Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Virtual Server Administration

Linux Virtual Server (LVS) for Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Virtual Server Administration

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Virtual Server Administration Linux Virtual Server (LVS) for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Edition 5

Copyright © 2009 Red Hat, Inc. The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version. Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries. Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. XFS® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. MySQL® is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 1801 Varsity Drive Raleigh, NC 27606-2072 USA Phone: +1 919 754 3700 Phone: 888 733 4281 Fax: +1 919 754 3701

Building a Linux Virtual Server (LVS) system offers highly-available and scalable solution for production services using specialized routing and load-balancing techniques configured through the PIRANHA. This book discusses the configuration of high-performance systems and services with Red Hat Enterprise Linux and LVS for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.

Introduction v 1. Document Conventions ................................................................................................... vi 1.1. Typographic Conventions ..................................................................................... vi 1.2. Pull-quote Conventions ........................................................................................ vii 1.3. Notes and Warnings ........................................................................................... viii 2. Feedback ..................................................................................................................... viii 1. Linux Virtual Server Overview 1 1.1. A Basic LVS Configuration ............................................................................................ 1 1.1.1. Data Replication and Data Sharing Between Real Servers ................................... 3 1.2. A Three-Tier LVS Configuration ..................................................................................... 3 1.3. LVS Scheduling Overview ............................................................................................. 4 1.3.1. Scheduling Algorithms ....................................................................................... 5 1.3.2. Server Weight and Scheduling ........................................................................... 6 1.4. Routing Methods .......................................................................................................... 6 1.4.1. NAT Routing ..................................................................................................... 7 1.4.2. Direct Routing ................................................................................................... 7 1.5. Persistence and Firewall Marks ..................................................................................... 9 1.5.1. Persistence ....................................................................................................... 9 1.5.2. Firewall Marks ................................................................................................... 9 1.6. LVS — A Block Diagram ............................................................................................ 10 1.6.1. LVS Components ............................................................................................. 11 2. Initial LVS Configuration 2.1. Configuring Services on the LVS Routers .................................................................... 2.2. Setting a Password for the Piranha Configuration Tool .............................................. 2.3. Starting the Piranha Configuration Tool Service ......................................................... 2.3.1. Configuring the Piranha Configuration Tool Web Server Port ........................... 2.4. Limiting Access To the Piranha Configuration Tool .................................................... 2.5. Turning on Packet Forwarding .................................................................................... 2.6. Configuring Services on the Real Servers .................................................................... 3. Setting Up LVS 3.1. The NAT LVS Network ................................................................................................ 3.1.1. Configuring Network Interfaces for LVS with NAT ............................................... 3.1.2. Routing on the Real Servers ............................................................................ 3.1.3. Enabling NAT Routing on the LVS Routers ........................................................ 3.2. LVS via Direct Routing ............................................................................................... 3.2.1. Direct Routing and arptables_jf .................................................................. 3.2.2. Direct Routing and iptables .......................................................................... 3.3. Putting the Configuration Together ............................................................................... 3.3.1. General LVS Networking Tips ........................................................................... 3.4. Multi-port Services and LVS ........................................................................................ 3.4.1. Assigning Firewall Marks .................................................................................. 3.5. Configuring FTP ......................................................................................................... 3.5.1. How FTP Works .............................................................................................. 3.5.2. How This Affects LVS Routing .......................................................................... 3.5.3. Creating Network Packet Filter Rules ................................................................ 3.6. Saving Network Packet Filter Settings ......................................................................... 4. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool 4.1. Necessary Software ................................................................................................... 4.2. Logging Into the Piranha Configuration Tool .............................................................. 4.3. CONTROL/MONITORING ........................................................................................... 4.4. GLOBAL SETTINGS .................................................................................................. 4.5. REDUNDANCY .......................................................................................................... 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 27 29 29 29 30 31 33 iii

................. 4..1.....2................................................. 4.... Synchronizing lvs........... EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS Subsection ............................................... Using LVS with Red Hat Cluster B..................... Synchronizing sysctl .............6............. 4....... The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection .............................................................. 4...6........................................................................... A.................. Revision History Index 35 36 38 41 43 43 44 44 44 47 49 51 iv ... REAL SERVER Subsection .. VIRTUAL SERVERS .....................................2............ 4.....................3......... Starting LVS .. Synchronizing Configuration Files ....................................................................7............... 4..Virtual Server Administration ... Synchronizing Network Packet Filtering Rules ..... 4...........................................3............7........... 4..7.6................

refer to the following resources: • Red Hat Cluster Suite Overview — Provides a high level overview of the Red Hat Cluster Suite. The audience of this document should have advanced working knowledge of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and understand the concepts of clusters. Setting Up LVS • Chapter 4. Initial LVS Configuration • Chapter 3. v . and maintaining Red Hat GFS (Red Hat Global File System). • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide — Provides information regarding the deployment. configuring. and maintaining Red Hat GFS2 (Red Hat Global File System 2). Information about that is in a separate document. This document does not include information about installing. • Global File System: Configuration and Administration — Provides information about installing. Using LVS with Red Hat Cluster For more information about Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. including information on running LVM in a clustered environment. LVS provides load balancing through specialized routing techniques that dispatch traffic to a pool of servers. • Global File System 2: Configuration and Administration — Provides information about installing. configuration and administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. • Red Hat Cluster Suite Release Notes — Provides information about the current release of Red Hat Cluster Suite. • Configuring and Managing a Red Hat Cluster — Provides information about installing. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool • Appendix A. and managing Red Hat Virtual Linux Server (LVS) components. For more information about Red Hat Cluster Suite for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.Introduction This document provides information about installing. and managing Red Hat Cluster software. and server computing. configuring. configuring and managing Red Hat Cluster components. storage. configuring. This document is organized as follows: • Chapter 1. • Using GNBD with Global File System — Provides an overview on using Global Network Block Device (GNBD) with Red Hat GFS. • Using Device-Mapper Multipath — Provides information about using the Device-Mapper Multipath feature of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. configuring. refer to the following resources: • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide — Provides information regarding installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. • Logical Volume Manager Administration — Provides a description of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM). Linux Virtual Server Overview • Chapter 2.

enter the cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command. in mono-spaced bold. In PDF and paper editions. These conventions. this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. file names and paths. and dir for vi . For example: File-related classes include filesystem for file systems. labeled Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later includes the Liberation Fonts set by default. methods. dialog box text. variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above. The second highlights two key combinations (each a set of three keycaps with each set pressed simultaneously). Document Conventions This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information. In the Buttons tab. 1 1.1. For example: To see the contents of the file my_next_bestselling_novel in your current working directory. alternative but equivalent typefaces are displayed. PDF. are as follows. class names. Each class has its own associated set of permissions. menu titles and sub-menu titles. Mono-spaced Bold Used to highlight system input. For example: Choose System → Preferences → Mouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse Preferences. If source code is discussed. The above includes a file name. Key combinations can be distinguished from keycaps by the hyphen connecting each part of a key combination. If not. and RPM versions on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD and online at http:// www. 1. Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to the first virtual terminal.redhat. including shell commands. The Liberation Fonts set is also used in HTML editions if the set is installed on your system. check-box and radio button labels. all presented in mono-spaced bold and all distinguishable thanks to context. The first paragraph highlights the particular keycap to press. click the Left-handed mouse check box and click 1 https://fedorahosted. Typographic Conventions Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. For example: Press Enter to execute the command. file for files. functions. including application names. a shell command and a keycap. and the circumstances they apply to.Introduction Red Hat Cluster Suite documentation and other Red Hat documents are available in HTML. Proportional Bold This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system. Press Ctrl+Alt+F1 to return to your X-Windows session. Also used to highlight keycaps and key combinations.

InitialContext. type ssh john@example. It will return a result as follows: and your username on that machine is john. The above text includes application names. Pull-quote Conventions Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.ex1. domain. version and release. If the remote machine is example. application-specific menu names. For example. type ssh username@domain. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character Table. choose Search → Find… from the Character Map menu bar. For example: To connect to a remote machine using ssh. Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a at a shell prompt. Doubleclick this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and then click the Copy button. The mount -o remount file-system command remounts the named file system. Each word is a placeholder. import javax. vii . choose Applications → Accessories → Character Map from the main menu bar. Next. italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. 1. Output sent to a terminal is set in mono-spaced roman and presented thus: books books_tests Desktop Desktop1 documentation downloads drafts images mss notes photos scripts stuff svgs svn Source-code listings are also set in mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows: package org. system-wide menu names and items. either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system. Now switch back to your document and choose Edit → Paste from the gedit menu bar. and buttons and text found within a GUI interface. For example: Publican is a DocBook publishing system. To insert a special character into a gedit file. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on use the rpm -q package command.Pull-quote Conventions Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand). Note the words in bold italics above — username. type the name of the character in the Search field and click Next. the command is mount -o remount / file-system. all presented in proportional bold and all distinguishable by context. the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable text. to remount the /home file system. Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold. To see the version of a currently installed package.

If you have found an error. System. try to be as specific as possible. EchoHome home = (EchoHome) ref. System. Be sure to mention the manual's identifier: Virtual_Server_Administration(EN)-5 (2010-02-08T16:55) By mentioning this manual's identifier. } } 1. Feedback If you spot a typo. but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.redhat. we would love to hear from you.out.lookup("EchoBean"). Ignoring a note should have no negative consequences. 2.echo('Hello') = " + echo. Ignoring a box labeled 'Important' will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration. Warning Warnings should not be ignored.create().println("Created Echo").com/bugzilla/) against the component Documentation-cluster. If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation. Note Notes are tips. Important Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the current session. please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily. Please submit a report in Bugzilla (http://bugzilla.Introduction public class ExClient { public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception { InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext(). shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand.println("Echo. Echo echo = home. Notes and Warnings Finally. we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.out.echo("Hello")). or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better. Object ref = iniCtx.3. viii . we know exactly which version of the guide you have. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss. or services that need restarting before an update will apply.

On the first layer are two LVS routers — one active and one backup. For this example the active router is using Network Address Translation or NAT to direct traffic from the Internet to a variable number of real servers on the second layer. Therefore. Linux Virtual Server Overview Linux Virtual Server (LVS) is a set of integrated software components for balancing the IP load across a set of real servers.2. one interface on the Internet and one on the private network. “Persistence and Firewall Marks” • Section 1. 1 .5. “A Basic LVS Configuration” • Section 1.3. which in turn provide the necessary services. The active LVS router serves two roles: • To balance the load across the real servers. “Routing Methods” • Section 1. To the outside world. enabling them to regulate traffic between the two networks. “A Basic LVS Configuration” shows a simple LVS configuration consisting of two layers. “LVS Scheduling Overview” • Section 1.1.Chapter 1.1.4. This chapter provides an overview of LVS components and functions. Each of the LVS routers has two network interfaces.6. “LVS — A Block Diagram” 1. LVS runs on a pair of equally configured computers: one that is an active LVS router and one that is a backup LVS router.1. A Basic LVS Configuration Figure 1. and consists of the following sections: • Section 1. The backup LVS router monitors the active LVS router and takes over from it in case the active LVS router fails. the real servers in this example are connected to a dedicated private network segment and pass all public traffic back and forth through the active LVS router. the servers appears as one entity. “A Three-Tier LVS Configuration” • Section 1. • To check the integrity of the services on each real server.

example. and FTP traffic can be handled on eth0:2. HTTP traffic can be handled on eth0:1. Linux Virtual Server Overview Figure 1. such as each virtual server can be associated with a separate device per service. if eth0 is connected to the Internet. The active router also dynamically monitors the overall health of the specific services on the real servers through simple send/expect scripts. the administrator can also call external executables. Periodically. For instance. or VIP.3. in a failover situation. the private interface. Only one LVS router is active at a time. The backup router performs the role of a standby system. Refer to Section 4. A virtual server is a service configured to listen on a specific virtual IP. To aid in detecting the health of services that require dynamic data. the LVS routers exchange heartbeat messages through the primary external public interface and.Chapter 1. such as HTTPS or SSL.6. A Basic LVS Configuration Service requests arriving at the LVS routers are addressed to a virtual IP address. A VIP address migrates from one LVS router to the other during a failover. The redirection is based on one of eight supported loadbalancing algorithms described further in Section 1. “VIRTUAL SERVERS” for more information on configuring a virtual server using the Piranha Configuration Tool. Alternatively. “LVS Scheduling Overview”.1. and is assigned to one or more virtual servers. This is a publicly-routable address the administrator of the site associates with a fully-qualified domain name. VIP addresses may be aliased to the same device which connects the LVS router to the Internet. If a service on a real server malfunctions. the active router stops sending jobs to that server until it returns to normal operation. than multiple virtual servers can be aliased to eth0:1. it initiates a failover and assumes the role of the active router. thus maintaining a presence at that IP address (also known as floating IP addresses). the backup router takes over the VIP addresses serviced by the failed router using a technique known as ARP spoofing — where the backup LVS router announces itself as the destination for IP packets addressed 2 . Should the backup node fail to receive a heartbeat message within an expected interval. The role of the active router is to redirect service requests from virtual IP addresses to the real servers. During failover. For example.

1. shell scripts can be employed so that if a Web engineer updates a page. the active LVS router routes the requests from the Internet to the pool of real servers. Configuring Real Servers to Synchronize Data There are many ways an administrator can choose to synchronize data across the pool of real servers. If the configuration allows large numbers of users to modify data. The simple. When the failed node returns to active service. “A Basic LVS Configuration” is best for serving data which does not change very frequently — such as static webpages — because the individual real servers do not automatically sync data between each node.1.Data Replication and Data Sharing Between Real Servers to the failed node. 3 . such as an e-commerce website. adding a third layer is preferable. In this example. Each of the real servers then accesses a shared data source over the network.2. the page is posted to all of the servers simultaneously.1. Data Replication and Data Sharing Between Real Servers Since there is no built-in component in LVS to share the same data between the real servers. 1. a three-tier topology is the ideal solution. the administrator has two basic options: • Synchronize the data across the real server pool • Add a third layer to the topology for shared data access The first option is preferred for servers that do not allow large numbers of users to upload or change data on the real servers. the backup node assumes its hotbackup role again.1. “A Three-Tier LVS Configuration” shows a typical three-tier LVS topology. For a configuration with a high load.2. this type of data synchronization does not optimally function if the configuration is overloaded with users constantly uploading files or issuing database transactions. However.1. Also. A Three-Tier LVS Configuration Figure 1.1. two-layered configuration used in Figure 1.1. For instance. the system administrator can use programs such as rsync to replicate changed data across all nodes at a set interval. 1.

This flexibility is due to the variety of scheduling algorithms an administrator can choose from when configuring LVS. administrators can configure one high-availability cluster to serve both of these roles simultaneously. 1. LVS load balancing is superior to less flexible methods. highly available database for transactions. such as Round-Robin DNS where the hierarchical nature of DNS and the caching by client machines can lead to load imbalances. highly available server and accessed by each real server via an exported NFS directory or Samba share. IP-level load balancing on the real server pool. where accessible data is stored on a central. Additionally. This topology is also recommended for websites that access a central.Chapter 1. LVS Scheduling Overview One of the advantages of using LVS is its ability to perform flexible. but failing to use a highly available solution would introduce a critical single point of failure. Additionally.2. the low-level filtering employed by the LVS router has advantages over application-level request forwarding because balancing loads at the network packet level causes minimal computational overhead and allows for greater scalability. The third tier in the above example does not have to use Red Hat Cluster Manager. Linux Virtual Server Overview Figure 1. using an active-active configuration with Red Hat Cluster Manager.3. 4 . A Three-Tier LVS Configuration This configuration is ideal for busy FTP servers.

3.3. all the real servers are treated as equals without regard to capacity or load. Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides the following scheduling algorithms listed below. The scheduling mechanism for LVS is provided by a collection of kernel patches called IP Virtual Server or IPVS modules. “Server Weight and Scheduling” for more on weighting real servers. if the request load varies dramatically. “Server Weight and Scheduling” for more on weighting real servers. 5 . Weighted Round-Robin Scheduling Distributes each request sequentially around the pool of real servers but gives more jobs to servers with greater capacity. “The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection”.3. Because it keeps track of live connections to the real servers through the IPVS table.2.2. Capacity is indicated by a user-assigned weight. The IPVS table is constantly updated by a utility called ipvsadm — adding and removing cluster members depending on their availability. Least-Connection Distributes more requests to real servers with fewer active connections. LVS round-robin scheduling also does not suffer the imbalances caused by cached DNS queries.1. The addition of weighting makes this algorithm ideal when the real server pool contains hardware of varying capacity. an administrator-assigned weight factor when routing service requests. Using assigned weights gives arbitrary priorities to individual machines. This scheduling model resembles round-robin DNS but is more granular due to the fact that it is network-connection based and not host-based. Refer to Section 1. which is then adjusted upward or downward by dynamic load information.6. least-connection is a type of dynamic scheduling algorithm. For instructions on how to assign scheduling algorithms refer to Section 4. Refer to Section 1.1. Weighted round-robin scheduling is a preferred choice if there are significant differences in the capacity of real servers in the pool. Using this form of scheduling. To allow for maximum flexibility in the types of services you can cluster and how these services are scheduled. These modules enable layer 4 (L4) transport layer switching.Scheduling Algorithms Using scheduling. the more heavily weighted server may answer more than its share of requests. This table is used by the active LVS router to redirect requests from a virtual server address to and returning from real servers in the pool. Using this algorithm. the active router can take into account the real servers' activity and. It is best suited for a real server pool where each member node has roughly the same capacity. If a group of servers have different capabilities. which is designed to work well with multiple servers on a single IP address. Scheduling Algorithms The structure that the IPVS table takes depends on the scheduling algorithm that the administrator chooses for any given virtual server. Capacity is indicated by a user-assigned weight factor. which is then adjusted upward or downward by dynamic load information. optionally. Weighted Least-Connections (default) Distributes more requests to servers with fewer active connections relative to their capacities. 1. weighted least-connection scheduling is a better choice. Round-Robin Scheduling Distributes each request sequentially around the pool of real servers. IPVS builds an IPVS table in the kernel. To track and route packets to the real servers efficiently. it is possible to create a group of real servers using a variety of hardware and software combinations and the active router can evenly load each real server. making it a better choice if there is a high degree of variation in the request load. However.

Locality-Based Least-Connection Scheduling with Replication Scheduling Distributes more requests to servers with fewer active connections relative to their destination IPs. 6 . Requests are then routed to the server in this subset with the lowest number of connections. It routes the packets for an IP address to the server for that address unless that server is above its capacity and has a server in its half load. However. Linux Virtual Server Overview Locality-Based Least-Connection Scheduling Distributes more requests to servers with fewer active connections relative to their destination IPs. Although adding weight to varying hardware configurations in a real server pool can help load-balance the cluster more efficiently. The most loaded node is then dropped from the real server subset to prevent over-replication. The default value for a real server weight is 1.2. 1. it replicates a new server for that destination IP address by adding the real server with the least connections from the overall pool of real servers to the subset of real servers for that destination IP. if one real server has a weight of 1 and the other server has a weight of 5. To prevent this phenomenon.Chapter 1. it can cause temporary imbalances when a real server is introduced to the real server pool and the virtual server is scheduled using weighted least-connections. For example. in which case it assigns the IP address to the least loaded real server. administrators can make the virtual server a quiesce server — anytime a new real server node comes online. Weights work as a ratio relative to one another. This weight is an integer value which is factored into any weight-aware scheduling algorithms (such as weighted leastconnections) and helps the LVS router more evenly load hardware with different capabilities. 1. is weighted at 2. the least-connections table is reset to zero and the LVS router routes requests as if all the real servers were newly added to the cluster. Source Hash Scheduling Distributes requests to the pool of real servers by looking up the source IP in a static hash table.3. suppose there are three servers in the real server pool. which allows the administrator tremendous flexibility when utilizing available hardware and integrating the LVS into an existing network. This algorithm is designed for use in a proxy-cache server cluster. Routing Methods Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses Network Address Translation or NAT routing for LVS. the LVS router sees it has zero connections and floods the server with all incoming requests until it is on par with servers A and B. This algorithm is also designed for use in a proxy-cache server cluster. once server C comes back online. If server C goes down for any reason. servers A and B evenly distributes the abandoned load. Servers A and B are weighted at 1 and the third. If all the nodes for the destination IP are above capacity. It differs from LocalityBased Least-Connection Scheduling by mapping the target IP address to a subset of real server nodes. For instance. server C. This algorithm is designed for use in a proxy-cache server cluster. This algorithm is designed for LVS routers with multiple firewalls. Destination Hash Scheduling Distributes requests to the pool of real servers by looking up the destination IP in a static hash table.4. Server Weight and Scheduling The administrator of LVS can assign a weight to each node in the real server pool. then the server with a weight of 5 gets 5 connections for every 1 connection the other server gets.

1. NAT Routing Figure 1. 1.4. Using this NAT routing.3. In the event of failover. Direct Routing Building an LVS setup that uses direct routing provides increased performance benefits compared to other LVS networking topologies. While it is possible to associate each floating IP address to its own physical device on the LVS router nodes. The NIC for the Internet has a real IP address on eth0 and has a floating IP address aliased to eth0:1. Direct routing allows the real servers to process and route packets 7 . Figure 1. In this example.3. All of the real servers located on the private network use the floating IP for the NAT router as their default route to communicate with the active LVS router so that their abilities to respond to requests from the Internet is not impaired. Using this topology. The main disadvantage is that the LVS router may become a bottleneck in large cluster deployments because it must process outgoing as well as incoming requests. having more than two NICs is not a requirement. there are two NICs in the active LVS router. LVS Implemented with NAT Routing In the example. the real servers may be any kind of machine running various operating systems. “LVS Implemented with NAT Routing”. This process is called IP masquerading because the actual IP addresses of the real servers is hidden from the requesting clients.2. the virtual interface facing the Internet and the private facing virtual interface are taken-over by the backup LVS router simultaneously.NAT Routing 1. illustrates LVS utilizing NAT routing to move requests between the Internet and a private network. The NIC for the private network interface has a real IP address on eth1 and has a floating IP address aliased to eth1:1. The real server then processes the request and returns the packets to the LVS router which uses network address translation to replace the address of the real server in the packets with the LVS routers public VIP address.4. the LVS router's public LVS floating IP address and private NAT floating IP address are aliased to two physical NICs. the active LVS router receives the request and routes it to the appropriate server.

which is cleared periodically (usually every 15 minutes) and refilled with IP/MAC associations.Chapter 1. Figure 1. the LVS router receives incoming server requests through the virtual IP (VIP) and uses a scheduling algorithm to route the request to the real servers. there are limitations as well. ARP requests are broadcast to all connected machines on a network. Direct routing reduces the possibility of network performance issues by relegating the job of the LVS router to processing incoming packets only. which can become a bottleneck under heavy network load. The real server processes the request and sends the response directly to the client. Direct Routing and the ARP Limitation While there are many advantages to using direct routing in LVS. The issue with ARP requests in a direct routing LVS setup is that because a client request to an IP address must be associated with a MAC address for the request to be handled. LVS Implemented with Direct Routing In the typical direct routing LVS setup. 1. the virtual IP address 8 . and the machine with the correct IP/MAC address combination receives the packet. Linux Virtual Server Overview directly to a requesting user rather than passing all outgoing packets through the LVS router. Network routers typically send requests to their destination by relating IP addresses to a machine's MAC address with ARP. This method of routing allows for scalability in that real servers can be added without the added burden on the LVS router to route outgoing packets from the real server to the client. a client on the Internet sends a request to an IP address. The most common issue with LVS via direct routing is with Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). The IP/MAC associations are stored in an ARP cache. In typical situations. bypassing the LVS routers.

Persistence and Firewall Marks of the LVS system must also be associated to a MAC as well. However, since both the LVS router and the real servers all have the same VIP, the ARP request will be broadcast ed to all the machines associated with the VIP. This can cause several problems, such as the VIP being associated directly to one of the real servers and processing requests directly, bypassing the LVS router completely and defeating the purpose of the LVS setup. To solve this issue, ensure that the incoming requests are always sent to the LVS router rather than one of the real servers. This can be done by using either the arptables_jf or the iptables packet filtering tool for the following reasons: • The arptables_jf prevents ARP from associating VIPs with real servers. • The iptables method completely sidesteps the ARP problem by not configuring VIPs on real servers in the first place. For more information on using arptables or iptables in a direct routing LVS environment, refer to Section 3.2.1, “Direct Routing and arptables_jf” or Section 3.2.2, “Direct Routing and iptables”.

1.5. Persistence and Firewall Marks
In certain situations, it may be desirable for a client to reconnect repeatedly to the same real server, rather than have an LVS load balancing algorithm send that request to the best available server. Examples of such situations include multi-screen web forms, cookies, SSL, and FTP connections. In these cases, a client may not work properly unless the transactions are being handled by the same server to retain context. LVS provides two different features to handle this: persistence and firewall marks.

1.5.1. Persistence
When enabled, persistence acts like a timer. When a client connects to a service, LVS remembers the last connection for a specified period of time. If that same client IP address connects again within that period, it is sent to the same server it connected to previously — bypassing the load-balancing mechanisms. When a connection occurs outside the time window, it is handled according to the scheduling rules in place. Persistence also allows the administrator to specify a subnet mask to apply to the client IP address test as a tool for controlling what addresses have a higher level of persistence, thereby grouping connections to that subnet. Grouping connections destined for different ports can be important for protocols which use more than one port to communicate, such as FTP. However, persistence is not the most efficient way to deal with the problem of grouping together connections destined for different ports. For these situations, it is best to use firewall marks.

1.5.2. Firewall Marks
Firewall marks are an easy and efficient way to a group ports used for a protocol or group of related protocols. For instance, if LVS is deployed to run an e-commerce site, firewall marks can be used to bundle HTTP connections on port 80 and secure, HTTPS connections on port 443. By assigning the same firewall mark to the virtual server for each protocol, state information for the transaction can be preserved because the LVS router forwards all requests to the same real server after a connection is opened. Because of its efficiency and ease-of-use, administrators of LVS should use firewall marks instead of persistence whenever possible for grouping connections. However, administrators should still 9

Chapter 1. Linux Virtual Server Overview add persistence to the virtual servers in conjunction with firewall marks to ensure the clients are reconnected to the same server for an adequate period of time.

1.6. LVS — A Block Diagram
LVS routers use a collection of programs to monitor cluster members and cluster services. Figure 1.5, “LVS Components” illustrates how these various programs on both the active and backup LVS routers work together to manage the cluster.

Figure 1.5. LVS Components The pulse daemon runs on both the active and passive LVS routers. On the backup router, pulse sends a heartbeat to the public interface of the active router to make sure the active router is still properly functioning. On the active router, pulse starts the lvs daemon and responds to heartbeat queries from the backup LVS router. Once started, the lvs daemon calls the ipvsadm utility to configure and maintain the IPVS routing table in the kernel and starts a nanny process for each configured virtual server on each real server. Each nanny process checks the state of one configured service on one real server, and tells the lvs daemon if the service on that real server is malfunctioning. If a malfunction is detected, the lvs daemon instructs ipvsadm to remove that real server from the IPVS routing table. If the backup router does not receive a response from the active router, it initiates failover by calling send_arp to reassign all virtual IP addresses to the NIC hardware addresses (MAC address) of the backup node, sends a command to the active router via both the public and private network interfaces to shut down the lvs daemon on the active router, and starts the lvs daemon on the backup node to accept requests for the configured virtual servers. 10

LVS Components

1.6.1. LVS Components
Section, “pulse” shows a detailed list of each software component in an LVS router. pulse
This is the controlling process which starts all other daemons related to LVS routers. At boot time, the daemon is started by the /etc/rc.d/init.d/pulse script. It then reads the configuration file / etc/sysconfig/ha/ On the active router, pulse starts the LVS daemon. On the backup router, pulse determines the health of the active router by executing a simple heartbeat at a userconfigurable interval. If the active router fails to respond after a user-configurable interval, it initiates failover. During failover, pulse on the backup router instructs the pulse daemon on the active router to shut down all LVS services, starts the send_arp program to reassign the floating IP addresses to the backup router's MAC address, and starts the lvs daemon. lvs
The lvs daemon runs on the active LVS router once called by pulse. It reads the configuration file / etc/sysconfig/ha/, calls the ipvsadm utility to build and maintain the IPVS routing table, and assigns a nanny process for each configured LVS service. If nanny reports a real server is down, lvs instructs the ipvsadm utility to remove the real server from the IPVS routing table. ipvsadm
This service updates the IPVS routing table in the kernel. The lvs daemon sets up and administers LVS by calling ipvsadm to add, change, or delete entries in the IPVS routing table. nanny
The nanny monitoring daemon runs on the active LVS router. Through this daemon, the active router determines the health of each real server and, optionally, monitors its workload. A separate process runs for each service defined on each real server. /etc/sysconfig/ha/
This is the LVS configuration file. Directly or indirectly, all daemons get their configuration information from this file. Piranha Configuration Tool
This is the Web-based tool for monitoring, configuring, and administering LVS. This is the default tool to maintain the /etc/sysconfig/ha/ LVS configuration file. send_arp
This program sends out ARP broadcasts when the floating IP address changes from one node to another during failover. Chapter 2, Initial LVS Configuration reviews important post-installation configuration steps you should take before configuring Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be an LVS router.


12 .

For both LVS routers. set the appropriate services to start at boot time. When configuring LVS. and the graphical Services Configuration Tool. the ncurses-based program ntsysv.root password On the LVS routers. It is best to set these services to activate in both runlevel 3 and runlevel 5.Chapter 2.1. replace daemon with the name of the service you are activating. you must take some basic steps to set up both the LVS routers and the real servers. All of these tools require root access. To get a list of services on the system as well as what runlevel they are set to activate on. Note To attain root access. use the Piranha Configuration Tool on the primary node. but the appropriate services must be activated before configuring LVS. you must also enable the iptables service. Initial LVS Configuration After installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For example: $ su . To accomplish this using chkconfig. type the following command for each service: /sbin/chkconfig --level 35 daemon on In the above command. There are three primary tools available for setting services to activate at boot time under Red Hat Enterprise Linux: the command line program chkconfig.command followed by the root password. open a shell prompt and use the su . issue the following command: /sbin/chkconfig --list 13 . there are three services which need to be set to activate at boot time: • The piranha-gui service (primary node only) • The pulse service • The sshd service If you are clustering multi-port services or using firewall marks. 2. This chapter covers these initial steps in detail. Configuring Services on the LVS Routers The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program installs all of the components needed to set up LVS. Note The LVS router node that becomes the active node once LVS is started is also referred to as the primary node.

14 . “Starting the Piranha Configuration Tool Service” for an example of how to use the /sbin/service command. The fact that piranha-gui leverages the httpd service means that: 1. or words in a dictionary from any language.d/init. Starting the Piranha Configuration Tool Service After you have set the password for the Piranha Configuration Tool. For security reasons.3. login as root and issue the following command: /usr/sbin/piranha-passwd After entering this command. 2. For more information on runlevels and configuring services with ntsysv and the Services Configuration Tool. Stopping or restarting the Apache HTTP Server via the service command stops the piranhagui service.3. If the password is changed during an active Piranha Configuration Tool session. To do this. See Section 2. Setting a Password for the Piranha Configuration Tool Before using the Piranha Configuration Tool for the first time on the primary LVS router. commonly used acronyms. it should not contain proper nouns. you must restrict access to it by creating a password. start or restart the piranhagui service located in /etc/rc. the administrator is prompted to provide the new password. 2. Do not leave the password unencrypted anywhere on the system.2. refer to the chapter titled "Controlling Access to Services" in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide. type the following command as root: /sbin/service piranha-gui start or /sbin/service piranha-gui restart Issuing this command starts a private session of the Apache HTTP Server by calling the symbolic link /usr/sbin/piranha_gui -> /usr/sbin/httpd. the piranhagui version of httpd runs as the piranha user in a separate process. The Apache HTTP Server must be installed on the system.Chapter 2. Initial LVS Configuration Warning Turning any of the above services on using chkconfig does not actually start the daemon. Warning For a password to be more secure. create the administrative password when prompted.d/piranha-gui. 2. To do this use the /sbin/service command. To do this.

Here is what the default access looks like: Order deny.0. You do not need to start the pulse service until configuration using the Piranha Configuration Tool is complete.htaccess file each time it accesses the directory. However. The next section reviews ways to accomplish this task. because all of the data passed to the Piranha Configuration Tool is in plain text. Limiting Access To the Piranha Configuration Tool The Piranha Configuration Tool prompts for a valid username and password combination. See Section 4. open the location http://localhost:3636. The easiest way to restrict access is to use the Apache HTTP Server's built in access control mechanisms by editing /etc/sysconfig/ha/web/secure/. “Starting LVS” for information on starting the pulse service. However.Configuring the Piranha Configuration Tool Web Server Port Warning If the command /sbin/service httpd stop or /sbin/service httpd restart is issued on an LVS router. you must login to access the configuration services.allow Allow from all To limit access of the Piranha Configuration Tool to only the localhost change the . it is recommended that you restrict access only to trusted networks or to the local machine. 2. you must start the piranha-gui service by issuing the following command: /sbin/service piranha-gui start The piranha-gui service is all that is necessary to begin configuring LVS. change the line Listen 3636 in Section 2 of the piranha-gui Web server configuration file /etc/ sysconfig/ha/conf/httpd. Now that the Piranha Configuration Tool is running. If you start a Web browser on the primary LVS router. if you are configuring LVS remotely.htaccess. 2. You can reach the Piranha Configuration Tool from anywhere via Web browser by replacing localhost with the hostname or IP address of the primary LVS router. To use the Piranha Configuration Tool you need at minimum a text-only Web browser. the access controls for this directory allow anyone to view the contents of the directory. By default.8.4. After altering the file you do not have to restart the piranha-gui service because the server checks the . When your browser connects to the Piranha Configuration Tool. Configuring the Piranha Configuration Tool Web Server Port The Piranha Configuration Tool runs on port 3636 by default. you may wish to consider limiting who has access to the tool over the network. 15 . To change this port number. For more information on the loopback device.1.htaccess file to allow access from only the loopback device (127.3. the sshd service is also required.0. Enter piranha in the Username field and the password set with piranhapasswd in the Password field. see the chapter titled Network Scripts in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide.1).conf.

and deny lines identical to /etc/ sysconfig/ha/web/secure/.6. These daemons can include httpd for Web services or xinetd for FTP or Telnet services.5.57/24 network can access the Piranha Configuration Tool.16.allow Deny from all Allow from 192. each LVS router node must have IP forwarding turned on in the kernel. then you can turn it on manually using the following command: /sbin/sysctl -w net. issue the following command as root: /sbin/sysctl net. To check if IP forwarding is turned on.ipv4.ipv4. 16 . Warning Editing the Piranha Configuration Tool. It may also be useful to access the real servers remotely. so the sshd daemon should also be installed and running.ip_forward = 0 in /etc/sysctl.1.100 Allow from 172. Turning on Packet Forwarding In order for the LVS router to forward network packets properly to the real servers. Log in as root and change the line which reads net. set the appropriate server daemons to activate at boot time.allow Deny from all Allow from 127.100 and machines on the 172.conf to the following: net.ip_forward = 1 The changes take effect when you reboot the system.ipv4. then IP forwarding is enabled.ipv4.ip_forward If the above command returns a 1.1.57 In this example.Chapter 2. To limit access to this directory.168.0.16.htaccess file in the /etc/sysconfig/ha/web/ directory with order. only Web browsers from the machine with the IP address of 192. 2.168.0. Configuring Services on the Real Servers If the real servers are Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.htaccess. Initial LVS Configuration Order deny. create a .ip_forward=1 2. allow.htaccess file limits access to the configuration pages in the /etc/sysconfig/ha/web/secure/ directory but not to the login and the help pages in /etc/sysconfig/ha/web/. If it returns a 0.1 You can also allow specific hosts or subnets as seen in this example: Order deny.

26. any switch connecting the real servers to the LVS routers must have at least two gigabit Ethernet ports to handle the load efficiently. this is not a routable IP. could look something like this: DEVICE=eth0 BOOTPROTO=static ONBOOT=yes IPADDR=192.26/24 network (I know. each real server only needs one NIC since it will only be responding to the LVS router. The LVS routers. 3. To prevent a single point of failure. so they need to have as close to the same capabilities as possible. Configuring Network Interfaces for LVS with NAT To set up LVS with NAT. the LVS routers' public interfaces (eth0) will be on the 192. Setting Up LVS LVS consists of two basic groups: the LVS routers and the real servers. each groups should contain at least two member systems. 3. but it is limited in its ability to handle large loads because all packets going into and coming out of the pool pass through the LVS router. So on the active or primary LVS router node.12/24 network. Because this topology creates a network bottleneck at the LVS router. but let us pretend there is a firewall in front of the LVS router for good measure) and the private interfaces which link to the real servers (eth1) will be on the 10. Before choosing and configuring the hardware for the real server group. In this example. Hardware The NAT topology is the most flexible in regards to hardware because the real servers do not need to be Linux machines to function correctly. the public interface's network script. In particular. The NAT LVS Network The NAT topology allows for great latitude in utilizing existing hardware. The real servers pass all requests back through the LVS router so they are on their own private network.9 17 .1. One will act as the active LVS router while the other stays in hot standby mode. If gigabit Ethernet is employed on the LVS routers. I know. you must first configure the network interfaces for the public network and the private network on the LVS routers.Chapter 3. In a NAT topology. there can be a fair amount of software configuration outside of Piranha Configuration Tool. The LVS router group should consist of two identical or very similar systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux.1. Network Layout The topology for LVS using NAT routing is the easiest to configure from a network layout perspective because only one access point to the public network is needed. /etc/sysconfig/ network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0.1. determine which of the three LVS topologies to use.11.168. gigabit Ethernet NICs can be employed on each LVS router to increase the bandwidth the LVS routers can handle. need two NICs each to route traffic between the two networks. Software Because the NAT topology requires the use of iptables for some configurations. on the other hand. FTP services and the use of firewall marks requires extra manual configuration of the LVS routers to route requests properly.168.

in this case 10. Routing on the Real Servers The most important thing to remember when configuring the real servers network interfaces in a NAT topology is to set the gateway for the NAT floating IP address of the LVS router. be able to ping the real IP for the LVS router's private interface. Important The sample Ethernet interface configuration settings in this section are for the real IP addresses of an LVS router and not the floating IP addresses.0 GATEWAY=192. however. So.1. After configuring the primary LVS router node's network interfaces.26. “GLOBAL SETTINGS” and Section 4. it is essential that the real servers route requests back to the VIP for the NAT interface.255.11.254 The /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1 for the private NAT interface on the LVS router could look something like this: DEVICE=eth1 BOOTPROTO=static ONBOOT=yes IPADDR=10. In this example.9 NETMASK=255. For instance. the machines will be unable to ping or connect in other ways to the public network. Setting Up LVS NETMASK=255. “The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection”. if eth0 connects to the public network on the primary node.2. 3.255.10. You will.12. that address is 10. configure the backup LVS router's real network interfaces — taking care that none of the IP address conflict with any other IP addresses on the network. it must also connect to the public network on the backup node as well.11.11. Important Be sure each interface on the backup node services the same network as the interface on primary node.11.10 and the VIP for the NAT or private interface will be 10.Chapter 3.255.12. So the real server's /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file could look similar to this: 18 .1. as shown in Section 4. the VIP for the LVS router's public interface will be 192. Note Once the network interfaces are up on the real servers.0 In this example.6. To configure the public and private floating IP addresses the administrator should use the Piranha Configuration Tool.4.12.12. This is normal.

1. and sends the packet through the 19 .10 Warning If a real server has more than one network interface configured with a GATEWAY= line.0 GATEWAY=10. see Section 3. the real servers may not route requests properly. like HTTP on port 80. for example. See Section 2. So.255.11. the administrator needs only to enable packet forwarding on the LVS routers for the requests to be properly routed between the outside world and the real servers. “GLOBAL SETTINGS” and Section 4. “Direct Routing”. Once pulse is up and running. Instead.255.11. the first one to come up will get the gateway. LVS via Direct Routing As mentioned in Section 1. the active LVS router will begin routing requests to the pool of real servers. Enabling NAT Routing on the LVS Routers In a simple NAT LVS configuration where each clustered service uses only one port. “Turning on Packet Forwarding” for instructions on turning on packet forwarding.1 NETMASK=255. For information on creating multi-port services using firewall marks.8. “Starting LVS”.1.4.4. However. When finished. 3.4. Warning Do not configure the floating IP for eth0:1 or eth1:1 by manually editing network scripts or using a network configuration tool. Therefore if both eth0 and eth1 are configured and eth1 is used for LVS. use the Piranha Configuration Tool as shown in Section 4. the LVS router needs to receive incoming requests and route them to the proper real server for processing. It is best to turn off extraneous network interfaces by setting ONBOOT=no in their network scripts within the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ directory or by making sure the gateway is correctly set in the interface which comes up first. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool.6.5. Once forwarding is enabled on the LVS routers and the real servers are set up and have the clustered services running. 3. Direct routing requires that the real servers be physically connected to a network segment with the LVS router and be able to process and direct outgoing packets as well. The real servers then need to directly route the response to the client. Network Layout In a direct routing LVS setup.12.2. if the client is on the Internet. start the pulse service as shown in Section 4. direct routing allows real servers to process and route packets directly to a requesting user rather than passing outgoing packets through the LVS router. “Multi-port Services and LVS”.12. more configuration is necessary when the clustered services require more than one port to go to the same real server during a user session.3.Enabling NAT Routing on the LVS Routers DEVICE=eth0 ONBOOT=yes BOOTPROTO=static IPADDR=10. “The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection”.2. use the Piranha Configuration Tool to configure LVS as shown in Chapter 4.

For example. This can be done by configuring a gateway for the real server to pass packets to the Internet. each real server can be connected to its own separate gateway which has its own dedicated connection to the carrier network to which the client is connected (such as the Internet or an intranet).1. allowing for maximum throughput and scalability.Chapter 3. “Direct Routing and iptables” for more information. the real servers can communicate through one gateway (and therefore one network connection). For typical LVS setups. so they can directly route packets. Each real server in the server pool can have its own separate gateway (and each gateway with its own connection to the Internet). using the arptables_jf method. Hardware The hardware requirements of an LVS system using direct routing is similar to other LVS topologies. the real servers do not need to be Linux machines to function correctly. Create the ARP table entries for each virtual IP address on each real server (the real_ip is the IP the director uses to communicate with the real server. For maximum performance and availability. each real server must have their virtual IP address configured. 3. Setting Up LVS LVS router to a real server.2. the real server must be able to go directly to the client via the Internet. To configure each real server to ignore ARP requests for each virtual IP addresses. “Direct Routing and arptables_jf” or Section 3. However. especially for administrators facing ARP issues when using LVS via direct routing. a gateway to the Internet is required. Using the arptables_jf method. which reintroduces the network bottleneck that exists in NAT routing. VIPs can not be configured to start on boot using standard Red Hat Enterprise Linux system configuration tools. Important It is not recommended to use the LVS router as a gateway for the real servers. the arptables_jf method allows multiple instances of Apache HTTP Server to be running bound explicitly to different VIPs on the system. Software There is some configuration outside of Piranha Configuration Tool that needs to be done. often this is the IP bound to eth0): 20 . There are also significant performance advantages to using arptables_jf over the iptables option. The LVS routers need one or two NICs each (depending on if there is a back-up router).2. Direct Routing and arptables_jf In order to configure direct routing using arptables_jf.2. Refer to Section 3. however.1. as that adds unneeded setup complexity as well as network load on the LVS router. perform the following steps: 1.2. and any ARP packets that might otherwise be sent containing the VIPs are mangled to contain the real server's IP instead of the VIPs. Since the real servers bypass the LVS router and send outgoing packets directly to a client. ARP requests for the VIP are ignored entirely by the real servers. While the LVS router needs to be running Red Hat Enterprise Linux to process the incoming requests and perform load-balancing for the real servers. applications may bind to each individual VIP or port that the real server is servicing. You can use two NICs for ease of configuration and to distinctly separate traffic — incoming requests are handled by one NIC and routed packets to real servers on the other.

2. because both must bind to INADDR_ANY instead of the virtual IP addresses. For example: # ifconfig eth0:1 192. Configure Piranha for Direct Routing.168. This method also circumvents the LVS ARP issue entirely. To configure direct routing using the iptables method.252.255 up Or using the iproute2 utility ip. perform the following steps: 21 .local.24 dev eth0 As previously noted. 4.d/rc. Direct Routing and iptables You may also work around the ARP issue using the direct routing method by creating iptables firewall rules. For example.Direct Routing and iptables arptables -A IN -d <virtual_ip> -j DROP arptables -A OUT -s <virtual_ip> -j mangle --mangle-ip-s <real_ip> This will cause the real servers to ignore all ARP requests for the virtual IP addresses. 3. Once this has been completed on each real server. One way to work around this issue is to place these commands in /etc/rc. The only node that should respond to ARP requests for any of the VIPs is the current active LVS node. for example: # ip addr add broadcast 192. because the virtual IP address(es) only exist on the active LVS director. even though the VIP address does not exist on the system. you must add rules that create a transparent proxy so that a real server will service packets sent to the VIP address.168. 3. Configure the virtual IP address on all real servers using ifconfig to create an IP alias. The iptables method is simpler to configure than the arptables_jf method.76. and change any outgoing ARP responses which might otherwise contain the virtual IP so that they contain the real IP of the server instead. the virtual IP addresses can not be configured to start on boot using the Red Hat system configuration tools. save the ARP table entries by typing the following commands on each real server: service arptables_jf save chkconfig --level 2345 arptables_jf on The chkconfig command will cause the system to reload the arptables configuration on bootup — before the network is started.255.76. it is not possible to run two separate Apache HTTP Server services bound to port 80. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool for more information.24 netmask 255. 2. as there is overhead in forwarding/masquerading every packet.168. However. To configure direct routing using iptables. You also cannot reuse ports using the iptables method. Refer to Chapter 4. there are performance issues using the iptables method compared to arptables_jf.

configure the network interfaces on the primary and backup LVS routers. Setting Up LVS 1. see the chapter titled Network Configuration in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. but the actual network addresses are needed. port. /sbin/ifup ethN 22 . For instance if eth0 connects to public network and eth1 connects to the private network. For more information about adding devices using system-config-network. Bringing Up Real Network Interfaces To bring up a real network interface.3. Save the configuration on each real server: # service iptables save # chkconfig --level 2345 iptables on The commands above cause the system to reload the iptables configuration on bootup — before the network is started. 3.Chapter 3. use the following command as root. Putting the Configuration Together After determining which of the preceding routing methods to use.1. 3. run the following command for every VIP. For the remainder of the chapter. This is especially important to consider when configuring the real servers. then these same devices on the backup LVS router must connect to the same networks. example alterations to network interfaces are made either manually or through the Piranha Configuration Tool. Below are some useful commands for bringing up network interfaces or checking their status. The sections on each topology give example network addresses. replacing N with the number corresponding to the interface (eth0 and eth1).3. and protocol (TCP or UDP) combination intended to be serviced for the real server: iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p <tcp|udp> -d <vip> --dport <port> -j REDIRECT This command will cause the real servers to process packets destined for the VIP and port that they are given. 2. Also the gateway listed in the first interface to come up at boot time is added to the routing table and subsequent gateways listed in other interfaces are ignored. On each real server. the hardware should be linked together on the network. General LVS Networking Tips Configure the real IP addresses for both the public and private networks on the LVS routers before attempting to configure LVS using the Piranha Configuration Tool. Important The adapter devices on the LVS routers must be configured to access the same networks. This can be done using a graphical application such as system-confignetwork or by editing the network scripts manually. After physically connecting together the hardware.

Also. or when LVS is used with true multi-port protocols. should be handled identically.Multi-port Services and LVS Warning Do not use the ifup scripts to bring up any floating IP addresses you may configure using Piranha Configuration Tool (eth0:1 or eth1:1). but bearing the same firewall mark. FTP is another commonly clustered multi-port protocol. refer to Section 3. Unfortunately. however. as long as the connections occur within the length of time specified by the persistence parameter. For more on assigning persistence to a virtual server. the LVS router uses firewall marks to recognize that packets destined for different ports. Bringing Down Real Network Interfaces To bring down a real network interface. and type: /sbin/service iptables status 23 . If an LVS is used for FTP services.4. type the following: /sbin/ifconfig To view the routing table for a machine.6. the administrator must use iptables. see Section 4. /sbin/ifdown ethN Checking the Status of Network Interfaces If you need to check which network interfaces are up at any given time. 3. iptables. “The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection”. Multi-port services can be created artificially by using firewall marks to bundle together different. the mechanism used to balance the loads on the real servers — IPVS — can recognize the firewall marks assigned to a packet. Assigning Firewall Marks To assign firewall marks to a packet destined for a particular port.5. use the following command as root. Use the service command to start pulse instead (see Section 4. firewall marks ensure connections from the client machine are routed to the same host. The basic rule to remember when using firewall marks is that for every protocol using a firewall mark in Piranha Configuration Tool there must be a commensurate iptables rule to assign marks to the network packets.1. To do this.4. but cannot itself assign firewall marks. make sure there are no rules already in place.1. such as FTP. In either case. issue the following command: /sbin/route 3. Multi-port Services and LVS LVS routers under any topology require extra configuration when creating multi-port LVS services. when combined with persistence. “Starting LVS” for details). such as HTTP (port 80) and HTTPS (port 443). outside of Piranha Configuration Tool. This section illustrates how to bundle HTTP and HTTPS as an example. “Configuring FTP” for configuration details. The job of assigning firewall marks must be performed by the network packet filter. open a shell prompt. but related protocols. Before creating network packet filter rules. login as root.8. replacing N with the number corresponding to the interface (eth0 and eth1).

All data from the server is then passed over this connection. Also note that you must log in as root and load the module for iptables before issuing rules for the first time.6. 3. 24 . The type of connection chosen by the client determines how the server responds and on what ports transactions will occur. How FTP Works With most other server client relationships. The two types of data connections are: Active Connections When an active connection is established. it displays a set of rules. the server opens a data connection to the client from port 20 to a high range port on the client machine. 80. check the contents of /etc/sysconfig/iptables and copy any rules worth keeping to a safe place before proceeding. “Saving Network Packet Filter Settings” 3. To ensure network packet filter settings are restored upon reboot. which in turn is recognized by IPVS and forwarded appropriately.1. Below are rules which assign the same firewall mark.n/32 --dport 443 -j MARK --set-mark 80 For instructions on assigning the VIP to the public network interface.n.6. n. /sbin/modprobe ip_tables /sbin/iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d n. “The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection”. n. type the following command: /sbin/service iptables stop If the rules already in place are important. see Section 4. In the above iptables commands. Setting Up LVS If iptables is not running. If iptables is active.5. Configuring FTP File Transport Protocol (FTP) is an old and complex multi-port protocol that presents a distinct set of challenges to an LVS environment.1.n/32 --dport 80 -j MARK --set-mark 80 /sbin/iptables -t mangle-A PREROUTING -p tcp -d n. When an FTP client connects to an FTP server it opens a connection to the FTP control port 21. Warning The commands above will take effect immediately.5.n should be replaced with the floating IP for your HTTP and HTTPS virtual servers.Chapter 3. to incoming traffic destined for the floating IP address.n. on ports 80 and 443. Then the client tells the FTP server whether to establish an active or passive connection.n. the prompt will instantly reappear.n. refer to Section 3.n.n.n.n. If rules are present. but do not persist through a reboot of the system. These commands have the net effect of assigning any traffic addressed to the VIP on the appropriate ports a firewall mark of 80. you must first understand some key things about how FTP works. To understand the nature of these challenges.n. the client machine opens up a connection to the server on a particular port and the server then responds to the client on that port.

If a client from outside the cluster attempts to open a port IPVS is not configured to handle. 3.n.000. For these rules to work properly. review the information in Section 3. it drops the connection.1. which can be on any port higher than 10.1. if the real server attempts to open a connection back out to the Internet on a port IPVS does not know about.6.3. The following iptables command allows the LVS router to accept outgoing connections from the real servers that IPVS does not know about: /sbin/iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -p tcp -s n. to FTP traffic. 25 . This means all connections from FTP clients on the Internet must have the same firewall mark assigned to them and all connections from the FTP server must be properly forwarded to the Internet using network packet filtering rules.0/24 --sport 20 -j MASQUERADE In the iptables command. This means to effectively cluster FTP.n.5.5. the client asks the FTP server to establish a passive connection port.2.n should be replaced with the first three values for the floating IP for the NAT interface's internal network interface defined in the GLOBAL SETTINGS panel of Piranha Configuration Tool. “The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection” for details. 3. Similarly. Creating Network Packet Filter Rules Before assigning any iptables rules for FTP service. How This Affects LVS Routing IPVS packet forwarding only allows connections in and out of the cluster based on it recognizing its port number or its firewall mark. The client then opens the newly bound port for the data connection. Below are rules which assign the same firewall mark. Rules for Active Connections The rules for active connections tell the kernel to accept and forward connections coming to the internal floating IP address on port 20 — the FTP data port.How This Affects LVS Routing Passive Connections When a passive connection is established. 21. The FTP client/server relationship can potentially open a large number of ports that the Piranha Configuration Tool and IPVS do not know about. you must configure the LVS routers to handle both active and passive connections.4. n. 3. Note The client determines the type of connection. Most modern FTP clients attempt to establish a passive connection when requesting data from servers.5. “Assigning Firewall Marks” concerning multi-port services and techniques for checking the existing network packet filtering rules.3. you must also use the VIRTUAL SERVER subsection of Piranha Configuration Tool to configure a virtual server for port 21 with a value of 21 in the Firewall Mark field. not the server. The server then binds to this highnumbered port for this particular session and relays that port number back to the client. it drops the connection.1. See Section 4.n. Each data request the client makes results in a separate data connection.

n/32 --dport 21 -j MARK --set-mark 21 /sbin/iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d n.n/32 --dport 10000:20000 -j MARK --set-mark 21 In the iptables commands. Warning If you are limiting the port range for passive connections.conf: pasv_min_port=10000 pasv_max_port=20000 You must also control the address that the server displays to the client for passive FTP connections. see Section 3. you need to be sure that the appropriate service is set to activate on the proper runlevels.n.6.n.n.n. however. which is what the client sees upon connection. refer to Section 2. For configuration of other FTP servers. which is in turn recognized by IPVS and forwarded appropriately: /sbin/iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d n. 26 .1. The following iptables commands have the net effect of assigning any traffic addressed to the floating IP on the appropriate ports a firewall mark of 21. In a NAT routed LVS system. For more on this. “Saving Network Packet Filter Settings” Finally.n.n. “Configuring Services on the LVS Routers”.Chapter 3. add the following line to /etc/vsftpd.3. consult the respective documentation.n should be replaced with the floating IP for the FTP virtual server defined in the VIRTUAL SERVER subsection of Piranha Configuration Tool.000 to 20. you can increase this number to include all available non-secured ports by changing 10000:20000 in the commands below to 1024:65535. This can be accomplished by adding the following lines to / etc/vsftpd.n with the VIP address of the LVS system.2. Rules for Passive Connections The rules for passive connections assign the appropriate firewall mark to connections coming in from the Internet to the floating IP for the service on a wide range of ports — 10. you must also configure the VSFTP server to use a matching port range. Setting Up LVS 3.5. This range should be a wide enough for most situations.n Replace n. n.n.n. For example: pasv_address=n.n. To ensure network packet filter settings are restored after a reboot.conf to override the real server IP address to the VIP. Warning The commands above take effect immediately.n. but do not persist through a reboot of the system.000.

you need to be sure the appropriate service is set to activate on the proper runlevels. The /sbin/service will automatically load the appropriate module for you. and check the status (using the status switch) of iptables.Saving Network Packet Filter Settings 3.1. 27 . The next chapter explains how to use the Piranha Configuration Tool to configure the LVS router and describe the steps necessary to activate LVS.6. stop. For iptables. see Section 2. “Configuring Services on the LVS Routers”. you are able to use the /sbin/service command to start. see Section 2. Saving Network Packet Filter Settings After configuring the appropriate network packet filters for your situation.3. For an example of how to use the /sbin/service command. For more on this. save the settings so they get restored after a reboot. type the following command: /sbin/service iptables save This saves the settings in /etc/sysconfig/iptables so they can be recalled at boot time. Finally. “Starting the Piranha Configuration Tool Service”. Once this file is written.

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verify that the piranha-gui service is running and an administrative password has been set.1. type in the hostname or real IP address for the server followed by :3636. 4. Once the browser connects. and monitor /var/log/messages during trouble shooting. If you are accessing the LVS router from another machine. “The Welcome Panel”. While configuring the primary LVS router it is a good idea to keep a concurrent ssh connection in a terminal window. If you are accessing the machine locally. you also need an ssh connection to the primary LVS router as the root user. This chapter describes the basic operation of the Piranha Configuration Tool and how to activate LVS once configuration is complete. you can open http://localhost:3636 in a Web browser to access the Piranha Configuration Tool. “Setting a Password for the Piranha Configuration Tool”. such as links. you minimally need a text-only Web browser. Important The configuration file for LVS follows strict formatting rules. you should always begin by configuring the primary router with the Piranha Configuration Tool.2. Using the Piranha Configuration Tool is the best way to prevent syntax errors in the lvs. The next four sections walk through each of the configuration pages of the Piranha Configuration Tool and give instructions on using it to set up LVS. you will see the screen shown in Figure 4. configure network packet filters. To configure LVS. Logging Into the Piranha Configuration Tool When configuring and therefore prevent software failures. To do this. This connection provides a secure way to restart pulse and other services. as described in Section 2. 4. Otherwise.2. Necessary Software The piranha-gui service must be running on the primary LVS router to use the Piranha Configuration Tool. 29 .Chapter Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool The Piranha Configuration Tool provides a structured approach to creating the necessary configuration file for LVS — /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs.

In addition. It displays the status of the pulse daemon.8. The Piranha Configuration Tool is made of four main screens or panels. 30 . the Virtual Servers panel contains four subsections. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool Figure 4. as shown in Section 4. 4.Chapter 4. “Starting LVS”. The CONTROL/MONITORING panel is the first panel after the login screen. Note The fields for CURRENT LVS ROUTING TABLE and CURRENT LVS PROCESSES remain blank until you actually start LVS.3. The Welcome Panel Click on the Login button and enter piranha for the Username and the administrative password you created in the Password field. CONTROL/MONITORING The CONTROL/MONITORING Panel presents the a limited runtime status of LVS. and the LVS-spawned nanny processes.1. the LVS routing table.

Update information now You can manually update the status information manually by clicking this button. If you encounter this issue. Doing so may make it difficult to reconfigure the Auto update interval because the page will update too frequently. 31 . simply click on another panel and then back on CONTROL/MONITORING. To enable this feature.2. GLOBAL SETTINGS The GLOBAL SETTINGS panel is where the you define the networking details for the primary LVS router's public and private network interfaces. The Auto update feature does not work with all browsers. 4. The CONTROL/MONITORING Panel Auto update The status display on this page can be updated automatically at a user configurable interval. such as Mozilla. CHANGE PASSWORD Clicking this button takes you to a help screen with information on how to change the administrative password for the Piranha Configuration Tool. It is not recommended that you set the automatic update to an interval less than 10 seconds. click on the Auto update checkbox and set the desired update frequency in the Update frequency in seconds text box (the default value is 10 seconds).4.GLOBAL SETTINGS Figure 4.

1. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool Figure 4. but doing so will mean there is no alternate heartbeat channel for the backup LVS router to use and therefore will create a single point of failure. as all real servers as well as the LVS directors share the same virtual IP addresses and should have the same IP route configuration.Chapter 4. Note The private IP address is not needed for Direct Routing configurations. These are the interfaces already configured in Section 3. 32 .3. Primary server private IP Enter the real IP address for an alternative network interface on the primary LVS node. enter the publicly routable real IP address for the primary LVS node. “Configuring Network Interfaces for LVS with NAT”.1. You may leave this field blank. “Configuring Network Interfaces for LVS with NAT”.1.1. The GLOBAL SETTINGS Panel The top half of this panel sets up the primary LVS router's public and private network interfaces. Primary server public IP In this field. This address is used solely as an alternative heartbeat channel for the backup router and does not have to correlate to the real private IP address assigned in Section 3.

5. Use network type Click the NAT button to select NAT routing. Click the Direct Routing button to select direct routing. such as eth1:1.4. These fields do not apply to the direct routing network type. “The REDUNDANCY Panel”. This floating IP should be used as the gateway for the real servers. NAT Router netmask If the NAT router's floating IP needs a particular netmask. click on the ENABLE button so that the screen matches Figure 4. 33 . To configure the backup LVS router. click the ACCEPT button to make sure you do not lose any changes when selecting a new panel. select it from drop-down list. NAT Router device Use this text field to define the device name of the network interface for the floating IP address. Note The first time you visit this screen. the private network is on the eth1 interface. REDUNDANCY The REDUNDANCY panel allows you to configure of the backup LVS router node and set various heartbeat monitoring options. so eth1:1 is the floating IP address. Note You should alias the NAT floating IP address to the Ethernet interface connected to the private network.REDUNDANCY Note The primary LVS router's private IP can be configured on any interface that accepts TCP/IP. The next three fields deal specifically with the NAT router's virtual network interface connecting the private network with the real servers. it displays an "inactive" Backup status and an ENABLE button. Warning After completing this page. NAT Router IP Enter the private floating IP in this text field. 4. In this example. whether it be an Ethernet adapter or a serial port.

34 . Redundant server private IP Enter the backup node's private real IP address in this text field. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool Figure 4. The rest of the panel is devoted to configuring the heartbeat channel. The REDUNDANCY Panel Redundant server public IP Enter the public real IP address for the backup LVS router node. The default is set to 539 if this field is left blank. Heartbeat runs on port This field sets the port at which the heartbeat communicates with the primary LVS node.Chapter 4. Heartbeat Interval (seconds) This field sets the number of seconds between heartbeats — the interval that the backup node will check the functional status of the primary LVS node. then the backup LVS router node will initiate failover. which is used by the backup node to monitor the primary node for failure. Assume dead after (seconds) If the primary LVS node does not respond after this number of seconds. go back to the GLOBAL SETTINGS panel and enter a Primary server private IP address and click ACCEPT. If you do not see the field called Redundant server private IP.4.

To enable or disable a virtual server in the table click its radio button and click the (DE)ACTIVATE button. the netmask of the virtual IP. To add a service. select it by clicking the radio button next to the virtual server and click the DELETE button. To remove a service. Each table entry shows the status of the virtual server.VIRTUAL SERVERS Warning Remember to click the ACCEPT button after making any changes in this panel to make sure you do not lose any changes when selecting a new panel. 35 .6. you can configure it by clicking the radio button to its left and clicking the EDIT button to display the VIRTUAL SERVER subsection. After adding a virtual server. the virtual IP assigned to the server. click the ADD button. 4. the protocol used. the port number to which the service communicates.5. VIRTUAL SERVERS The VIRTUAL SERVERS panel displays information for each currently defined virtual server. the server name. The VIRTUAL SERVERS Panel Each server displayed in the VIRTUAL SERVERS panel can be configured on subsequent screens or subsections. Figure 4. and the virtual device interface.

The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection The VIRTUAL SERVER subsection panel shown in Figure 4. Web servers typically communicate via the TCP protocol. “The VIRTUAL SERVERS Subsection” allows you to configure an individual virtual server.6. Since this example is for HTTP services. You can even reference the protocol used by the virtual server. so this is selected in the example above. 36 . Links to subsections related specifically to this virtual server are located along the top of the page. Application port Enter the port number through which the service application will listen. Figure 4. such as HTTP.6.Chapter 4. Virtual IP Address Enter the virtual server's floating IP address in this text field. But before configuring any of the subsections related to this virtual server. The VIRTUAL SERVERS Subsection Name Enter a descriptive name to identify the virtual server. Protocol Choose between UDP and TCP in the drop-down menu.1. This name is not the hostname for the machine. port 80 is used. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool 4.6. so make it descriptive and easily identifiable. complete this page and click on the ACCEPT button.

each real server must run the rstatd service. In this example. the public network is on the eth0 interface. Quiesce server When the Quiesce server radio button is selected. anytime a new real server node comes online.The VIRTUAL SERVER Subsection Virtual IP Network Mask Set the netmask for this virtual server with the drop-down menu. Re-entry Time Enter an integer value which defines the length of time. If you select ruptime. You should alias the public floating IP address to the Ethernet interface connected to the public network. Firewall Mark Do not enter a firewall mark integer value in this field unless you are bundling multi-port protocols or creating a multi-port virtual server for separate. “Configuring FTP” for creating a highly available FTP virtual server. the least-connections table is reset to zero so the active LVS router routes requests as if all the real servers were freshly added to the pool. “Multi-port Services and LVS” for instructions on creating multi-port services and Section 3. this technique will ensure users accessing both insecure and secure webpages are routed to the same real server. Service Timeout Enter an integer value which defines the length of time. each real server must run the rwhod service. before the active LVS router attempts to bring a real server back into the pool after a failure. so eth0:1 should be entered as the device name. in seconds. Load monitoring tool The LVS router can monitor the load on the various real servers by using either rup or ruptime. 37 . This option prevents the a new server from becoming bogged down with a high number of connections upon entering the pool. When combined with persistence. before a real server is considered dead and removed from the pool. See Section 3.4. In this example. but you must perform further configuration outside of the Piranha Configuration Tool to actually assign the firewall marks. the above virtual server has a Firewall Mark of 80 because we are bundling connections to HTTP on port 80 and to HTTPS on port 443 using the firewall mark value of 80. If you select rup from the drop-down menu. but related protocols. Warning Entering a firewall mark in this field allows IPVS to recognize that packets bearing this firewall mark are treated the same. preserving state.5. Device Enter the name of the network device to which you want the floating IP address defined the Virtual IP Address field to bind. in seconds.

4. The default is Weighted least-connection. Now. if you use load monitoring. For more on persistence and firewall marks. Warning Remember to click the ACCEPT button after making any changes in this panel. be sure that if you use firewall marks and persistence together. it is best to use persistence in relation to firewall marks to achieve the same result.3. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool Warning Load monitoring is not the same as load balancing and can result in hard to predict scheduling behavior when combined with weighted scheduling algorithms. refer to Section 1.2. you should enter a value for persistence as well. Persistence If an administrator needs persistent connections to the virtual server during client transactions. 38 . persistence limited by subnet was a crude way of bundling connections. the real servers must be Linux machines. see Section 1. “Persistence and Firewall Marks”. Also. Important If you entered a value in the Firewall Mark field above. REAL SERVER Subsection Clicking on the REAL SERVER subsection link at the top of the panel displays the EDIT REAL SERVER subsection. For more information on scheduling algorithms.5. It displays the status of the physical server hosts for a particular virtual service. select the appropriate network mask from the drop-down menu.1. “Scheduling Algorithms”. enter the number of seconds of inactivity allowed to lapse before a connection times out in this text field. To make sure you do not lose changes when selecting a new panel.Chapter 4. that the amount of persistence is the same for each virtual server with the firewall mark. Scheduling Select your preferred scheduling algorithm from the drop-down menu. Persistence Network Mask To limit persistence to particular subnet. Also.6. Note Before the advent of firewall marks.

“The REAL SERVER Configuration Panel”.8. To delete an existing server. The REAL SERVER Subsection Click the ADD button to add a new server.REAL SERVER Subsection Figure 4. as seen in Figure 4. select the radio button beside it and click the DELETE button.7. Click the EDIT button to load the EDIT REAL SERVER panel. 39 .

Since the listening port is already specified for the associated virtual server.2. The value can be arbitrary. Weight An integer value indicating this host's capacity relative to that of other hosts in the pool.8.3. “Server Weight and Scheduling”. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool Figure 4. Note This name is not the hostname for the machine. 40 . but treat it as a ratio in relation to other real servers in the pool. do not add a port number. For more on server weight.Chapter 4. so make it descriptive and easily identifiable. see Section 1. Address The real server's IP address. The REAL SERVER Configuration Panel This panel consists of three entry fields: Name A descriptive name for the real server.

This functionality is especially helpful for services that require dynamically changing data. you must write a script that returns a textual response. The EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS Subsection Sending Program For more advanced service verification.6. The EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS subsection allows the administrator to specify a send/expect string sequence to verify that the service for the virtual server is functional on each real server. To make sure you do not lose any changes when selecting a new panel. To use this functionality. and type the path to it in the Sending Program field.9. EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS Subsection Click on the MONITORING SCRIPTS link at the top of the page. Figure 4. you can use this field to specify the path to a servicechecking script. 4. such as HTTPS or SSL. It is also the place where the administrator can specify customized scripts to check services requiring dynamically changing data.3. set it to be executable. 41 .EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS Subsection Warning Remember to click the ACCEPT button after making any changes in this panel.

ASCII characters as well as the following escape characters: • \n for new line. Only one send sequence is allowed in this field. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool Note To ensure that each server in the real server pool is checked. then echo "OK else echo "FAIL" fi Note If an external program is entered in the Sending Program field.example. and it can only contain printable. For instance. use the special token %h after the path to the script in the Sending Program if [ $TEST != "1" ]. By default the send field is completed for HTTP. • \ to escape the next character which follows it. enter the response you told it to send if it was successful. Send Enter a string for the nanny daemon to send to each real server in this field. • \t for tab. FTP reports 220 upon connecting. 42 .Chapter 4. the nanny daemon attempts to open the port and assume the service is running if it succeeds. If you leave this field @$1 | grep -c dns. • \r for carriage return. you can open a telnet connection to the port on a real server and see what is returned. then the Send field is ignored. This token is replaced with each real server's IP address as the script is called by the nanny daemon. so could enter quit in the Send field and 220 in the Expect field. Note To determine what to send for a given service. Expect Enter a the textual response the server should return if it is functioning properly. If you wrote your own sending program. You can alter this value depending on your needs. The following is a sample script to use as a guide when composing an external service-checking script: #!/bin/sh TEST=`dig -t soa example.

conf and /etc/sysconfig/iptables files do not change when you configure LVS using the Piranha Configuration Tool. Once you have configured virtual servers using the Piranha Configuration is created or updated.7. See Section 4. Important To use scp the sshd must be running on the backup router. see Section 2.Synchronizing Configuration Files Warning Remember to click the ACCEPT button after making any changes in this files. Important The /etc/sysctl.7. there are several configuration files that must be copied to the backup LVS router before you start Anytime the LVS configuration file.7. Synchronizing lvs. Issue the following command as the root user from the primary LVS router to sync the lvs. To make sure you do not lose any changes when selecting a new panel. you should synchronize one of these files based on which network packet filter you are using. /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs. Warning Both the active and backup LVS router nodes must have identical lvs. you must copy specific configuration files to the backup LVS router.1. Synchronizing Configuration Files After configuring the primary LVS router. you must copy it to the backup LVS router node. turns on packet forwarding in the — the configuration file for the LVS routers. “Configuring Services on the LVS Routers” for details on how to properly configure the necessary services on the LVS routers. • /etc/sysconfig/iptables — If you are using firewall marks. 4. • /etc/sysctl — the configuration file that. These files include: • /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs. Mismatched LVS configuration files between the LVS router nodes can prevent failover. 4.1. “Synchronizing Configuration Files” for files 43 between the router nodes: . The best way to do this is to use the scp command. among other things.

n.n. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool scp /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs. 4. you will need to synchronize the appropriate configuration file on the backup LVS router. enter the following command as root from the primary LVS router: scp /etc/sysconfig/iptables n.7. Synchronizing Network Packet Filtering Rules If you are using n.n with the real IP address of the backup LVS router. the pulse daemon has started properly: gratuitous lvs arps finished To stop watching /var/log/messages.n.3. Important If you are not sure whether or not packet forwarding is enabled in the kernel. see Section 2.n.5. watch the kernel log messages with the command: tail -f /var/log/messages Then start LVS by typing the following command into the other terminal: /sbin/service pulse start Follow the progress of the pulse service's startup in the terminal with the kernel log messages. enable this key functionality. type Ctrl+c.n:/etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs. “Configuring Services on the LVS Routers” for more on this topic) you are ready to start LVS. it is best to have two root terminals open simultaneously or two simultaneous root open ssh sessions to the primary LVS router.n.n with the real IP address of the backup LVS router. Starting LVS To start LVS. 44 .7. Next either open an ssh session to the backup router or log into the machine as root and type the following command: /sbin/service iptables restart Once you have copied these files over to the backup router and started the appropriate services (see Section 2. In one terminal. When you see the following output. replace n. If you alter the any network packet filter rules. This file is read at boot time and tells the kernel to turn on packet forwarding.n.Chapter 4. if necessary.n. replace n.1.8. Synchronizing sysctl The sysctl file is only modified once in most situations. In the command.2.n:/etc/sysconfig/ In the command. 4.n. “Turning on Packet Forwarding” for instructions on how to check and.

After completing this final step. simply repeat the process described above on the backup LVS router node. LVS will be up and running. you should start the backup LVS router before putting LVS into service.Starting LVS From this point on. 45 . the primary LVS router is also the active LVS router. While you can make requests to LVS at this point. To do this.

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This combination of LVS and Red Hat Cluster allows for the configuration of a high-integrity. and application availability. Client requests to the URL pass through the firewall to the active LVS load-balancing router. “LVS with a Red Hat Cluster” represents an e-commerce site used for online merchandise ordering through a URL. no-single-point-of-failure e-commerce site. LVS with a Red Hat Cluster Serving dynamic Web content with LVS requires a three-tier configuration (as shown in Figure A.1.1.Appendix A. The configuration in Figure A. A three-tier configuration is required to provide dynamic content. “LVS with a Red Hat Cluster”).1. The Red Hat Cluster can run a high-availability instance of a database or a set of databases that are network-accessible to the Web servers. data integrity. The Red Hat Cluster nodes serve dynamic data to the Web servers. While a two-tier LVS configuration is suitable if the Web servers serve only static Web content (consisting of small amounts of infrequently 47 . Figure A. which then forwards the requests to one of the Web servers. which forward the data to the requesting client. Using LVS with Red Hat Cluster You can use LVS routers with a Red Hat Cluster to deploy a high-availability e-commerce site that provides load balancing.

Appendix A. if a Web server fails. Each tier provides the following functions: • First tier — LVS routers performing load-balancing to distribute Web requests. In an LVS configuration like the one in Figure A. which must be consistent on all the Web servers to ensure that customers have access to up-to-date and accurate information. Behind the firewall are LVS load-balancing routers. Each Web server can independently process an HTTP request from a client and send the response back to the client. • Second tier — A set of Web servers to serve the requests.1. it can be removed. or customer databases. which can be configured in an active-standby mode. Using LVS with Red Hat Cluster changing data). the LVS routers perform load balancing across a wider set of Web servers. LVS continues to perform load balancing across a smaller set of Web servers. “LVS with a Red Hat Cluster”. you can configure firewall devices in a failover configuration. client systems issue requests on the World Wide Web. a two-tier configuration is not suitable if the Web servers serve dynamic content. LVS enables you to expand a Web site's capacity by adding Web servers behind the LVS routers. these requests enter a Web site through a firewall. In addition. which can be a Linux system serving in that capacity or a dedicated firewall device. For security reasons. • Third tier — A Red Hat Cluster to serve data to the Web servers. 48 . purchase orders. Dynamic content could include product inventory. For redundancy. The active load-balancing router forwards the requests to the set of Web servers.

com 49 .0 Mon Feb 08 2010 Paul Kennedy Resolves: 492000 Changes -d to -s in arptables "OUT" directive in "Direct Routing and arptables_jf" section.Appendix B.0 Tue Jan 20 2009 Consolidation of point releases Paul Kennedy pkennedy@redhat. Revision History Revision 2. Revision 1.

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15 login panel. 7. hardware. 1 routing methods NAT. 11 primary node. 43 three-tier Red Hat Cluster Manager. 11 M multi-port services. network. 11 LVS routers configuring services. 13 ipvsadm program. 23 FTP. 20 F feedback. job. 1 packet forwarding. 17 overview of. 47 components of LVS. 11 shared data. software. 47 lvs daemon. 6 routing prerequisites. 44 synchronizing configuration files. 13 ipvsadm program. 20 C chkconfig. 30 EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS Subsection. viii. 11 NAT enabling. 7. 19 initial configuration. 3 using LVS with Red Hat Cluster. 11 pulse daemon. 11 A arptables_jf. 16 (see also LVS) Piranha Configuration Tool. 13 multi-port services. real servers. 19 requirements. 16 Piranha Configuration Tool. 11 job scheduling.Index Symbols /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs. 36 51 . 19 requirements. 17 requirements. 23 (see also LVS) J job scheduling. 3 starting LVS. 11 NAT routing enabling. v iptables. 19 routing methods. 7. 4 lvs daemon. 24 nanny daemon. 24 (see also LVS) I introduction. 13 P packet forwarding. 13 necessary services. 17 requirements. LVS) LVS /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs. software. 14 VIRTUAL SERVER subsection. 11 CONTROL/MONITORING. 41 GLOBAL SETTINGS. 20 requirements. 11 real servers. 6 network address translation (see NAT) L least connections (see job scheduling. 17 scheduling. 29 REAL SERVER subsection. 13 cluster using LVS with Red Hat Cluster. 31 limiting access to. LVS. LVS. file. 4 N nanny daemon. 29 overview of. 33 setting a password. 11 D direct routing and arptables_jf. 4 send_arp program. 11 daemon. 11 components of. 19 requirements. 29 necessary software. network. 38 REDUNDANCY. 3 direct routing and file. 11 date replication. viii FTP. v other Red Hat Enterprise Linux documents.

47 round robin (see job scheduling. 15 send_arp program. 17 S scheduling. LVS) routing prerequisites for LVS. job (LVS). LVS) 52 .Index Firewall Mark. 11 pulse service. 47 using LVS with. 14 pulse daemon. 37 Persistence. 43 W weighted least connections (see job scheduling. 16 Red Hat Cluster and LVS. 36 VIRTUAL SERVERS. 13 R real servers configuring services. 38 Virtual IP Address. 13 piranha-passwd. LVS) weighted round robin (see job scheduling. 13 synchronizing configuration files. 35 piranha-gui service. 11 sshd service. 4 security Piranha Configuration Tool. 38 Scheduling.

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