the performance level
required for the said safety function. Using certified subsystems
is advisable, because the safety performance values have
already been defined for them.
To verify the PL of a safety system where certified subsystems
are used:
1. Determine the system’s susceptibility to Common Cause
Failure (CCF) using the CCF checklist.
CCF checklist tables can be found in EN ISO 13849-1:2008
standard, Annex I. The required minimum score is 65 points.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
34 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
1 = Low
2 = Medium
3 = High
PL
a
b
c
d
e
Cat. B
DC
avg
none
Cat. 1
DC
avg
none
Cat. 2
DC
avg
low
Cat. 3
DC
avg
low
Cat. 3
DC
avg
medium
Cat. 3
DC
avg
high
Cat. 2
DC
avg
medium
1
2
3
MTTF
d
for
each channel
1. Determine the achieved PL with the bar graph utilizing the
established:
• category,
• Mean Time To dangerous Failure (MTTF
d
), and
• Diagnostic Coverage (DC).
MTTF
d
is the average time it takes for a dangerous failure to
occur. DC represents the number of dangerous failures that
can be detected by diagnostics.
More information on calculation details can be found in the
EN ISO 13849-1 standard.
1. Enter the resulting values into the PL graph diagram, from
which the resulting PL can be determined.
Example of verifying PL:
Verifying the rotating shaft functional safety system:
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
Figure 3-8 Example verification of PL
To achieve the PL
r
defined in the earlier example:
• designated architecture is in Category 3,
• MTTF
d
value is high, and
• DC average value is low.
The system meets PL value d.
35 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
Table for determining PL according to PFH
d
value obtained for
the whole safety system:
PL Probability of dangerous failures per hour (1/h)
a ≥ 10
-5
up to < 10
-4
b ≥ 3 x 10
-6
up to < 10
-5
c ≥ 10
-6
up to < 3 x 10
-6
d ≥ 10
-7
up to < 10
-6
e ≥ 10
-8
up to < 10
-7
Table 3-2 Table for determining the PL
Comparing SIL and PL values
Although methods of evaluation differ between the two
standards, the evaluation results can be compared on the basis
of random hardware failure.
Safety integrity level SIL Performance level PL
no correspondence a
1 b
1 c
2 d
3 e
Table 3-3 Table for comparing SIL and PL
STEP 7: Validating functional safety system
Each safety function must be validated in order to ensure that it
reduces risk as required in the risk assessment phase.
In order to determine the validity of the functional safety system,
the system must be inspected against the risk assessment process
carried out at the beginning of the procedure for meeting the EHSR
of the Machinery Directive. The system is valid, if it truly reduces
the risks analyzed and evaluated in the risk assessment process.
STEP 8: Documenting functional safety system
The design of the machine must be documented and relevant
user documentation produced before the machine fulfills the
requirements set in the Machinery Directive.
Documentation needs to be carefully produced to serve its
purpose. It has to be accurate and concise, but at the same
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
36 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
time informative and easy for the user to understand. All residual
risk must be documented in the user documentation, with
proper instructions on how to operate the machine safely. The
documentation must be accessible and maintainable. The user
documentation is delivered with the machine.
For more information on the documentation required and its
nature, see the EHSR in Annex I of the Machinery Directive.
STEP 9: Proving compliance
Before a machine can be placed on the market, the manufacturer
must ensure that the machine is implemented in conformance
with harmonized standards. It must also be proved that the
combination for each safety function of the safety-related parts
meets the defined requirements.
To prove the conformance with the Machinery Directive, it must
be shown that:
• Machinery fulfills the relevant Essential Health and Safety
Requirements ( EHSR) defined in the Machinery Directive.
• Machinery fulfills the requirements of other possible
Directives related to it.
• Conformity with these requirements can be ensured by
following the relevant harmonized standards.
• The technical file is up-to-date and available.
The technical file demonstrates that the machine is in
accordance with the regulations presented in the Machinery
Directive.
Note:
A missing technical file could provide reason to doubt the
machine’s compliance with the EHSR.
The technical file should cover the design, manufacture
and operation of the machinery in so far as necessary to
demonstrate compliance. For more information on the
contents of the technical file, see Annex VI of the Machinery
Directive 98/37/EC, or Annex VII of the new Machinery
Directive 2006/42/EC after the new directive is applicable.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
37 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
• Conformity assessment procedures have been applied.
Special requirements for machines listed in the Machinery
Directive’s Annex IV are met, where appropriate.
• The EC declaration of conformity has been produced and is
delivered with the machine.
Once conformity has been established, a CE marking is affixed.
Machinery that carries CE markings and is accompanied by an
EC declaration of conformity is presumed to comply with the
requirements of the Machinery Directive.
Part 3 – Steps to meet Machinery Directive requirements
38 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
CE marking
A mandatory conformity mark on machinery and many other
kinds of products placed on the single market in the European
Economic Area (EEA). By affixing CE marking to the product, the
manufacturer ensures that the product meets all of the essential
requirements of the relevant European Directive(s).
CCF, Common Cause Failure
A situation where several subsystems fail due to a single
event. All failures are caused by the event itself and are not
consequences of each other.
DC, Diagnostic Coverage
Diagnostic Coverage (DC) is the effectiveness of fault monitoring
of a system or subsystem. It is the ratio between the failure
rate of detected dangerous failures and the failure rate of total
dangerous failures.
EHSR, Essential Health and Safety Requirements
Requirements that machinery must meet in order to comply
with the European Union Machinery Directive and obtain
CE marking. These requirements are listed in the Machinery
Directive’s Annex I.
EN
Stands for “EuroNorm”. This prefix is used with harmonized
standards.
Harm
Physical injury or damage to health.
Harmonized standard
A European standard that has been prepared under the mandate
of the European Commission or the EFTA Secretariat with the
purpose of supporting the essential requirements of a directive
and is effectively mandatory under the EU law.
Hazard
Potential source of harm.
IEC, International Electrotechnical Commission
A worldwide organization for standardization that consists of
all national electrotechnical committees.
www.iec.ch
Glossary
39 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
ISO, International Organization for Standardization
A worldwide federation of national standards member bodies.
www.iso.org
MTTF
d
, Mean Time To dangerous Failure
Expectation of the average time for a dangerous failure to occur.
PFH
d
, Probability of dangerous Failure per Hour
Average probability of dangerous failure taking place during one
(1) hour. PFH
d
is the value that is used for determining the SIL
or PL value of a safety function.
PL, Performance Level
Levels (a, b, c, d, e) for specifying the capability of a safety system
to perform a safety function under foreseeable conditions.
PL
r
Required Performance Level (based on the risk evaluation).
Risk
A combination of how possible it is for the harm to happen and
how severe the harm would be.
Safety function
A function designed for adding safety to a machine whose failure
can result in an immediate increase in risk(s).
SIL, Safety Integrity Level
Levels (1, 2, 3, 4) for specifying the capability of an electrical
safety system to perform a safety function under foreseeable
conditions. Only levels 1-3 are used in machinery.
SILCL, SIL Claim Limit
Maximum safety integrity level (SIL) that can be claimed for
an electrical safety system, taking account of architectural
constraints and systematic safety integrity.
Subsystem
A component of a safety function that has its own safety level
(SIL /PL) that affects the safety level of the whole safety func-
tion. If any of the subsystems fail, the whole safety function fails.
Glossary
40 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
Index
A
Annex IV 11, 12, 39
C
CE marking 7, 10, 23, 26, 39, 40
CEN 12, 16
CENELEC 12, 16
D
documenting safety system 37
E
EHSR 8, 9, 10, 18, 22, 32, 37, 38, 40
emergency stop 13, 20
emergency switching off 20
EN 954-1 14
EN 61800-5-2 18
EN 62061 13, 14, 16, 24, 29, 32, 34
EN ISO 13849-1 13, 14, 16, 24, 30,
32, 35
F
functional safety 8, 23, 28
functional safety system 32, 33, 37
H
harmonized standards 8, 12, 16, 22,
26, 38
I
IEC, International Electrotechnical
Commission 15
ISO, International Organization for
Standardization 15
M
Machinery Directive 8, 9, 10, 12, 22,
24, 26, 32, 37, 38
Machinery Directive 98/37/EC 10, 38
Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC 10,
24, 38
P
PL, Performance Level 15, 17, 29, 30,
35, 37, 41
proving compliance 40
R
residual risk 26, 27, 28, 38
risk analysis 10, 18, 25
risk assessment 11, 16, 18, 24, 26, 27,
29, 37
risk reduction 9, 13, 16, 25, 26
S
safe brake control (SBC) 20
safe direction (SDI) 20
safely-limited speed (SLS) 19
safe operating stop (SOS) 19
safe speed monitor (SSM) 20
safe stop 1 (SS1) 19
safe stop 2 (SS2) 19
safe torque-off (STO) 19
safety functions 9, 10, 12, 14, 17, 18,
19, 27, 28, 32, 33, 37, 38, 41
safety performance 8, 10, 29, 34, 35
safety plan 23, 24
SIL, Safety Integrity Level 15, 17, 29,
34, 37, 41
T
transition period 14
type-A standards 12
type-B standards 12
type-C standards 12
U
updating existing machinery 23
V
validating safety system 39
verifying safety system 35
41 Technical guide No. 10 - Functional safety
10
ABB Oy
Drives
P.O. Box 184
FI - 00381 Helsinki
Finland
Telephone +358 10 22 11
Fax +358 10 222 2287
Internet www.abb.com
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Contact us
www.abb.com/drives
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© Copyright 2010 ABB. All rights reserved.
Specifications subject to change without notice.

2

Technical guide book

ABB drives
Technical guide book

3AFE64514482 REV E EFFECTIVE: 26.10.2010

© Copyright 2010 ABB. All rights reserved.

Technical guide book

3

4

Technical guide book

Contents
1. Direct Torque Control explains what DTC is; why and how it has evolved; the basic theory behind its success; and the features and benefits of this new technology. 2. EU Council Directives and adjustable speed electrical power drive systems is to give a straightforward explanation of how the various EU Council Directives relate to Power Drive Systems. 3. EMC compliant installation and configuration for a power drive system assists design and installation personnel when trying to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC Directive in the user’s systems and installations when using AC Drives. 4. Guide to variable speed drives describes basics of different variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in industrial processes. 5. Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems explains how to avoid damages. 6. Guide to harmonics with AC drives describes harmonic distortion, its sources and effect, and also distortion calculation and evaluation with special attention to the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives. 7. Dimensioning of a drive system. Making dimensioning correctly is the fastest way of saving money. Biggest savings can be achieved by avoiding very basic mistakes. These dimensioning basics and beyond can be found in this guide. 8. Electrical braking describes the practical solutions available in reducing stored energy and transferring stored energy back into electrical energy. 9. Guide to motion control drives gives an overview of high performance drives and motion control. 10. Functional safety guide introduces the Machinery Directive and the standards that must be taken into account when designing a machine, in order to ensure operational safely.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Technical guide book

5

6

Technical guide book

Technical guide No. 1

ABB drives
Direct Torque Control the world’s most advanced AC drive technology

2

Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control

All rights reserved.7.2008 © Copyright 2006 ABB.1 ABB drives Direct Torque Control the world’s most advanced AC drive technology Technical guide No. . 1 3AFE58056685 REV C EFFECTIVE: 21.

4 Technical guide No. 1 .Direct Torque Control .

............................ 9 Features .......... 8 DC Motor Drives..... 24 Chapter 4 .................................................................................................................... 13 AC Drives ......................................................................................Basic Control Theory .................................................................................................. 11 Advantages ..................................... 10 AC Drives ...Index .................... 15 Chapter 3 ......................................................................................................Questions & Answers............................................................................Introduction .................. 28 How DTC works ....................................................................................... 31 Chapter 5 .............................................................................................................. 7 This manual’s purpose.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Using this guide....................................................................................................................... 31 Step 5 Torque Reference Controller . 7 General ...........Direct Torque Control ...........................................................................Introduction ....................................................................................................... 9 Advantages ..............................................................................................................................................................................Evolution of Direct Torque Control ............................................................................................................................. 29 Step 1 Voltage and current measurements ......... 17 Performance ................. 9 Drawbacks ............. 29 Step 3 Torque Comparator and Flux Comparator ........... 32 1 Technical guide No........................... 10 AC Drives -frequency control using PWM ......................................... 12 AC Drives ...........Contents Chapter 1 .... 18 Operation ............................................................................... 11 Features ................................................................................................................................. 31 Step 7 Flux Reference Controller ...............................Direct Torque Control 5 ............................... 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 31 Step 6 Speed Controller ................................................ 12 Features ................................... 28 Torque Control Loop............................................................ 14 Controlling Variables .................................................... 29 Step 2 Adaptive Motor Model .......... 17 General .. 13 Drawbacks ............. 12 Drawbacks ................................. 8 Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................... 8 Summary ............... 14 Comparison of variable speed drives .............................................................................................................................................................. 30 Speed Control ........................ 30 Step 4 Optimum Pulse Selector ................................. 12 Advantages ...........flux vector control using PWM ......................................... 7 What is a variable speed drive? ................................................................................................................................................................

1 .6 Technical guide No.Direct Torque Control .

In fact. material handling. Technical guide No. please go straight to Chapter 3 (page 17) Questions & Answers.Chapter 1 . 1 This manual’s purpose The purpose of this Technical Guide is to explain what DTC is. air conditioning and other industries. While trying to be as practical as possible. Readers wanting to know the evolution of drives from early DC techniques through AC to DTC should start at Chapter 2 (page 8). why and how it has evolved. the basic theory behind its success. For an understanding of DTC’s Basic Control Theory. pulp and paper. anyone using variable speed drives (VSD) and who would like to benefit from VSD technology will find this Technical Guide essential reading. Using this guide This guide has been designed to give a logical build up as to why and how DTC was developed. purchasing managers. this guide does require a basic understanding of AC motor control principles. power generation.Direct Torque Control 7 .or DTC . chemical. It is aimed at decision makers including designers. and the features and benefits of this new technology. 1 . OEMs and end-users.is the most advanced AC drive technology developed by any manufacturer in the world. turn to page 28. in all markets such as the water. For those readers wanting answers about DTC’s performance. operation and application potential.Introduction General Direct Torque Control . specifiers.

frequency control. To control the flow of energy we must therefore. When the VSD operates in torque control mode. 8 Technical guide No. charting the four milestones of variable speed drives. inexpensive and maintenance free AC motors. when operated in speed control. PWM AC Drives. while using rugged. PWM AC Drives. Likewise. However. 1 . namely: • • • • DC Motor Drives AC Drives. ultimately. either one of them is controlled and we speak of “torque control” or “speed control”. control these quantities. DC motors were used as VSDs because they could easily achieve the required speed and torque without the need for sophisticated electronics. the evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been driven partly by the desire to emulate the excellent performance of the DC motor. Initially.Chapter 2 . Direct Torque Control 9 11 12 14 We examine each in turn. the torque is determined by the load. Two physical quantities describe the state of the shaft: torque and speed. the speed is determined by the load. leading to a total picture that identifies the key differences between each. Energy is supplied to the process through the motor shaft. such as fast torque response and speed accuracy. In practice.Evolution of Direct Torque Control What is a variable speed drive? To understand the answer to this question we have to understand that the basic function of a variable speed drive (VSD) is to control the flow of energy from the mains to the process. flux vector control.Direct Torque Control . Summary In this section we look at the evolution of DTC.

Technical guide No.are controlled directly through armature current: that is the torque is the inner control loop and the speed is the outer control loop (see Figure 1). the magnetic field is created by the current through the field winding in the stator. The commutator-brush assembly ensures this condition is maintained regardless of the rotor position. 1 . the DC motor’s torque is easily controlled by varying the armature current and by keeping the magnetising current constant. DC drives were used for variable speed control because they could easily achieve a good torque and speed response with high accuracy.Evolution of Direct Torque Control DC Motor Drives 1 Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Motor Drive Features • Field orientation via mechanical commutator • Controlling variables are Armature Current and Field Current. Once field orientation is achieved. Advantages • Accurate and fast torque control • High dynamic speed response • Simple to control Initially. is needed to generate maximum torque. known as field orientation.the two main concerns of the end-user . This field is always at right angles to the field created by the armature winding.Direct Torque Control 9 . measured DIRECTLY from the motor • Torque control is direct In a DC motor. The advantage of DC drives is that speed and torque . This condition.

Drawbacks • • • • Reduced motor reliability Regular maintenance Motor costly to purchase Needs encoder for feedback The main drawback of this technique is the reduced reliability of the DC motor. While a DC drive produces an easily controlled torque from zero to base speed and beyond. the total inductance and resistance in the armature circuit) • Simple . Torque can be changed instantaneously if the motor is fed from an ideal current source.field orientation is achieved using a simple mechanical device called a commutator/brush assembly.e. which would increase the cost of the motor controller. since this is determined only by the rotor’s electrical time constant (i. 10 Technical guide No. 1 . the drive system can have a very high dynamic speed response. that DC motors can be costly to purchase. AC Drives .the motor torque is proportional to the armture current: the torque can thus be controlled directly and accurately.Direct Torque Control . while utilising the advantages offered by the standard AC motor. • Rapid . there is no need for complex electronic control circuitry.Evolution of Direct Torque Control A DC machine is able to produce a torque that is: • Direct . such as fast torque response and speed accuracy.Introduction • • • • • • Small size Robust Simple in design Light and compact Low maintenance Low cost The evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been partly driven by the desire to emulate the performance of the DC drive. and that they require encoders for speed and position feedback. the motor’s mechanics are more complex and require regular maintenance.torque control is fast. Hence. the fact that brushes and commutators wear down and need regular servicing. A voltage fed drive still has a fast response.

Direct Torque Control 11 . Such an arrangement. namely voltage and frequency. Significantly. without a feedback device. Both voltage and frequency reference are fed into a modulator which simulates an AC sine wave and feeds this to the motor’s stator windings. The inverter controls the motor in the form of a PWM pulse train dictating both the voltage and frequency. this method does not use a feedback device which takes speed or position measurements from the motor’s shaft and feeds these back into the control loop.Evolution of Direct Torque Control AC Drives -frequency control using PWM 1 Figure 2: Control loop of an AC Drive with frequency control using PWM Features • • • • • Controlling variables are Voltage and Frequency Simulation of variable AC sine wave using modulator Flux provided with constant V/f ratio Open-loop drive Load dictates torque level Unlike a DC drive. This technique is called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and utilises the fact that there is a diode rectifier towards the mains and the intermediate DC voltage is kept constant. is called an “open-loop drive”. the AC drive frequency control technique uses parameters generated outside of the motor as controlling variables. 1 . Technical guide No.

1 . field orientation of the motor is not used. torque cannot be controlled with any degree of accuracy. AC Drives . This type of drive is suitable for applications which do not require high levels of accuracy or precision.Direct Torque Control . Instead.flux vector control using PWM Figure 3: Control loop of an AC Drive with flux vector control using PWM Features • Field-oriented control . sometimes known as Scalar Control. the controlling principle offers a low cost and simple solution to controlling economical AC induction motors. Drawbacks • • • • Field orientation not used Motor status ignored Torque is not controlled Delaying modulator used With this technique.simulates DC drive • Motor electrical characteristics are simulated .Evolution of Direct Torque Control Advantages • Low cost • No feedback device required .simple Because there is no feedback device. Therefore. the technique uses a modulator which basically slows down communication between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to respond to this changing signal. frequency and voltage are the main control variables and are applied to the stator windings. The status of the rotor is ignored. such as pumps and fans. Furthermore. meaning that no speed or position signal is fed back.“Motor Model” • Closed-loop drive • Torque controlled INDIRECTLY 12 Technical guide No.

Also. Although the motor is mechanically simple. With flux vector PWM drives.Evolution of Direct Torque Control To emulate the magnetic operating conditions of a DC motor. which slows down communication between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to respond to this changing signal. 1 . The electronic controller of a flux-vector drive creates electrical quantities such as voltage. field orientation is achieved by electronic means rather than the mechanical commutator/brush assembly of the DC motor. Firstly. Torque. which are the controlling variables. information about the rotor status is obtained by feeding back rotor speed and angular position relative to the stator field by means of a pulse encoder. the flux-vector drive needs to know the spatial angular position of the rotor flux inside the AC induction motor. This can be costly and also adds complexity to the traditional simple AC induction motor.Direct Torque Control 13 .e. giving it a performance very close to that of a DC drive. and feeds these through a modulator to the AC induction motor. current and frequency. Also the motor’s electrical characteristics are mathematically modelled with microprocessors used to process the data. the drive is electrically complex. Advantages • • • • Good torque response Accurate speed control Full torque at zero speed Performance approaching DC drive 1 Flux vector control achieves full torque at zero speed. Drawbacks • Feedback is needed • Costly • Modulator needed To achieve a high level of torque response and speed accuracy. a feedback device is required. is controlled INDIRECTLY. a modulator is used. therefore. A drive that uses speed encoders is referred to as a “closed-loop drive”. Technical guide No. to perform the field orientation process. i.

The controlling variables are motor magnetising flux and motor torque. The result is a drive with a torque response that is typically 10 times faster than any AC or DC drive. 14 Technical guide No. 1 .Direct Torque Control Figure 4: Control loop of an AC Drive using DTC Controlling Variables With the revolutionary DTC technology developed by ABB. DTC produces the first “universal” drive with the capability to perform like either an AC or DC drive. The remaining sections in this guide highlight the features and advantages of DTC. field orientation is achieved without feedback using advanced motor theory to calculate the motor torque directly and without using modulation. With DTC there is no modulator and no requirement for a tachometer or position encoder to feed back the speed or position of the motor shaft.Evolution of Direct Torque Control AC Drives .Direct Torque Control . The dynamic speed accuracy of DTC drives will be 8 times better than any open loop AC drives and comparable to a DC drive that is using feedback. DTC uses the fastest digital signal processing hardware available and a more advanced mathematical understanding of how a motor works.

and no external excitation is needed. all the benefits of an AC motor (see page 10). 1 . But DTC has added benefits including no feedback device is used.Evolution of Direct Torque Control Comparison of variable speed drives Let us now take a closer look at each of these control blocks and spot a few differences. Table 1: Comparison of control variables Technical guide No.Direct Torque Control 15 . 1 Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Drive Figure 2: Control loop with frequency control Figure 3: Control loop with flux vector control Figure 4 Control loop of an AC Drive using DTC The first observation is the similarity between the control block of the DC drive (Figure 1) and that of DTC (Figure 4). Both are using motor parameters to directly control torque.

Thus. With PWM AC drives. no tachometer or encoder is needed to feed back a speed or position signal. Comparing DTC (Figure 4) with the two other AC drive control blocks (Figures 2 & 3) shows up several differences. 16 Technical guide No.Direct Torque Control . the main one being that no modulator is required with DTC. Thus. for most applications. the controlling variables are frequency and voltage which need to go through several stages before being applied to the motor. with PWM drives control is handled inside the electronic controller and not inside the motor.Evolution of Direct Torque Control As can be seen from Table 1. 1 . both DC Drives and DTC drives use actual motor parameters to control torque and speed. the dynamic performance is fast and easy. Also with DTC.

in effect.Chapter 3 . Industry is demanding more and existing drive technology cannot meet these demands. This. One drive capable of meeting all appliction needs whether AC. • A comfortable working environment with a drive that produces much lower audible noise. industry wants: • Better product quality which can be partly achieved with improved speed accuracy and faster torque control. there is no need for a modulator. as used in PWM drives. What is the advantage of this? Because torque and flux are motor parameters that are being directly controlled. • Less down time which means a drive that will not trip unnecessarily. DC or servo. For example. similar to a DC motor. to control the frequency and voltage. DTC also provides precise torque control without the need for a feedback device.or DTC as it is called . a drive that is not complicated by expensive feedback devices.is the very latest AC drive technology developed by ABB and is set to replace traditional PWM drives of the open.Direct Torque Control 17 .Questions & Answers General What is Direct Control? Direct Torque Control . cuts out the middle man and dramatically speeds up the response of the drive to changes in required torque. • Fewer products. Why is it called Direct Torque Control? Direct Torque Control describes the way in which the control of torque and speed are directly based on the electromagnetic state of the motor. and a drive which is not greatly affected by interferences like harmonics and RFI. 1 Technical guide No. 1 . That is a truly “universal” drive.and closed-loop type in the near future. DTC is the first technology to control the “real” motor control variables of torque and flux. Why is there a need for another AC drive technology? DTC is not just another AC drive technology. but contrary to the way in which traditional PWM drives use input frequency and voltage.

This is half that of other open-loop AC drives and equal to that of closed-loop AC and DC drives.How well the drive repeats its output torque with the same torque reference command.Questions and Answers These are just some of the demands from industry. ABB has spent over 100 man years developing the technology. DTC can deliver solutions to all these demands as well as bringing new benefits to many standard applications. Who invented DTC? ABB has been carrying out research into DTC since 1988 foll owing the publication of the theory in 1971 and 1985 by German doctor Blaschke and his colleague Depenbrock.5 Hz and still provide 100% torque right the way through to zero speed. DTC leans on the theory of field oriented control of induction machines and the theory of direct self control. as well as full load torque at zero speed without the need for a feedback device such as an encoder or tachometer. With the voltage and current available. drives using DTC technology have the following exceptional dynamic performance features. 18 Technical guide No. With open loop PWM drives (see page 11) the response time is typically well over 100 ms. • Torque repeatability: . with its torque response. speed can be controlled to frequencies below 0. Performance What are the main benefits of DTC technology over traditional AC drive technology? There are many benefits of DTC technology. DTC. But most significantly. In fact.Direct Torque Control . For DTC. without an encoder. Even in the newer “sensorless” drives the torque response is hundreds of milliseconds. many of which are obtained without the need for an encoder or tachometer to monitor shaft position or speed: • Torque response: . • Accurate torque control at low frequencies. response time cannot be any shorter. With DTC.How quickly the drive output can reach the specified value when a nominal 100% torque reference step is applied. can provide 1 to 2% torque repeatability of the nominal torque across the speed range. 1 . a typical torque response is 1 to 2 ms below 40 Hz compared to between 10-20 ms for both flux vector and DC drives fitted with an encoder. DTC has achieved the natural limit.

bringing much improved process control and a more consistent product quality. DTC brings the cost saving benefit that no tachometer is needed.1%sec.Direct Torque Control 19 . for the same accuracy from DC drives an encoder is needed. the static speed accuracy is typically between 1 to 3%. Compared to PWM flux vector drives. If we furnish the DTC controller with an encoder. which with an 11 kW motor. DTC open-loop dynamic speed accuracy is between 0. where the load needs to be started and stopped regularly without any jerking. What are the practical benefits of these performance figures? • Fast torque response: . the dynamic accuracy is eight times less and in practical terms around 3%sec. used in the paper industry. tension control can be achieved from zero through to maximum speed. With other open-loop AC drives. A DTC drive using an encoder with 1024 pulses/revolution can achieve a speed accuracy of 0. So the potential for customer process improvements is significantly higher with standard drives using DTC technology. For DTC. In contrast.This is important in precision applications like winders.Time integral of speed deviation when a nominal (100%) torque speed is applied. 1 Technical guide No.This significantly reduces the speed drop time during a load transient. equals 0. 1 . • Torque control at low frequencies: . This depends on the gain adjustment of the controller. With a 110 kW motor. However.3 to 0.This is particularlybeneficial to cranes or elevators. which can be tuned to the process requirements. with frequency controlled PWM drives. which matches servo drive performance.Questions and Answers • Motor static speed accuracy: . the dynamicspeed accuracy will be 0. Also with a winder. This satisfies the accuracy requirement or 95% of industrial drives applications. speed accuracy is 10% of the motor slip. where an accurate and consistent level of winding is critical.1% without encoder (open-loop). • Dynamic speed accuracy: . • Torque linearity: .4%sec.01%.Error between speed reference and actual value at constant load. speed accuracy is 0.3% static speed accuracy.

BENEFIT Investment cost savings. are there any other benefits of DTC drive technology? Yes. Better load control. This saves initial cost. Better process control. For example. Control down to zero speed and position with encoder. 1 . High accuracy control with standard AC motor. Smooth transition between drive and brake. high performance torque drive. the motor can recover to a stable state remarkably fast. Torque response time less than 5ms. Allows drive to be used in traditional DC drive applications. FEATURE Good motor speed accuracy without tachometer. Similar performance to DC but without tachometer. there are many benefits.Direct Torque Control . No tachometer needed in 95% of all applications. Allows required torque at all times. Table 2: Dynamic performance features and benefits offered by DTC technology Apart from excellent dynamic performance figures. Reduced mechanical failures for machinery. Can use AC drive and motor instead of DC. Lower investment.After a sudden load change. RESULT Allows speed to be controlled better than 0. Servo drive performance. Higher product quality. Leads to a true universal drive. provides position control and better static accuracy. Investment cost saving. Drive for demanding applications.Questions and Answers • Dynamic speed accuracy: . 20 Technical guide No. Torque repeatability 1%. Less downtime. Cost effective. Standard AC motor means less maintenance and lower cost. DTC drives do not need a tachometer or encoder to monitor motor shaft speed or position in order to achieve the fastest torque response ever from an AC drive. Excellent torque control without tachometer. Full torque at zero speed with or without tachometer/encoder. Increased reliability. No mechanical brake needed.5% accuracy.

No limits on maximum acceleration and deceleration rate. pumps. Tuning the motor to drive for top performance. Controlled motor. Controlled braking between two speed points. fans. Guaranteed starting torque. Can start into a motor that is running without waiting for flux to decay. Smooth control of machinery. No parameter tuning required. No process interruptions. Easy retrofit for any AC system. Less down time. Low noise.Direct Torque Control 21 . No fixed carrier. Motor losses minimised.Questions and Answers FEATURE Rapid control DC link voltage. Avoids process interruptions. Flux optimisation. RESULT Power loss ride through. Starting with motor residual inductance present. No delay required as in DC braking. therefore acoustic noise reasonable due to “white” noise spectrum. Lower stresses in gearboxes. Less motor noise. Easy and accurate set-up. 1 . Resume control in all situations. No harmful mechanical resonances. No predetermined switching pattern of power devices. Cost savings in acoustic barriers in noise sensitive applications. Automatic start (Flying start). Can be used for decelerating to other than zero speed. Reduced need for brake chopper and resistor. Less commissioning time. Table 3: User features and benefits offered by DTC technology Technical guide No. Better process control. No restarting delay required. Investment cost savings. Better process control. No interruptions on process. Can transfer motor from line to drive. Less waste in continuous process. Synchronises to rotating motor. Self identification/ Auto-tuning. Can accelerate and decelerate in quickest time possible without mechanical constraints. Flux braking. 1 Automatic start (Direct restart). No restart. BENEFIT Drive will not trip.

DTC technology can provide control to the drive input line generating unit. This means that harmonics can be significantly reduced with a DTC controlled input bridge. 22 Technical guide No. What benefits does DTC bring to standard drives? Standard applications account for 70% of all variable speed drives installed throughout industry. What is the impact of DTC on pump control? DTC has an impact on all types of pumps. the drive must remain energised. Two of the most common applications are in fans and pumps in industries like Heating. Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC). For example.Questions and Answers Also a DTC drive features rapid starting in all motor electromagnetic and mechanical states. regardless of whether they are centrifugal or constant torque type (screw pumps) can now be controlled with one drive configuration. The motor can be started immediately without delay. water and food and drinks. The DC link voltage must not drop below the lowest control level of 80%. In these applications. For example. For standard applications. where a conventional diode bridge is replaced with a controlled bridge. as can aerators and conveyors. in screw pumps a drive using DTC technology will be able to adjust itself for sufficient starting torque for a guaranteed start. DTC provides solutions to problems like harmonics and noise. if there is a loss of input power for a short time. DTC drives easily withstand huge and sudden load torques caused by rapid changes in the process. DTC has a 25 microseconds control cycle. without any overvoltage or overcurrent trip.Direct Torque Control . all pumps. DTC technology allows a drive to adjust itself to varying application needs. Also. It appears that DTC drives are most advantageous for high performance or demanding drive applications.99. Because DTC leads to a universal drive. The low level current distortion with a DTC controlled bridge will be less than a conventional 6-pulse or 12-pulse configuration and power factor can be as high as 0. 1 . To ensure this.

This provides significant investment cost savings. For example. one of the world’s largest web machine manufacturers tested DTC technology for a winder in a film finishing process.Direct Torque Control 23 . there are hundreds of thousands of installations in use. With this feature. The Benefits: Winder station construction simplified and reliability increased. For example. What is the impact of DTC technology on energy savings? A feature of DTC which contributes to energy efficiency is a development called motor flux optimisation. with 25% load there is up to 10% total energy efficiency improvement. This directly impacts on operating costs. The Solution: Open-loop DTC drives have replaced traditional DC drives and latter flux vector controlled AC drives on the centre drives in the rewind station. The inherent torque control facility for DTC technology allows the torque to be limited in order to avoid mechanical stress on pumps and pipelines. 1 .Questions and Answers Improved power loss ride through will improve pumping availability during short power breaks. the efficiency of the total drive (that is controller and motor) is greatly improved in fan and pump applications. The cost of one tachometer and associated wiring equals that of one 30 kW AC motor. 1 Technical guide No. Has DTC technology been used in many installations? Yes. The Requirement: Exact torque control in the winder so as to produce high quality film rolls. This feature also significantly reduces the motor noise compared to that generated by the switching frequency of a traditional PWM drive. At 50% load there can be 2% total efficiency improvement.

• DTC control DTC allows the motor’s torque and stator flux to be used as primary control variables. both of which are obtained directly from the motor itself. 1 . • Controlling variables are taken directly from the motor (see page 29). Why does DTC not need a tachometer or position encoder to tell it precisely where the motor shaft is at all times? There are four main reasons for this: • The accuracy of the Motor Model (see page 29). Typically. • No modulator is needed (see page 14). a PWM modulator takes 10 times longer than DTC to respond to actual change. Therefore. 24 Technical guide No.Questions and Answers Operation What is the difference between DTC and traditional PWM methods? • Frequency Control PWM and Flux Vector PWM Traditional PWM drives use output voltage and output frequency as the primary control variables but these need to be pulse width modulated before being applied to the motor. This modulator stage adds to the signal processing time and therefore limits the level of torque and speed response possible from the PWM drive.Direct Torque Control . • The fast processing speeds of the DSP and Optimum Pulse Selector hardware (see page 30). Another big advantage of a DTC drive is that no feedback device is needed for 95% of all drive applications. there is no need for a separate voltage and frequency controlled PWM modulator. with DTC.

For a clearer understanding of DTC control theory. As mentioned above.000 times every second. 1 . the torque response is the quickest available. At low frequencies the nominal torque step can be increased in less than 1ms. How does DTC achieve these major improvements over traditional technology? The most striking difference is the sheer speed by which DTC operates. see page 28. It is fast enough to control individual switching pulses.Questions and Answers When combined to form a DTC drive. the motor is now the limiting component. Once every 25 microseconds. A DTC drive can reach this dynamic accuracy with the optional speed feedback from a tachometer. This is the best available. the inverter’s semiconductors are supplied with an optimum switching pattern to produce the required torque. the above features produce a drive capable of calculating the ideal switching voltages 40. But the main difference is that DTC provides accurate control even at low speeds and down to zero speed without encoder feedback. A typical dynamic speed accuracy for a servo drive is 0. How does a DTC drive achieve the performance of a servo drive? Quite simply because the motor is now the limit of performance and not the drive itself. What is the difference between DTC and other sensorless drives on the market? There are vast differences between DTC and many of the sensorless drives. it is the fastest ever achieved. Quite simply. not the inverter. To achieve a fast torque loop. ABB has utilised the latest high speed signal processing technology and spent 100 man years developing the highly advanced Motor Model which precisely simulates the actual motor parameters within the controller. 1 Technical guide No. This update rate is substantially less than any time constants in the motor. Thus.1%s.Direct Torque Control 25 .

This device. will be catered for by adding a feedback device to provide closed loop control. mainly applications where extremely precise speed control is needed. 1 . Unlike traditional AC drives. Unless you are looking at the shaft. however. As DTC is controlling the torque directly. thanks to the sophistication of the Motor Model and the ability to carry out 40. The exceptions. This is reflected in the exceptionally high torque response and speed accuracy figures quoted on pages 18 and 19. As explained above.Direct Torque Control .Questions and Answers Does a DTC drive use fuzzy logic within its control loop? No. If we compare to a PWM drive. a drive using DTC technology knows precisely where the shaft is and so does not waste any of its switchings. 26 Technical guide No. DTC can cover 95% of all industrial applications. The dead time is measured and is taken into account by the Motor Model when calculating the actual flux. can be simpler than the sensors needed for conventional closed loop drives. There is never any doubt as to the motor’s state.000 calculations every second. How has this been achieved? Many manufacturers have spent years trying to avoid trips during acceleration and deceleration and have found it extraordinarily difficult. Is this true with DTC? DTC knows the full picture. A drive using DTC technology is said to be tripless. The speed and accuracy of a drive which relies on computed rather than measured control parameters can never be realistic. DTC achieves tripless operation by controlling the actual motor torque. how accurate is the auto-tuning of a DTC drive? Auto-tuning is used in the initial identification run of a DTC drive (see page 29). current can be kept within these limits in all operating conditions. Therefore. Even with the fastest semiconductors some dead time is introduced. where up to 30% of all switchings are wasted. the problem with PWM is in the range 20-30 Hz which causes torque ripple. Fuzzy logic is used in some drives to maintain the acceleration current within current limits and therefore prevent the drive from tripping unnecessarily. you are not getting the full picture. a DTC drive knows precisely what the motor shaft is doing.

Motor slip of a 37 kW motor is about 2% which means a speed accuracy of 0. Speed accuracy: Within a speed range of 2-100% and a load range of 10-100%. the torque accuracy is 2%. the arrangement operates as one large motor.Questions and Answers What kind of stability will a DTC drive have at light loads and low speeds? The stability down to zero speed is good and both torque and speed accuracy can be maintained at very low speeds and light loads. Can DTC work with any type of induction motor? Yes. the speed accuracy is 10% of the motor slip. 1 .2%. any type of asynchronous. it would be best to select the scalar control macro. squirrel cage motor. What are the limitations of DTC? If several motors are connected in parallel in a DTC-controlled inverter. We have defined the accuracies as follows: Torque accuracy: Within a speed range of 2-100% and a load range of 10-100%. If the number of motors varies or the motor power remains below 1/8 of the rated power.Direct Torque Control 27 . 1 Technical guide No. It has no information about the status of any single motor.

Now we will walk around the blocks exploring each stage and showing how they integrate together. 1 .Basic Control Theory How DTC works Figure 5. Walk around the block Figure 5: DTC comprises two key blocks: Speed Control and Torque Control The block diagram shows that DTC has two fundamental sections: the Torque Control Loop and the Speed Control Loop. 28 Technical guide No. below.Direct Torque Control . shows the complete block diagram for Direct Torque Control (DTC).Chapter 4 . Let’s start with DTC’s Torque Control Loop.

The extremely fine tuning of motor model is achieved when the identification run also includes running the motor shaft for some seconds.Basic Control Theory Torque Control Loop 1 Step 1 Voltage and current measurements In normal operation. the Motor Model is fed information about the motor.Direct Torque Control 29 . This makes it easy to apply DTC technology also in retrofits. Before operating the DTC drive. 1 . The sophistication of this Motor Model allows precise data about the motor to be calculated. Technical guide No. together with the inverter’s switch positions. Step 2 Adaptive Motor Model The measured information from the motor is fed to the Adaptive Motor Model.5%. There is no need to feed back any shaft speed or position with tachometers or encoders if the static speed accuracy requirement is over 0. mutual inductance and saturation coefficients are determined along with the motor’s inertia. as it is for most industrial applications. which is collected during a motor identification run. The identification of motor model parameters can be done without rotating motor shaft. two motor phase currents and the DC bus voltage are simply measured. This is called auto-tuning and data such as stator resistance.

or maintaining. It is this processing speed that brings the high performance figures including a static speed control accuracy. an accurate motor torque. in fact. with DTC each and every switching is needed and used. without encoder. Also shaft speed is calculated within the Motor Model. Furthermore. Both actual torque and actual flux are fed to the comparators where they are compared. DTC has been referred to as “just-in-time” switching. Step 4 Optimum Pulse Selector Within the Optimum Pulse Selector is the latest 40 MHz digital signal processor (DSP) together with ASIC hardware to determine the switching logic of the inverter.000 times a second. The Motor Model is. This configuration brings immense processing speed such that every 25 microseconds the inverter’s semiconductor switching devices are supplied with an optimum pulse for reaching. These signals are then fed to the Optimum Pulse Selector. This allows extremely rapid response on the shaft and is necessary so that the Motor Model (see Step 2) can update this information. 30 Technical guide No. every 25 microseconds. key to DTC’s unrivalled low speed performance. all control signals are transmitted via optical links for high speed data transmission. of ±0.5% and the torque response of less than 2 ms. There is no predetermined switching pattern. This high speed of switching is fundamental to the success of DTC.Basic Control Theory This is a significant advance over all other AC drive technology.Direct Torque Control . because. The Motor Model outputs control signals which directly represent actual motor torque and actual stator flux. The correct switch combination is determined every control cycle. Torque and flux status signals are calculated using a two level hysteresis control method. unlike traditional PWM drives where up to 30% of all switch changes are unnecessary. Step 3 Torque Comparator and Flux Comparator The information to control power switches is produced in the Torque and Flux Comparator. The main motor control parameters are updated 40. to a torque and flux reference value. 1 .

It also includes speed control for cases when an external torque signal is used.Basic Control Theory Speed Control 1 Step 5 Torque Reference Controller Within the Torque Reference Controller. The ability to control and modify this absolute value provides an easy way to realise many inverter functions such as Flux Optimisation and Flux Braking (see page 21). The output is the sum of outputs from both of them. Step 6 Speed Controller The Speed Controller block consists both of a PID controller and an acceleration compensator. Step 7 Flux Reference Controller An absolute value of stator flux can be given from the Flux Reference Controller to the Flux Comparator block. the speed control output is limited by the torque limits and DC bus voltage. Technical guide No. The error signal is then fed to both the PID controller and the acceleration compensator. The external speed reference signal is compared to the actual speed produced in the Motor Model. 1 . The internal torque reference from this block is fed to the Torque Comparator.Direct Torque Control 31 .

15. 30 energy savings 23 external speed reference 31 external torque signal 31 F fan 21. 12. 15 AC drive with flux vector control 12 AC motor 20 aerators 22 air condition 22 ASIC 30 auto-tuning 21. 31 control variables 15. 17. 26. 28 drive input line generating unit 22 DSP 24. 28. 11. 23. 9. 23 32 Technical guide No. 18. 23. 14. 12. 24. 24 motor flux optimisation 23 Motor Model 12. 26 field oriented control 18 film finishing 23 flux braking 21. 15. 3. 18 closed-loop drives 12 commissioning 21 control cycle 30 controlled input bridge 22 controlling variables 16 control loop 9. 15. 24 fuzzy logic 26 G gearbox 21 H harmonics 22 heating 22 HeVAC 22 hysteresis control 30 I inertia 29 initial cost 20 L load torque 18. 21. 14. 15. 31 flux optimisation 21. 15 food 22 frequency control 11. 30. 16. 23 D DC bus voltage 29. 25. 25. 26. 22. 15. 28. 20 DC link voltage 21. 19. 29. 23 predetermined switching pattern 21. 25 M maintenance 20 mechanical brake 20 modulator 16. 15. 23. 24 conveyors 22 costs 20. 26. 24. 25 E electronic controller 16 elevators 19 encoders 16. 25. 1 . 20. 20. 16. 10. 13. 18. 26. 30 dynamic speed accuracy 19. 24. 30 DTC 14. 30 AC drive using DTC 14. 22 loss of input power 22 low frequencies 18. 15. 23 nominal torque step 25 O operating cost 23 optical link 30 Optimum Pulse Selector 30 output frequency 24 output voltage 24 P paper industry 19 PID controller 31 pipelines 23 position control 20 position encoder 24 power factor 22 power loss ride through 21. 19. 30 pump 21. 12. 16. 22 DC Motor 9 Depenbrock 18 diode bridge 22 Direct Torque Control 8. 14. 26. 19. 29. 31 motor noise 21. 22.Chapter 5 . 29 B Blaschke 18 braking 21. 31 DC drive 9. 11.Direct Torque Control . 21. 23. 24 flux vector control 12. 7. 11. 27. 20. 18. 22. 31 Flux Reference Controller 31 flux vector 12.Index A acceleration compensator 31 accuracy control 20 AC drive 1. 16. 24. 23 feedback device 18. 31 C closed-loop 12. 29. 12. 23 Motor static speed 19 motor torque 30 mutual inductance 29 N noise 21. 29. 31 flux comparator 30. 22.

14. 20. 10. 30. 21. 24. 15. 23. 25. 26. 18. 28 . 20. 15. 26. 23 Z zero speed 18. 19. 27. 16.control 9. 31 W water 22 web machine 23 winder 19. 31 Speed Controller 31 Speed Control Loop 28 speed control output 31 speed response 24 stability 27 start 21. 18. 30 . 19. 30. 30. 12. 26. 29 tachometer 16. 24.Direct Torque Control 33 . 12. 22 static accuracy 20 static speed accuracy 19. 21. 24. 25. 26. 29. 28. 23. 23. 24. 25. 22 V variable speed drives 15. 27. 22. 22. 27. 31 stator flux 24. 25 signal processing time 24 speed 8.loop 25 .ripple 26 Torque and Flux Comparator 30 Torque Comparator 30. 18. 28. 13. 22 ventilating 22 voltage 16. 25. 25. 20. 1 . 24. 21. 14. 21. 26 U universal 20. 31 stator resistance 29 stress 21. 31 Torque Control Loop 28 Torque Reference Controller 31 trip 21. 31 . 29 speed control 26. 31 speed accuracy 19. 29.repeatability 20 . 22. 16. 25 signal processing 24. 25. 20. 11. 12.Index PWM 11. 30 switching pulses 25 T tacho 16. 16. 27 1 Technical guide No. 20. 23 switching pattern 21. 26. 28 starting 21. 29 time constant 25 torque 9. 25. 30 PWM AC drive 16. 22. 19. 29 stator 24. 25. 18. 18. 28. 30. 30 R reliability 20 restart 21 retrofit 21 S saturation coefficient 29 scalar control 27 sensorless 25 servo drive 20. 20. 19. 23. 24. 23. 30. 24. 20. 26.response 20. 29. 22.

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Technical guide No. 1 - Direct Torque Control

ABB Oy Drives P. O. Box 184 FI - 00381 Helsinki Finland Telephone +358 10 22 11 Fax +358 10 22 22681 Internet www.abb.com/drives
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© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved. 3AFE58056685 REV C EN 21.7.2008 Specifications subject to change without notice.

Technical guide No. 2

ABB drives
EU Council Directives and adjustable speed electrical power drive systems

2

Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives

2

ABB drives
EU Council Directives and adjustable speed electrical power drive systems

Technical guide No. 2

3AFE61253980 REV D EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008

© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.

Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives

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Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives

Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 9 This guide’s purpose .................................................................................... 9 How to use this guide................................................................................. 10 Responsibilities and actions .................................................................. 10 Tickboxes ............................................................................................. 10 Cross-referencing .................................................................................. 10 Chapter 2 - General questions and answers ....................................... 11 What are these EU Council Directives? .................................................. 11 How does EMC affect me? ................................................................... 11 What is EMC? ....................................................................................... 11 What is an electromagnetic environment? ............................................. 12 How does electromagnetic interference show up? ................................ 12 What emissions can drives cause? ........................................................ 12 How is this emission seen? ................................................................... 13 How do I avoid electromagnetic interference? ....................................... 13 Drives manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then? ............. 13 If a drive is CE marked, I need not worry. True? ..................................... 13 Chapter 3 - CE marking ....................................................................... 15 What is CE marking and how relevant is it for drives? ................................. 15 What is CE marking for? ........................................................................ 15 Is CE marking a quality mark? ............................................................... 16 What is the legal position regarding CE marking? .................................. 16 What is the importance of CE marking for purchasers of drives? ........... 16 If I buy a CE marked drive, will I meet the technical requirements of the directives? ................................................................................... 16 What happens if, as an end-user, I put together a system do I have to put CE marking on? ........................................................... 17 What about spare parts that I buy for a drive? Do I negate the CE mark if I replace a component? ............................... 17 If drives are classed as components, on subassemlies they cannot be EMC certified or carry a CE mark. Is this true? ...................... 17 In summary ................................................................................................ 18 Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus by the end users ................................................................... 18 Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus by the other manufacturer or assembler................................ 18 Finished appliance................................................................................. 19 Finished appliance intended for the end users ....................................... 19 Finished appliance intended for the other manufacturer or assembler .... 19 Systems (Combination of finished appliances) ....................................... 19

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Technical guide No. 2 - EU Council Directives

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.... 31 ..................................................................................................... 30 Path 3 .. 30 Actions you must take ...................................................................... ............................ 35 If you are an installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS....................................................................................................................................................... 37 How do I ensure that tests are always carried out?......................... 39 4........................................................................ 26 When buying a PDS............... 37 Can drive manufacturers help more? ....................................................... 40 Certificate of Adequacy ........... 21 What you need to know and do ......................................................................................................................................................... 36 Will customers always receive a copy of technical documentation? .................................................... 35 Chapter 5 ................................................................... 39 Technical file (for mechanical safety aspects) ....................... 20 Fixed installation ....................... 34 If you are a distributor buying a CDM/BDM................................................................ 40 Health and safety .............................................All provisions of the EMC Directive................................................ If chosen a statement from notified body ....................................................................................................................... 40 Drawings and diagrams..................................................................... ................. 29 Actions you must take ...................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Actions you must take .................................................................. 40 Machine design ................................................................................. 32 Additional actions . 36 Why is technical documentation deemed to be important?................................... Description of the product ................................................................ apply to the combination as a whole....... Procedures used to ensure product conformity ...... 37 What is the shelf life of technical documentation? ............................................................................................................................................... 20 Equipment................. 29 Path 2 .... 40 Other certificates required ..... 40 What is a technical file? .......... 32 If you are a panelbuilder buying a CDM/BDM ... 30 Actions you must take .................................................................................... 28 Path 1 ....................... 20 Chapter 4 .EU Council Directives .............................. 41 How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy.. 41 What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? ..... 36 What is technical documentation? ............................................ Actions by the notified body ..... 41 6 Technical guide No...................................Terminology ....................... ............................... 38 3............................ 36 Technical documentation (TD)........................................................... as defined for apparatus.......................................... 38 1....................................... 38 2........................................You have the following responsibilities ............... 31 If you are an end-user buying a CDM/BDM or PDS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 If you are a machine builder buying a PDS............... 2 ..................... 20 Apparatus ................ 37 How to make up a TD ................................................................................. 40 How to make up a technical file ..................................Purchasing decisionsfor PDSs .................................... 25 Actions you must take .....................

.. 46 How to obtain type certification .............................................. 53 Examples concerning applications of different approaches .....................................................Standards and directives ........................... 51 Do I have to conform to the standards? ....................................................... 56 How does the LVD affect my drive? ............................................................................................... 48 Directive or standard? ....... 51 PDS of category C1: ................................................... 57 EMC Directive ............... 45 Type certification.................................... 50 Which standards directly relate to drives? .................................................................................................................. 46 Chapter 6 ........................... 54 Machinery Directive 98/37/EC ........... 48 How to recognise a European standard.............. 43 How to obtain a Declaration of conformity .................................. 41 How to obtain a report ................................................................. 50 What are the solutions to radiated emissions? .....Statement ............................... 41 When the statement is needed .................................................... 59 Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives........................................................................................................................................................................................ 44 Is there no way out of this type of declaration? ............EU Council Directives 7 .............. 52 PDS of category C3: ................. 47 Chapter 7 ........................................... 51 The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3 . 57 Who has the responsibility to ensure CE marking? ............................... 56 Why is the Declaration of conformity important? .......................................................... 51 Can I be fined for not conforming? ............................................................................................................................................................... 56 Low Voltage Directive ............ 47 Notified body ................................ 61 2 Technical guide No............................................................ 53 PDS of category C4: ................... 60 Index ........................................................... 45 What a Declaration of incorporation contains................................................................................................................. 57 How does the EMC Directive affect my drive? ...................................................................................... 52 PDS of category C2: ............ 58 Summary of responsibilities ............................................ 55 Where can I obtain a Machinery Directive copy? ............................................................................. 42 Declaration of conformity (for EMC and electrical safety aspects) ........................................ 49 Your questions answered ..................................................................................................Authorities and bodies...................... 50 What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives? ...................................................................................... 55 How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive? ......................................................... 47 Competent authority............... 48 Harmonised standards for PDSs ................................................ 43 What is a Declaration of incorporation? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 ..........................................................

8 Technical guide No.EU Council Directives . 2 .

system designers. it must be realised that the EMC Directive is only part of the overall EU initiative on common safety standards. 2 Other technical guides available in this series include: Technical guide No. 2 .whether machine builders.some clear practical guidelines and courses of action. we reserve the right to develop and evolve these interpretations as more details become available from notified bodies (see chapter 6). While Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the subject of most concern within the industry. For an explanation of the terminology of PDSs. It is the intention of this guide to offer users of AC or DC power drive systems . *Notes 1 The content of this technical guide is ABB Oy’s. 1 Direct torque control (3AFE58056685) Technical guide No. competent authorities (see chapter 6).EU Council Directives 9 . 7 Dimensioning of a drive system (3AFE64362569) 2 Technical guide No.Chapter 1 . 3 EMC compliant installation and configuration for a power drive system (3AFE61348280) Technical guide No. 4 Guide to variable speed drives (3AFE61389211) Technical guide No. see pages 21 and 22. OEMs. 5 Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems (3AFE64230247) Technical guide No. However. end-users or installers . 6 Guide to harmonics with AC drives (3AFE64292714) Technical guide No.Introduction This guide’s purpose The aim of this Technical guide No. 2* is to give a straight-forward explanation of how the various EU Council Directives relate to power drive systems (PDSs). organisations and from our own tests. distributors. Drives interpretation of events as of July 2007.

then conforming to the relevant directives will be straightforward. In the margin you will come across: Defined on page XX You are advised to turn to the page number reference.EU Council Directives . Tickboxes Alongside the actions are tickboxes. You will also notice other references within the text. If the purchaser follows these actions. No action is needed. Section 4 looks at purchasing decisions for PDSs. Please note the following about the structure of this section: Responsibilities and actions Each type of purchaser is offered an explanation of their responsibilities. 10 Technical guide No. step-by-step. this guide inevitably carries a lot of cross-references to other sections. Purchasers can photocopy the relevant pages and use them as a checklist with each item being ticked off as it is achieved. 2 . 8 Electrical braking (3AFE64362534) Technical guide No. This is for awareness.Introduction Technical guide No. Following the responsibilities is a set of actions. 9 Guide to motion control drives (3AFE68695201) How to use this guide The guide is divided into 7 sections. Key point: Within the text you will see: Key point These are key observations that must be observed. These can be referred to if the item is unclear but is not essential for achieving compliance. Cross-referencing Because of the complexity of conforming to each directive.

Quite simply there are three directives that mainly affect a drive’s safety against risks and hazards. It is the ability of electrical/electronic equipment to operate problem-free within an electromagnetic environment. Key point: Electrical equipment that does not conform to the regulations may not be sold anywhere in the EEA (European Economic Area). How does EMC affect me? From January 1.EU Council Directives 11 . we need to look at the other legislation and how it affects the purchase and installation of drives. So before answering this question. 2 .Chapter 2 . These are: Directive Machinery Directive Low Voltage Directive EMC Directive Mandatory 1995-01-01 1997-01-01 1996-01-01 Page pg 55 pg 56 pg 57 2 But more on each of these directives later. What is EMC? EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. It applies to all electrical and electronic equipment sold within the EU and affects virtually all manufacturers and importers of electrical and electronic goods. Likewise. What are these EU Council Directives? It is important to realise that EMC cannot be divorced from other European legislation.General questions and answers It is very important that users of PDSs fully understand all the various rules and regulations and how they apply to PDSs. 1996 the EU Council’s Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (89/336/EEC and it’s successor 2004/108/EC) has been compulsory. That is the purpose of this guide. Let us first explain EMC and look at some concerns of the industry. the equipment Technical guide No.

While drives manufacturers strive to make their products immune. Natural sources consist of electrical discharge between clouds. 12 Technical guide No. lightning or other atmospheric disturbances. switch rapidly and therefore. 2 . Key point: It is important that all PDSs are immune to these natural and man-made disturbances. It is this radiation and emission that have been seen to have the potential to disturb other circuits at frequencies below 200 MHz. walkie-talkies. Typical examples of interference include a poorly suppressed automobile engine or dynamo. What is an electromagnetic environment? The electromagnetic environment is everywhere but it varies from place to place. The reason is that there are many different sources of disturbance which can be natural or man-made. an electric drill causing patterning on the TV screen. Such a variety of equipment. or crackling from an AM radio. unless proper precautions are taken. Man-made disturbances are those generated by. The microprocessor and power electronic component. thereby ensuring all manufacturers achieve the same basic level. What emissions can drives cause? The normal operation of any drive involves rapid switching of high voltages and this can produce radio frequency emission. While we cannot influence these sources we can protect our products and systems from their effects. digital systems like microprocessors. can cause interference at high frequencies. electrical contacts and semiconductors. is often used so near to other electrical equipment that the field strengths they create may cause interferences. for example. the directive lays down minimum standards for immunity. How does electromagnetic interference show up? Electromagnetic interference shows up in a variety of ways. portable car telephones and power drive systems.EU Council Directives .General questions and answers must not disturb or interfere with any other products or systems within its locality. mobile radio transmitters. each with its own emission characteristics.

a system and an installation complies with the essential requirements of the EMC Directive. I need not worry. True? Again this is a big misconception. This can cause considerable emissions at frequencies above 200 MHz. Everyone from manufacturer to installer to user has a responsibility in complying with EMC rules. Just because a drive has CE marking does not necessarily mean it meets the EMC Directive.General questions and answers Modern equipment contains considerable communications and other digital electronics. The key is to clearly understand who has responsibility for what. Electromagnetic interference needs to be conducted to earth (ground potential) and no system can work unless it is properly connected. If a drive is CE marked. 2 . • that the equipment is immune to outside effects. Radiation from the converter and conducting cables is another type of emission and it is especially demanding to achieve the radiated emission limits. How is this emission seen? The main emission is via conduction to the mains. Drives manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then? Unfortunately. 2 Key point: In the case of power drive systems. the process is not that simple. How do I avoid electromagnetic interference? You need to ensure two things: • that the equipment generates minimum emission.EU Council Directives 13 . a lot hinges on the quality of the installation. Technical guide No. In the forthcoming pages we take a look at various types of purchasers and examine the steps each should take to meet all three directives mentioned on page 11. Virtually everyone in the supply chain has a responsibility to ensure a product.

EU Council Directives . 14 Technical guide No. CE marking according to the EMC Directive cannot normally be applied to a module that is no more than a chassis with exposed terminals. 2 .General questions and answers Key point: This will all become clear by referring to the section purchasing decisions for PDSs. page 21.

then.CE marking What is CE marking and how relevant is it for drives? CE marking. That marking shall indicate that the drive also conforms to the EMC Directive (page 57). It is a very specific graphic symbol and must be separated from other marks. conforms with the Low Voltage Directive (see page 56). 2 CE marking is a system of self certification to identify equipment that complies with the relevant applicable directives. CE marking shows that the product complies with the essential requirements of all relevant directives. from 1997. for example. If a drive is the subject of several directives and. Key point: NOTE: There must be technical documentation supporting the Declaration of conformity.EU Council Directives 15 . is the official signature of the Declaration of conformity (see pages 43 and 44) as governed by the European Commission. 2 . shown below. mainly in the area of Technical guide No. For more on technical documentation. please refer to pages from 36 to 40.Chapter 3 . it is compulsory that it shows CE marking. CE marking shall indicate conformity only to the directive(s) applied by the manufacturer. What is CE marking for? CE marking is mainly for the benefit of authorities throughout the EU and EEA countries who control the movement of goods.

But it is important to understand just why the product was given CE marking in the first place. as far as the Machinery Directive is concerned a drive cannot have CE marking unless it is part of a “process” comprising the drive. As for the EMC Directive. you will see drive products with CE marking. the equipment that make up a “process” include cabling. However. in the eyes of the Low Voltage Directive. It is only of practical use when connected to. drives and motor. which can be safely cabled and powered up on its own. through the drive’s parameters you can program the drive and obtain an input and output 16 Technical guide No. What is the legal position regarding CE marking? Anyone applying CE marking is legally liable and must be able to prove the validity of his actions to the authorities. CE marking confirms compliance with the directives listed in the Declaration of conformity (see pages 43 and 44). will I meet the technical requirements of the directives? In practice. a complete drive product.EU Council Directives . say. but CE marking may be attached to indicate compliance with one of them only (see the previous page). Therefore. Therefore. Is CE marking a quality mark? Most definitely not. you can be assured that certification has been carried out. a built drive does have functionality. There are three directives that are relevant to drives. Thus.CE marking technical safety. As CE marking is self certification. CE marking can only be affixed if all items forming such a “process” conform to the requirements of the directive. 2 . What is the importance of CE marking for purchasers of drives? As far as a purchaser of a drive is concerned. compatibility issues and conformity assessment. anything that carries the CE mark must have a functional value to him. Basically a drive has no functional value. shall carry the CE marking. the drive manuals include detailed instructions for installation. That is. a motor which in turn is connected to a load. motor and load. If I buy a CE marked drive.

Is this true? You need to first understand the terminology now being applied to drives. the manufacturer or supplier should be consulted about upgrading. the use of the manufacturer’s spare parts should not negate the CE marking. as some actions could affect the CE marking criteria. it cannot be enhanced or reinstalled without meeting the directives. 2 Key point: Turn to page 31 for more details about the end-user’s responsibilities. However.CE marking signal. it is not considered as an apparatus. it Technical guide No. What about spare parts that I buy for a drive? Do I negate the CE mark if I replace a component? Equipment supplied before the application of the directives. can be repaired and supplied with spare parts to bring it back to the original specification. machine builders). it shall not be CE marked according to the EMC directives. If a CDM or BDM is intended for incorporation in PDS by professional manufacturers only (panel builders. Refer to pages from 58 to 60 for explanations of the three directives. See below and pages 21 and 22 for this. If drives are classed as components. A Complete Drive Module (CDM) is normally a component in a system and as such has no functional value unless it is connected to the motor when it becomes a PDS. 2 . as an end-user. on subassemlies they cannot be EMC certified or carry a CE mark. For equipment supplied after the application of the directives. if a drive conforms to the Low Voltage Directive it can carry CE marking. What happens if. Anyone putting together a system and commissioning it is responsible for the appropriate CE marking. Thus. The CDM shall be CE marked if it is to be installed with simple connections and adjustments that do not require any EMCknowledge.EU Council Directives 17 . Thus. If awareness of the EMC implication is needed in order to install a CDM. I put together a system do I have to put CE marking on? Yes. However.

In such case the component is considered equivalent to apparatus.g. apparatus. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category. These components or sub-assemblies are to be considered as apparatus with regard to the application of the EMC. a drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit (CDM) to the enduser who installs it into his own system.e. nor is Declaration of conformity given by the CDM/BDM manufacturer.EU Council Directives . Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus by the other manufacturer or assembler Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus or an other sub-assembly by other manufacturers or assemblers are not considered to be “apparatus” and are 18 Technical guide No.CE marking shall not be CE marked. a combination of finished appliances (i. the EMC directive does not apply Components or subassemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus by the end users A manufacturer may place components or sub-assemblies on the market which are: • For incorporation into an apparatus by the end-user. Declaration of conformity and technical documentation). All provisions of the EMC Directive will apply (CE mark. and should assume that adjustments or connections can be performed by an end-user not aware of the EMC implications. As there are separate provisions for apparatus and fixed installations.e. it is important that the correct category of the equipment is determined. In summary The EMC Directive defines equipment as any apparatus or fixed installation. • Available to end users and likely to be used by them. the EMC directive applies • If it meant for manufacturers or assemblers. 2 . sub-assemblies. Instead installation instructions shall be supplied in order to help the professional manufacturers. fixed installations and equipment. finished appliances (i. finished products). The instructions for use accompanying the component or sub-assembly should include all relevant information. The key issue here is whether the item to be considered is for end users or not: • If it meant for end users. a system). e. In technical-commercial classifications the following terminology is frequently used: components.

Systems (Combination of finished appliances) A combination of several finished appliances which is combined. if it is intended for the end-user and thus has to fulfill all the applicable provisions of the Directive. Declaration of conformity and technical documentation. Finished appliance A finished appliance is any device or unit containing electrical and/or electronic components or sub-assemblies that delivers a function and has its own enclosure. or for the other manufacturers or assemblers. cables. the system manufacturer) and is intended to be placed on the market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end-user and intended to be installed and operated together to perform a specific task. Similarly than components. basic drive module (BDM). Note: The manufacturer or assembler of the panel or system is responsible for CE mark. terminal blocks. 2 . and/or designed and/or put together by the same person (i. According to the EMC Directive. it is not an apparatus in the sense of the EMC Directive and consequently the EMC Directive does not apply for such finished appliances.CE marking therefore not covered by the EMC Directive. These are meant to be assembled by a professional assembler (e.g. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category as well. panel builder or system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery of the manufacturer of the BDM. Finished appliance intended for the end users A finished appliance is considered as apparatus in the sense of the EMC Directive. 2 Technical guide No. the interpretation finished appliance can be divided into two categories: it can be intended for the end users. These components include resistors. the requirement for the BDM supplier is to provide instructions for installation and use. e. Finished appliance intended for the other manufacturer or assembler When the finished appliance is intended exclusively for an industrial assembly operation for incorporation into other apparatus.g.EU Council Directives 19 .e. etc.

placed on the market) as a single functional unit. and liable to generate electromagnetic disturbance.e. or the performance of which is liable to be affected by such disturbance. intended for the end-user. as defined for apparatus. Apparatus Apparatus means any finished appliance or combination thereof made commercially available (i. 2 . installed and intended to be used permanently at a predefined location. apply to the combination as a whole. Equipment Any apparatus or fixed installation 20 Technical guide No. which are assembled. equipment and/or components. Fixed installation A particular combination of several types of apparatus.CE marking All provisions of the EMC Directive.EU Council Directives .

all cabling. 2 . panels and any other components needed to make the PDS work effectively.Chapter 4 . Devices such as an incoming phase-shift transformer for a 12pulse drive are considered part of the CDM. but the CDM can incorporate the supply sections and ventilation. motors. we offer a step-by-step guide relating to your purchasing requirements for power drive systems. The CDM also includes the Basic Drive Module (BDM) and a feeder section. Technical guide No. A BDM is the essential part of the power drive system taking electrical power from a 50 Hz constant frequency supply and converting it into a variable form for an electric motor. Power Drive System. 2. A PDS includes the frequency converter and feeding section (the CDM and BDM). Complete Drive Module (CDM) consists of the drive system without the motor and the sensors mechanically coupled to the motor shaft.EU Council Directives 21 . Note: The load is not considered part of the PDS. which may be unfamiliar to many users. filters.Purchasing decisions for PDSs What you need to know and do Starting on page 23. 2 Key point: Before turning to page 23. you need to know the following terms for PDSs and their component parts. is a term used throughout this technical guide. sensors. 3. Basic Drive Module (BDM) consists of the converter section and the control circuits needed for torque or speed. or PDS. TERMS THAT YOU MUST KNOW 1.

EU Council Directives . 2 . to discover the type of person you are.Purchasing decisions for PDSs HOW THE TERMS FIT TOGETHER Installation or part of installation Power drive system (PDS) CDM (Complete drive module) System control and sequencing BDM (Basic drive module) Control section Converter section Feeder section Field supply Auxiliaries Others Motor & sensors Driven equipment or load Now we strongly advise you turn to page 23. 22 Technical guide No.

Purchasing decisions for PDSs To make this technical guide easy to use. the built enclosure does not constitute a machine.. CDM or BDM and other mechanical or electrical component parts. 2 . specifying all component parts which comprise a PDS. 32 Technical guide No. Please identify the type nearest to your job function and turn to the relevant section WHO ARE YOU? IF THIS IS YOU.EU Council Directives 23 . including a CDM/BDM and sometimes the motor. treatment. and assembles these into a machine. 31 Panelbuilder constructs enclosures into which a panelbuilder will install a variety of components. PDS or CDM/BDM. such as a pump.. at least one of which moves.. Machine builder is a person who buys either a PDS. 2 25 System designer carries out all the electrical design of the power drive system. 28 End-user is the final customer who will actually use the machine. Note: A machine is defined as an assembly of linked parts or components. moving or packaging of a material. TURN NOW TO PAGE. However. It includes the appropriate actuators. we have also identified certain types of people who will be involved in the purchasing of drives. in particular for processing.. control and power circuits joined together for a specific application.

35 Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) For the purposes of purchasing drives..28 Panelbuilder . refer to the relevant pages for each of these job functions.p. TURN NOW TO PAGE.p.35 Distributor ..p. an OEM will normally fall into the category of a machine builder.32 Installer . 25 28 32 Drive manufacturer Machine builder or OEM .page 31 24 Technical guide No. OEM.. system designer or panelbuilder.. machine builder. if you identify yourself as an OEM. Therefore.Purchasing decisions for PDSs WHO ARE YOU? IF THIS IS YOU.p...35 End-user ..EU Council Directives .p.32 Installer . 2 . 35 Installer carries out the entire electrical installation of the PDS. panelbuilder or System Designer.p.p.25 System designer .35 Panelbuilder . Distributor acts as the sales distribution channel between the CDM/ BDM manufacturer and the end-user.

the PDS is ultimately your responsibility. You are also responsible for the electrical safety of all parts of the PDS as specified in the Low Voltage Directive..Purchasing decisions for PDSs NOTE: Before reading this section we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 21-24. You may choose electrical parts not in accordance with the EMC directive. Only then can CE marking be applied to the whole machine. 2 . 6. but then you have the responsibility for compliance of parts. 2. 2 Technical guide No.EU Council Directives 25 . Therefore. which includes coupling up the motors to the PDS and providing the mechanical guarding and so on. 4. Because you are building a complete machine. If you are a machine builder buying a PDS.. Nevertheless you are responsible for EMC for the machine.. You must ensure that the PDS or its component parts carry declarations of conformity in accordance with the electrical safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive. Note: Be aware that combining CE marked sub-assemblies may not automatically produce an apparatus that meets the requirements.. You must ensure electrical equipment and components are manufactured in accordance with the EMC Directive. 3. A Declaration of conformity according to the directives above must be issued by the machine builder and CE marking must then be affixed to the machine or system. The manufacturer of these parts is responsible for EMC for that particular part. . It may be necessary to issue technical documentation to demonstrate compliance. You need to ensure that the entire PDS meets the Machinery Directive. 5. the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Directive. You must keep in mind that you and only you have responsibility for compliance with directives. you are liable for the total mechanical and electrical safety of the machine as specified in the Machinery Directive. You must be able to assure an authority and customers that the machine has been built according to the Machinery Directive.You have the following responsibilities: 1.

Comply with the following mechanical safety checklist. The aim is to eliminate any risk of accident throughout the machinery’s life. b. Any machine that does not comply must be withdrawn from the market. indicate whether any training is required and stress the need for personal protective equipment. 26 Technical guide No. This is not a complete list. fatigue and stress of the operator must be reduced. construction and instructions must consider any abnormal use. the detailed list is contained within the Machinery Directive: Eliminate risk as far as possible. which is not necessarily complete. The equipment shall provide protection of persons against electric shock from direct or indirect contact. The electricity supply should be equipped with a disconnecting device and with emergency devices for prevention of unexpected start-up. Actions you must take To meet the Machinery Directive (see page 55) you need to: a.Purchasing decisions for PDSs 7. taking the necessary protective measures if some risks cannot be eliminated. The manufacturer must take account of the operator’s constraints resulting from the use of personal protective equipment. the discomfort. Under the intended conditions of use. Machinery design.EU Council Directives . Comply with the following electrical safety checklist: To ensure the electrical safety of all parts of the PDS as specified in the Low Voltage Directive (refer to page 56) you need to comply with the following safety checklist. Machinery must be supplied with all essential equipment to enable it to be used without risk. Inform users of the residual risks. 2 .

Compile a technical file for the machine. 2 . overload current. Such machinery is included in Annex IV of the Machinery Directive. including the PDS. • protective conductors in the equipment or the machine. or reduction in. The electrical equipment is equipped with an equipotential bonding circuit consisting of the: • PE terminal. etc.Purchasing decisions for PDSs The equipment is protected against the effects of: overcurrent arising from a short circuit. overspeed of machines/machine elements. loss of. referring to all three directives. Refer now to page 40. The type certificate issued should be included in the technical file for the machine or safety component. abnormal temperatures.EU Council Directives 27 . • conductive structural parts of the electrical equipment and the machine. Declarations of conformity from each of the component suppliers whose products make up the PDS and incorporate them into the technical documentation. emergency stop. the supply voltage. 2. Defined on page 40 c. 2 Key point: Generally. a type certification (see page 46) is required from a notified body. For machines that pose a high risk of accident. he should be able to provide all declarations. If system designer or component supplier cannot provide a Declaration of Technical guide No. prevention of automatic re-start. must carry CE marking and have a Declaration of conformity. The control circuits and control functions ensure safe operation including the necessary inter-lockings. If buying a PDS from a system designer (see below).

the only directives which need to be complied with are the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Directive. When buying a PDS. ..You have the following responsibilities: 1. Defined on pages 43.. The machine builder SHOULD NOT pass the file on to an end-user.. 6. the Machinery Directive has to be complied with by issuing a Declaration of incorporation. Only then can you apply CE marking. Apply CE marking to the machine.EU Council Directives . The PDS is a complex component of the machine.Purchasing decisions for PDSs conformity. Issue a Declaration of conformity for the entire machine. 28 Technical guide No. 3. The responsibility for Declaration of conformity and applying CE marking rests with both the system designer and the supplier of the component parts which make up the power drive system. Pass this technical documentation to a notified body. 2 . 45 and 46 4. Pass the Declaration of conformity related to all three directives on to the end-user of the machine. Based on the technical documentation. Because a PDS is not a machine. the responsibility of demonstrating compliance according to EMC Directive or Low Voltage Directive lies on machine builder. Therefore. obtain a Certificate of Adequacy or technical report from a notified body. 7. 2.. Congratulations! You have successfully complied with the main requirements for safe and efficient operation of a machine. 3. 5.

PDS is an system according to the EMC Directive (as placed on the market as a single functional unit). 4. Issue a Declaration of conformity. DO NOT issue a CE mark.EU Council Directives 29 . 5. 3. No CE marking is required for a system as whole. Follow all installation guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers. 2. as long as each part bears the CE mark. 2 Technical guide No. Note 1: The system designer is responsible for producing the instructions for use for the particular system as whole.Purchasing decisions for PDSs The system designer has to decide if he is going to place his delivery on the market as a single functional unit or not • if the answer is YES. the delivery shall be classified as an installation. the delivery shall be classified as a system. The Declaration of conformity as well as the instructions for use must refer to the system as whole. A. Issue technical documentation for the system. 2. the system designer has to choose one of two paths to follow: Path 1 All components have EMC compliance 1. Responsibility lies with the component suppliers for CE marking of individual complex components 3. Actions you must take 1. EMC behaviour is based on a component’s performance. 4. 5. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system. 2 . The system designer assumes responsibility for compliance with the Directive. If the delivery is classified as a system. Note 2: Be aware that combining two or more CE marked subassemblies may not automatically produce a system that meets the requirements. • if the answer is NO.

4. 2. EMC behaviour is based on a component’s performance. 3. Responsibility lies with the system designer who decides the configuration (place or a specific filter etc). 4. Declaration of conformity and CE marking are required for the system. Issue a Declaration of conformity and CE mark. 2 . Responsibility lies with the component suppliers for CE marking of individual complex components. the location of filters. PDS is a system according to the EMC Directive (as placed on the market as a single functional unit). PDS is an installation according to the EMC Directive. EMC behaviour is designed at the system level (no accumulated cost by device specific filters etc).EU Council Directives .Purchasing decisions for PDSs Path 2 Components without EMC compliance 1. Actions you must take 1.e. 5.46 3. Follow the installation guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers. the system designer has one path to follow: Path 3 All components have EMC compliance 1. Issue technical documentation for the system. i. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system. B. If the delivery is an installation. 2. Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure the design meets the required EMC behaviour. 2. 30 Technical guide No. 3. Defined on pages 36 .

Technical guide No. 3. DO NOT issue a Declaration of conformity or CE marking as this is not allowed for fixed installations.. he creates a part of a PDS. However. as specified in the Machinery Directive. No Declaration of conformity or CE marking is required for a fixed installation. 2. For the electrical safety of the drive as specified in the Low Voltage Directive. 2. . the end-user is still responsible for the machine’s safety. Transfer all installation guidelines and Declaration of conformity for each of the components.Purchasing decisions for PDSs 4. (such as an outside broadcast radio station) DOC and CE marking are needed. The panelbuilder then has the same responsibilities as the drive’s manufacturer. Actions you must take 1.. 2 .EU Council Directives 31 . For the total mechanical and electrical safety of the machine of which the drive is part of. to the machine builder. 2 If you are an end-user buying a CDM/BDM or PDS Key point: An end-user can make an agreement with the drive’s supplier so that the supplier acts as the machine builder.You have the following responsibilities 1. as issued by suppliers. Once an intermediary panelbuilder incorporates a CDM/BDM into a panel. The supplier who acts as the machine builder will issue a Declaration of conformity when the work is complete. Follow all installation guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers.

32 Technical guide No.To buy non-CE marked components This could save the panelbuilder money because he buys components which are not tested for EMC or safety. 2 .You have the following responsibilities: 1. 5. The manufacturer of the drive is responsible for determining the EMC behaviour of the drive. Follow installation instruction issued by manufacturers in order to fulfill the requirements of the EMC Directive and the Low Voltage Directive. To ensure the drive carries a Declaration of conformity in accordance with the electrical safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive.. 6. If you are a panelbuilder buying a CDM/BDM . 4.. Ensure that equipment (CDM/BDM/PDS) is operated according to manufacturer’s instruction in order to guarentee right way of operation.Purchasing decisions for PDSs 3. To be able to demonstrate to the authorities that the machine to which the drive is being fitted has been built to both the Machinery Directive and Low Voltage Directive. To meet the Machinery Directive (refer to page 55) you need to follow the actions listed for a machine builder on pages 25-28. 3. Actions you must take The following needs to be completed by either the end-user directly or the third party engaged to build the machine. However. by following the manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines. The resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. 1. the responsibility is then the panelbuilder’s and this will incur considerable costs as the entire panel needs to be tested. The panelbuilder has two options: Option A .EU Council Directives . 2.

Once testing is completed. i.Actions to meet these responsibilities 1. 6. And to harmonised standard: EN 61800-3 And you must make reference to LVD Directive: 2006/95/EC And corresponding harmonized standard: EN 61800-5-1 or EN 50178 Defined on pages 36-46 5. Technical documentation shall be assessed by youself in order to demonstrate compliance. the drive may be made to conform without further testing if the components themselves have been tested. the location of filters.EU Council Directives 33 . Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure the design meets the required EMC behaviour. If you choose to assess yourself you must make reference to EMC Directives: 2004/108/EC. You must then issue the Declaration of conformity and CE marking for the panel. However. It is these instructions which must be demonstrably met. tested components do not carry the CE mark but must carry suitable instructions for installation. the results need to be included in the technical documentation (TD) for the panel. Follow the installation guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers. You may use Notified Body for assessment as well. 2. 4. Issue technical documentation for the system. 3.e.Purchasing decisions for PDSs If the panelbuilder buys non-CE marked components. Option A . 2 . 7. 2 Technical guide No.

4. Beware! These guidelines could differ greatly from those given for normal installation purposes because the components will be in close proximity to each other.Actions to meet these responsibilities 1. In the case of a system DO NOT apply CE marking. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system or apparatus. 2. The Declaration of incorporation must be supplied with the panel to the machine builder. 2. Additional actions The panel can be either sold on the open market or use as part of a machine. This is because CE marking always needs a Declaration of conformity. Issue a Declaration of conformity.Purchasing decisions for PDSs Option B . 5. 2 . he must ensure he conforms to the installation guidelines given by each of the component manufacturers. Note: Be aware that combining two or more CEmarked components may not automatically produce a system. which meets the requirements. 7. Although the panelbuilder does not have to carry out tests. If you know that the panel is to be used as part of a machine then you must request from the CDM / BDM manufacturer a Declaration of incorporation. For each option there is a different requirement: 1. 34 Technical guide No.To buy CE marked components Option B . Issue technical documentation. Apply CE marking to your panel in the case of an apparatus. 6. but CE marking based on Machinery Directive MUST NOT be affixed. 3. Buying CE marked components creates a system or an apparatus (refer to page 17-20) depending on the nature of the panel.EU Council Directives .

machine builder or system designer.. 2... Technical guide No. Follow machinery builder and/or system designer Installation guidelines. Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities 1. You must ensure that the installation guidelines of the machine builder and/or system designer are adhered to.EU Council Directives 35 . his only responsibility is to pass on the installation guidelines to the end-user.Purchasing decisions for PDSs Key point: The Declaration of incorporation CAN NOT be used to apply CE marking... 2 If you are a distributor buying a CDM/BDM. 2 . If you are an installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS. .. See Technical guide No. 3 for recommended installation guidelines. machine builder or system designer. Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities 1. Pass all installation guidelines and declaration of conformities to either the end-user. the Declaration of conformity must be passed to the machine builder or system designer. . If a distributor is selling boxed products. In addition. like CDMs and BDMs (drives). 2.. direct from the manufacturer. Both the installation guidelines and the Declaration of conformity are available from the manufacturer.You have the following responsibilities: 1.. The machine builder will need this Declaration of incorporation because he has to construct a technical documentation (TD) for the machine and in that file all the declarations need to be included. 3.You have the following responsibilities: 1.

2. The TD consists of three parts: 1. Low Voltage Directive REQUIRED BY: What is technical documentation? Technical documentation (TD) must be provided for the entire equipment or system and if required is to show a competent authority that you have met the essential requirements of the EMC Directive (see page 57) and Low Voltage Directive (see page 56). Why is technical documentation deemed to be important? Anyone placing a product onto the market within the EU must be able to show that the product meets the requirements of the appropriate EU Council Directive and must be able to demonstrate this to a competent authority without further testing. Technical documentation allows the appropriate Declaration of conformity to be drawn up. 2 . panelbuilder. Note: Using a notified body is voluntary and can be decided by the manufacturer Key point: The full content of the technical documentation are given on pages 36-39. installer EMC Directive. A statement from a notified body. 3. Procedures used to ensure conformity of the product to the requirements.Terminology Technical documentation (TD) APPLIED TO: RESPONSIBILITY: electrical equipment electrical equipment manufacturer. 36 Technical guide No.EU Council Directives .Chapter 5 . OEM. if third party assessment route is chosen. system designer. A description of the product.

Can drive manufacturers help more? Manufacturers accept that there is a need to work more closely with OEMs and machine builders where the converter can be mounted on the machine. but the end-user may ask for this from the manufacturer. It is not required to supply a declaration of conformity with the product. If the equipment fails to meet the requirements of the EMC and Low Voltage Directives competent authorities can use the safeguard clause of the Directives (withdraw the product from the market. How do I ensure that tests are always carried out? The whole system is based on self certification and good faith. Supervision of these regulations is achieved through market control by a competent authority. 2 . The concept of mounting several drives in a motor control centre must be more carefully thought out. What is the shelf life of technical documentation? Any technical documentation must be accessible to the appropriate authorities for 10 years from the last relevant product being delivered. take legal action).Terminology Will customers always receive a copy of technical documentation? The content of the technical documentation is meant for the authorities. However.EU Council Directives 37 . However. 2 Technical guide No. the idea of mounting drives in motor control centres (MCCs) must be much more carefully thought out by system specifiers. as the summing of high frequency emissions to determine the effects at the MCC terminals is a complex issue and the possibilities of cross coupling are multiplied. as the customer needs to know whether the product is in conformance. In various parts of Europe the methods of ensuring compliance will vary. he will obtain this assurance from the documentation delivered with the product. and thus the electrical equipment manufacturer does not have to give the technical documentation or any part of it to the customer. A standard assembly or design should be achieved so that no new parts of technical documentation need to be created.

a block diagram showing the relationship between the different functional areas of the product. b. a technical description a. relevant component specifications. any limitation on the intended operating environment. details of significant design elements a. a description of the intended function of the apparatus. 2. devices.Terminology How to make up a TD 1. c. b. name and address of manufacturer or agent. identification of product a. an explanation of the procedures used to control variants in the design together with an explanation of the procedures used to assess whether a particular change in the design will require the apparatus to be re-tested. installation diagrams. 38 Technical guide No. c. ii. etc. d. d. brand name. Procedures used to ensure product conformity i. relevant technical drawings. d. e. parts lists. c. 2 . model number. including circuit diagrams. details and results of any theoretical modelling of performance aspects of the apparatus.EU Council Directives . design features adopted specifically to address EMC and electrical safety problems. description of intended interconnections with other products. description of product variants. assembly diagrams. Description of the product (Note: You can photocopy these pages and use as a tickbox checklist) i. b.

2 Technical guide No. where appropriate. Note: When compiling the technical documentation you may need all Declarations from suppliers. installation and maintenance factors that may be relevant. c. and test reports or certificates relating to them. a list of the EMC and electrical safety tests performed on the product.Terminology e. 4. statement of work done to verify the contents and authenticity of the design information. an overview of the logical processes used to decide whether the tests performed on the apparatus were adequate to ensure compliance with the directive. including details of test methods. f. and test reports relating to them. Actions by the notified body The notified body will study the technical documentation and issue the statement and this should be included in the technical documentation. on the procedures used to control variants. iv. reference to the exact build state of the apparatus assessed ii. a list of standards applied in whole or part. to ensure they carry CE marking. a list of the tests performed on critical sub-assemblies. etc. If chosen a statement from notified body This will include: i. comment on the technical documentation. statement. i.EU Council Directives 39 . the description of the solution adopted in order to comply with the directive. 2 . and on environmental. Declaration of conformity and Declaration of incorporation depending on the parts. test evidence where appropriate a. b. ii. 3. iii.e.

40 Technical guide No. Machine design 1.Terminology Technical file (for mechanical safety aspects) APPLIED TO: RESPONSIBILITY: REQUIRED BY: What is a technical file? A technical file is the internal design file which should show how and where the standards are met and is all that is needed if self certifying the equipment by the standards compliance route. All drawings. 2. 2.if required. A technical report or certificate issued by a notified body . Health and safety 1. machines and safety components machine builder / system designer Machinery Directive How to make up a technical file Drawings and diagrams 1. Control circuit diagrams. If a Declaration of incorporation is included in a set of papers and this claims to meet the appropriate parts of the standards and simply instructs the user to meet the standards with other parts of his machine. it is possible to use this as a part of a technical file. Description of methods used to eliminate hazards presented by the machine. Other certificates required 1. calculations and test results used to check the machine’s conformity with essential health and safety requirements.EU Council Directives . Overall drawings of the machine. harmonised standards. other standards and technical specifications used when designing the machine. 2 . Lists of the essential health and safety requirements.

Once the body has established that the technical file contains all the necessary information. A copy of the instructions for the machine.Terminology 2. Certificate of Adequacy APPLIED TO: RESPONSIBILITY: REQUIRED BY: machines / safety components notified body / machine builder Machinery Directive 2 What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? In this case the adequacy of the technical file is proved by a Certificate of Adequacy issued by a notified body. 2 . 3.EU Council Directives 41 . If the manufacturer chooses. Key point: The Certificate of Adequacy provided should be included in the technical file. the control measures that are used to ensure that subsequent manufacture remains in conformity with the directive. the Certificate of Adequacy will be issued. he may use other method based on an assessment of a notified body. Technical guide No. For series produced machines. How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy The Certificate of Adequacy is a document drawn up by a notified body. Statement APPLIED TO: RESPONSIBILITY: REQUIRED BY: electrical equipment notified body EMC Directive When the statement is needed The primary way for manufacturer (or his authorised representative in the Community) to demonstrate the compliance is to use internal production control method.

Key point: The report provided should be included in the technical documentation. Once the body has established that the technical documentation contains all the necessary information and the equipment fulfils the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive.EU Council Directives . How to obtain a report The report is a document drawn up by a notified body. The notified body shall review the technical documentation and assess whether the technical documentation properly demonstrates that the requirements of the Directive. The manufacturer shall specify to the notified body which aspects of the essential requirements must be assessed. Report APPLIED TO: RESPONSIBILITY: REQUIRED BY: electrical equipment notified body / competent body Low Voltage Directive What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? In the event of a challenge the manufacturer or importer may submit a report issued by a notified body. 42 Technical guide No. 2 . the notified body shall issue a statement confirming the compliance of the apparatus.Terminology How to obtain the statement The manufacturer shall present the technical documentation to the notified body and request the notified body for an assessment thereof. This report is based on the technical file. the report will be issued. Key point: The statement provided shall be included in the technical documentation. If the compliance of the apparatus is confirmed.

the name and address of his authorised representative in the Community. Technical guide No. his authorised representative. 5. the name and address of the manufacturer and. type and serial number). 6.Terminology Declaration of conformity (for EMC and electrical safety aspects) APPLIED TO: electrical equipment and electrical equipment of machines equipment manufacturer Low Voltage Directive and EMC Directive RESPONSIBILITY: REQUIRED BY: 2 How to obtain a Declaration of conformity You need to provide the following: 1. 3. a reference to the Directive(s). the date of the declaration. 4. 2. Declaration of conformity (for mechanical safety aspects) APPLIED TO: RESPONSIBILITY: REQUIRED BY: machines machine builder Machinery Directive How to obtain a Declaration of conformity You need to provide the following: 1. a dated reference to the specifications under which conformity is declared. business name and full address of the manufacturer or. where applicable. 2 . an identification of the apparatus to which it refers (including name. the identity and signature of the person empowered to bind the manufacturer or his authorised representative.EU Council Directives 43 .

description and identification of the machinery. This declaration includes a statement restricting the user from putting the equipment into service until the machinery into which it is to be incorporated. a sentence expressly declaring that the machinery fulfils all the relevant provisions of the machinery Directive 5. Declaration of incorporation APPLIED TO: machines or equipment intended for incorporation into other machinery drives manufacturer / machine builder / panelbuilder Machinery Directive RESPONSIBILITY: REQUIRED BY: What is a Declaration of incorporation? Drives manufacturers must meet the appropriate parts of the Machinery Directive and provide a Declaration of incorporation which states that the drive does not comply on its own and must be incorporated in other equipment. address and identification number of the notified body which carried out the EC typeexamination and the number of the EC type-examination certificate. the place and date of the declaration as well as the identity and signature of the person empowered to draw up the declaration on behalf of the manufacturer or his authorised representative. the name. where appropriate. has 44 Technical guide No. 2 . 4. or of which it is to be a component. who must be established in the Community. 7. function. 3. This declaration will show the standards that have been applied to the parts of the system within the manufacturer’s scope. where appropriate. including generic denomination. type. name and address of the person authorised to compile the technical file. the name. serial number and commercial name. 6. a list to the harmonised standards or the other technical standards and specifications used.Terminology 2.EU Council Directives . address and identification number of the notified body which approved the full quality assurance system. model. 9.

to be in conformity with the provisions of the Machinery Directive and the national implementing legislation. description and identification of the partly completed machinery including generic denomination. 4. in response to a reasoned request by the national authorities. 2. a statement that the partly completed machinery must not be put into service until the final machinery into which it is to be incorporated has been declared in conformity with the provisions of the Directive. an undertaking to transmit. Is there no way out of this type of declaration? No. i. Technical guide No. 3. 2 Key point: Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of incorporation covering the Machinery Directive for all built PDS products. business name and full address of the manufacturer or his authorised representative. Only then can the machine or system builder use the Declaration of incorporation in his technical file of the machine. a sentence declaring which essential requirements of the Directive are applied and fulfilled. serial number and commercial name. the manufacturer is legally obliged to ensure that whoever puts the system together must check that it is safe. It concludes that the entire equipment must meet the provisions of the directive. relevant information on the partly completed machinery. Quite simply. 5. The declaration then lists the standards relating to the Machinery and Low Voltage Directives which the manufacturer has met. 2 .e. You must understand that because the manufacturer may be supplying only one part in a machinery. such as the inverter. type. as a whole including the equipment referred to in this declaration. What a Declaration of incorporation contains 1.EU Council Directives 45 . and declared. function. model. the manufacturer passes on the responsibility to the machine or system builder.Terminology been found.

2 . 46 Technical guide No. may be used safely and that any standards have been correctly applied. along with a technical file. Type certification APPLIED TO: RESPONSIBILITY: REQUIRED BY: machines and safety components machine builder / approved body Machinery Directive How to obtain type certification Type certification is carried out by an notified body who will establish that the unit supplied. Once the type certification has established this.EU Council Directives . the place and date of the declaration as well as the identity and signature of the person empowered to draw up the declaration on behalf of the manufacturer or his authorised representative. a type examination certificate will be issued.Terminology 6.

Chapter 6 . a manufacturer can use a third party to examine the conformity. 2 . The following types of authorities and bodies exist: 2 Competent authority A competent authority in any EU or EEA country supervises markets to prevent hazardous products being sold and marketed. They can also withdraw such products from markets. To find a suitable competent authority or notified body you can contact: EU Commission Enterprise and Industry DG Information and Documentation Centre BREY 5 / 150 B-1049 Brussels Belgium Ph: +32 2 296 45 51 Or you may find contact through web.EU Council Directives 47 .europa. eu/enterprice/electr_equipment/ Technical guide No. If there is any doubt about conformity. then the Authorities can demand technical documentation to show that a product complies with the directives concerning the product.Authorities and bodies The responsibility for product conformity is given to the manufacturer. Notified body A notified body issues type certificates for products.site: http://ec. which have their own directives and/or require type testing. When assessing product conformity.

The responsibility for defining standards in Europe rests with three committees: CEN. which means that they do not include exact figures or limits for products. for telecommunications. Key point: It is recommended to use technical documentation even when standards are harmonised as it makes it easier to show conformity afterwards. the standards are harmonised in member states. What they do include is essential requirements mainly for health and safety which make the application of the relevant harmonised standards mandatory.Chapter 7 .Standards and directives The use of standards is voluntary. A standard becomes harmonised when published in the Official Journal of the EU. or if all parts of a harmonised standard cannot be applied. There are two ways to show that a power drive system or part of it conform: • Use of harmonised standards (EN). 2 . Harmonised standards for PDSs To remove technical barriers to trade in EU or EEA countries. In the harmonisation procedure. The requirements of directives are firmly established in standards. The directives concerning power drive systems are known as new approach directives.EU Council Directives . Directive or standard? The legislation of the European Union is defined by different directives. for areas of common safety. Standards give exact figures and limits for products. • By way of a technical documentation when no harmonised standards exist. all member states are involved in developing the Committee’s proposals for their own national standard. but compliance with directives without the use of harmonised standards is extremely difficult. CENELEC. if required by authorities. 48 Technical guide No. for electrical equipment and ETSI.

There is also some clue as to a standard’s status: prEN 50082-2 = proposal for standard sent to member states ENV 50 = pre-standard which is in force for 3 years to obtain practical experience from member states 2 Technical guide No. BS EN 60601-1). where • EN 50xxx refer to the standards issued by CENELEC only • EN 55xxx refer to the implementation of CISPR documents • 60000 to 69999 refer to the CENELEC implementation of IEC documents with or without changes European standards are adopted and confirmed by CENELEC member countries by adding national prefix before the standard id (for example: SFS-EN 60601-1. DIN EN 60601-1. it is legally manufactured and when placed onto the market in one country. How to recognise a European standard Harmonised standards come in the following format: XX EN 60204-1 where XX = the national prefix (eg BS = UK. SFS = Finland) EN = the abbreviation of Euronorm 60204-1 = an example of a standard number The numbering of European standards follows a well structured and organized sequence: • EN 50225:1996 (the year of availability of the EN is separated from the number by a colon) • EN 50157-2-1:1996 (the part number is indicated by a hyphen) The first two numerals indicate the origin of the standard: • 40xxx to 44xxx cover domains of common CEN/CENELEC activities in the IT field • 45xxx to 49xxx cover domains of common CEN/CENELEC activities outside the IT field • 50xxx to 59xxx cover CENELEC activities.Standards and Directives The idea is that if a product conforms to the harmonised standard. 2 .EU Council Directives 49 . it must be freely marketed in other member countries.

In addition there are other standards which need to be taken account: • EN 60204-1. They are called as “EN 61800-3 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems. Part 5-1: Safety requirements. which. the harmonics standard EN 61000-3-12 applies up to 75 A per phase. in addition to being a Low Voltage Directive standard for all electrical equipment. 2 . thermal and energy”. At the moment following groups can be separated • Below 16 A per phase • Professional. Part 5-2: Safety requirements. • Other > the limits specified.Standards and Directives Your questions answered Which standards directly relate to drives? At the moment. while radiated emissions are air borne. which relates to EMC Directive. LV AC and MV AC PDS respectively). • EN 50178 according to Low Voltage Directive and • EN 61800-1/2/4. thermal and energy”. which relates to Low Voltage Directive and “EN 61800-5-2 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems. Electrical. • EN 61000-3-2 and EN 61000-3-12 which give requirements for harmonic current caused by equipment What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives? For emissions there are two main aspects to be considered: Conducted emissions: these are seen on the power supply cables and will also be measured on the control connections. “EN 61800-5-1 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems. is also an electrical safety standard under the Machinery Directive.EU Council Directives . Where harmonics are concerned EN 61800-3 refers to EN 61000-3-2 which applies for equipment under 16 A per phase. Electrical Equipment of Machines. 50 Technical guide No. which relates to Machinery Directive. which relates to Low Voltage Directive and EN 61800-5-2. which give rating specifications for Power Drive Systems (LV DC. there are three Product Specific Standards (see page 50) which relate to the compliance with EU directives. Part 5-1: Safety requirements. In addition. over 1kW => No limits. Part 3: EMC product standard including specific test methods”. Conducted emissions at low frequencies are known as harmonics which have been a familiar problem to many users of a PDS. Electrical. Functional safety”.

While it is possible to make the drive enclosure into a Faraday cage and thereby have all radiation attenuated to earth. 2 .Standards and Directives • Between 16 A and 75 A per phase • Equipment for public low voltage systems => the limits specified. Radiated emissions: These are more problematic. shielded cables and 360o grounding.EU Council Directives 51 . Do I have to conform to the standards? The use of standards is voluntary. but compliance with a Directive without the use of Harmonised Standards is difficult in the majority of cases. providing this is for a single drive. The standard defines two environments where equipment can be used: first environment • environment that includes domestic premises. Important attenuation methods are shielded cables and 360o grounding. it also includes establishments directly connected without intermediate transformers to a low-voltage power supply network which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes. What are the solutions to radiated emissions? The most important solutions are good installation practice. Technical guide No. (See Technical guide No. 2 The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3 This standard defines the required emission and immunity levels of PDSs and the test methods to measure the levels. Failure to comply with any of the Directives will be a criminal offence. Houses. the standard takes precedence over all generic or product family EMC standards previously applicable. In Europe. Can I be fined for not conforming? Yes. tight enclosure. 3 for tips and advice). commercial premises or offices in a residential building are examples of this kind of locations. using filters. in practice it is the outgoing connections where inadequate cabling radiates emissions and cross couples with other cables in the vicinity. apartments. • Equipment for other systems => the limits specified Conformity with conducted emissions can be helped by good product design and is readily achieved. in most situations.

When PDS/CDM is going to be incorporated with another product. 2 .EU Council Directives . the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. technical areas of any building fed from a dedicated transformer are examples of second environment locations The standard divides PDSs and their component parts into four categories depending on the intended use PDS of category C1: A PDS with rated voltage less than 1000V and intended for use in the first environment. Description: Placed on the market. The manufacturer of the PDS (or CDM/BDM) is responsible for providing Installation Guidelines.Standards and Directives second environment • environment that includes all establishments other than those directly connected to a low voltage power supply network which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes. A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus. by following the manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines. Description Placed on the market. Additional EMC measures are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be implemented by a layman. The PDS manufacturer is responsible for EMC behaviour of the PDS under specified conditions. Intended only for professional assemblers or installers who have the level of technical competence of EMC necessary to install a PDS (or CDM/BDM) correctly. 52 Technical guide No. system or installation. Industrial areas. The EC Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking are required. PDS of category C2: PDS with rated voltage less than 1 000 V. which is neither a plug in device nor a movable device and is intended to be installed and commissioned only by a professional. Free movement based on compliance with the EMC Directive. The EC Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking are required. A (PDS (or CDM) sold “as built” to the End-User.

The EMC directive requires the accompanying documentation to identify the fixed installation.EU Council Directives 53 . system or installation. The PDS manufacturer is responsible for EMC behaviour of the PDS under specified conditions. Free movement based on compliance with the EMC Directive. Description Placed on the market. and thus has no requirement for EC Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking. PDS of category C4: PDS with rated voltage equal to or above 1 000 V. 2 . They assessed only when it is installed in its intended location. and to indicate the precautions to be taken in order not to compromise the conformity of that installation. the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. The EC Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking are required. or intended for use in complex systems in the second environment. Therefore category C4 PDS is treated as a fixed installation. 2 Technical guide No. or rated current equal to or above 400 A. PDS of category C3: PDS with rated voltage less than 1 000 V. Description Category C4 requirements include all other EMC requirements but radio frequency emission. system or installation. A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus.Standards and Directives When a PDS/CDM/BDM is to be incorporated with another product. A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold “as built” to the End-User or in order to be incorporated into an apparatus. When PDS/CDM is going to be incorporated with another product. intended for use in the second environment. Additional EMC measures are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be implemented by a layman. by following the manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines. the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. its electromagnetic compatibility characteristics and responsible person.

Although the EMC Directive applies to the apparatus and fixed installations only (generally components are excluded). process control etc). the user defines the EMC characteristics of the environment including the whole installation and the neighborhood. This is sold as a sub-assembly to a professional assembler who incorporates it into a machine.EU Council Directives . Therefore. Thus. they will not have to worry about compliance when they fit it to their machine. sold to professional assembler.g. The conditions of use are specified at the time by the purchase order.Standards and Directives In order to comply the above requirements in the case of category C4 PDS (or CDM/BDM). BDM used in domestic or industrial premises. Where there are indications of non-compliance of the category C4 PDS after commissioning. Exchange of technical data allows optimisation of the EMC solutions. Depending of intended installation location category C1 or C3 equipment is allowed. 3. consequently an exchange of technical data between supplier and client is possible. it states that the components which are intended for incorporation into apparatus by the end user and which liable to generate electromagnetic disturbances are included. The manufacturer is responsible that sufficient EMC will be achieved even by a layman. the standard includes procedure for measuring the emission limits outside the boundary of an installation. The manufacturer of PDS shall provide information on typical emission levels and installation guidelines of the PDS which is to be installed. In this situation. Conditions of use are specified in the manufacturer’s documentation. the user and the manufacturer shall agree on an EMC plan to meet the EMC requirements of the intended application. if members of the public (End-Users) buy a component off the shelf. also category C2 is allowed. In addition of categories C1 and C3. by following the EMC plan). mechanics. Resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the Installer (e. sold without any control of the application. 54 Technical guide No. Examples concerning applications of different approaches 1. It can consist of different commercial units (PDS. 2 . apparatus or system. PDS or CDM/BDM for domestic or industrial purposes. PDS or CDM/BDM for use in installations. 2. the responsibility for compliance and CE Marking such components under EMC lies with the manufacturer.

The directive concerns all machines but not those like lifts. Technical guide No. In addition of categories C1. 2 Machinery Directive 98/37/EC How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive? This directive concerns all combinations of mechanically joined components. 2009. The machine builder is responsible for all EMC issues. PDS or CDM/BDM combined with application device (machine) such as a vacuum cleaner. the changes due to the new directive will be consider in the future editions of this Guide. apparatus or system. maintenance and operation instructions to the machine builder in order to achieve compliance with EMC Directive.Q. pump or such like. The new machinery Directive 2006/42/EC has been published. PDS or CDM/BDM for use in machine. They are not on sale directly to the End-User. 4. The manufacturer of PDS/CDM/BDM is responsible for providing installation. fan. i. Nevertheless. but are sold to professional Installers who incorporate them into a machine. both for technical and economical reasons.Standards and Directives The combination of systems in the installation should be considered in order to define the mitigation methods to be used to limit emissions. ready to use apparatus. C2 and C3. 2 . also category C4 is allowed. which have a specific directive. it is recommended to use category C1. Since the old directive 98/37/EC can be used until December 29th. Harmonic compensation is an evident example of this. C3 or C4 PDS/CDM/BDM rather than drives without any compliance. On their own they do not have an intrinsic function for the End-User.e.EU Council Directives 55 . subassemblies of BDMs) come under this class of components. C2. where at least one part is moving and which have the necessary control equipment and control and power input circuits. Similarly inverters (E. Therefore for EMC Directive point of view the PDS/CDM/BDM here is a component which is excluded from the directive.

5. fire and radiation hazards. 2009. It tries to ensure only inherently safe products are placed on the market. To guarantee that a product complies. If a product conforms to the Directive and has a Declaration of conformity. This is a Declaration that the product conforms to the requirements laid down within this Directive. the Declaration of conformity for the complete drive module (CDM) and for the motor have to be given separately by the manufacturer of each product. The aim of the directive is to protect against electrical. then it must carry the CE marking. it cannot carry the CE marking based on the Machinery Directive.5 kV DC. Thus. 56 Technical guide No. mechanical.Standards and Directives Key point: As far as drives are concerned.eu. It always needs its motor coupled to the driven load before it can function effectively. ed.EU Council Directives . the new version of EN 60204-1.int/ eur-lex/). Thus. 2 . All parts of a PDS from converters and motors to control gear must conform with the Low Voltage Directive. Low Voltage Directive How does the LVD affect my drive? 2006/95/EC This directive concerns all electrical equipment with nominal voltages from 50 V to 1 kV AC and 75 V to 1. the Declaration of conformity is needed for each of its component parts. the manufacturer must provide a Declaration of conformity. The old and the new versions can be used until June 1st. is already published. On its own. Where can I obtain a Machinery Directive copy? To obtain a copy of the Machinery Directive you can contact a local competent authority or download it from European Unions web-site related to the legislation (http://europa. After that date only the new version shall be applied. the Complete Drive Module (CDM) does not have a functional value to the user. In the case of a power drive system.

Newertheless. The directive aims to ensure emissions from one product are low enough so as not to impinge on the immunity levels of another product. meets the EMC requirements. • the emissions from that product. in fact EMC cannot be handled by design only – it shall be measured quantitatively as well. which is a component and needs an enclosure. therefore. Although the directive expects that EMC should be taken into account when designing a product. has the final responsibility to ensure that the machine including any PDS and other electrical devices. Key point: Most drives bear CE-marking. as its name implies. There are two aspects to consider with the EMC Directive: • the immunity of the product.EU Council Directives 57 . some cases drives are part of the machinery or process equipment/system and classified as components they are not included into the EMC directive. 2 . This is in contrast to an open chassis (BDM). to achieve EMC compatibility with other products and systems. EMC Directive How does the EMC Directive affect my drive? 2004/108/EC The intention of the EMC Directive is. Why is the Declaration of conformity important? 2 Key point: Without the Declaration of conformity the CDM could not carry the CE marking and therefore it could not be sold within EEA countries and therefore could not be used legally in any system. Technical guide No. The machine builder. which can be wired up to the supply and switched on without any further work being undertaken.Standards and Directives Key point: Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of conformity covering the Low Voltage Directive for all built PDS/CDMs. These are drives built into an enclosure.

A drive manufacturer is able to help machine builder or system supplier by providing BDM/CDM/PDS which are according to the EMC directive and CE-marked. from component to system. 2 .EU Council Directives . Key point: It is the responsibility of the person who finally implements the system to ensure EMC compliance. drives manufacturers are in a position to choose whether to put CE marking on to a frequency converter to indicate compliance with the EMC Directive or to deliver it as a component without CE marking. This may be in the form of instructions on how to install or fit the equipment without causing problems. 58 Technical guide No. Who has the responsibility to ensure CE marking? A frequency converter is likely to be only a part of a power drive system. So. each manufacturer is responsible for applying the appropriate parts of the directive. It does not imply that there is a string of Declarations of conformity to be compiled into a manual. Yet it is the entire system or machinery that must meet the requirements of the EMC Directive.Standards and Directives At each stage of the manufacturing process. Either the machine builder or system supplier has the final responsibility that the machine or system including the drive and other electrical and electronic devices will meet the EMC requirements.

etc TECHNICAL FILE Low Voltage Directive EN 61800-5-1 EN 50178 EN 60204-1 EMC Directive EN 61800-3 2 TECHNICAL FILE TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION Apply Harmonised Standards as far as possible Apply Harmonised Standards Apply Harmonised Standards Declaration of Incorporation No CE marking as the PDS is a component of the machine EU Declaration of Conformity CE mark applied EU Declaration of Conformity CE mark applied If some of the directives result in CE marking. Technical guide No. 2 . However. check all directives applicable to the end product. the PDS (or CDM or BDM) can be CE marked with the corresponding Declaration of conformity.EU Council Directives 59 . An analogue of this procedure occurs for each end product which is to be combined with a PDS. EN 60204-1.Standards and Directives Summary of responsibilities Summary of manufacturer’s responsibilities in the application of EC Directives to systems containing a PDS: Warnings & guide Power drive system Machinery Directive Any safety relevant standard such as EN 61800-5-2.

Standards and Directives Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives Machine Technical documentation Declaration of conformity PDS * ** Notified body for MD. 2 . EMCD and LVD ** * ** Statement Competent authority * Only if required during market surveillance ** Optional procedure.EU Council Directives . if chosen by the manufacturer 60 Technical guide No.

27. 57. 59 distributor 24 drive 22. 32 parameters 16 PDS 21. 50. 11 European Union 48 F Faraday cage 51 filter 30. 30. 29. 24. 46. 57. 33 frequency converter 21. 35. 53. 39. 49. 41. 59 EMC Directive 30 EN61800-3 33. 23. 33. 32. 37 sensor 22 short circuit 27 single functional unit 29. 30. 32. 60 Complete Drive Module 22 components 30. 24 ETSI 48 EU 11. 46 machinery builder 35 Machinery Directive 11. 26. 48. 29. 47. 49 CENELEC 48. 51. 25. 28. 60 type certificate 27 type certification 46 type examination certificate 46 W walkie-talkies 12 2 Technical guide No. 59. 59 S safety component 40. 33 conducted emissions 51 control circuit diagrams 40 D Declaration of conformity 29. 28. 59 M machine builder 23. 35. 9. 30. 49 I IEC 49 indirect contact 26 installation 22 installation guidelines 29. 2 . 34. 30. 35 systems 1. 55. 31. 15. 33. 32. 13. 12.EU Council Directives 61 . 46 screen 12 self certification 15.Index A abnormal temperatures 27 apparatus 34. 48. 56. 34. 31. 48 technical file 27. 31. 30 installation instructions 18 installer 24 L Low Voltage Directive 11. 48. 34 component supplier 29. 21. 24. 38 B Basic Drive Module 22 BDM 22. 57. 30. 25. 26. 37. 51 system designer 23. 34. 49 certificate of adequacy 41 competent authority 47. 35. 35. 50 electromagnetic compatibility 53 EMC 11. 29. 50 harmonised standard 48. 50 end user 23. 24 E EEA 11. 36. 59. 30. 59 T TD 33. 59 CEN 48. 47. 57. 40. 24. 40. 59 MCC 37 microprocessor 12 mobile radio transmitters 12 motor 22 motor control centre 37 N notified body 40. 55. 24. 41. 59 C CDM 22 CE mark 32. 57 electrical safety 25. 3. 42. 22. 59 EU Council Directives 1. 16. 50. 30 standards 39. 36. 34. 46. 31. 60 phase-shift transformer 21 portable car telephones 12 Power Drive System 22. 41 O OEM 24 overload current 27 P panelbuilder 23. 57. 41. 59 Declaration of incorporation 34. 36. 57. 40. 58 H harmonics 9. 33. 48. 35. 39. 38 technical construction file 38 technical documentation 15.

2 .62 Technical guide No.EU Council Directives .

com/drives Ad agency PIIRTEK#13275 © Copyright 2008 ABB. O. Box 184 FI .7. 3AFE61253980 REV D EN 21. .00381 Helsinki Finland Telephone +358 10 22 11 Fax +358 10 22 22681 Internet www.2008 Specifications subject to change without notice. All rights reserved.abb.ABB Oy Drives P.

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3 ABB drives EMC compliant installation and configuration for a power drive system .Technical guide No.

EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . 3 .2 Technical guide No.

2008 © Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved. 3 3AFE61348280 REV D EFFECTIVE: 21.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 3 . Technical guide No. 3 .3 ABB drives EMC compliant installation and configuration for a power drive system Technical guide No.7.

3 .EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS .4 Technical guide No.

........................................................... 7 Purpose of this guide . 19 General ................................................. 13 Systems (combination of finished appliances) ............................................................................................. 13 Finished appliance intended for other manufacturer or assembler . 12 Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation .......................................................................................................................... 16 PDS of category C4 ......................... 14 Installation environments ............................. 7 OEM customer as a manufacturer .....EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 5 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Emissions .................................................. 7 Directives concerning the drive ....... 14 Fixed installation .......................................................................... 8 Practical installations and systems............................................................................. 15 First environment .............. 14 CE marking for EMC................... 15 Second environment ..... 9 Product-specific manuals ................................................................................................................ 10 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of PDS ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Power drive system ...........................................................................Contents Chapter 1 .................................Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 ........................................ 17 Chapter 3 ........................ 10 Immunity .......................... 9 Chapter 2 ......................................................... 11 Types of equipment ............................................................................................................................. 8 Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer.............................. 14 Apparatus .......................................................... 19 3 Technical guide No...................................... 16 PDS of category C3 ....................................................... 16 PDS of category C2 .....EMC solutions................... 7 Who is the manufacturer? ............................... 13 Finished appliance intended for end users .................................................................................................. 12 into an apparatus by the end users ..................................................................................................................... 7 General ........................................................................................................... 16 EMC emission limits .............................................................................. 16 PDS of category C1 .................................... 14 Equipment............................................................................... 10 Emission ............................................................................................ 19 Solutions for EMC compatibility .................................... 12 Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation .............................................. 12 Finished appliance ..................................................... 8 Definitions .................................................................................................. 8 Earthing principles .................................................................................Introduction ........................................................................ 7 Manufacturer’s responsibility ............................................................................................ 12 into an apparatus by other manufacturers or assemblers.....................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................. 29 Internal wiring ..... 35 Example of by-pass system <100 kVA ........................................ 42 6 Technical guide No...............Index ........ 21 RFI filtering ................................................... 20 Enclosure .......................................................................... 23 Selection of a secondary enclosure ........... 23 Holes in enclosures ...........................................Practical examples .......... 3 .. 28 The shielding should be covered with conductive tape................................................................................................................... 36 Typical example of 12-pulse drive ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Conducted emission ..... 28 Installation of accessories ....... 41 Chapter 6 ......................................... 37 Example of EMC plan . 20 Installation ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 25 HF earthing with conductive sleeve............... 33 Use of ferrite rings ........ 21 Clean and dirty side ............. 25 HF earthing with cable glands .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23 Installation of the RFI filter ........................... 35 Typical installation ............... 31 Power cables ................... 24 360° HF earthing ............................. 32 Transfer impedance ........................................................................................... 29 Control cables and cabling ....................................................... 27 Conductive gaskets with control cables ...................................................... 26 360° earthing at motor end ............................................................................. 22 Selecting the RFI filter ........................................................................................................... 33 Simple installation ............ 20 Cabling & wiring ...................EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS ..................................................................................................................................................................Bibliography...................................................................................................................... .......................................... 35 Chapter 4 ............................................................. 39 Chapter 5 .................................................................................................................... 19 Radiated emission ................................................

3 Directives concerning the drive There are three directives that concern variable speed drives.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 7 . switches. They are the Machinery Directive. system integrators and panel builders (assemblers) in designing or installing AC drive products and their auxiliary components into their own installations and systems.Introduction General This guide assists design and installation personnel when trying to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC Directive in the user’s systems and installations when using AC drives.” Manufacturer’s responsibility According to the EMC Directive the manufacturer is responsible for attaching the CE mark to each unit. Whoever modifies substantially an apparatus resulting in an “as-new” apparatus. Low Voltage Directive and EMC Directive. This document deals only with the EMC Directive. fuses. etc. 2 “EU Council Directives and adjustable electrical power drive systems”. the definition of a manufacturer is following: “This is the person responsible for the design and construction of an apparatus covered by the Directive with a view to placing it on the EEA market on his own behalf. Equally the manufacturer is responsible for writing and maintaining technical documentation (TD). Technical guide No. with a view to placing it on the EEA market. Who is the manufacturer? According to the EMC Directive (2004/108/EC). 3 . Purpose of this guide The purpose of this guide is to guide Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM). also becomes the manufacturer. The auxiliaries include contactors. By following these instructions it is possible to fulfill EMC requirements and give CE marking when necessary. The requirements and principles of the directives and use of CE marking are described in Technical guide No.Chapter 1 .

the OEM-customer has sole and ultimate responsibility concerning the EMC of equipment. Thus. Apparatus is an entity and includes any documentation (manuals) intended for the final customer. The solutions can be directly used or applied by the OEM or panel builder. a system is defined as a combination of several types of equipment. He cannot pass this responsibility to a supplier. Thus. EN 61800-3 (or IEC 61800-3) is used as the main standard for variable speed drives. Practical installations and systems This guide gives practical EMC examples and solutions that are not described in product specific manuals.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . Changing the trademark. and/or components combined. Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer According to the EMC Directive. Frequency converters sold as OEM products shall be considered components (Complete Drive Module CDM or Basic Drive Module BDM). designed and/or put together by the same person (system manufacturer) intended to be placed on the market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end-user and intended to be installed and operated together to perform a specific task. 8 Technical guide No. ABB Oy offers installation guidelines related to each product as well as general EMC guidelines (this document). brand label or the type marking is an example of modification resulting in “as new” equipment. 3 .Introduction OEM customer as a manufacturer It is well known that OEM customers sell equipment using their own trademarks or brand labels. finished products. A panel builder or system integrator typically undertakes this kind of work. the panel builder or system integrator has sole and ultimate responsibility concerning the EMC of the system. The terms and definitions defined in the standard are also used in this guide. In order to help the panel builder/system integrator. and he shall issue a Declaration of Conformity and technical documentation for the equipment. Definitions The EMC Product Standard for Power Drive Systems.

Product-specific manuals Detailed information on the installation and use of products. cable sizes etc.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 9 . 3 . can be found in the product specific manuals. This guide is intended to be used together with product specific manuals. It also includes a short description of interference phenomena. 3 Technical guide No. code 3AFY61201998.Introduction Earthing principles The earthing and cabling principles of variable speed drives are described in the manual “Grounding and cabling of the drive system”.

Typical low-frequency phenomena are mains voltage harmonics. Immunity Electrical equipment should be immune to high-frequency and low-frequency phenomena. Emission The source of high-frequency emission from frequency converters is the fast switching of power components such as IGBTs and control electronics. The concept that a system is as weak as its weakest point is valid here. conducted radio frequency disturbance and electrical surge. This is a legal requirement for all equipment taken into service within the European Economic Area (EEA).g. Likewise. notches and imbalance. it is natural that all parts which are in electrical or airborne connection within the power drive system (PDS) are part of the EMC compliance. radiated electromagnetic field. This high-frequency emission can propagate by conduction and radiation. 10 Technical guide No. Disturbance level Immunity level Immunity limit Compatibility margin Emission limit Emission level Independent variable e. the equipment must not disturb or interfere with any other product or system within its locality. It is the ability of electrical/electronic equipment to operate without problems within an electromagnetic environment. High-frequency phenomena include electrostatic discharge (ESD). The terms used to define compatibility are shown in figure 2-1. 3 . As variable speed drives are described as a source of interference.frequency Figure 2-1 Immunity and emission compatibility.Definitions Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of PDS EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. fast transient burst.Chapter 2 .EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS .

A drive can be considered as a Basic Drive Module (BDM) or Complete Drive Module (CDM) according to the standard. It is recommended that personnel responsible for design and installation have this standard available and be familiar with this standard. All standards are available from the national standardization bodies. Systems made by an OEM or panel builder can consist more or less of the PDS parts alone. which can be applied to a user’s system. should. be extended to all installations. or there can be many PDSs in a configuration.Definitions Power drive system The parts of a variable speed drive controlling driven equipment as a part of an installation are described in EMC Product Standard EN 61800-3. but the same solutions can. 3 .EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 11 . 3 Installation or part of installation Power drive system PDS Complete drive module CDM System control and sequencing Basic drive module BDM control. The solutions described in this guide are used within the definition of power drive system. This guide gives principles and practical EMC examples. or in some cases. Technical guide No. converter and protection Feeding section auxiliaries and others Motor and sensors Driven equipment Figure 2-2 Abbreviations used in drives.

The key issue here is whether the item is meant for end users or not: • if it is meant for end users. 3 . etc. All provisions of the EMC Directive will apply (CE mark. • available to end-users and likely to be used by them. 12 Technical guide No. sub-assemblies. These components include resistors. a system). Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category. a combination of finished appliances (i. e. In technical-commercial classifications the following terminology is frequently used: components. apparatus. it is important that the correct category of the equipment (PDM. the EMC directive applies. finished appliances (i. the EMC directive does not apply. terminal blocks.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus by other manufacturers or assemblers Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus or another sub-assembly by other manufacturers or assemblers are not considered to be “apparatus” and are therefore not covered by the EMC Directive. fixed installations and equipment. Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus by the end users A manufacturer may place components or sub-assemblies on the market.e.e. The instructions for use accompanying the component or sub-assembly should include all relevant information. a drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit (CDM) to the end user who installs it into his own system. and should assume that adjustments or connections can be performed by an end user not aware of the EMC implications.g. EC declaration of conformity and technical documentation). cables.Definitions Types of equipment The EMC Directive (2004/108/EC) defines equipment as any apparatus or fixed installation. As there are separate provisions for apparatus and fixed installations. In such case the component is considered equivalent to apparatus. These components or sub-assemblies are to be considered as apparatus with regard to the application of the EMC. CDM or BDM) is determined. finished products). which are: • for incorporation into an apparatus by the end-user. • if it is meant for manufacturers or assemblers.

the interpretation “finished appliance” can be divided into two categories: it can be intended for end users. Variable speed power drive products that fall into this category are whole power drive systems (PDS) or complete drive modules (CDM). EC Declaration of Conformity. According to the EMC Directive. The variable speed power drive products that fall into this category are basic drive modules (BDM). The drive product manufacturer is responsible for the CE mark. and the technical documentation.g. Finished appliance A finished appliance is any device or unit containing electrical and/or electronic components or sub-assemblies that delivers a function and has its own enclosure. 3 Finished appliance intended for end users A finished appliance is considered as apparatus in the sense of the EMC Directive if it is intended for the end-user and thus has to fulfill all the applicable provisions of the Directive. it is not an apparatus in the sense of the EMC Directive and consequently the EMC Directive does not apply for such finished appliances. the requirement for the BDM supplier is to provide instructions for installation and use.Definitions Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category as well. e.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 13 . the EC Declaration of Conformity. and technical documentation). 3 . Note: The manufacturer or assembler of the panel or system is responsible for the CE mark. or for other manufacturers or assemblers. The approach is the same as for components or sub-assemblies when they are Technical guide No. EC Declaration of Conformity. Similarly to components. In this case all provisions of the EMC Directive will apply (CE mark.g. Finished appliance intended for other manufacturer or assembler When the finished appliance is intended exclusively for an industrial assembly operation for incorporation into other apparatus. basic drive modules (BDM). panel builder or system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery of the manufacturer of the BDM. and technical documentation. These are meant to be assembled by a professional assembler (e.

All provisions of the EMC Directive. Fixed installation A particular combination of several types of apparatus. and/or designed and/or put together by the same party (i. the system manufacturer) and is intended to be placed on the market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end-user and intended to be installed and operated together to perform a specific task. apply to the combination as a whole. Thus the manufacturer or assembler of the panel or system is responsible for all actions relating to the EMC Directive. 3 .Definitions intended for incorporation into an apparatus by another manufacturer or assembler. Systems (combination of finished appliances) A combination of several finished appliances which is combined. which are assembled.e. 14 Technical guide No. Note: The products may carry the CE marking for other directives than EMC. Thus the manufacturer of the PDS is responsible for all actions relating to the EMC Directive. installed and intended to be used permanently at a predefined location. and liable to generate electromagnetic disturbance. intended for the end-user. Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus by another manufacturer or assembler do not need to carry the CE marking for EMC. Apparatus Apparatus means any finished appliance or combination thereof made commercially available (i.e. or the performance of which is liable to be affected by such disturbance.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . The variable speed power drive products that fall into this category are power drive systems (PDS). placed on the market) as a single functional unit. as defined for apparatus. Equipment Any apparatus or fixed installation CE marking for EMC Components or sub-assemblies intended for incorporation into an apparatus by the end users need to carry the CE marking for EMC. equipment and/or components.

Fixed installations are required to satisfy various parts of the Directives.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 15 . Installation environments The PDSs can be connected to either industrial or public power distribution networks.” Medium voltage network Public low-voltage network Point of measurement for conducted emission 1st environment Industrial low-voltage network Point of measurement 2nd environment Equipment PDS Figure 2-4 Illustration of environment classes. but are not required to be CE marked. Technical guide No. Figure 2-3 The CE mark. The environment classes are first and second environment according to the EN61800-3 standard. 3 First environment “The first environment includes domestic premises. The environment class depends on the way the PDS is connected to power supply. 3 . It also includes establishments directly connected without intermediate transformer to a low-voltage power supply network which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes.Definitions Apparatus and systems must be CE marked.

The PDS manufacturer is responsible for the EMC behavior of the PDS under specified conditions. When PDS/CDM is to be incorporated with another product. Additional EMC measures are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be implemented by a layman. PDS of category C2 A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage less than 1. by following the manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines. the standard takes precedence over all generic or product family EMC standards previously applicable. In Europe. PDS of category C1 A PDS (or CDM) with rated voltage less than 1000 V and intended for use in the first environment. which is neither a plug in device nor a movable device and is intended to be installed and commissioned only by a professional. system or installation.000 V. A PDS (or CDM) sold “as built” to the end user. PDS of category C3 A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage less than 1. intended for use in the second environment. system or installation. the resulting EMC behavior of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. EMC emission limits The product standard EN 61800-3 divides PDSs into four categories according to the intended use.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . the resulting EMC behavior of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold “as built” to the end user or in order to be incorporated into an apparatus. 16 Technical guide No. When a PDS/CDM/BDM is to be incorporated with another product.000 V.Definitions Second environment “The second environment includes all establishments other than those directly connected to a low-voltage power supply network which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes”. 3 . A PDS (or CDM/ BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus. Limits for certain conditions can be selected by using the flow chart shown in figure 2-5.

EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 17 . When a PDS/CDM is to be incorporated with another product. Additional EMC measures are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be implemented by a layman. The EMC directive requires the accompanying documentation to identify the fixed installation. 3 Technical guide No. Category C4 requirements include all other EMC requirements except for radio frequency emission. and to indicate the precautions to be taken in order not to compromise the conformity of that installation. the standard includes a procedure for measuring the emission limits outside the boundary of an installation. or intended for use in complex systems in the second environment. and thus has no requirement for an EC Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking. A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus.g. the user defines the EMC characteristics of the environment including the whole installation and the neighborhood. Therefore a category C4 PDS is treated as a fixed installation. The resulting EMC behavior is the responsibility of the installer (e. They are assessed only when it is installed in its intended location.000 V. its electromagnetic compatibility characteristics and the person responsible. In order to comply with the above requirements in the case of a category C4 PDS (or CDM/BDM). In this situation. by following the manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines. The PDS manufacturer shall provide information on typical emission levels and installation guidelines for the PDS to be installed. the user and the manufacturer shall agree on an EMC plan to meet the EMC requirements for the intended application. system or installation. by following the EMC plan). or rated current equal to or above 400 A.Definitions The PDS manufacturer is responsible for the EMC behavior of the PDS under specified conditions. Where there are indications of non-compliance of the category C4 PDS after commissioning. 3 . PDS of category C4 A PDS (or CDM/BDM) with rated voltage equal to or above 1. the resulting EMC behavior of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product.

EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS .Definitions EN 61800-3 EMC product standard for PDS 1st environment (public low-voltage network) 2nd environment (industrial network) EMC plan C O N D U C T E D Disturbance R A D I A T E D Figure 2-5 Emission limits for PDS. 18 Technical guide No. 3 .

Chapter 3 . wire routing. conducted emission and radiated emission. cable entries and other special points were all considered in great detail. mechanical design.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 19 . Solutions for EMC compatibility There are some basic principles which must be followed when designing and using drive systems incorporating AC drive products. These same principles were used when these products were initially designed and constructed. where such issues as printed circuit board layout. 3 . 3 Emissions The emissions can be classified into two types.EMC solutions General The solutions used to fulfill immunity and both radiated and conducted emission requirements are described in this chapter. Conducted emission Conducted disturbances can propagate to other equipment via all conductive parts including cabling. earthing and the metal frame of an enclosure. The disturbances can be emitted in various ways as shown in the following figure: Radiated emission Control Supply network Process Conducted emission Motor connection Motor Earth Figure 3-1 Emissions. Technical guide No.

if necessary. • Use unpainted installation plates. motors. etc. Some methods for ensuring the continuity of the Faraday cage are listed as follows: Enclosure • The enclosure must have an unpainted non-corroding surface finish at every point where other plates. • Allow no breaks in the cable shields. “dirty” side from the “clean side” by metal covers and design. bonded to a common earth point. ensuring all separate metal items are firmly bonded to achieve a single path to earth. • Select and route internal wires correctly. • Using an LCL filter in the case of regenerative drives • Using a du/dt filter Radiated emission To be able to effectively prevent disturbance through the air. it reduce HF disturbances as well. • See product specific manuals 20 Technical guide No. • Use conductive gaskets in doors and covers. • Select low impedance shield connections on the MHz range. • Use twisted pairs to avoid disturbances. • Use conductive gaskets for HF earthing of control cable shield. all parts of the power drive system should form a Faraday cage against radiated emissions. The installation of a PDS includes cabinets. doors. Separate the radiative i.e.EMC solutions Conductive emissions can be reduced in the following way: • By RFI filtering for HF disturbances • Using ferrite rings in power connection points • Using an AC or DC choke (even meant against harmonics. • Use ferrite rings for disturbances.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . • Holes in enclosure should be minimized. auxiliary boxes. where appropriate. See product specific manuals. 3 . cabling. with conductive gaskets. make contact. Cabling & wiring • Use special HF cable entries for high frequency earthing of power cable shields. etc. • Unpainted metal-to-metal contacts shall be used throughout. • Route power and control cables separately. • Use shielded power and control cables.

Enclosed wall-mounted drives are designed so that the circuit followed by the output connection is the only dirty part. Apply 360° grounding of the cable shield at the entry into the cabinet. See motor manuals. the dirty parts are separated into a Faraday cage.EMC solutions Installation • Auxiliaries used with complete drive modules (CDMs) should be CE marked products conforming to both the EMC & Low Voltage Directives. That is the case if the installation instructions of the drive are followed. Rectifier RFI filter Dirty side Clean side Figure 3-2 “Clean” and “dirty” sides of the BDM Technical guide No.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 21 . strip the sheathing of a motor cable back far enough to expose the copper wire screen so that the screen can be twisted into a pigtail. unless they are intended for incorporation into an apparatus by another manufacturer or assembler. lead the cables into the inside of the enclosure. This can be done either with separation plates or with cabling. • For wall-mounted units. 3 . 3 Clean and dirty side The circuit before the point where the supply power is connected to the CDM and where the filtering starts is referred to as the clean side. NOT ONLY to the LV directive. See product specific manuals. The parts of the BDM that can cause disturbances are described as the dirty side. • 360° earthing at motor end. Keep the short pigtail short and connect it to the ground. • Selection and installation of accessories in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions. To be able to keep the clean side “clean”. • For cabinet –models.

When the Faraday cage is formed by cabling. Practical examples. The use of additional components. Some examples of solutions are described in chapter 4. the rules for cabling must be applied (see sections on cabling and wiring in this chapter and follow the product specific instructions for the drive). by-pass). etc.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . du/dt and common mode filters help somewhat. 3 .g. e. RFI filtering RFI filters are used to attenuate conducted disturbances in a line connecting point where the filter leads the disturbances to earth. Filters cannot be used in a floating network (IT-network) where there is high impedance or no physical connection between the phases and the earth.g. even if they have not been designed for RFI. E. Output filters attenuate disturbances at the output of a PDS.EMC solutions When using separation plates. distributed filtering. contactors. in some cases makes it difficult to keep the clean and the dirty side separate. 22 Technical guide No. fuses. Figure 3-3 shows an example of integral. Line Line Figure 3-3 Example of filtering integrated in drive module. isolators. Some drive products need a separate filter (see product specific instructions).g. This can happen when contactors or switches are used in circuits to change over from clean to dirty side (e. the rules for enclosure holes are applicable (see Holes in enclosures section later in this chapter).

• The orientation of the filter must be such that it provides enough distance between the input and output wiring of the filter in order to prevent cross-coupling between the clean and dirty side. as the integral Faraday cage will no longer apply. If drives are fitted with output switching devices.EMC solutions Selecting the RFI filter An RFI filter is selected to attenuate the conducted disturbances. as the measurement base for the two items of information will not correspond. an IP00 open chassis converter). Installation of the RFI filter Reliable HF/low impedance connections are essential to ensure proper functioning of the filter. • The input cable of the filter shall be separated from the cable which connects the filter to the drive • The input cable of the filter shall be separated from the motor cable 3 Selection of a secondary enclosure Where the BDM is to be installed. For enclosed chassis modules where the motor connections are made directly to the converter output terminals and all the internal shielding parts are fitted. It is always necessary to test a filter in conjunction with the source of disturbance to ensure adequate attenuation and to meet applicable emission limits.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 23 . for example. and the insertion loss for a filter. it is always necessary to provide an EMC enclosure. therefore the following instructions are to be followed. there are no requirements for special enclosures. As a reminder. The enclosure is sized according to several criteria: • Safety • Degree of protection (IP rating) Technical guide No. • The filter shall be assembled on a metal plate with unpainted connection points all in accordance with the filter manufacturer’s instructions. (e. or if additional components are to be connected to the dirty side of an otherwise compliant unit.g. then an EMC enclosure will be needed. 3 . It is not possible to compare the disturbances measured from a source. EMC is only one part of enclosure selection. • The length of the cable between the filter and the drive must be minimized.

for door devices. This dimension has been found acceptable in EMC tests. which equates to 1/10th of the wavelength of a 300 MHz frequency. Larger viewing holes can be covered by proprietary glazing with conductive coating. the maximum diagonal or diameter for any hole is 100 mm.g. Holes bigger than 100 mm must be covered with a metal frame surrounding the aperture and earthed to the enclosure. FARADAY CAGE Unpainted back plates Limited hole size Conductive sealing at the door Enough locks at the door Gland / bottom plates Conductive sleeves Conductive gasket for control cables Figure 3-4 Typical enclosure aperture detail.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . louvers. 3 . etc.EMC solutions • • • • • • Heat rejection capability Space for accessory equipment Cosmetic aspects Cable access EMC compliance General requirements for EMC compatibility The manufacturer’s guidelines for construction and earthing must be followed. Holes in enclosures In most cases. locks. When an EMC enclosure is to be used. cables. 24 Technical guide No. some holes must be made in the enclosure e.

the cable shielding should be covered with a conductive tape. If the glands are used with control cables. Only the outer insulation of cable should be removed to expose the cable screen for the length of the cable gland. Maximum size 72x72 mm instrument Twisted pair <100 mm Install locks to unpainted door 3 Metal cover for holes >100 mm Check that there is no holes >100 mm Figure 3-5 Essential points of power connections. The tape must cover the whole surface of the shielding. The solutions used in ABB’s CDM/BDM products are described here. 3 . which are specially designed for 360° HF earthing. Technical guide No. Cable glands are not normally used for control cables due to the fact that the distance from the control connections to the cable glands is often too long for reliable HF earthing. the cable shielding must continue as near to the control connections as possible.EMC solutions Glazing must be connected to non-painted metal surrounds with conductive double-sided tape or conductive gasket. There are different ways to implement the HF earthing. are suitable for power cables with a diameter less than 50 mm. auxiliary connection box or motor. 360° HF earthing 360° HF earthing should be done everywhere where cables enter the drive enclosure. To get the best possible result from HF earthing. HF earthing with cable glands The cable glands.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 25 . including pigtail. and should be tightly pressed with fingers after every single turn.

3 . The sleeve is connected to the Faraday cage by tightening it to the specially designed collar in the gland plate.EMC solutions SUPPLY CABLE As short unshielded wires as possible Short pigtail MOTOR CABLE Cable shielding covered with conductive tape Unpainted gland plate EMC cable gland Clamping nut Conductive shielding & compression seal Cable Continuity of faraday cage Figure 3-6 Essential points of power connections.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . HF earthing with conductive sleeve 360° HF earthing in power cable entries can be done by using a conductive sleeve around the cable shielding. Short pigtail Note conductive tape on the cable shielding Conductive sleeve Unpainted gland plate with collars Unpainted bottom plate Cable Continuity of faraday cage Figure 3-7 360° earthing with conductive sleeve. 26 Technical guide No.

Technical guide No. The cable can be mechanically supported by clamps. 3 . Note that the sleeve does not act as a strain relief clamp.EMC solutions 0..6 Nm (4.5 Nm (13 lbf in) 3 Motor cable Braking resistor cable Figure 3-8 360° earthing with clamping of cable shield The advantage of this solution is that the same sleeve can be used for cables with different diameters.. • Cable shielding should be sealed with conductive tape.3 lbf in) 1. This includes: • Cable gland providing galvanic contact must be used for clamping the cable.4. • Conductive gaskets should be used for sealing both the cable gland plate and the terminal box cover • Note: Please check availability from motor manufacturer.5. 360° earthing at motor end The continuity of the Faraday cage at the motor end must be ensured by the same methods as in cabinet entry.0. cover bare shield with insulating tape Cable clamp on bare shield 1.5.5 Nm (13 lbf in) Above cable clamp. and a specific cable gland is not required..EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 27 . It is common that this is one option for the motor • Pigtails of earthing conductors must be as short as possible.. namely: • Faraday cage and IP55 degree of protection.

The hole size in a gland plate required by these gaskets is typically 200 x 50 mm. etc. and twisted in pairs where appropriate. The best HF earthing is achieved if gaskets are mounted as near to the control connections as possible. the cable shielding must continue as near to the control connections as possible. The shielding should be covered with conductive tape. such as in cooling form IC01.EMC solutions Figure 3-9 shows a Faraday cage solution at the motor end. Conductive gaskets with control cables The 360° HF earthing for control cables can be done with conductive gaskets. The gaskets must be installed to connect with the earthed unpainted surfaces of the gland plate to which they are mounted. 28 Technical guide No. The cable shield should be earthed to the connection end by a short pigtail. the continuity of the Faraday cage must be ensured in the same manner as for the converter enclosure.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . When gaskets are mounted at a gland plate. In this case the outer insulation of the cable should be removed to allow connection to the shield for the length of the gasket transit. IC06. For motors that are not totally enclosed. In this method the shielded control cable is led through two gaskets and pressed tightly together. Cable shielding covered with conductive tape Short pigtail EMC cable gland Conductive gasket Continuity of faraday cage Figure 3-9 Essential points in motor cabling. All connection tails should be as short as possible. as shown in figure 3-9. 3 .

Technical guide No. Be careful. Internal wiring There are some basic rules for internal wiring: • Always keep clean and dirty side cables separate and shielded from one another. contactors etc. The rules for holes in the enclosure must then be applied. be divided into two categories depending on how immune/sensitive they are. which can be disturbed.. such devices cannot be installed into the clean side without protective metallic shielding plates. from contactor to converter input.EMC solutions As short as possible Wrap copper tabe around the stripped part of the cable under the clamp. switch fuses. e. do not require shielded cables but may require de-coupling ferrite rings where they enter the converter input. Some examples of protected and open devices are given in the chapter Practical examples. which do not have a metal covering around them. Shield Control connections 3 Installation of accessories The variety of accessories that can be installed is so large that only basic principles for selection and installation can be given for them.g. Typical open devices are fuses. Do not cut the grounding wire. The rules for holes in the enclosure must be applied if there are devices forming a bridge between the clean side and the dirty side. The protected device in this context means its ability to keep the Faraday cage closed. It is therefore recommended to use metal enclosed/ shielded devices wherever such devices are available.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 29 . Figure 3-10 Essential points for control cabling transit. In general. 3 . however. Clamp as close to the terminals as possible. • Internal clean power connections with integrally filtered drive units. Accessories can.

• Keep pigtails as short as possible.c. which could form an antenna. +24 V d.. • Keep wires twisted as near the terminal as possible. • Use shielded twisted pairs for signal level outward and return wires exiting from the overall enclosure. GND RELAY OUTPUTS (pot..10 V) AI1AI3+ AI3. Do not allow spans over free air. • Use galvanically isolated (potential free) signals.c N RC filter or varistor for AC relay Avoid parallel running with control wires Cross in 90° DIRTY SIDE Keep these separate (see figure 3-11) Avoid parallel running with control wires Cross in 90° angle NC Common NO NC Common NO Twist the pairs up to terminals SUPPLY CONNECTION MOTOR OUTPUT CLEAN SIDE 30 Technical guide No.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . which can become an antenna.c. • 110 VAC.c.. • If plastic trunking is used. • Avoid mixing pairs with different signal types e. analogue. • Run wires along the metal surface and avoid wires hanging in free air. 230 VAC. OUTPUT DO DO Don’t mix different signal levels DIGITAL INPUTS DI1 DI3 DI6 +24 V d. secure it directly to installation plates or the framework. 24 VDC.(4. 3 . DOOR DEVICE CABINET DEVICE Use shielded cables for Analogue mA signals For earthing rules see part Control Cabing Analogue Signal (V) Analogue Signal (mA) Twist these pairs of pairs ANALOGUE SIGNALS +10 V GND AI1+ (0. Figure 3-11 Principles of wiring inside CDM. GND NC Common NO Diode for DC relay Don’t mix different signal levels 230 V a. multi-stranded or braided flexible conductors for low RFI impedance. • Earthing connections should be as short as possible in flat strip.. • Keep power and control wiring separate.g.20 mA) AO1+ AO1AO2+ AO2- POTENTIAL FREE DIG.EMC solutions • Use twisted pair wires wherever possible. digital. free) +24 V d.

Route signal cables according to figure 3-12 whenever possible.EMC solutions Control cables and cabling The control cabling is a part of the Faraday cage as described in the section Conductive gaskets with control cables. If instructions for the device at the other end of the cable specify earthing at that end. • Earth directly on the frequency converter side. • Don’t run 110/230 V signals in the same cable as lower signal level cables.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 31 . but double-shielded cable is recommended. and follow instructions given by the product specific manuals. • Keep twisted pairs individual for each signal. There is more about control cabling in the “Grounding and cabling of the drive system” documents” and in product specific manuals. earth the inner shields at the end of the more sensitive device and the outer shield at the other end. 3 Product specific manual Motor cable Mains cable Signal / control cables Figure 3-12 Routing principles of control cables. 3 . Technical guide No. In addition to correct HF earthing there are some basic rules for control cabling: • Always use shielded twisted pair cables: • double-shielded cable for analogue signals • single-shielded for other signals is acceptable.

32 Technical guide No. The purpose of the shield is to reduce radiated emission. The product specific manuals describe some cable types that can be used in mains supply and motor output. Figure 3-13 Galvanized steel or tinned copper wire with braided shield. and because cable manufacturers have several different shield constructions. 3 . the types can be evaluated by the transfer impedance of the cable. If such types are not available locally. Figure 3-15 Concentric layer of copper wires with an open helix of copper tape. It is commonly used with communication cables. Figure 3-14 Layer of copper tape with concentric layer of copper wires. the shield must have good conductivity and cover most of the cable surface. power cables with good shielding effectiveness must be used. and the shield material should preferably be either copper or aluminum. the shield cross area (or equivalent conductivity) must be at least 50% of the cross sectional area of the phase conductor. If the cable shield is used as protective earthing.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . The transfer impedance describes the shielding effectiveness of the cable. In order to be efficient. The cable can consist of either braided or spiral shield. To be able to meet the EMC requirements.EMC solutions Power cables As the cables are part of the PDS they are also part of the Faraday cage. The suitability for certain drive types is mentioned in the product specific manuals.

due to high emission levels. Figure 3-16 shows typical transfer impedance values of different cable constructions. so common mode disturbance signals above a certain frequency are suppressed. Transfer impedance (mOhm/m) Non-recommended cable Galvanised steel or tinned copper wire with braided shield (fig. 3-12) 3 Layer of copper tabe with concentric layer of copper wires (fig. common mode inductors can be used in signal cables to avoid interfacing problems between different systems. Technical guide No.EMC solutions Transfer impedance To meet the requirements for radiated emission. The highest shielding effectiveness is achieved with a metal conduit or corrugated aluminum shield. Common mode disturbances can be suppressed by wiring conductors through the common mode inductor ferrite core (figure 3-17). Use of ferrite rings In particular cases.13) Corrugated shield Frequency (MHz) Figure 3-16 Transfer impedance for power cables. The ferrite core increases inductance of conductors and mutual inductance. the transfer impedance must be less than 100 mΩ/m in the frequency range up to 100 MHz. the lower the transfer impedance required. The longer the cable run.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 33 . 3. An ideal common mode inductor does not suppress a differential mode signal. 3 .

EMC solutions Figure 3-17 Ferrite ring in signal wire. the ability to suppress HF disturbances) can be increased by multiple turns of the signal wire. 3 . all phase conductors should be led through the ring.e. The inductance can be increased by using several successive rings. it is recommended that measurements be made to show conformance.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . If for any reasons the installation instructions cannot be followed and therefore additional ferrites or filters are added afterwards. The inductance (i. With power cables it is not normally possible to make multiple turns through the ring. The shielding and possible earth wire must be wired outside the ring to keep the common mode inductor effect. 34 Technical guide No. When using a ferrite ring with power cable.

Practical examples Simple installation Most simple installations of PDS include three cables only: supply cable. The supply is made through the RFI filter. ensuring attenuation of radiated emissions. Figure 4-1 Most simple PDS installation Typical installation Shielded cables are shown interconnecting the primary parts. Drive INPUT OUTPUT 3 External brake resistor Motor Notes: 1).EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 35 . The Faraday cage is earthed and all the emissions are drained to earth. because connections are made directly in an EMC compliant frequency converter.Chapter 4 . Ground the other end of the input cable shield or PE conductor at the distribution board. In the case shown in figure 4-2. 3) 360 degrees grounding recommended if shielded cable 4) 360 degrees grounding required 5) Use a separate grounding cable if the conductivity of the cable shield is < 50% of the conductivity of the phase conductor and there is no symmetrically constructed grounding conductor in the cable. Technical guide No. motor cable and cable for brake resistor as shown in Figure 4-1. 3 . 2) If shielded cable is used. the cabinet is not required to be EMC proof. use a separate PE cable (1) or a cable with a grounding conductor (2) if the conductivity of the input cable shield is < 50% of the conductivity of the phase conductor.

which makes it difficult to design. 3 . see Product Specific Manual for chopper and resistor. Example of by-pass system <100 kVA In this case it is difficult to ensure that no cross coupling occurs between the dirty side of the converter and the clean side above the Direct On Line (DOL) contactor. see section on 360° EARTHING AT MOTOR END 1) Short pigtail to PE. which can be six to seven times the normal full load current. Contactors are not RFI barriers. For more details. A suitable RFI filter at the supply input connections would require to be able to pass the DOL starting current.Practical examples Transformer 360° HF earthing Shielded cable Metal frame cabinet Cabinet Unpainted mounting plate Metal box Drive RFI FILTER BRAKE RESISTOR Rectifier BRAKE CHOPPER Metal box CONTROL Motor output For connection details. 36 Technical guide No. and the coil circuits are also vulnerable. and would be greatly oversized for normal running. Ferrite cores used in the feeds to the contactor will help attenuate the coupled noise as shown in figure 4-3. see part CONTROL CABLING Figure 4-2 Typical PDS configuration.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . both common and pair screen 2) 360° HF grounding 3) For rules.

therefore any filter in the line must be at the primary side of the phase shift transformer. the earth shield between the transformer windings is not quite adequate for conducted emissions attenuation for use in the first environment. Technical guide No. An RFI filter is not normally needed for the second environment. For more details. 3 . see 360° MOTOR EARTHING Figure 4-3 Basic scheme with by-pass. Therefore an RFI filter may be needed at the primary side of the transformer for EMC compliance. with short connections to the busbars.Practical examples Transformer 360° HF earthing Shielded cable RADIATIVE i. in this case. both common and pair shield 3) For rules.e. Experience has shown that. see part CONTROL CABLING Contactor Contactor Motor output Metal box Safety sw.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 37 . unearthed due to the delta winding. Typical example of 12-pulse drive In this case a 12-pulse rectifier is an IT system. DIRTY side Metal frame cabinet Cabinet 1 supply connection The ferrite in the DOL circuit is for cross coupling of clean and dirty side Motor Output of PDS Metal box BY-PASS CONTROL CONTROL RELAYS OR PLC Ferrite Isolator DRIVE MODULE RFI FILTER 3 Metal box Control Isolator 1) Short pigtail tp PE.

with segregation Shielded motor cables RFI FILTER Common earth DRAIN FOR EMISSIONS Incoming switch fuse contactor Phase shift transformer (if integrated) Rectifiers Inverter Output choke (Ferrite) Note: All equipment inside must be enclosed Figure 4-4 12-pulse converter system fed at LV. for use in the first environment. For definitions.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . The point of coupling is at a medium voltage and emissions may be considered at the next low voltage point of coupling in the system. see the Installation environments section in chapter 2. An isolating transformer allows the PDS to be earthed and to use a suitable filter. transformer and switch fuse have separate housing). 3 . The level of emissions should correspond to those for the appropriate environment.Practical examples For equipment fed from an IT system. a similar procedure can be used. 360° HF grounding Shielded cable Medium or high voltage supply Point of measurement Shielded control cables Control & display Enclosure. 360° HF grounding Shielded cable Low voltage supply Point of measurement Shielded control cables Control & display Enclosure. 38 Technical guide No. with segregation Shielded motor cables Common earth DRAIN FOR EMISSIONS Incoming switch fuse contactor Phase shift transformer (if integrated) Rectifiers Inverter Output choke (Ferrite) Figure 4-5 12-pulse converter system fed at LV (CDM.

Drives ABC Paper company 123456789 Paper machine PM3 3 Sectional drive system Step 2: Collect power distribution and earthing data Power Distribution Point of coupling: identification code for distribution panel. fan.Practical examples Example of EMC plan This is a form for making an EMC plan where the user and the manufacturer analyze the installation and define the measures to be taken to achieve electromagnetic compatibility.g. All these parties establish the plan jointly. TN-S TT. The plan defines the responsibilities of the manufacturer. the installer and the user of the drive.g. Fill in and answer the questions below. Step 1: Name the parties Manufacturer/supplier End user Order no. conveyor) ABB Oy. chemical factory. IT Earth Bus How and where bonded? At supply transformer T11 Technical guide No. switchgear or transformer Transformerc T11 Type of distribution system TN-C. 3 .EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 39 . paper machine) Application (e. Type of facility (e. pump.

amateur. separate trays etc.)? Describe. process control and measurement.g.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . computers. Approximate distance from PDS and cabling of PDS Most likely coupling path for disturbance RFI Sensitive Equipment Outside the Facility Any broadcast or communications receiver antennas visible or near the facility (e.dedicated supply transformer T11 with static EMCshield Signature(s) by person(s) responsible for EMC Date Signature(s) Joe Smith 26/09/2007 40 Technical guide No. radio/TV broadcast. radar.g. only) RFI Sensitive Equipment in the Facility Any equipment in the building or near installation location sensitive to RF disturbances (e.Practical examples Step 3: Collect EMC data (High frequency range. microwave or other)? Describe. installation.) Dedicated Transformer . etc. Frequency Distances from the antenna Yes No Data handling unit for process control 5 metres Conducted Radiated Yes No Hz metres Step 4: Define the installation rules Follow the installation rules given in the hardware manual of the drive.cabling according to ABB cabling standards and guidelines (cable types.earthing according to ABB instructions (earthing of trays etc.) . remote control. data buses. EMC Effectiveness Cabling Items to Be Considered . 3 . Assess the following items and describe the solutions.

Belgium and National Standards organizations in EU member countries). Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems . EN 61800-3:2004 Interference Free Electronics by Dr. Västerås. Brussels. Finland) 3 Technical guide No. Sten Benda (published by ABB Industry Ab. 3 . 2 . Helsinki.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS 41 . EMC product standard including specific test (published by CENELEC. They are recommended further reading to assist in achieving compliant installations: EN 61800-3.part 3.EU Council Directives and Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems. code 3AFE61253980 (published by ABB Oy Drives. Finland) Grounding and cabling of the drive system. Sweden) Technical Guide No. code 3AFY61201998 (published by ABB Oy Drives. Helsinki.Bibliography Various texts are referred to in this guide.Chapter 5 .

8. 39. 27 medium voltage network 15 motor 19. 11 power supply network 15. 25. 13. 13 transformer 15. 25 gland plate 25. 34 finished appliance 12. 13. 37. 17. 23. 21 B Basic Drive Module 8. 27. 15. 26. 17. 21. 35. 38 twisted pair 24. 41 T technical documentation 7. 32. 12. 14 first environment 15. 25. 14 strain relief clamp 27 sub-assembly 12 system 7. 17 frequency converter 31. 8. 36. 35 fuse 38 G gasket 22. 31 U unrestricted 15 user 7. 12. 27. 20. 11. 16 42 Technical guide No. 38. 28. 16. 12. 10 electrical surge 10 Electromagnetic Compatibility 10 electromagnetic disturbance 14 electromagnetic environment 10 electrostatic discharge 10 enclosure 12. 27 CE mark 7. 13. 38. 11. 13. 14 assembler 7. 10. 12. 30. 38 cross coupling 36 customer 8 D delta winding 37 DOL 36 double shielded cable 31 drive 7. 14 appliance 12. 35 cable gland 25. 27 H harmonics 10 high-frequency emission 10 High-frequency phenomena 10 I imbalance 10 isolating transformer 38 IT system 37. 26. 10. 17. 31. 23. 26. 37 S second environment 16. 21. 37 fixed installation 12. 8. 14. 13.Index Symbols 12-pulse rectifier 37 A antenna 30 apparatus 7. 37 equipment 7.Chapter 6 . 38 L low-frequency phenomena 10 low-voltage network 15 Low Voltage Directive 7 M Machinery Directive 7 manufacturer 7. 14. 20. 10. 37. 12. 22. 13. 28. 28 plastic trunking 30 point of coupling 38 power components 10 power distribution networks 15 power drive system 1. 24. 12. 29. 18. 35. 3. 19. 9. 31 N notches 10 O Original Equipment Manufacturers 7 P phase shift transformer 37 pigtail 25. 31. 12. 14. 15. 11 C cabinet 13. 21. 38 end user 12. 17 single functional unit 8. 20. 17. 15. 13. 16. 27. 11 components 12 conducted radio frequency disturbance 10 conduction 10 control electronics 10 converter 23. 3 . 19. 39 environment 10. 23. 29. 11. 22. 36. 20. 37. 16. 31. 16. 39. 12. 15 CENELEC 41 Complete Drive Module 8. 19. 8. 27. 16. 14. 29. 12. 9. 11. 24. 21. 40 E EEA 7. 40 F Faraday cage 20. 8. 16 R radiated electromagnetic field 10 radiation 10 RFI filter 20. 33.EMC compliant installation and configuration for a PDS . 19. 13. 14. 23. 24. 23. 32 fast transient burst 10 ferrite core 33 ferrite ring 33. 16. 8. 14. 28. 14. 22.

com/drives Ad agency PIIRTEK#13274 © Copyright 2008 ABB. O.7.00381 Helsinki Finland Telephone +358 10 22 11 Fax +358 10 222 2287 Internet www.abb. All rights reserved. .2008 Specifications subject to change without notice. 3AFE61348280 REV D EN 21.ABB Oy Drives P. Box 184 FI .

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4 ABB drives Guide to variable speed drives .Technical guide No.

Guide to variable speed drives .2 Technical guide No. 4 .

4 ABB drives Guide to variable speed drives Technical guide No.Guide to variable speed drives 3 . 4 . Technical guide No.2008 © Copyright 2008 ABB.7. 4 3AFE61389211 REV C EFFECTIVE: 21. All rights reserved.

Guide to variable speed drives . 4 .4 Technical guide No.

.......................................................................................................................................... 8 Industrial segments with VSD processes ...Processes and their requirements............................................................................................................................... 24 Electrical VSDs dominate the market .................................................... 24 AC drive ................................................................................................................. 11 Well defined shape ................................................................................... 17 The load............... 24 Hydraulic coupling ..... 21 Simpler control methods .................................... 14 Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction... 12 Gaseous materials............................... 23 Mechanical.................................................................. 16 Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required ......................Guide to variable speed drives 5 ............................. 21 Variable material flow and input/output requirements ..... 11 Indefinite shape ............................. 13 Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy ..........................AC drive: The leading control method ................................................................................. 25 The AC drives market is growing fast...................................................................... 25 Maintenance costs ........................................................ 20 Chapter 4 ............... 4 .................................................................................... 24 DC drive ...............................Contents Chapter 1 ............. 26 Chapter 5 ................Variable volumes require some form of control ............. 25 Higher quality ..............Introduction ................................ 12 Chapter 3 ...................................................................................... 28 4 Technical guide No.................................... 27 The basic functions of an AC drive .................. 18 The motor has to overcome the loading torque ....................................................................... 25 Productivity ................................................................................................................................. 11 ......................... friction and inertia resist rotation .............................................................................................................. 8 Why variable speed control?............ 7 General ...................... 27 A motor’s load capacity curves with an AC drive.. 9 Variables in processing systems ..................................................................................................................................... 19 The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed ... 15 The efficiency of the drive system .........................................................................................The workhorse of industry: The electric motor ............................. 7 Chapter 2 .................... 25 Energy saving . 12 Solid materials ........................................................................................................ 22 The best control method is VSD .................................................................................. 10 Machines are used to alter materials’ properties........ hydraulic and electrical VSDs ................................................................and to transport materials .................................. 13 Electric motors drive most machines .......... ................................................. 12 Liquid materials ....................................................

................. 34 Technical differences between other systems and AC drives ... 4 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Index .................................................................. 32 Environmental features .. 42 6 Technical guide No......................AC drive features for better process control ................. 31 Slip compensation........................................................................................................................................................................ 31 Stall function .............................. 33 Chapter 6 .......................................................... 35 No mechanical control parts needed .Cost benefits of AC drives .................................................................................................................... 30 Eliminating mechanical vibrations ................................................. 38 The motor .......................... 36 Factors affecting cost ........................................................................................................................................ 30 Torque control ......................... 37 Investment costs: Mechanical and electrical components ... 40 Total cost comparison ....................... 32 Flying start........................................ 29 Reversing ... 41 Chapter 7 .......... 30 Power loss ride-through ....................................................... 39 Operational costs: Maintenance and drive energy............................................................................................................................................Guide to variable speed drives ......................... 33 EMC........................................................................ 38 Installation costs: Throttling compared to AC drive ................................................................... 38 The AC drive ....................................

4 Technical guide No. The guide tries to be as practical as possible.Introduction General This guide continues ABB’s technical guide series.Chapter 1 . Special attention has been given to electrical VSDs and especially to AC Drives. describing different variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in industrial processes. 4 . No special knowledge of VSDs is required.Guide to variable speed drives 7 . although basic technical know-how is required to fully understand the terms and descriptions used.

although there are many different sub-categories that come under these two basic headings. 4 .Chapter 2 . These processes can be divided into two main categories.Guide to variable speed drives . however.Processes and their requirements Why variable speed control? To understand why variable speed control is necessary. This chapter describes the main industrial and non-industrial processes using VSDs. This is accomplished with VSDs. we first need to understand the requirements of different processes. material treatment and material transport. 8 Technical guide No. Common to both main categories. is the need to be able to adjust the process.

and the list above mentions just some of the industrial segments with VSD processes. 4 . Fans are also used in power plants and the chemical industry. in air conditioning applications (part of HVAC). the main process changes due to varying demands for power at different times of the year. air flow requirements change according to the humidity and temperature in the room. Likewise. day or week. In both cases. In power plants. the need for VSDs differs according to the process. These can be met by adjusting the supply and return air fans. For example.Guide to variable speed drives 9 . These adjustments are carried out with VSDs. 4 Technical guide No. the fans need to be adjusted according to the main process.Processes and their requirements Industrial segments with VSD processes Industrial processes are numerous. What they have in common is that they all require some kind of control using VSD.

but in every process. material or energy is processed by means of mechanical power. in the form of energy and/or material. In processing systems. A good example is a drying kiln.Processes and their requirements Variables in processing systems This diagram shows what kinds of variables affect the processing system. In the processing system itself. The product or final material state is the output of the process. VSDs are used to control the mechanical power of the different machines involved in the process. thermal influence. waste. The process is controlled by controlling the speed of the hot air fans using VSDs. Each process needs the material and energy supplied to accomplish the required process. electromagnetic influence. chemical and biological reactions or even nuclear power. in which the hot air temperature must be constant. is also produced. 4 . These variables can be divided into energy and material variables.Guide to variable speed drives . Material treatment can also be controlled by VSDs. 10 Technical guide No.

which is accomplished using various types of processing apparatus to alter a material’s properties into another form. are processed with plant equipment. Technical guide No. As mentioned earlier in this guide.Guide to variable speed drives 11 . Indefinite shape Materials with an indefinite shape. plastics etc. 4 . Well defined shape Processing apparatus can be divided into two groups according to the resulting shape of the material being treated. Examples of this kind of equipment are margarine stirrers. are processed with machinery. The first category is material treatment. metal and wood. such as paper. The shape can be either well defined or indefinite. rolling mills and saw mill lines. and different kinds of centrifuges and extruders.. working machine processes can be divided into two categories.Processes and their requirements 4 Machines are used to alter materials’ properties. such as various food products.. Materials with a welldefined shape.. Examples are paper machines.

4 . such as shipping containers. conveyors and elevators. are transported by pumps. oil or liquid chemicals.Guide to variable speed drives . These machines can be divided into three different sub-groups according to whether the type of material being treated is a solid. They either shape or transport different types of material.and to transport materials The second category consists of machines which transport material to a desired location.. Such apparatus includes cranes. wood. A special application of these machines is air conditioning. In the diagram above. liquid or gas. minerals and of course people.Processes and their requirements . 12 Technical guide No. Gaseous materials Gaseous materials such as air are transported using fans. are transported by conveying apparatus. for example. Solid materials Solid materials.. Liquid materials Liquid materials. metal. This group consists of conveying. dosing and pressure changing apparatus. compressors or blowers. water. five different types of machines are presented. but all of them can be potentially used with Variable Speed Drives.

usually electrical. for example.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor All of the machines mentioned earlier in this guide are commonly driven by electric motors. variable speed control is possible. It can be said that the electric motor is the workhorse of industrial processes. This drive system can transform a given type of energy.Chapter 3 . 4 . Variable speed control can be accomplished. Energy is supplied to the drive system from the power supply. 4 Electric motors drive most machines Every machine consists of four different components. which is the most common motor used in industrial processes. a two speed motor as the motor component and gears as the transmission component. the motor. In each of the three drive system components.Guide to variable speed drives 13 . Technical guide No. shown in the diagram.especially the squirrel cage AC motor. the first three components comprise the so called “drive system”. we will take a closer look at electrical motors . particularly squirrel cage motors. Together. As mentioned earlier. most machines are driven by an electric motor. using a frequency converter as the energy control component. In this chapter. These components are energy control. Electric motors can be divided into AC and DC motors. into mechanical energy. transmission and the working machine. AC motors. are the most commonly used motors in industrial processes. which is then used by the working machine.

To receive the flux direction shown in the diagram. This is the basic principle used to control AC motors. The DC voltage is fed into the DC bus circuit. The motor’s rotor will then follow this flux with a certain slip. the magnetic flux of the motor starts to rotate. This control can be achieved using a frequency converter. The flux has turned 60° counterclockwise. which filters the pulsating voltage. By changing the voltage direction in the three phase motor windings in the correct order. Regular 50 Hz 3-phase current is fed in to the rectifier part. As the name suggests. A frequency converter consists of three parts. The direction of this flux can be determined using the right hand rule from the stator current. The inverter unit then connects each motor phase either to the negative or the positive DC bus according to a certain order. 4 . If switch V5 is not opened. which converts it to direct current. 14 Technical guide No.Guide to variable speed drives . switch V6 has to be closed but V5 has to be open. the direction of the flux can also be changed.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor U Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy An AC motor’s ability to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy is based on electromagnetic induction. To make the flux rotate counterclockwise. switches V1. By changing the direction of the voltage in stator windings. V4 and V5 should be closed. the circuit will short circuit. a frequency converter changes the frequency of the alternating current and voltage. The voltage in stator windings forms the current and magnetic flux.

because the motor does not use more electrical energy than required. Furthermore. because electrical VSDs also provide the possibility for stepless control. it is possible to effectively deal with interference. External interference. Electrical VSDs also provide many additional benefits. In practice. The diagram shows these six switching positions and the flux directions. such as energy savings. control is better than with conventional methods. So in the remaining six switching positions there is voltage in the motor windings.e. when all the phases are connected to the same DC bus. either negative or positive. control is not quite as simple as presented here. Nevertheless. In two positions. Magnetic flux generates currents in the rotor. can also cause some control difficulties. i.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction There are eight different switching positions in the inverter.Guide to variable speed drives 15 . 4 Technical guide No. 4 . the voltage is zero. These rotor currents complicate the situation. the directions of which are marked with arrows in each phase. Voltage also generates current in the windings. which the voltage in the windings generates in each case. such as temperature or load changes. with today’s technology and know-how. and this voltage creates magnetic flux.

current (I) and the power factor (cosϕ).82 and 0. while output power is mechanical. That is why calculating the coefficient of efficiency (η) requires knowledge of both electrical and mechanical engineering.97 depending on the motor size and its rated speed. Both drive and motor losses are thermal. Mechanical output power Pout depends on the required torque (T) and rotating speed (n).97 to 0. which is fed to the motor.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The efficiency of the drive system The total efficiency of the drive system depends on the losses in the motor and its control. 16 Technical guide No. So it can be said that the total efficiency of the drive system is always above 0. Reactive power is needed to produce magnetisation in the motor.99. active power is required. Electrical input power Pin depends on voltage (U). Input power to the drive system is electrical in form. so they appear as heat.8 when controlled by a frequency converter. The power factor tells us what proportion of the total electric power is active power and how much is so called reactive power. the greater the power required. so the efficiency of the frequency converter is very high. To produce the required mechanical power. from 0. and in this way directly controls the power used in the motor as well as in the process being controlled. the frequency converter regulates the voltage. The greater the speed or torque required. As mentioned earlier. 4 . Electrical switching with transistors is very efficient. This has a direct effect on how much power the drive system draws from the electrical supply. Motor efficiency is typically between 0.Guide to variable speed drives .

The name comes from the four different quadrants (I to IV) shown in the diagram. 4 Technical guide No. torque direction requirements might change. III & IV quadrants: In the third and fourth quadrant. but the torque direction remains the same. depending on the torque direction. In addition. 4 . but the torque is in the opposite direction. This kind of torque control is especially required in crane applications. To produce an efficient four quadrant drive.Guide to variable speed drives 17 . some kind of braking arrangement is required. the motor is rotating clockwise. These factors combined form the so called “four quadrant drive”. the motor is rotating counterclockwise and the drive is again accelerating or decelerating. the motor is still rotating clockwise. II quadrant: In the second quadrant. Because the torque is in the same direction as the speed. where the rotation direction might change. With a frequency converter. the drive is accelerating. so the drive is decelerating.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required In some cases. torque direction changes can be implemented independent of the direction of rotation. I quadrant: In the first quadrant. reversed rotation of the motor is required.

the motor torque has to be greater than the load torque. but also on the hardness of the crushed material. which is dependent on the mass of the box. air pressure changes affect the load torque. the load torque is dependent not only on friction and inertia. if the box is to rise. Load torque consists of friction. Load factors change according to the application. 18 Technical guide No.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The load. and so on.Guide to variable speed drives . In fans and blowers. In the example in the diagram. 4 . inertia of the moving parts and the load itself. friction and inertia resist rotation The motor must produce the required torque to overcome the load torque. which depends on the application. in a crusher. For example.

Only then can a suitable motor be selected for the application.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The motor has to overcome the loading torque In any case. The required speed also has to be known. the loading torque has to be known before selecting the motor for the application. a motor that is too small may not be able to lift the required load quickly enough to the desired height. as shown in the diagram. For example. 4 . in crane applications. This could be disastrous for people working at the harbour or site where this crane would be used.Guide to variable speed drives 19 . If the motor is too small. the requirements cannot be met and this might lead to serious problems. To calculate the rated torque of the motor the following formula can be used: P[kW] n[1/min] 4 T[Nm]=9550 x Technical guide No. It might even drop the load completely.

The motor will automatically accelerate until the load torque and motor torque are equal. 20 Technical guide No. 4 . the maximum load torque is reached just below nominal speed. Load torque Tl usually increases with speed. With a frequency converter.Guide to variable speed drives . Actual torque (Tact) is shown on the y-axis and actual speed (nact) on the x-axis. A typical torque/speed curve is shown in the graph as Tm. Depending on the application it can be linear or quadratic. optimal control performance can be obtained from the motor and the whole drive system. This will be introduced later in this guide.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed A motor’s torque/speed curve is unique and has to be calculated for every motor type separately. This point is shown on the graph as the intersection of Tm and Tl. These are the principles that govern how an ordinary squirrel cage motor works. As can be seen.

4 . input.Guide to variable speed drives 21 . As discussed in the first chapter. then variable speed control might be the solution to fulfilling the process requirements. These parameters may need to be constant or they may need to be changed according to a preset pattern. Therefore variable processes and material volumes need some form of control. there are always inputs and outputs present in a process and. if the output parameters need to be changed. The above table lists some processes in which variable speed control is required. interference or output. Technical guide No.Chapter 4 . 4 Variable material flow and input/output requirements There may be many different parameters involved in a process. the most common being input. interference as well. However. This variable causes the need for process adjustment. In this chapter we will look at processes and their variables. In some processes there is no interference and the input is constant. the input is variable or there is interference present. This kind of process works without any variable speed control. It also shows the reasons for the control. We will also examine different control methods. in almost every case.Variable volumes require some form of control In most processes there is at least one variable. output and interference.

Guide to variable speed drives . Therefore. the total life-cycle cost of investment in simple control methods is much higher than with VSDs. 22 Technical guide No. 4 . The simple control methods are also energy consuming. so in addition to the total operating cost being higher than with VSDs. The construction of such equipment is usually very simple and the investment may look cost effective at first. However. also increase. is very difficult to achieve with simple control. there are many drawbacks. the environmental effects. An increase in production capacity usually requires reconstruction of the whole process and with each direct on-line start-up there is a risk of electrical and/or mechanical damage. which gives the best quality of the process. For example the optimal process capacity. such as CO2 emissions from power plants.Variable volumes require some form of control Simpler control methods There are many simpler control methods in existence such as throttling or bypass control.

keep your foot on the gas and reduce speed simply by braking. if necessary. If you are driving on a highway and entering a populated area. This would not only cause wear on the engine and brakes. changing to a lower gear. you need to reduce speed so that you don’t risk your own and other peoples’ lives. 4 Technical guide No. Imagine you are driving a car for example. the original goal of reducing speed without risking your own and other peoples’ lives would not have been achieved.Variable volumes require some form of control The best control method is VSD The best control method for most systems is VSD.Guide to variable speed drives 23 . but also use a lot of fuel and reduce your overall control of the vehicle. 4 . Another possibility would be to use the same gear. Furthermore. The best possible way to do this is of course to reduce motor rotation speed by taking your foot off the gas pedal and.

In electrical VSDs. changes direct current to alternating current. which makes maintenance very difficult. all control systems are situated in an electrical equipment room and only the driving motor is in the process area. the turbine principle is used. a standard squirrel cage motor is used. 24 Technical guide No. The diagram shows the location of the control equipment for each type of VSD. Hydraulic coupling In hydraulic coupling. a mechanical inverter. The speed of the motor is regulated by a frequency converter that changes the frequency of the motor voltage. Other benefits are presented on the following page. The frequency converter itself is controlled with electrical signals. as presented earlier in this guide. The oil amount is controlled with pumps and valves. 4 . a DC converter changes the motor supply voltage fed to the DC motor. DC drive In the DC drive. In the motor. Mechanical variable speed control usually uses belt drives. hydraulic and electrical VSDs Above are the four most common VSDs in the industrial sector.Variable volumes require some form of control Mechanical. By changing the volume of oil in the coupling. AC drive In the frequency converter or AC drive. and is controlled by moving conical pulleys manually or with positioning motors. This is just one benefit of electrical VSDs. so no mechanical inverters are required. In mechanical and hydraulic VSDs. the control equipment is located between the motor and the working machine.Guide to variable speed drives . the speed difference between the driving and driven shafts changes. a commutator.

presented along with estimated VSD market shares in Europe in 2000. Maintenance costs Direct on-line starting stresses the motor and also the electrical equipment. The four main benefits of using electrical VSDs are highlighted at the turning points of the speed curve. Higher quality The accurate speed control obtainable with electrical VSDs results in process optimisation.Guide to variable speed drives 25 . Productivity Process equipment is usually designed to cater for future productivity increases. which means the best profit for the customer. The optimal process control leads to the best quality end product. Changing constant-speed equipment to provide higher production volumes requires money and time. 4 . because the shaft power is proportional to the flow rate to the power of three. changing the production volume can be achieved by changing the motor speed. With the AC drive. Changing production volumes by mechanical means is usually very inefficient. This saves a lot of energy particularly in pump and fan applications. production volumes change. 4 Technical guide No. With electrical VSDs. With electrical VSDs.Variable volumes require some form of control Electrical VSDs dominate the market Here are the four most important arguments for using electrical VSDs. and the production increase can be achieved without any extra investment. smooth starting is possible and this has a direct effect on maintenance costs. Energy saving In many processes. speed increases of 5 to 20 percent are not a problem.

4 . The market share of DC drives is diminishing. the AC drives market is growing at almost 10% per year.Guide to variable speed drives . electrical VSDs are dominating the market. As presented earlier in this guide. The AC drives market is growing fast This diagram shows the projected development of the electrical VSDs market to the year 2000. The difference between the AC and the DC motor is that the DC motor has a mechanical commutator. and the total DC market size remains approximately constant.Variable volumes require some form of control Due to these benefits. utilising carbon brushes. which accounts for the entire growth of the electrical and VSD market. of the total VSD market in Europe in 2000. the AC drive has many benefits over other process control methods. These are the main reasons why the AC drives market share is growing in comparison to DC drives. and AC drives for more than 50%. as can be seen from the table above. AC and DC drives together account for over 75%. This progress is due to the development of AC drives technology. These brushes need regular maintenance and the commutator itself complicates the motor structure and consumes energy. 26 Technical guide No. As can be seen.

The user interface provides the ability to observe the AC drive and obtain different process information via the drive. the motor. These components are the user interface. The AC drive converts the frequency and voltage and feeds the motor. one selection criteria for the drive is the supply voltage and its frequency. There are four different components in AC drive motor control. In the following chapter we will take a closer look at the different features of the AC drive.AC drive: The leading control method Taking into account everything presented so far. This conversion process is controlled by signals from the process or user via the process and user interfaces. the electrical supply and the process interface. An electrical supply feeds the required electricity to the drive. Technical guide No.Chapter 5 . the basic functions of an AC drive are presented. we can confidently say that the AC drive is the leading control method. 4 The basic functions of an AC drive In this diagram.Guide to variable speed drives 27 . and the levels of performance the drive can offer. This makes the drive easy to integrate with other process control equipment and overriding process control systems. 4 .

meaning that a motor can be dimensioned according to its normal use. It will produce a specified torque at certain speed and maximum torque cannot be exceeded. its load capacity curves cannot be modified. there are different loading options. Curve 1 in the diagram. the AC drive and the motor are compatible. The standard curve. With a frequency converter drive. during start-up. for example. In certain applications. This reduces the investment cost.Guide to variable speed drives . These higher load capacity levels might be needed. To be able to use these features it is very important that the load. Other curves can only be used for certain periods of time. With a frequency converter this is possible. Otherwise the motor or the converter will overheat and be damaged. because the motor’s cooling system is not designed for this kind of heavy use. can be used continuously.AC drive: The leading control method A motor’s load capacity curves with an AC drive If the motor is driven without a frequency converter. 4 . as much as twice the amount of torque is required when starting. 28 Technical guide No.

Examples of these features are listed in the diagram. With inputs and outputs for example.Guide to variable speed drives 29 . the load can be limited to prevent nuisance faults and to protect the working machine and the whole drive system.AC drive: The leading control method Important features: • inputs and outputs • reversing function • ramp times acceleration/deceleration • variable torque V/Hz settings • torque boosting • eliminating mechanical vibrations • load limits to prevent nuisance faults • power loss ride-through • stall function • slip compensation • flying start AC drive features for better process control AC drives also have other internal features and functions which are sometimes required for better process control. different kinds of process information can be fed to the drive and it will control the motor accordingly. 4 Technical guide No. In the following sections the listed features are presented in more detail. 4 . Alternatively.

This means that when a motor is accelerated close to its critical speed. it is possible to set different acceleration and deceleration ramp times. Variable torque U/f settings mean that maximum torque can be achieved at a lower speed of rotation than normal. 30 Technical guide No. Torque control Torque control is relatively simple with an AC drive. which was presented earlier. is necessary if a very high starting torque is required. Eliminating mechanical vibrations Mechanical vibrations can be eliminated by by-passing critical speeds.Guide to variable speed drives .AC drive: The leading control method Reversing Reversing the motor rotation is simple to accomplish with an AC drive. When the critical point has been passed. 4 . The ramp form can also be modified according to the user’s wishes. With ABB’s frequency converters it can be achieved simply by pressing one button. Torque boosting. Furthermore. In the diagram (above. the drive will not allow the actual speed of the motor to follow the reference speed. the motor will return to the regular curve very quickly and pass the critical speed. Another possibility could be a linear ramp. left) an S-ramp has been presented.

AC drive: The leading control method Power loss ride-through The power loss ride-through function is used if the incoming supply voltage is cut off. Stall function With an AC drive. calculated by the drive software. The drive frequency has to be below the preset stall frequency. The motor torque has to rise to a certain limit. the AC drive will continue to operate using the kinetic energy of the rotating motor. Protection is activated if three conditions are met at the same time. The final condition is that the motor has been in the stall limit for longer than the time period set by the user. 1. It is possible to adjust supervision limits and choose how the drive reacts to the motor stall condition. 2. 3.Guide to variable speed drives 31 . 4 Technical guide No. 4 . The drive will be fully operational as long as the motor rotates and generates energy for the drive. In such a situation. the motor can be protected in a stall situation with the stall function.

Flying start The flying start feature is used when a motor is connected to a flywheel or a high inertia load. 32 Technical guide No.Guide to variable speed drives . the speed of the motor will decrease as shown in the diagram (above. In case of rotating motor. The flying start works even without a speed feedback.AC drive: The leading control method Slip compensation If the motor load torque is increased. After synchronised the voltage and the speed are increased to the corresponding levels. the inverter is first started with a reduced voltage and then synchronised to the rotating rotor. the torque/speed curve can be modified with the frequency converter so that torque increase can be accomplished with the same speed as previously. 4 . To compensate for this slip. left).

In such cases. and that it does not send any conductive or radiative disturbances itself either to the electrical supply or the surrounding environment. EMC Another important environmental feature is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The squirrel cage motor is very compact and can be used in very hostile conditions. for example.AC drive: The leading control method Environmental features Any drive system has to handle different environmental stresses such as moisture or electrical disturbances. 4 . please refer to ABB’s Technical Guide No. The frequency converter usually has an IP21 degree of protection.Guide to variable speed drives 33 . This means that it is not possible to touch the live parts and that vertically dripping water will not cause any harm. 4 Technical guide No. EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System. It is very important that a drive system fulfills the EMC directives of the European Union. 3. If you require more information about the EMC directives and their effects on drives. This means that the drive system can bear conductive and radiative disturbances. by installing the drive inside a cabinet with the required degree of protection. it can be obtained. it is essential to ensure that the temperature inside the cabinet will not exceed the allowed limits. If a higher degree of protection is required. The IP54 degree of protection guarantees that it can work in a dusty environment and that it can bear sprinkling water from any direction.

Chapter 6 . AC drives also provide many cost benefits. But first let’s review AC drive technology compared to other control methods. This is astonishing considering what we have seen so far in this guide. This pie chart shows how many motors below 2. these benefits are reviewed. 97% are sold without an AC drive. with the costs divided into investment. At the moment there are still plenty of motors sold without variable speed AC drives. installation and operational costs. 34 Technical guide No.Cost benefits of AC drives In addition to their technical advantages. Only 3% of motors in this power range are sold each year with a frequency converter. Even more so after closer study of the costs of an AC drive compared to conventional control methods. 4 . In this chapter. and how many without.Guide to variable speed drives .2 kW are sold with frequency converters.

to the difference between a zeppelin and a modern airplane. we have presented the benefits of the AC drive compared to simpler control methods. The benefits of both these innovations are generally well known. We could also compare AC drive technology to the development from a floppy disk to a CD-ROM.Cost benefits of AC drives Technical differences between other systems and AC drives AC drive technology is completely different from other. 4 . AC drive technology is based on a totally different technology to earlier control methods. for example. Similarly. It can be compared. 4 Technical guide No. a floppy disk can only handle a small fraction of the information that a CD-ROM can. Although it is a simpler information storage method. In this guide.Guide to variable speed drives 35 . simpler control methods.

In traditional methods. the same electrical components are needed. The AC drive provides a new solution. 36 Technical guide No. which is much cheaper than the single phase motors used in other control methods. when speaking of power below 2. we need to study the configurations of different control methods. Another benefit. No mechanics are needed.2 kW.Guide to variable speed drives . is that with an AC drive we can use a regular 3-phase motor. 4 . contactors and reactors on the electrical side and valves on the mechanical side. Here we have used pumping as an example. as well as a pressure tank on the mechanical side. In throttling you need fuses.Cost benefits of AC drives No mechanical control parts needed To make a proper cost comparison. there is always a mechanical part and an electrical part. We can still use 220 V single phase supply. because all control is already on the electrical side. when thinking about cost. In On/Off control.

no wear and tear . maintenance is a very important cost item. Furthermore.all in one . while AC drives practically save energy.no mechanical parts. In conventional methods there are also many electrical components. In conventional methods there are both electrical and mechanical components. And last but not least.mechanical control is energy consuming AC drive: . 4 Technical guide No. mechanical control is very energy consuming.Guide to variable speed drives 37 . This not only helps reduce costs. but also helps minimise environmental impact by reducing emissions from power plants.both electrical and mechanical parts . as well as their effect on costs.mechanical parts need regular maintenance . The costs are usually higher than if everything could be purchased at once.only one electrical component .Cost benefits of AC drives Conventional methods: . mechanical parts wear out quickly. The installation cost is at least doubled when there are several different types of components rather than only one. which usually have to be purchased separately. 4 .many electrical parts .saves energy Factors affecting cost This list compares the features of conventional control methods with those of the AC drive. This directly affects maintenance costs and in the long run.

The AC drive The AC drive does not need any mechanical parts. Only throttling in domestic use is as low cost as the AC drive. Mechanical parts themselves are almost always less costly than a frequency converter. This is due to the 3-phase motor used with the AC drive and the single phase motor used in other control methods. however.Cost benefits of AC drives Investment costs: Mechanical and electrical components In this graph. the motor is much more expensive for traditional control methods than for the AC drive. In an industrial environment there are stricter requirements for valves and this increases costs. the investment structure as well as the total price of each pump control method is presented. After taking all costs into account. an AC drive is almost always the most economical investment. In throttling. 4 . when compared to different control methods. The motor As can be seen. there are two possibilities depending on whether the pump is used in industrial or domestic use.Guide to variable speed drives . These are not the total costs. 38 Technical guide No. but electrical parts also need to be added to the total investment cost. which reduces costs dramatically. Together with investment costs we need to look at installation and operational costs. Only the pump itself is not added to the costs because its price is the same regardless of whether it’s used with an AC drive or valves.

we will compare its installation and operating costs to the cost of the AC drive. As mentioned earlier. So now we can summarise the total installation costs. 4 . Multiply this by the hourly rate charged by a skilled installer to get the total installation cost. This means twice the amount of installation material is needed. Installation work is also at least doubled in throttling compared to the AC drive. So even if the throttling investment costs were lower than the price of a single phase motor (approximately USD 200). The commissioning of a throttling-based system does not usually require more time than commissioning an AC drive based system. To have a mechanical valve ready for use usually requires five hours compared to one hour for the AC drive. the AC drive saves up to USD 270 per installation. in throttling there are both electrical and mechanical components. the AC drive would pay for itself before it has even worked a second.Cost benefits of AC drives Throttling Installation material Installation work Commissioning work Total 20 USD 5h x 65 USD = 325 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 410 USD AC drive 10 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 140 USD Savings in installation: 270 USD! Installation costs: Throttling compared to AC drive Because throttling is the second lowest investment after the AC drive. One hour is usually the time required in both cases. As you can see. To install a mechanical valve into a pipe is not that simple and this increases installation time. 4 Technical guide No.Guide to variable speed drives 39 .

37 kW 1500 kWh 150 USD 40 USD 340 USD 5 USD 155 USD Operational costs: Maintenance and drive energy In many surveys and experiments it has been proved that a 50% energy saving is easily achieved with an AC drive. If a pump is used 4000 hours per year.75 kW 3000 kWh 300 USD 0. To calculate the savings. the total savings in operating costs would be USD 185. mechanical parts wear a lot and this is why they need regular maintenance. It has been estimated that whereas throttling requires USD 40 per year for service. we need to multiply the energy consumption by the energy price.75 kW. As mentioned earlier. which is approximately half of the frequency converter’s price for this power range. In many cases however. there is no maintenance required for a frequency converter.Cost benefits of AC drives Throttling AC drive saving 50% Power required Annual energy 4000 hours/year Annual energy cost with 0. So it is worth considering that instead of yearly service for an old valve it might be more profitable to change the whole system to an AC drive based control.1 USD/kWh Maintenance/year Total cost/year Savings in one year: 185 USD! 0. Therefore. This means that the payback time of the frequency converter is two years. To retrofit an existing throttling system the pay-back time is two years. maintenance costs for an AC drive would be USD 5. This means that where power requirements with throttling would be 0. 4 . which varies depending on the country. Here USD 0.Guide to variable speed drives . 40 Technical guide No. with the AC drive it would be 0.1 per kWh has been used. throttling would need 3000 kWh and the AC drive 1500 kWh of energy per year.37 kW.

and these savings are realised as soon as the drive is installed. In the long run. and especially from the energy savings.Guide to variable speed drives 41 .Cost benefits of AC drives Total cost comparison In the above figure. Here the operational costs are rated to the present value with a 10% interest rate. In this guide we have tried to present the benefits of the AC drive and why we at ABB think that it is absolutely the best possible way to control your process. it is very difficult to understand why only 3% of motors sold have a frequency converter. 4 . Taking the total cost figure into account. Most of the savings with the AC drive come from the operational costs. all the costs have been summarised. The usual time for an operational cost calculation for this kind of investment is 10 years. It is in the installation that the highest individual savings can be achieved. 4 Technical guide No. the conventional method will be more than twice as expensive as a frequency converter.

17. 15 maintenance 24. 41 AC drive 24. 39. 15 EMC 33 EMC directives 33 energy 14. 41 F fans 18 flux 14. 25. 29. 37. 4 . 31 power plants 22. 30. 34. 33 E electrical disturbances 33 electrical equipment room 24 electrical supply 16. 24. 26 Direct on-line starting 25 drive frequency 31 drive software 31 drive system 16. 16. 25. 28. 29 processing system 10 pump 24. 26. 40 mechanical power 16 mechanical vibrations 29. 20. 24 IP21 33 IP54 33 L linear ramp 30 load capacity curves 28 M machine 11. 29. 21 inverter 14. 25. 40 R rated speed 16 Reactive power 16 reactive power 16 reactors 36 rectifier 14 reference speed 30 reversing function 29 right hand rule 14 42 Technical guide No. 37. 26 contactors 36 crane 17. 36. 31. 27. 15 flying start 29. 13. 26. 27. 33 electromagnetic compatibility 33 electromagnetic induction 14. 36. 32 input power 16 interference 15.Chapter 7 . 15. 31.Index A ABB 30. 28.Guide to variable speed drives . 26. 34. 41 friction 18 fuses 36 H harbour 19 hydraulic coupling 24 I industrial processes 13 inertia 18. 26 DC motor 24. 29 magnetic flux 14. 15 N nuisance faults 29 O output power 16 P power factor 16 power loss ride-through 29. 26. 24. 25. 27. 16. 37. 41 AC drives market 26 AC motor 13. 14 active power 16 B belt drives 24 blowers 18 braking 17. 32. 22. 23 bypass control 22 C coefficient of efficiency 16 Commissioning 39 commutator 24. 19 critical speed 30 crusher 18 current 14. 15. 38. 15 DC converter 24 DC drive 24. 40. 20. 33. 30 motor load 32 motor losses 16 motor phase 14 motor size 16 motor stall condition 31 motor windings 14. 24 D DC bus 14. 40. 35. 15. 37 process control 25. 32 flywheel 32 four quadrant drive 17 frequency converter 14. 33. 40.

24. 29. 15. 28. 23. 15. 36. 19. 17.Guide to variable speed drives 43 . 4 . 31. 39.Index S S-ramp 30 slip 14. 18. 26 4 Technical guide No. 22. 27. 24. 30. 31 VSD 9. 36 variable speed control 8. 20. 16. 25. 31 stator 14 stepless control 15 T temperature 15. 33 throttling 22. 24. 40 torque 16. 24 Variable Speed Drives 1. 21. 33 stall frequency 31 stall function 29. 3 voltage 14. 32 transistors 16 V valve 40 valves 24. 29. 32 squirrel cage motor 20.

44 Technical guide No.Guide to variable speed drives . 4 .

2008 Specifications subject to change without notice.ABB Oy Drives P.com/drives Ad agency PIIRTEK#13098 © Copyright 2008 ABB. 3AFE61389211 REV C EN 21. Box 184 FI . O.7.00381 Helsinki Finland Telephone +358 10 22 11 Fax +358 10 22 22681 Internet www. . All rights reserved.abb.

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5 ABB drives Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .Technical guide No.

5 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .2 Technical guide No.

5 3AFE64230247 REV C EN EFFECTIVE: 21.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 3 .2008 © Copyright 2008 ABB.ABB drives Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 5 Technical guide No.7. Technical guide No. 5 . All rights reserved.

4 Technical guide No. 5 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .

..........................................................Contents Chapter 1 ................................................................................................... 7 Chapter 2 ....Index ............... 19 Measuring high frequency bearing currents ......................................................... 15 Chapter 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 9 Circulating current ................Preventing high frequency bearing current damage .................................................................................................................. 9 How are HF bearing currents generated? .......................................... 21 Chapter 5 ................. 7 Avoiding bearing currents ............. 19 Additional solutions ... 17 Three approaches .................................................................................................. 10 Common mode circuit .......................................... 8 Faster switching .............Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 5 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 5 Technical guide No............... 14 Capacitive voltage divider ...... 12 Voltage drops .......................................................................................................................... 9 Shaft grounding current ....................................... 8 High frequency current pulses .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 ........... 11 How does the current flow through the system? ......... 13 Common mode transformer ........................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Stray capacitances ...................... 20 Chapter 4 ...........Generating bearing currents .............................................................. 9 Capacitive discharge current ... 7 General ..................... 18 Follow product specific instructions ........................... 17 Short impedance path .................Introduction ........... 17 Multicore motor cables .. 17 High frequency bonding connections ................................................... 19 Leave the measurements to the specialists...........................................References ...

Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .6 Technical guide No. 5 .

5 Technical guide No. This is because modern variable speed drives with their fast rising voltage pulses and high switching frequencies can cause current pulses through the bearings whose repeated discharging can gradually erode the bearing races. Failure can be caused by high frequency currents. Proper insulation of the motor bearing construction breaks the bearing current paths.Chapter 1 . the incidence of damage they cause has increased during the last few years.Introduction General Some new drive installations can have their bearings fail only a few months after start-up. While bearing currents have been around since the advent of electric motors. it is essential to provide proper earthing paths and allow stray currents to return to the inverter frame without passing through the bearings. Avoiding bearing currents To avoid damage occurring. which flow through the motor bearings. 5 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 7 . The magnitude of the currents can be reduced by using symmetrical motor cables or inverter output filtering.

If the energy of these pulses is sufficiently high. is the product of sophisticated manufacturing techniques and normally carries a favourable Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) rate. but a tiny EDM pit is an incontinuity that will collect more pulses and expand into a typical EDM crater. the bearing may need replacing after only a short time in service. However. High frequency bearing currents have been investigated by ABB since 1987. It is when these components are combined and the installed system is looked upon as a whole. that it becomes clear that certain installation practices are required. The importance of system design has been highlighted in the last few years.Generating bearing currents High frequency current pulses Bearing currents come in several different guises. The switching frequency of modern AC drives is very high and the vast number of pulses causes the erosion to quickly accumulate. Figure 1: Bearing currents can cause “bearing fluting”.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .Chapter 2 . The effect of a single pulse is insignificant. the gearbox or the drive controller. As a result. while modern motor design and manufacturing practices have nearly eliminated the low frequency bearing currents induced by the asymmetry of the motor. 5 . Each individual item involved. the rapid switching in modern AC drive systems may generate high frequency current pulses through the bearings. This is known as electrical discharge machining or EDM. a rhythmic pattern on the bearing’s races. metal transfers from the ball and the races to the lubricant. such as the motor. 8 Technical guide No.

the increase of the motor frame voltage is seen over the bearings. The voltage between the shaft ends affects the bearings. within one to six months. are the size of the motor and how the motor frame and shaft are grounded. which is the source of this current. incorporating Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). the bearings and the stator frame. 5 . In the case of high frequency bearing currents. The most important factors that define which mechanism is prominent. creates switching events 20 times faster than those considered typical ten years ago.Generating bearing currents Faster switching Current AC drive technology. Du/dt of the AC drive power stage components and the DC-link voltage level affect the level of bearing currents. Circulating current In large motors. plays an important role. This current is a circulating type of high frequency bearing current. the shaft and the driven machine back to the inverter.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 9 . a current that tries to compensate the net flux in the stator starts to flow in the loop formed by the shaft. Recent years have seen a rising number of EDM-type bearing failures in AC drive systems relatively soon after start up. How are HF bearing currents generated? The source of bearing currents is the voltage that is induced over the bearing. Any route back contains impedance. If the voltage rises high enough to overcome the impedance of the drive-end bearing oil film. and therefore the voltage of the motor frame increases in comparison to the source ground level. this voltage can be generated in three different ways. part of the current may flow via the drive-end bearing. If it is high enough to overcome the impedance of the bearings’ oil film. This flux is caused by a net asymmetry of capacitive current leaking from the winding into the stator frame along the stator circumference. This current is a shaft grounding type of high frequency bearing current. If the motor shaft is earthed via the driven machinery. The electrical installation. high frequency voltage is induced between the ends of the motor shaft by the high frequency flux circulating around the stator. The extent to which this occurs depends on the AC drive system architecture and the installation techniques used. Shaft grounding current The current leaking into the stator frame needs to flow back to the inverter. meaning a suitable cable type and proper bonding of the protective conductors and the electrical shield. 5 Technical guide No.

the internal voltage division of the common mode voltage over the internal stray capacitances of the motor may cause shaft voltages high enough to create high frequency bearing current pulses. 10 Technical guide No. or neutral point voltage. where a dc voltage is converted into three phase voltages. However. It is measurable at the zero point of any load. This can happen if the shaft is not earthed via the driven machinery while the motor frame is earthed in the standard way for protection. it is normal that the neutral is at zero volts.Generating bearing currents Capacitive discharge current In small motors. 5 . in a modern AC drive system. and has a frequency equal to the inverter switching frequency. The neutral voltage is clearly not zero and its presence can be defined as a common mode voltage source. it is impossible to make the sum of three output voltages instantaneously equal to zero with two possible output levels available. The resulting neutral point voltage is not zero. This voltage may be defined as a common mode voltage source. this is not the case with a PWM switched three-phase power supply. eg. Even though the fundamental frequency components of the output voltages are sy mmetrical and balanced. the vector sum of the three phases always equals zero. Figure 2: This schematic shows the phase voltages of a typical three phase PWM power supply and the average of the three. The voltage is proportional to the DC bus voltage. the star point of the motor winding. A typical three-phase sinusoidal power supply is balanced and symmetrical under normal conditions. Thus.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . That is. Common mode circuit High frequency bearing currents are a consequence of the current flow in the common mode circuit of the AC drive system.

However. fast rising pulses produced by modern power supplies contain frequencies so high that even small capacitances inside the motor provide a low impedance path for current to flow. and the motor winding turn is insulated from the frame by enamel coating and slot insulation. Figure 3: An example of the common mode current at the inverter output. which flows through the system in a loop that is closed externally to the system. for example. is called common mode current. which are external to the three phase system.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 11 . 5 Stray capacitances A capacitance is created any time two conductive components are separated by an insulator.Generating bearing currents Any time one of the three inverter outputs is changed from one of the possible potentials to another. This type of current. For instance. the cable phase wire has capacitance to the PE-wire separated by PVC insulation. a current proportional to this voltage change is forced to flow to earth via the earth capacitances of all the components of the output circuit. The capacitances within a cable and especially inside the motor are very small. The pulse is a superposition of several frequencies due to the different natural frequencies of the parallel routes of common mode current. Technical guide No. thus blocking the low frequency stray currents. A small capacitance means high impedance for low frequencies. The current flows back to the source via the earth conductor and stray capacitances of the inverter. 5 . and so has a value of capacitance to the motor frame.

12 Technical guide No. combined as Cin. All these elements contain inductance. How does the current flow through the system? The return path of the leakage current from the motor frame back to the inverter frame consists of the motor frame. From the motor frame. Most have a minor effect on the value of common mode current or bearing currents. the motor frame voltage will cause some of the common mode current to be diverted into an unintended path. back to the common mode voltage source. 5 . cable shielding or PE-conductors and possibly steel or aluminium parts of the factory building structure. Lc Lm and through the stray capacitances between the motor windings and motor frame. through the building. The inverter power supply acts as a common mode voltage source (Vcm). the current proceeds through the factory earth circuit which has the inductance Lg.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . like the PE-connection of the motor frame. The inverter frame is connected to the factory earth and couples the common mode current/earth currents through stray inverter to frame capacitances.Generating bearing currents Figure 4: Simplified loop of the common mode current of a PWM inverter and induction motor. Lg is also fed common mode current from the stray cable capacitance Cc. This motor frame voltage is a portion of the inverter’s common mode voltage. combined to be Cm. Common mode current (CMC) flows through the common mode cable and motor inductances. The common mode current will seek the path of least impedance. but may be significant in coping with EMC-requirements. The flow of common mode current through such inductance will cause a voltage drop that raises the motor frame potential above the source ground potential at the inverter frame. In practical installations a number of parallel paths exist. If a high amount of impedance is present in the intended paths.

that part of the inverter common mode current flows via the motor bearings. Figure 6: Source of circulating high frequency bearing current. the reactance at the upper range of typical common mode current frequencies.Generating bearing currents Voltage drops If the value of this inductance is high enough. Technical guide No. 5 Figure 5: A schematic presentation showing the circulating current and shaft grounding current. 5 . the motor shaft is connected through a metallic coupling to a gearbox or other driven machinery that is solidly earthed and near the same earth potential as the inverter frame. These bearings may be damaged before the motor bearings. current may flow via the gearbox or machine bearings. If the shaft of the machinery has no direct contact to the ground level. Current leakage through distributed stator capacitances gives a non-zero current sum over the stator circumference. 50 kHz to 1 MHz. then it is possible. This leads to a net magnetising effect and flux around the motor shaft. If. the latter resulting from high motor frame voltage with superior machine earthing. the shaft and the driven machinery back to the inverter.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 13 . in such a case. can support voltage drops of over 100 volts between the motor frame and the inverter frame.

be thought of as a transformer. As the current leaks into the stator along the coil. a high frequency circulating current can flow. the current. 5 . This capacitance is distributed around the circumference and length of the stator. inducing an axial voltage in the shaft ends. If the voltage becomes large enough. and induces the circulating current into the rotor circuit or secondary. An example of this “vagabond” circulating bearing current is shown in figure 8. 14 Technical guide No. in this case. This bearing current is considered to be the most damaging with typical peak values of 3 to 20 amps depending on the rated power of the motor. internal to the motor.Generating bearing currents Common mode transformer The largest share of the motor’s stray capacitance. in which the common mode current flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary. instead of circulating completely inside the motor.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . This net current produces a high frequency magnetic flux that will circulate in the stator laminations. The motor can. flows via the shaft and the bearings of the gearbox or driven machinery and in a structural element that is both external and common to the motor and the driven machine. through the shaft and both bearings. the high frequency content of the current entering the stator coil is greater than the current leaving. is formed between the stator windings and the motor frame. The origin of the current is the same as in the current circulating inside the motor. Figure 7: The high frequency axial shaft voltage can be thought of as the resultant of a transformer effect. du/dt of the AC drive power stage components and DC-link voltage level. Another version of circulating bearing current occurs when. where the common mode current flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary and induces the circulating current into the rotor circuit or secondary.

For instance. The existence of capacitance between the stator windings and the rotor effectively couples the stator windings to the rotor iron. 5 . where the current loop is external to the motor. such as the capacitance between the stator windings and the rotor. This capacitance. rotor and bearing stray capacitances. which is also connected to the shaft and the bearing’s inner races. The bearings themselves may even have stray capacitance. 5 Figure 9: Common mode loop of variable speed drive. where Technical guide No. Capacitive voltage divider Other stray capacitances are also present in the motor.Generating bearing currents Figure 8: “Vagabond” circulating bearing current. showing stator. Fast changes in the common mode current from the inverter can not only result in currents in the capacitance around the circumference and length of the motor. the presence of stray capacitance in the bearings is only sustained for as long as the balls of the bearings are covered in oil or grease and are non-conducting. but also between the stator windings and the rotor into the bearings.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 15 . The current flow into the bearings can change rapidly. as this depends on the physical state of the bearing at any one time. or that existing in the motor’s airgap between the stator iron and the rotor.

the bearing impedance governs the voltage level at which the bearings start to conduct. Generally. the bearings have metallic contact since the balls have not risen on an oil film. and the impedance varies from case to case. 16 Technical guide No.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . 5 . This impedance is a non-linear function of bearing load.Generating bearing currents the induced shaft voltage builds up. temperature. can be short-circuited if the bearing voltage exceeds the threshold of its breakover value or if a “high spot” on a ball breaks through the oil film and makes contact with both bearing races. speed of rotation and lubricant used. At very low speed.

The earth (protective earth.Preventing high frequency bearing current damage Three approaches There are three approaches used to affect high frequency bearing currents: a proper cabling and earthing system. The best and easiest way to do this is to use shielded motor cables.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 17 . 5 Figure 10: Recommended motor cable with symmetrical core configuration. and damping the high frequency common mode current. A variable speed drive can be effectively earthed at the high common mode current frequencies. For different types of high frequency bearing currents. The symmetricity of the PE. Short impedance path Define a short. Standard equipment earthing practices are mainly designed to provide a sufficiently low impedance connection to protect people and equipment against system frequency faults. breaking the bearing current loops.Chapter 3 .conductor is achieved by a conductor surrounding all the phase leads or a cable that contains a symmetrical arrangement of three phase leads and three earth conductors. if the installation follows three practices: Multicore motor cables Use only symmetrical multicore motor cables. or damp the value of the pulses to a level that has no effect on bearing life. PE) connector arrangement in the motor cable must be symmetrical to avoid bearing currents at fundamental frequency.e. All these aim to decrease the bearing voltage to values that do not induce high frequency bearing current pulses at all. Technical guide No. different measures need to be taken. The basis of all high frequency current mastering is the proper earthing system. i. low impedance path for common mode current to return to the inverter. copper or aluminium and the connections at both ends need to be made with 360° termination. The shield must be continuous and of good conducting material. 5 .

Figure 11 a: Proper 360° termination with European cabling practice. 18 Technical guide No. High frequency bonding connections Add high frequency bonding connections between the installation and known earth reference points to equalise the potential of affected items.100 mm wide.Preventing high frequency bearing current damage Figures 11a and 11b show 360° terminations for European and American cabling practices. the outer insulation of the cable is stripped away. The shield is connected with as short a pigtail as possible to the PE terminal. Additionally it may be necessary to equalise the potential between the frames of the motor and the driven machinery to short the current path through the motor and the driven machine bearings. 5 . To make a 360° high frequency connection between the EMC sleeve and the cable shield.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . An earthing bushing should be used on both ends of the motor cable to effectively connect the earth wires to the armour or conduit. This must be made at the points where discontinuity between the earth level of the inverter and that of the motor is suspected. flat conductors will provide a lower inductance path than round wires. using braided straps of copper 50 . Figure 11 b: Proper 360° termination with American cabling practice.

air-cored. flexible. The high frequency common mode current can be damped by using dedicated filters. The current may flow in unusual places. As a manufacturer of both inverters and motors. Measuring equipment needs to have wide bandwidth (minimum 10 kHz to 2 MHz) capable of detecting peak values of at least 150 to 200 A and RMS values at least down to 10 mA. such as rotating shafts. it is essential to carefully follow the installation instructions given in product specific manuals. Rogowskitype current sensor with dedicated accessories and has vast experience of over one thousand measured drives in different applications worldwide. It is impossible to measure bearing currents directly from a standard motor. Technical guide No. ABB uses a specially designed. Follow product specific instructions Although the basic principles of installations are the same. But if high frequency bearing currents are suspected. special equipment and experienced personnel are needed. field measurements can be taken to verify the existence of suspected current loops. Thus. The crest factor of measured signals is seldom less than 20. 5 Measuring high frequency bearing currents Monitoring the bearing condition must be conducted with established vibration measurements. ABB can offer the most appropriate solution in each case as well as detailed instructions on proper earthing and cabling practices. 5 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 19 . Additional solutions Breaking the bearing current loops is achieved by insulating the bearing construction.Preventing high frequency bearing current damage Figure 12: HF Bonding Strap. Therefore. for different products suitable installation practices may differ.

Leave the measurements to the specialists Since suitable commercial measurement equipment is not available on the market and specialised experience is needed to make the measurements and interpret the results. B) shaft grounding current. 5 μs/div. 20 Technical guide No. 500 mA/div Figure 14: Examples of current waveforms at the measuring points shown in Figure 13.Preventing high frequency bearing current damage The most important measurement points are within the motor. 2 μs/div. During measurements. As an example. 2 A/div B) Shaft grounding current GTO-inverter. 5 μs/div. GTO inverters were used mainly in the 1980s and IGBT inverters are used today. the motor speed needs to be at least 10% of the nominal for the bearings to rise on the oil film. basic measurements are shown in figure 13. 5 μs/div. A) Circulating current GTO-inverter. 10 A/div IGBT-inverter.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . it is advisable that bearing current measurements are made by dedicated personnel only. 2 A/div IGBT-inverter. Figure 14 shows examples of measured current waveforms. Figure 13: Basic measurements: A) circulating current measured with a jumper. Note the different scale in the various graphs. 5 .

Bearing Currents in AC Drives by ABB Industry Oy and ABB Motors Oy. 8. 5 . 16. (In Finnish). 8-10 September 1997. 3BFA 61363602. Set of overheads in LN database “Document Directory Intranet” on ABB_FI01_SPK08/FI01/ABB 9. H. T. 3. 7. Tuusa. Technical guide No. 6. 7th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications. USA.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 21 . May 1997. ABB Industry Oy. H. Helsinki. 5. I. Hammar. Iisakkala. Automaatio 1999. Laakerivirta ja sen minimoiminen säädettyjen vaihtovirtakäyttöjen moottoreissa.Chapter 4 . Ollila. Instruction on Measuring Bearing Currents with a Rogowski Coil. High Frequency Bearing Currents in Low Voltage Asynchronous Motors.9. Erkkilä. EPE 97. J. Trondheim.References 1. 3AFY 61201998 R0125 2. Minimizing Electrical Bearing Currents in Adjustable Speed Drive Systems by Patrick Link. ME. A New Reason for Bearing Current Damage in Variable Speed AC Drives by J. Tuusa. 5 See also product specific installation manuals. On the Bearing Currents in Medium Power Variable Speed AC Drives by J. proceedings of the IEEE IEDMC in Milwaukee. Norway. The Motor Guide GB 98-12. 00018323.doc. J. 4. Finland. ABB Industry Oy. ABB Motors Oy and ABB Industry Oy. Grounding and Cabling of the Drive System. Ollila.1999. Iisakkala. T. IEEE IAS Pulp & Paper Conference Portland. Hammar.EN. June 1998.

19 Common mode loop 15 common mode voltage 10. 19 motor shaft 9. 18 driven machinery 10. 12. 20 bearing current loops 17. 14. 10.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . 12 conduit 18 crest factor 19 current pulses 7 D DC bus voltage 10 dedicated filters 19 drive controller 8 driven machine 9. 17. 20 22 Technical guide No. 5 . 15. 15. 12. 16 bearing 8. 10 armour 18 axial shaft voltage 14. 11. 10. 17. 9. 18 magnetic flux 14 Mean Time Between Failure 8 metallic coupling 13 modern drive systems 8 motor 8. 13. 19 bearing fluting 8 bearing races 7 bearings 7. 15. 16 bearing voltage 16 bonding connections 18 braided straps 18 C cable 17 cable capacitance 12 cable shield 18 circulating current 14 common mode cable 12 common mode current 11. 13. 12. 12. 18 motor frame 9. 16 bearing current 9. 18 360° terminations 18 A ABB 19 AC drive 9. 13. 13 inverter output filtering 7 inverter power supply 12 inverter switching frequency 10 L low frequency bearing currents 8 M machine 13 machinery 13. 14. 15. 13 motor windings 12 N neutral point voltage 10 O oil film 9. 14. 17. 14 E earthing paths 7 EDM 9 EDM crater 8 electrical discharge machining 8 electrical shield 9 electric motors 7 F field measurements 19 flat conductors 18 frame 18 G gearbox 8. 18. 9.Index Symbols 360° termination 17.Chapter 5 . 18 inverter frame 7. 14 GTO inverters 20 H high frequency bearing currents 9 high frequency bearing voltage 9 high frequency circulating current 14 high frequency current mastering 17 high frequency current pulses 8 high frequency flux 9 high switching frequencies 7 I IGBT inverters 20 induced shaft voltage 16 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) 9 internal voltage division 10 inverter 9. 15. 19 motor bearing 7 motor cable 17. 11. 13. 14 motors 9. 11. 13. 15 axial voltage 14 B balls 15. 8. 19 bearing current paths 7 bearing currents 7. 14. 17.

13 voltage pulses 7 W winding 9. 12 R races 8. 12. 11. 15 stator frame 9. 14.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 23 . 15 5 Technical guide No. 13. 12. 15 rotor circuit 14 S secondary 14 shaft 10. 14. 10. 14 stator laminations 14 stator windings 14. 14. 14. 15 stray currents 7 symmetrical motor cables 7 symmetrical multicore motor cables 17 T three-phase sinusoidal power supply 10 three phase power supply 10 transformer 14 V variable speed drive 15. 5 . 11. 16 Rogowski-type current sensor 19 rotor 14. 15 stray capacitance 10.Index P primary 14 PWM 10. 15 shaft ends 14 shaft voltages 10 shield 17 stator 9. 17 voltage drop 12.

24 Technical guide No.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . 5 .

.7. All rights reserved.com/drives Ad agency PIIRTEK#12426 © Copyright 2008 ABB.2008 Specifications subject to change without notice.ABB Oy Drives P. O. 3AFE64230247 REV C EN 21.abb.00381 Helsinki Finland Telephone +358 10 22 11 Fax +358 10 22 22681 Internet www. Box 184 FI .

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6 ABB drives Guide to harmonics with AC drives .Technical guide No.

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Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives

ABB drives
Guide to harmonics with AC drives

Technical guide No. 6

6

3AFE64292714 REV C EN EFFECTIVE: 21.7.2008

© Copyright 2008 ABB. All rights reserved.

Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives

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Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives

Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ........................................................................ 7 General ........................................................................................................ 7 Chapter 2 - Basics of the harmonics phenomena.................................. 8 Chapter 3 - Harmonic distortion sources and effects.......................... 10 Chapter 4 - Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software .............................................................................. .................11 4.1 Circuit diagram for the calculation example........................................... 11 4.2 Input data for motor load ...................................................................... 11 4.3 Motor selection .................................................................................... 12 4.4 Inverter selection .................................................................................. 12 4.5 Inverter supply unit data ....................................................................... 12 4.6 Network and Transformer data input..................................................... 13 4.7 Calculated harmonic current and voltage .............................................. 13 4.8 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form .................................... 13 4.9 Part of the printed report ...................................................................... 14 Chapter 5 - Standards for harmonic limits .......................................... 15 5.1 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems........................................................................ ..............................15 5.2 IEC1000-2-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .............................. 16 5.3 IEC1000-2-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .............................. 16 5.4 IEC1000-3-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)............................... 16 5.5 IEC1000-3-4, ...................................................................................... 16 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .......................................................... 16 5.6 IEEE519, IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems .............................................. 17 Chapter 6 - Evaluating harmonics ....................................................... 19 Chapter 7 - How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system........................................................ .................20 7.1 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics ......................... 20 7.2 Table: List of the different factors and their effects ................................ 21 7.3 Using 6-pulse diode rectifier ................................................................. 21 7.4 Using 12-pulse or 24-pulse diode rectifier ............................................ 22 7.5 Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier ............................................... 22 7.6 Using IGBT bridge ................................................................................ 23 7.7 Using a larger DC or AC inductor ......................................................... 24

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Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives

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Chapter 8 - Other methods for harmonics reduction .......................... 27 8.1 Tuned single arm passive filter ............................................................. 27 8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter .......................................................... 27 8.3 External active filter .............................................................................. 28 Chapter 9 - Summary of harmonics attenuation.................................. 30 9.1 6-pulse rectifier without inductor........................................................... 30 9.2 6-pulse rectifier with inductor................................................................ 30 9.3 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer ........................................... 30 9.4 12-pulse with double wound transformer ............................................. 30 9.5 24-pulse rectifier with 2 3-winding transformers.................................... 31 9.6 Active IGBT rectifier .............................................................................. 31 Chapter 10 - Definitions ...................................................................... 32 Index ....................................................................................................... 34

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Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives

Chapter 1 - Introduction
General
This guide continues ABB’s technical guide series, describing harmonic distortion, its sources and effects, and also distortion calculation and evaluation. Special attention has been given to the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives.

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Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives

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Chapter 2 - Basics of the harmonics phenomena
Harmonic currents and voltages are created by non-linear loads connected on the power distribution system. Harmonic distortion is a form of pollution in the electric plant that can cause problems if the sum of the harmonic currents increases above certain limits. All power electronic converters used in different types of electronic systems can increase harmonic disturbances by injecting harmonic currents directly into the grid. Figure 2.1 shows how the current harmonics (ih) in the input current (is) of a power electronic converter affect the supply voltage (ut).
is(t) = i1(t) + Σ ih(t) Converter load u(t) Rs Ls Point of Common Coupling (PCC) Other loads Mains Transformer

Figure 2.1 Plant with converter load, mains transformer and other loads.

The line current of a 3-phase, 6-pulse rectifier can be calculated from the direct output current by using the following formula.
, where the total RMS current and direct current output from the rectifier. (valid for ideal filtered DC current)

The fundamental current is then

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Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives

Basics of the harmonics phenomena

In a theoretical case where output current can be estimated as clean DC current, the harmonic current frequencies of a 6-pulse three phase rectifier are n times the fundamental frequency (50 or 60 Hz). The information given below is valid in the case when the line inductance is insignificant compared to the DC reactor inductance. The line current is then rectangular with 120° blocks. The order numbers n are calculated from the formula below:
where The rms values of the harmonic components are:

and the harmonic components are as shown in Figure 2.2.
HarmonicCurrent (%)

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Order of harmonic component Figure 2.2 The harmonic content in a theoretical rectangular current of a 6-pulse rectifier.

The principle of how the harmonic components are added to the fundamental current is shown in figure 2.3, where only the 5th harmonic is shown.

Figure 2.3 The total current as the sum of the fundamental and 5th harmonic.

Technical guide No. 6 - Guide to harmonics with AC drives

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6 . If the cause of the above mentioned symptoms is not known. variable speed drives. This Technical guide has been published to help customers to understand the possible harmonic problems and make sure the harmonic distortion levels are not excessive. computers may fail and metering can give false readings. circuit breakers can trip. electronic lighting.Harmonic distortion sources and effects Common non-linear loads include motor starters. computers and other electronic devices. then there is cause to investigate the harmonic distortion of the electricity distribution at the plant. cables.Guide to harmonics with AC drives . motors. generators and capacitors connected to the same power supply with the devices generating the harmonics.Chapter 3 . The effects are likely to show up in the customer’s plant before they show on the utility system. Electronic displays and lighting may flicker. welding supplies and uninterrupted power supplies. 10 Technical guide No. The effects of harmonics can be overheating of transformers.

6 .Guide to harmonics with AC drives 11 .2.2 Input data for motor load Motor load Load type Overload type Const.1. Technical guide No.5% Cable: Length = 60 m R = 0.Chapter 4 . Network supplying a frequency converter in the middle and its equivalent diagram on the right. 4.007 mΩ/m Motor: P = 100 kW IN = 200 A Xk S’k Xt X’k I 6 Figure 4. The data for this example is on the left.1 Circuit diagram for the calculation example Supply Sk = 150 MVA U = 22 kV Transformer: S = 400 kVA U1 = 22 kV U2 = 415 V z = 4. The circuit diagrams in figure 4.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software The harmonic currents cause a distortion of the line voltage. show the network supplying the converter and the other essential parts of the installation. In principle the voltage harmonics can be calculated at any point of the network if the harmonic currents and the corresponding source impedance are known. The most important motor load data for harmonics calculation is the base power in kW. 4.1. ABB DriveSize software is used for the calculation. torque/power One overload min Speed [rpm] Power [kW] Overload [%] 0 0 base 1450 100 100 max 1500 100 100 Overload time [s] 60 every [s] 600 Figure 4.

3 Motor selection Selected motor data M2BA 315 SMC 6 Selection Voltage [V] Connection Frequency [Hz] Power [kW] Poles Speed [rpm] DriveSize 415 D 50 110 6 992 Max mech.6 Efficiency [%] Insulation class F Figure 4. The software makes the motor selection for the defined load. The supply unit data is defined by DriveSize according to the inverter type selected.Guide to harmonics with AC drives .5.4 Inverter selection Selected inverter data ACS607-0140-3 Selection Selection method Voltage [V] Drive power [kVA] Pn [kW] Normal Icont [A] Normal Imax [A] User Current (normal) 400 140 110 216 238 90 Phd [kW] Heavyduty Icont [A] 178 Heavyduty Imax [A] 267 6 Pulse R8 Frame type P&F 12Nsq [A] 260 Figure 4. The inverter selection is based on the previous motor selection and here also the user has an option to select the inverter manually. If required there is an option to select a different motor than that selected by the DriveSize. 4.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software 4.5 Inverter supply unit data Supply unit data Pulse # Lv [μH] Cdc [mF] Udc [V] Idc [A] 6 110 4.2 Power factor 0. 12 Technical guide No. 6 . 3.82 95.4.95 560 191 Figure 4.speed [rpm] 2300 Current [A] 197 Torque [Nm] 1060 T max/Tn 3. 4.

1% 0. Different kinds of circuit models are used. 4.2%/ 0.6% 4.3 Figure 4. 6 . The harmonics are calculated by making discrete Fourier transformation to the simulated phase current of the incoming unit.2 0.2 0. The results of calculations can be shown in table form as above or as a graph. Technical guide No.6.6% Voltage [V] 21996.0% 41.0 In/I1 100.0 0.8% 0.3 8.1 0.1 11.2% 0.7.5% n 1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 f [Hz] 50 250 350 550 650 850 950 1150 1250 1450 1550 1750 1850 Current [A] 2.8 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form 50 40 30 [%] 20 10 0 250 350 550 650 850 950 1150 1250 1450 1550 Frequency [Hz] Figure 4.7% 2.1 0.2% 19.1 0.5 5.8.2%/ 15.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 Transformer Zk [%] 3.6 0.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software 4.1 8.6% 5. 12 and 24 pulse connections. For standard ABB transformers the data is shown automatically.2% 2.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 1750 1850 13 .7 3.9 21.5% 8.2 5.7 11.5% 0.2 0. 6 4.8 Supply cable type Cable quantity Cable lenght [m] Cable 3 60 Busbar Impedance [μΩ] 70 Figure 4. The network and transformer data input is given here.3 3.4% 1.7 Calculated harmonic current and voltage THD Current Voltage Result IEEE Calc IEEE Limit Data Primary side Secondary Show Mode Table Graph 47.0 0.7 15.3% 1.2% 0.6 Network and Transformer data input Network and Transformer data Primary voltage [V] Frequency [Hz] Network Sk [MVA] 22000 50 150 unknow Secondary voltage [V] 415 Transformer Sn [kVA] 400 Transformer Pk [kW] 3.8 1. one for SingleDrive with AC inductors and one for diode and thyristor supply with DC inductors. There are also models for 6.6 32.0 3.

Guide to harmonics with AC drives . power factor Unmax mot. 14 Technical guide No.9 Part of the printed report Network check ACS607-0140-3 Network and Transformer data Normal voltage [V] Frequency [Hz] Network Sk [MVA] Transformer Sn [kVA] Transformer Pk [kW] Transformer Zk [%] Supply cable type Cable quantity Cable lenght 22000 (primary side) 50 150 400 3. The input data and calculated results can be printed out as a report.0 3.2% THD Voltage calc/limit 0. 0.999 0.9.95 560 191 Result Cosfii Tot.8 Cable 3 60 Supply unit data Pulse # Lv [μH] Cdc [mF] Udc [V] Idc [A] 6 110 4.2%/5.0% Figure 4.2%/15.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software 4. 6 . which is partly shown here.1% THD Current 0.0% 0.90 98% THD Current THD Voltage IEEE 519 limits 47.

6 Technical guide No. The directives state the principles that must be followed. The use of the future IEC1000-3-4 is recommended for equipment with rated current > 16 A. or on request. In a low voltage public supply network. under rated conditions. The internal impedance of the network shall be assumed to be a pure reactance. shall be used. which considers the total installation. 6 .1 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems Part 3: EMC product standard including specific test methods The countries of the European Economic Area (EEA) have agreed on common minimum regulatory requirements in order to ensure the free movement of products within the EEA. For these standard calculations. 5. Figure 5. which the supply can deliver at any time. The method for calculating the harmonics of the total installation is agreed and the limits for either the voltage distortion or the total harmonic current emission are agreed on. This approach is based on the agreed power.1 is shown as an example for harmonic distortion limits. as a percentage of the rated fundamental current on the power port. The CE marking indicates that the product works in conformity with the directives that are valid for the product.Standards for harmonic limits The most common international and national standards setting limits on harmonics are described below. that the manufacturer shall provide in the documentation of the PDS. The current THD (orders up to and including 40). The referenced values shall be calculated for each order at least up to the 25th. Meeting the requirements of this standard.Chapter 5 . the current harmonic level. a reasonable economical approach. EN61800-3 is the EMC product standard of adjustable speed electrical power drive systems (PDS). Standards specify the requirements that must be met. EN61800-3 states. the PDS shall be assumed to be connected to a PC with Rsc = 250 and with initial voltage distortion less than 1%.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 15 . the limits and requirements of IEC1000-3-2 apply for equipment with rated current ≤ 16 A. is the minimum condition for free trade of power electronics converters inside the EEA. and its high-frequency component PHD (orders from 14 to 40 inclusive) shall be evaluated. The compatibility limits given in IEC1000-2-4 may be used as the limits of voltage distortion. If PDS is used in an industrial installation.

4 IEC1000-3-2. 6 . Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) This standard has been published as a Type II Technical report. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 3: Limits . The two main reasons for the revision are the need for the standard to cover also the voltage below 230 V and the difficulties and contradictions in applying the categorisation of the equipment given in the standard. voltage fluctuations. voltage dips and short interruptions voltage inbalance and so on. It covers low-voltage networks as well as medium voltage supplies excluding the networks for ships. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 2: Environment . The disturbance phenomena include harmonics.3 IEC1000-2-4.Section 2: Compatibility levels for low frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage power supply systems This standard sets the compatibility limits for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage power supply systems.Guide to harmonics with AC drives . Work is going on to convert it into a standard. but it gives compatibility levels for industrial and non-public networks.Section 4: Compatibility levels in industrial plants for low frequency conducted disturbances IEC1000-2-4 is similar to IEC1000-2-2. 5. aircraft. Basically this standard sets the design criteria for the equipment manufacturer. 5.Standards for harmonic limits 5.Section 2: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment current <16 A per phase) This standard deals with the harmonic current emission limits of individual equipment connected to public networks. It applies to public 16 Technical guide No. It gives the harmonic current emission limits for individual equipment having a rated current of more than 16 A up to 75 A.5 IEC1000-3-4. The date of implementation of this standard is January 1st 2001. inter-harmonics. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 2: Environment . offshore platforms and railways. IEC1000-2-2 is in line with the limits set in EN50160 for the quality of the voltage the utility owner must provide at the customer’s supply-terminals. but there is extensive work going on at the moment to revise the standard before this date.2 IEC1000-2-2. 5. and amounts to the minimum immunity requirements of the equipment.

97 1.06 0. will contain different limits for single and three-phase equipment.3 MW) 15 12 12 8 20 14 12 8 30 18 13 8 40 25 15 10 50 35 20 15 60 40 25 18 6 11 kV Net (100 MVA Assumed) # 1.0 MW) # MAXIMUM LOAD 12p 6p STAGE 2 LIMITS % I1 Min’m Rsce 66 120 175 250 I5 I7 I11 I13 6 12 10 9 2. stage 3 applies in any case. It is very probable that the structure of the standard will remain as it is.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 17 .50 MW (5.36 1. If the rated current is above 75 A.1 Limits on harmonics in the proposed EN61000-3-4. but the version having the status of actual standard. Stage 2 gives individual harmonic current limits as well as THD and its weighted high frequency counterpart PWHD.66 MW # 2.40 MW # 1. The standard gives three different stages for connection procedures of the equipment. This standard is also recognised as American National Standard and it is widely used in the USA.0 MW) (5. Meeting the individual harmonic limits of stage 1 allows the connection of the equipment at any point in the supply system. The third stage of connection is based on an agreement between the user and the supply authority. but it may justly be questioned whether single and three-phase equipment should have different limits in stage 2. 132 kV Net (600 MVA Assumed) # 6.02 VOLTAGE %THD ** 33 kV Net (400 MVA Assumed) Typical Values # 4. The limits are classified and tabulated by the short circuit ratio. The structure of this standard is generally seen to be good.25 1. 5. Technical guide No.69 1.91 PCC **Contribution to existing THD level at selected PCC Figure 5.11 MW # 415 kW (830 kW) (830 kW) 350 450 400 kV Net (26 MVA Assumed) # 760 kW (215 kW) # 108 kW (215 kW) >600 <=0. IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems The philosophy of developing harmonic limits in this recommended practice is to limit the harmonic injection from individual customers so that they will not cause unacceptable voltage distortion levels for normal system characteristics and to limit overall harmonic distortion of the system voltage supplied by the utility. based on the agreed active power of the consumer’s installation.Standards for harmonic limits networks having nominal voltages from 230 V single phase to 600 V three phase. 6 . especially in the municipal public works market.65 MW (3.3 MW) (3.6 IEEE519.

Total harmonic distortion is called total demand distortion and also it should be calculated up to infinity. The customers are categorised by the ratio of available short circuit current (Isc) to their maximum demand load current (IL) at the point of common coupling.3 of the standard is sometimes misinterpreted to give limits for the harmonic emissions of a single apparatus by using Rsc of the equipment instead of Isc/IL of the whole installation. the PCC is clearly defined as the point between the non-linear load and other loads. Within an industrial plant. 18 Technical guide No. since the ratio of the short circuit current to the total demand load current of an installation should always be used. The allowed individual harmonic currents and total harmonic distortion are tabulated by the ratio of available short circuit current to the total demand load current (Isc/IL) at the point of common coupling. The total demand load current is the sum of both linear and non-linear loads. Many authors limit the calculation of both the individual components and TDD to 50.Standards for harmonic limits The standard does not give limits for individual equipment. but for individual customers. 6 . The limits of the table should not be used this way. The limits are as a percentage of IL for all odd and even harmonics from 2 to infinity. The table 10.Guide to harmonics with AC drives .

The procedure is shown in the flowchart in figure 6. 6 .Guide to harmonics with AC drives 19 .1.Chapter 6 . UTILITY Choose PCC CUSTOMER Calculate short circuit capacity (SSC. analysis) Design power factor correction and/or harmonic control equipment (include resonance concerns) 6 Verification measurements and calculations (if necessary) Figure 6.Evaluating harmonics The “Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power Systems” P519A/D6 Jan 1999 introduces some general rules for evaluating harmonic limits at an industrial facility. ISC) Yes Is power factor correction existing or planned? No Calculate average maximum demand load current (IL) Calculate short circuit ratio (SCR=(ISC /IL) Yes Stage 1: Is detailed evaluation necessary? No Estimate weighted disturbing power (SDW) or% non-linear load No Stage 2: Does facility meet harmonic limits? Yes Characterise harmonic levels (measurements.1 Evaluation of harmonic distortion. Technical guide No.

The current harmonics depend on the drive construction and the voltage harmonics are the current harmonics multiplied by the supply impedances.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system 7.1 shows the factors in the AC drive system which have some influence on harmonics. to use 12 or more pulse drive. to use a controlled rectifier or to improve the internal filtering in the drive.1 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics Harmonics reduction can be done either by structural modifications in the drive system or by using external filtering.Guide to harmonics with AC drives .Chapter 7 . LINE Short circuit power MVA TRANSFORMER Rated power and impedance Alternative Type of rectifier MVA % 6-p.1 Drive system features affecting harmonics 20 Technical guide No.CSI Motor Rated power and load kW % LOAD Figure 7. INVERTER: AC DRIVE Reactor inductance mH Inverter Type of inverter PWM. The structural modifications can be to strengthen the supply. Figure 7. 24-p DIODE. THYRISTOR. 12-p. 6 .

Often some harmonics filtering is needed.2 Harmonics in line current with different rectifier constructions. 11th especially with small smoothing inductance. 6 6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier Current waveform Current waveform Current waveform Figure 7.2. The current form is shown in figure 7. It consists of six uncontrollable rectifiers or diodes and an inductor. which together with a DCcapacitor forms a low-pass filter for smoothing the DC-current. 7th. If the major part of the load consists of converters with a 6-pulse rectifier.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 21 . The inductor can be on the DC. the supply transformer needs to be oversized and meeting the requirements in standards may be difficult.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system 7. The 6-pulse rectifier is simple and cheap but it generates a high amount of low order harmonics 5th.2 Table: List of the different factors and their effects The cause The larger the motor… The higher the motor load… The larger the DC or AC inductance… The higher the number of pulses in the rectifier… The larger the transformer… The lower the transformer impedance… The higher the short circuit capacity of supply… The effect the higher the current harmonics the higher the current harmonics the lower the current harmonics the lower the current harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics 7.3 Using 6-pulse diode rectifier The connections for different rectifier solutions are shown in figure 7.2. The most common rectifier circuit in 3-phase AC drives is a 6-pulse diode bridge. Technical guide No.or AC-side or it can be left totally out. 6 .

3 Harmonic components with different rectifiers.winding transformers having 15° phase shift. 22 Technical guide No. Since a thyristor needs a triggering pulse for transition from nonconducting to conducting state. The major drawbacks are special transformers and a higher cost than with the 6-pulse rectifier. the phase angle at which the thyristor starts to conduct can be delayed. In I1 6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier Harmonic order Figure 7. 7. The principle of the 24-pulse rectifier is also shown in figure 7. The benefit with this arrangement is that in the supply side some of the harmonics are in opposite phase and thus eliminated.4 Using 12-pulse or 24-pulse diode rectifier The 12-pulse rectifier is formed by connecting two 6-pulse rectifiers in parallel to feed a common DC-bus. the DC-bus voltage goes negative. The transformer secondaries are in 30° phase shift. The input to the rectifiers is provided with one three-winding transformer. By delaying the firing angle over 90o. It has two 12-pulse rectifiers in parallel with two three. In the case of a high power single drive or large multidrive installation a 24-pulse system may be the most economical solution with lowest harmonic distortion. This allows regenerative flow of power from the DC-bus back to the power supply.5 Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier A phase controlled rectifier is accomplished by replacing the diodes in a 6-pulse rectifier with thyristors. In theory the harmonic component with the lowest frequency seen at the primary of the transformer is the 11th. The benefit is that practically all low frequency harmonics are eliminated but the drawback is the high cost.Guide to harmonics with AC drives .How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system 7.2. 6 .

. Supply type Current TDH (%) Voltage TDH (%) RSC=20 10 Voltage TDH (%) RSC=100 2 Current waveform 6-pulse rectifier 30 12-pulse rectifier 10 6 1. the total power factor with partial load is quite poor.2 6 4 8 1. Technical guide No.Nearly sinusoidal supply current with low harmonic content. 7.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 23 . Like a phase commutated rectifier. made of self commutated components. The poor power factor causes high apparent current and the absolute harmonic currents are higher than those with a diode rectifier. .8 IGBT supply unit Distortion is in% of RMS values Figure 7.Possibility to generate reactive power. 6 .How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Standard DC-bus and inverter configurations do not allow polarity change of the DC-voltage and it is more common to connect another thyristor bridge anti-parallel with the first one to allow the current polarity reversal. phase-controlled converters cause commutation notches in the utility voltage waveform. In addition to these problems.4 Distortion of different supply unit types. The current waveforms of phase controlled rectifiers are similar to those of the 6-pulse diode rectifier. Values may vary case by case. In this configuration the first bridge conducts in rectifying mode and the other in regenerating mode. . brings several benefits and opportunities compared to phase commutated ones. this hardware allows both rectification and regeneration.Safe function in case of mains supply disappearance.High dynamics of the drive control even in the field weakening range. The angular position of the notches varies along with the firing angle. but it makes it possible to control the DC-voltage level and displacement power factor separately regardless of the power flow direction.6 Using IGBT bridge Introducing a rectifier bridge. The main benefits are: . but since they draw power with an alternating displacement power factor.

Voltage boost capability.5 Harmonics in line current IGBT line generating unit. When comparing with figure 7. 6 . 7. In case of low supply voltage the DC voltage can be boosted to keep motor voltage higher than supply voltage. 24 Technical guide No. The effect of this can be seen from the curve forms in figure 7.Guide to harmonics with AC drives . or in several cases it has been omitted totally. The main drawback is the high cost coming from the IGBT bridge and extra filtering needed.5.6.3 we can see a clear difference.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Measured results for one drive is shown in figure 7.7 Using a larger DC or AC inductor The harmonics of a voltage source AC drive can be significantly reduced by connecting a large enough inductor in its AC input or DC bus. IGBT has very low harmonics at lower frequencies. Line generating unit 3~ In I1 Line generating unit Harmonic order Figure 7.6 The effect of the inductor on the line current. . but somewhat higher at higher frequencies. Current without inductor Current with inductor Figure 7. The trend has been to reduce the size of converter while the inductor size has been also reduced.

This can be seen in Figure 7.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system The chart in figure 7. Load 60 A. For the first 25 harmonic components the theoretical THD minimum is 29%. line fault level 150 MVA No inductor.8 THD voltage vs type of AC drive and transformer size. The voltage distortion with certain current distortion depends on the short circuit ratio Rsc of the supply. 6 . Transformer power 50-315 kVA.25 mH for a 100 kW motor.7 Harmonic current as function of DC inductance. 6-pulse Large inductor. The higher the ratio. This is 0. Technical guide No. 6-pulse 6 THD of voltage (%) Small inductor. the lower the voltage distortion. 6-pulse Large inductor.8. 12-pulse Short Circuit Ratio Figure 7. which gives a THD of about 45%. 50 Hz). That value is practically reached when the inductance is 100 mH divided by the motor kW or 1 mH for a 100 kW motor (415 V.7 shows the effect of the size of the DC inductor on the harmonics.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 25 . 50 Hz DC Inductance/mH = this figure/motor kW Figure 7. Harmonic current (pu) 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th THD 415 V. Practically sensible is about 25 mH divided by motor kW.

On the graph below right select first the motor kilowatt.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Figure 7. 26 Technical guide No. C = D.Guide to harmonics with AC drives . Drive A with large DC inductor has the lowest harmonic current distortion. then the transformer kVA and then move horizontally to the diagonal line where you move upwards and stop at the curve valid for your application. Then turn left to the y-axis and read the total harmonic voltage distortion.10.9 introduces a simple nomogram for estimation of harmonic voltages. ”THD = ca. Total Harminic Voltage Distortion No DC-Inductor. 11% with a “No Inductor Drive” Figure 7. Harmonic current with different DC-inductances. 12-pulse Supply transformer (kVA) TURN LEFT TURN UP START Motor kW Example: 45 kW Motor is connected to ”a 200 kVA transformer. 6 .10. drives with no inductor installed have the highest distortion. 6-pulse Input data to calculations: Rated motor for the dfrive Constant torque load Voltage 415 V Drive efficiency = 97% Supply Impedance = 10% of transformer impedance Large DCInductor. 3% with a “Large Inductor Drive” and ca. 6-pulse Small DCInductor. E = Large DC-Inductance Small DC-Inductance Without DC-Inductance Figure 7.9 Total harmonic distortion nomogram.6-pulse STOP TURN LEFT Large DCInductor. A= B. Results from laboratory tests with drive units from different manufacturers are shown in figure 7.

The principle of this filter is shown in figure 8. Technical guide No. There are two basic methods: passive and active filters. For systems that mostly supply an industrial load this would probably be the fifth harmonic.1. A tuned arm passive filter should be applied at the single lowest harmonic component where there is significant harmonic generation in the system. This filter has several arms tuned to two or more of the harmonic components which should be the lowest significant harmonic frequencies in the system. 6 Detuned .1 Tuned single arm passive filter The principle of a tuned arm passive filter is shown in figure 8. 8.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 27 . 6 .Single tuning frequency Above tuned frequency harmonics absorbed Below tuned frequency harmonics may be amplified Harmonic reduction limited by possible over compensation at the supply frequency and network itself Figure 8.Chapter 8 .1 Tuned singel arm passive filter 8.Other methods for harmonics reduction Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or as a total solution in a new plant.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter This kind of filter consists of an inductor in series with a capacitor bank and the best location for the passive filter is close to the harmonic generating loads. The multiple filter has better harmonic absorption than the one arm system. Above the tuned frequency the harmonics are absorbed but below that frequency they may be amplified.2. This solution is not normally used for new installations.

3 External active filter principle diagram.3. New power electronics technologies are resulting in products that can control harmonic distortion with active control. 28 Technical guide No. provide compensation for harmonic components on the utility system based on existing harmonic generation at any given moment in time.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter. These active filters. The active filter compensates the harmonics generated by nonlinear loads by generating the same harmonic components in opposite phase as shown in figure 8. They are relatively expensive compared to other methods. External active filters are most suited to multiple small drives.4. 8.3 External active filter A passive tuned filter introduces new resonances that can cause additional harmonic problems. The multiple arm passive filters are often used for large DC drive installations where a dedicated transformer is supplying the whole installation. see figure 8. 6 . Fundamental only Supply icompensation Active filter idistortion Load Current waveforms Figure 8.Guide to harmonics with AC drives .Other methods for harmonics reduction Capacitive below tuned frequency/Inductive above Better harmonic absorption Design consideration to amplification harmonics by filter Limited by KVAr and network Figure 8.

4 External active filter waveforms and harmonics. 6 .Guide to harmonics with AC drives 29 .Other methods for harmonics reduction Waveforms Clean feeder current Harmonics Load current Active filter current Figure 8. 6 Technical guide No.

2% 13th 4.8% 11th 6.4% 19th 4.2 6-pulse rectifier with inductor Manufacturing cost 120%.7% 17th 1. The harmonic content is given with 100% load.1% 17th 6. They all have advantages and disadvantages and all of them show cost implications. the supply to the site and the standing distortion. Fundamental 5th 100% 11% 7th 5.3% 30 Technical guide No.6% 17th 4.7% 19th 4. The best solution will depend on the total loading.1% 9. The costs are valid for small drives. Fundamental 5th 100% 63% 7th 54% 11th 10% 13th 6.Guide to harmonics with AC drives .Summary of harmonics attenuation There are many options to attenuate harmonics either inside the drive system or externally.6% 7th 2. Fundamental 5th 100% 30% 7th 12% 11th 8.2% 19th 1.5% 13th 5. In the following tables different internal actions are compared to the basic system without inductor.1 6-pulse rectifier without inductor Manufacturing cost 100% Typical harmonic current components.8% 9. 6 . AC or DC choke added Typical harmonic current components.9% 13th 5.3 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer Manufacturing cost 200% Typical harmonic current components.2% 17th 1.4% 9.6% 11th 7. Fundamental 5th 100% 3.7% 19th 1.4 12-pulse with double wound transformer Manufacturing cost 210% Typical harmonic current components.Chapter 9 . For multidrive the 12-pulse solution is quite a lot cheaper. 9.

Summary of harmonics attenuation 9.7% 17th 1.6% 7th 3.1% 19th 2.2% 6 Technical guide No.0% 13th 0.7% 11th 1. Not significant if electrical braking is anyway needed.0% 7th 2.1% 17th 2.4% 19th 1. Fundamental 5th 100% 2.4% 9.0% 13th 0. 6 . Fundamental 5th 100% 4.4% 11th 3.6 Active IGBT rectifier Manufacturing cost 250%.5 24-pulse rectifier with 2 3-winding transformers Manufacturing cost 250% Typical harmonic current components.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 31 . Typical harmonic current components.

50 Hz or 60 Hz). THD: Total Harmonic Distortion in the input current is defined as: where I1 is the rms value of the fundamental frequency current. ∞. RMS-value of n:th harmonic component of line current. Integer n = 2. 3. 6 . Harmonic frequencies are defined as wn = n*ω1..Definitions S: P: Q: Apparent power Active power Reactive power Rsc: Short circuit ratio is defined as the short circuit power of the supply at PCC to the nominal apparent power of the equipment under consideration. Here is an example for the 25 lowest harmonic components with the theoretical values: PWHD: Partial weighted harmonic distortion is defined as: 32 Technical guide No.Guide to harmonics with AC drives . Impedance at frequency n*ω1. . Rsc = Ss / Sn.. The THD in voltage may be calculated in a similar way. ω1: n: In: Zn: Angular frequency of fundamental component ω1 = 2*π*f1. %Un: Harmonic voltage component as a percentage of fundamental (line) voltage. where f1 is fundamental frequency (eg.Chapter 10 .

PF: Power Factor defined as PF = P/S (power / volt-ampere) = I1 / Is * DPF (With sinusoidal current PF equals to DPF).Definitions PCC: Point of Common Coupling is defined in this text as such a point of utility supply which may be common to the equipment in question and other equipment. There are several definitions of PCC in different standards and even more interpretations of these definitions in literature. 6 Technical guide No.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 33 . DPF: Displacement Power Factor defined as cosφ1. 6 . The definition chosen here is seen as technically most sound. where φ1 is the phase angle between the fundamental frequency current drawn by the equipment and the supply voltage fundamental frequency component.

15. 18. 13 AC inductor 13. 10. 28. 12. 11. 32 American National Standard 17 anti-parallel 23 apparent power 32 attenuation 30. 26 inductor 13.Index Symbols 12-pulse rectifier 21. 31 metering 10 motor load 11. 17. 18. 27 frequency 9. 22. 20. 23. 14 distortion nomogram 26 DriveSize 11. 13. 21. 17. 32 low-pass filter 21 M mains transformer 8 Manufacturing cost 30. 10. 18. 33 power port 15 public supply 15 PWHD 17. 14. 17. 12. 24 converter load 8 D DC-capacitor 21 DC-current 21 displacement power factor 23. 11. 18. 28 non-linear load 8. 13. 13. 22. 30 6-pulse three phase rectifier 9 A ABB 7.Guide to harmonics with AC drives . 10. 24. 29 active power 17. 15. 15. 25. 12. 11. 11. 14. 28 N network 11. 19 CE marking 15 circuit breaker 10 common DC-bus 22 commutation notch 23 compatibility limit 15. 9. 32 harmonic limit 16. 32 I IGBT bridge 23. 14 E effect 7. 33 fundamental frequency 9. 28 inverter selection 12 Inverter supply unit data 12 L laboratory test 26 line current 8. 12. 32. 20. 22. 31 3-winding 31 5th harmonic 9 6-pulse rectifier 8. 13. 8. 24. 21 motor selection 12 motor starter 10 multiple arm passive filter 27. 27. 21. 21. 11. 21. 14. 13. 23. 15. 11. 27. 19. 27. 17. 31 C calculation 7. 22. 23 harmonic distortion 7. 27. 28 phase commutated rectifier 23 point of common coupling 18. 13. 9. 33 distortion calculation 7. 21. 21. 25. 32 Harmonic currents 8 harmonic currents 8. 17. 25. 22. 26. 28. 23. 30 24-pulse rectifier 21. 16. 16. 26. 18. 15. 14. 27. 25 Electromagnetic compatibility 16 electronic device 10 Electronic display 10 electronic lighting 10 EMC product standard 15 European Economic Area 15 external filtering 20 F filtering 20. 19 harmonics phenomena 8. 30 industrial installation 15 installation 11. 28. 21. 19 O overheating 10 P passive filter 27. 11. 22. 27. 18. 28. 24. 19. 14. 29 harmonic voltage 26. 33 power distribution 8 power drive system 15 power factor 12. 6 . 22. 9 harmonics reduction 20. 23. 16 computer 10 consumer’s installation 17 converter 8. 13. 24 active filter 27. 28. 32. 32 34 Technical guide No. 27. 24. 15. 33 H harmonic component 9. 24 inductance 9. 12.

24. 32 source 7. 11. 11. 16 S short circuit power 20. 23 total demand distortion 18 total harmonic distortion 18. 22. 24. 23. 23. 32 three-winding transformer 22 THYRISTOR 20 thyristor 13. 25. 22. 20. 16. 21. 21. 12. 11. 15. 30. 30. 26 supply authority 17 Supply cable 13. 14. 22. 26. 15. 26. 10. 33 Voltage boost 24 6 Technical guide No. 13. 26. 13. 18. 14 supply transformer 21 supply voltage 8. 17. 10. 32 rectifier 8. 24. 25. 15.Guide to harmonics with AC drives 35 . 20. 33 T TDD 18 THD 13. 22.Index R reactive power 23. 21. 25. 9. 23. 6 . 17. 14. 31 rectifying mode 23 regenerating mode 23 report 14. 25. 32 short circuit ratio 17. 17. 33 structural modification 20. 22. 32 transformer 8. 16. 28. 21. 19. 23. 24 source impedance 11 standard 13. 25. 31 tuned arm passive filter 27 V variable speed drives 10 voltage 8. 20. 14. 21. 32.

Guide to harmonics with AC drives . 6 .36 Technical guide No.

com/drives Ad agency PIIRTEK#12427 © Copyright 2008 ABB. Box 184 FI . . All rights reserved.ABB Oy Drives P.00381 Helsinki Finland Telephone +358 10 22 11 Fax +358 10 22 22681 Internet www. 3AFE64292714 REV C EN 21. O.7.abb.2008 Specifications subject to change without notice.

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Technical guide No. 7 ABB drives Dimensioning of a drive system .

2 Technical guide No. 7 .Dimensioning of a drive system .

ABB drives Dimensioning of a drive system Technical guide No. 7 .7. 7 7 3AFE64362569 REV C EN EFFECTIVE: 21. All rights reserved.Dimensioning of a drive system 3 .2008 © Copyright 2008 ABB. Technical guide No.

4 Technical guide No.Dimensioning of a drive system . 7 .

.....................................................................1 Fundamentals ........................... 35 9..........................................Load types ..........3 Motor power .................................Input transformer and rectifier .............Motor loadability ........................ 15 4................... 9 Chapter 4 ... 16 Chapter 5 ............... 26 8................................................................................................................ 31 Chapter 9 .................................General description of a dimensioning procedure................Selecting the frequency converter and motor .............................Index ........2 Gears and moment of inertia ...............................................................2 Constant torque application (Example) ........................1 Rectifiers ................2........Basic mechanical laws ........................................ 35 9..................... 29 8.... 38 7 Technical guide No................................................1 Rotational motion ..Drive system ...................1 Pump and fan application (Example) ...................................1 Constant flux range ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 ....................................................... 7 General ........an induction (AC) motor ............................ 11 4......... 14 4..............2............Contents Chapter 1 ......................................Introduction . 25 Chapter 8 ................................ 11 4....................................................................... 17 5.......................Dimensioning of a drive system 5 ............. 27 8......... 22 Chapter 7 .............. 17 5..................................................... 13 4...................2 Field weakening range ...........................3 Constant power application (Example) .....................................2 Motor current ................................................ 8 Chapter 3 ................2 Transformer .... 36 Chapter 10 ........................................................ 20 Chapter 6 .................. 7 Chapter 2 .......

7 .6 Technical guide No.Dimensioning of a drive system .

7 Technical guide No.Chapter 1 . environmental conditions.Dimensioning of a drive system 7 . motors and drives etc. driven machine. Time spent at the dimensioning phase can mean considerable cost savings. 7 .Introduction General Dimensioning of a drive system is a task where all factors have to be considered carefully. Dimensioning requires knowledge of the whole system including electric supply.

Chapter 2 - Drive system
A single AC drive system consists typically of an input transformer or an electric supply, frequency converter, an AC motor and load. Inside the single frequency converter there is a rectifier, DC-link and inverter unit.

Figure 2.1 A single frequency converter consists of 1) rectifier, 2) DC-link, 3) inverter unit and 4) electric supply.

In multi-drive systems a separate rectifier unit is commonly used. Inverter units are connected directly to a common DC-link.

Figure 2.2 A drive system which has 1) a separate supply section, 2) common DC-link, 3) drive sections and 4) electric supply.

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Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system

Chapter 3 - General description of a dimensioning procedure
This chapter gives the general steps for dimensioning the motor and the frequency converter. 1) First check the initial conditions. In order to select the correct frequency converter and motor, check the mains supply voltage level (380 V to 690 V) and frequency (50 Hz to 60 Hz). The mains supply network’s frequency doesn’t limit the speed range of the application. 2) Check the process requirements. Is there a need for starting torque? What is the speed range used? What type of load will there be? Some of the typical load types are described later. 3) Select the motor. An electrical motor should be seen as a source of torque. The motor must withstand process overloads and be able to produce a specified amount of torque. The motor’s thermal overloadability should not be exceeded. It is also necessary to leave a margin of around 30% for the motor’s maximum torque when considering the maximum available torque in the dimensioning phase. 4) Select the frequency converter. The frequency converter is selected according to the initial conditions and the selected motor. The frequency converter’s capability of producing the required current and power should be checked. Advantage should be taken of the frequency converter’s potential overloadability in case of a short term cyclical load.

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Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system

9

General description of a dimensioning procedure

Dimensioning phase

Network

Converter

Motor

Load

1) Check the initial conditions of the network and load

T

fN= 50 Hz, 60 Hz UN= 380...690 V

TS

Tload

n min

n max

2) Choose a motor according to: • Thermal loadability • Speed range • Maximum needed torque 3) Choose a frequency converter according to: • Load type • Continous and maximum current • Network conditions
Imax IN

T

TS Tload n min n max

n min

n max

Figure 3.1 General description of the dimensioning procedure.

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Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system

Chapter 4 - an induction (AC) motor
Induction motors are widely used in industry. In this chapter some of the basic features are described.

4.1 Fundamentals
An induction motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Converting the energy is based on electromagnetic induction. Because of the induction phenomenon the induction motor has a slip. The slip is often defined at the motor’s nominal point (frequency ( fn ), speed ( nn ), torque ( Tn ), voltage ( Un ), current ( In ) and power ( Pn )). At the nominal point the slip is nominal: (4.1) where ns is the synchronous speed:

(4.2) When a motor is connected to a supply with constant voltage and frequency it has a torque curve as follows:

7

Figure 4.1 Typical torque/speed curve of an induction motor when connected to the network supply (D.O.L., Direct-On-Line). In the picture a) is the locked rotor torque, b) is the pull-up torque, c) is the maximum motor torque, Tmax and d) is the nominal point of the motor.

Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system

11

An induction (AC) motor

A standard induction motor’s maximum torque ( Tmax, also called pull-out torque and breakdown torque) is typically 2-3 times the nominal torque. The maximum torque is available with slip smax which is greater than the nominal slip. In order to use an induction motor efficiently the motor slip should be in the range - smax ... smax. This can be achieved by controlling voltage and frequency. Controlling can be done with a frequency converter.
Torque

Speed

Figure 4.2 Torque/speed curves of an induction motor fed by a frequency converter. Tmax is available for short term overloads below the field weakening point. Frequency converters, however, typically limit the maximum available torque to 70% of Tmax.

The frequency range below the nominal frequency is called a constant flux range. Above the nominal frequency/speed the motor operates in the field weakening range. In the field weakening range the motor can operate on constant power which is why the field weakening range is sometimes also called the constant power range. The maximum torque of an induction motor is proportional to the square of the magnetic flux ( Tmax ~ ψ 2 ). This means that the maximum torque is approximately a constant at the constant flux range. Above the field weakening point the maximum torque decrease is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency ( Tmax ~ ).

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Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system

An induction (AC) motor

Tmax

Flux

Voltage

Constant flux range

Speed

Field weekening range

Figure 4.3 Maximum torque, voltage and flux as a function of the relative speed.

4.2 Motor current
An induction motor current has two components: reactive current ( isd ) and active current ( isq ). The reactive current component includes the magnetizing current ( imagn ) whereas the active current is the torque producing current component. The reactive and active current components are perpendicular to each other. The magnetizing current ( imagn ) remains approximately constant in the constant flux range (below the field weakening point). In the field weakening range the magnetizing current decrease is proportional to speed. A quite good estimate for the magnetizing current in the constant flux range is the reactive ( isd ) current at the motor nominal point.

7

Figure 4.4 Stator current ( is ) consists of reactive current ( isd ) and active current ( isq ) components which are perpendicular to each other. Stator flux is denoted as ψs.

Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system

13

An induction (AC) motor

4.2.1 Constant flux range Below the field weakening point the current components can be approximated as follows:

(4.3)

(4.4) The total motor current is:

(4.5) It can be seen that with zero motor torque the active current component is zero. With higher torque values motor current becomes quite proportional to the torque. A good approximation for total motor current is: , when 0.8 * Tn ≤ Tload ≤ 0.7 * Tmax (4.6)

Example 4.1: A 15 kW motor’s nominal current is 32 A and power factor is 0.83. What is the motor’s approximate magnetizing current at the nominal point? What is the total approximate current with 120% torque below the field weakening point. Solution 4.1: At the nominal point the estimate for the magnetizing current is:

The approximate formula for total motor current with 120% torque gives:

The approximate formula was used because torque fulfilled the condition 0.8 * Tn ≤ Tload ≤ 0.7 * Tmax

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Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system

An induction (AC) motor

4.2.2 Field weakening range Above the field weakening point the current components also depend on speed.

(4.7) (4.8) Total motor current is:

(4.9) The motor current can be approximated quite accurately within a certain operating region. The motor current becomes proportional to relative power. An approximation formula for current is:

(4.10) Approximation can be used when:

(4.11) and (4.12) In the field weakening range the additional current needed in order to maintain a certain torque level is proportional to relative speed. Example 4.2: The motor’s nominal current is 71 A. How much current is needed to maintain the 100% torque level at 1.2 times nominal speed (Tmax = 3 * Tn). Solution 4.2: The current can be calculated by using the approximation formula:

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Technical guide No. 7 - Dimensioning of a drive system

15

4: What is the nominal efficiency of a 37 kW (Pn = 37 kW.4: The nominal efficiency is: 16 Technical guide No. 1 rpm = rad/s). the following formula can be used: (4. Un =380 V.An induction (AC) motor 4.13) Because motor power is most often given in kilowatts (1 kW = 1000 W) and speed in rpm revolutions per minute.3 Motor power The motor’s mechanical (output) power can be calculated from speed and torque using the formula: (4. 7 . current and power factor: (4.15) The motor’s efficiency is the output power divided by the input power: (4.Dimensioning of a drive system . What is the nominal torque of the motor? Solution 4.14) The motor’s input power can be calculated from the voltage.3: The motor nominal power is 15 kW and the nominal speed is 1480 rpm.3: The motor’s nominal torque is calculated as follows: Example 4. In =71 A and cos(ϕn) = 0.85) motor? Solution 4.16) Example 4.

5) If the moment of inertia varies and at the same time the motor is accelerating the dynamic torque component can be calculated using a certain discrete sampling interval. The dynamic torque component caused by acceleration/deceleration of a constant moment of inertia (motor’s speed is changed by Δn [rpm] in time Δt [s]. motor torque is different from Tload .1) In the above equation it is assumed that both the frequency and the moment of inertia change. From the thermal dimensioning point of view it is however often enough to take into account the average moment of inertia during acceleration. Technical guide No. Motor torque can be considered as consisting of a dynamic and a load component: (5.Dimensioning of a drive system 17 .4) The dynamic torque component caused by a variable moment of inertia at constant speed n[rpm] is: (5. inertia and the load itself.Chapter 5 . 7 . J is constant) is: 7 (5.Basic mechanical laws 5.1 Rotational motion One of the basic equations of an induction motor describes the relation between moment of inertia ( J [kgm2]). When the motor speed changes.3) If the speed and moment of inertia are constants the dynamic component ( Tdyn ) is zero. The load consists of friction.2) Torque Tload represents the load of the motor. The formula is however often given so that the moment of inertia is assumed to be constant: (5. angular velocity ( ω [rad/s]) and torque ( T [Nm]). The equation is as follows: (5.

2: Accelerating of a fan to nominal speed is done with nominal torque. Following equation holds: Time to decelerate from 1000 rpm to 0 rpm: Example 5. is accelerated from a speed of 500 rpm to 1000 rpm in 10 seconds. Motor nominal power is 200 kW and nominal speed is 991 rpm.Basic mechanical laws Example 5. The fan’s moment of inertia is 1200 kgm2 and the motor’s moment of inertia is 11 kgm2.Dimensioning of a drive system . The dynamic torque component needed for acceleration is: Total torque during acceleration is: If the motor’s electric supply is switched off at 1000 rpm the motor decelerates because of the constant load torque (50 Nm). 7 . 18 Technical guide No. 3 kgm2.1: The total moment of inertia.1. The load characteristics of the fan Tload is shown in figure 5.1: The total moment of inertia is constant. What is the total torque needed when the constant load torque is 50 Nm? How fast will the motor decelerate to 0 rpm speed if the motor’s electric supply is switched off? Solution 5. At nominal speed torque is 87%.

Dimensioning of a drive system 19 . The time to accelerate the motor (fan) with nominal torque can be calculated with formula: 7 Technical guide No. Speed and torque are shown using relative values. This is quite acceptable because the quadratic behaviour is approximated to be linear in the sector. Torque for each sector is taken from the middle point of the sector.2: Motor nominal torque is: The starting time is calculated by dividing the speed range into five sectors.1 Torque characteristics of a fan.Basic mechanical laws Torque Speed Figure 5. In each sector (198. Calculate approximate starting time from zero speed to nominal speed.2 rpm) torque is assumed to be constant. 7 . Solution 5.

2-396.4-594.4 rpm 396. 5. 20 Technical guide No.6) (5.2 ): (5. Gear ratio is n1:n2.Dimensioning of a drive system .6 rpm 594. Gears are reduced from load side to motor side with following equations (see also figure 5. 7 .8 rpm 792.6-792.8-991 rpm The total starting time 0-991 rpm is approximately 112 seconds.2 Gears and moment of inertia Gears are typical in drive systems.Basic mechanical laws Acceleration times for different speed sections are: 0-198.8) Direction of energy Figure 5.2 rpm 198.2 A gear with efficiency η. When calculating the motor