Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism.

Hence, a tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.

Plant tissues
Plant tissues are categorized broadly into three tissue systems: the epidermis, the ground tissue, and the vascular tissue. Together they are often referred to as biomass.
• • •

Epidermis - Cells forming the outer surface of the leaves and of the young plant body. Vascular tissue - The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These transport fluid and nutrients internally. Ground tissue - Ground tissue is less differentiated than other tissues. Ground tissue manufactures nutrients by photosynthesis and stores reserve nutrients.

Plant tissues can also be divided differently into two types:
1. Meristematic tissues

2. Permanent tissues

Meristematic tissues
The growth of plant occurs only in certain specific regions. At these regions, the meristematic tissues are present. New cells produced by meristem are initially those of meristem itself, but as they grow and mature, their characteristics slowly change and they become differentiated as components of other tissues. Depending on the region of occurrence of meristimatic tissues they are classified as: a) Apical Meristem - It is present at the growing tips of stems and roots and increases the length of the stem and root. The girth of the stem or root increases due to lateral meristem (cambium).They form growing parts at the apices of roots and stems and are responsible for increase in length,also called primary growth.This meristem is responsible for the linear growth of an organ. b) Lateral Meristem - This meristem consist of cells which mainly divide in one plane and cause the organ to increase in diameter and growth. Lateral Meristem usually occurs beneath the bark of the tree in the form of Cork Cambium and in vascular bundles of dicots in the form of vascular cambium. The activity of this cambium results in the formation of secondary growth. c) Intercalary Meristem - This meristem is located in between permanent tissues. It is usually present at the base of node, inter node and on leaf base. They are responsible for growth in length of the plant. The cells of meristematic tissues are similar in structure and have thin and elastic primary cell wall made up of cellulose. They are compactly arranged without inter-cellular spaces between them. Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles. Normally the meristematic cells are oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape. Meristemetic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, they have no inter cellular spaces.

Permanent tissues
The meristematic tissues that take up a specific role lose the ability to divide. This process of taking up a permanent shape, size and a function is called cellular differentiation. Cells of meristematic tissue differentiate to form different types of permanent tissue. There are 2 types of permanent tissues:

They mainly occur in the cortex epidermis. It is absent in monocots and in roots. Complex permanent tissue A complex permanent tissue may be classified as a group of more than one type of tissue having a common origin and working together as a unit to perform a function. It mainly consist of thin-walled cells which have inter-cellular spaces between them.Fibres are long.Simple permanent tissues These tissues are called simple because they are composed of similar types of cells which have common origin and function. protein. Sclerenchyma Parenchyma Parenchyma is Greek word where "parn" means besides and "enchien" means to pour. Lignin deposition is so thick that the cell walls become strong. Chlorenchyma 3. and inorganic waste materials. as well as in the mesophyll of leaves. Collenchyma Collenchyma is Greek word where "Collen" means gum and "enchyma" means infusion. It is present in margin of leaves and resist tearing effect of the wind. It provides mechanical support. spherical. they appear as hexagonal net in transverse section. The cells are cemented with the help of lamella. Each parenchymatous cell is iso-diametric. This tissue consists of thick-walled. secondary xylem and phloem. Sclerenchymatous cells mainly occur in hypodermis. 2. mineral. stem. It occurs chiefly in hypodermis of stems and leaves. Sclerenchyma Sclerenchyma is Greek word where "Sclrenes" means hard and "enchyma" means infusion. Sclerides. It is made of pectin. Chlorenchyma The cells of this tissue are characterized by having chloroplasts (containing chlorophyll). They are called sclerides. lamellated. It is widely distributed in various plant organs like root. or oval in shape. elasticity. and tensile strength to the plant body. lignin. These tissues are concerned with transportation of water. They also store waste products such as gums. It is a living tissue of primary body like Parenchyma. Sclerenchymatous cells are closely packed without inter-cellular spaces between them. rigid and impermeable to water. The cells of sclerenchymatous cells can be classified as : 1. The middle lamella is a wall that lies between adjacent cells.Sclerenchymatous cells which are short and possess extremely thick. Collenchyma 4. It is found in the palisade and spongy tissues in the green leaves and the stem cortex of the herbs where photosynthesis occurs. pericycle. Parenchyma is the most specialized primitive tissue. Function:-The main function of Sclerenchymatous tissues is to give support to the plant. These cells have hard and extremely thick secondary walls due to uniform distribution of lignin. It helps in manufacturing sugar and storing it as starch. The main function of parenchymatous tissue is assimilation and storage of reserve food materials like starch. They also occur in endocorp of almond and coconut. and pith. Cells are thin-walled but possess thickening of cellulose and pectin substances at the corners where number of cells join together. fats and proteins. nutrients and organic substances. resins. flowers and fruits. phloem. . lignified walls with long singular piths. Fibres. The cell wall is made up of cellulose. Thus. leaf. They are further classified into: 1. The important complex tissues in vascular plants are xylem. Function:-Collenchymatous tissue acts as a supporting tissue in stems of young plants. Parenchyma 2. This tissue gives a tensile strength to the plant and the cells are compactly arranged and do not have intercellular spaces. dead cells. elongated sclerenchymatous cells with pointed ends.

Plant Tissues The plant body is made up of different kinds of tissues. if an insect injures a cell and the pressure drops. It is the companion cells that are nestled between sieve-tube members that function in some manner bringing about the conduction of food. tracheids and ray cells. Protective Tissues . The pit pairs allow water to pass from cell to cell. These cells are joined end to end to form long tubes. It is responsible for conduction of water and inorganic solutes. They can be classified into simple and complex. However. unlike vessel members in xylem. They do not have end openings such as the vessels. In their earlier stages the cells are more or less similar in structure but slowly they become specialized and form permanent tissues. Permanent Tissues These tissues are derived from meristematic tissues. This usually also includes fibers. are full of small pores where cytoplasm extends from cell to cell. ingestion.Xylem Xylem is a chief. the callose will precipitate. ray will radiate out from the center of stems and roots and in cross-section will look like the spokes of a wheel. These porous connections are called sieve plates. Callose stays in solution as long at the cell contents are under pressure. Tracheids have thick secondary cell walls and are tapered at the ends. It carries water and dissolved substances throughout and consists of a combination of parenchyma cells. because of the increase in body size. and other woody plants. do not have openings. Every organism. excretion and reproduction. In spite of the fact that their cytoplasm is actively involved in the conduction of food materials. while vessel members are open at each end. As a repair mechanism. The tracheids ends overlap with each other. In multicellular organisms. there is some side-to-side or lateral conduction via rays. sieve-tube members do not have nuclei at maturity. They have lost the power of dividing. The end walls. Meristematic Tissues (Meristems) The main function of meristematic tissue is to continuously form a number of new cells and help in growth. So cells group together to perform definite functions. parenchyma and ray cells. that are without secondary walls. the callose and a phloem protein will be moved through the nearest sieve plate where they will for a plug. whether its body is unicellular or multicellular. vessels. fibers. Phloem Primarily. is capable of performing all vital functions such as respiration. having attained their definite form and size. This conduction system is composed of sieve-tube member and companion cells. conducting tissue of vascular plants. phloem carries dissolved food substances throughout the plant. This prevents further leakage of sieve tube contents and the injury is not necessarily fatal to overall plant turgor pressure. In trees. The parent cells of the vascular cambium produce both xylem and phloem. Sieve-tube members that are alive contain a polymer called callose. however. Rays are horizontal rows of long-living parenchyma cells that arise out of the vascular cambium. it is difficult for each cell to efficiently cope with the vast variety of the physiological needs of the organism. Long tubes made up of individual cells are the vessels. The end walls. with pairs of pits present. Vessel members and tracheids are dead at maturity. Sieve tubes are formed from sieve-tube members laid end to end. While most conduction in the xylem is up and down.

Complex Tissues Complex tissues are made up of more than one type of cells and they work together as a unit. The movement of the body is brought about by the contraction and relaxation of contractile protein present in muscle cells. salt and prepared food material to various parts of the plant body. They transport water. There are three types of simple tissues: • Parenchyma . Epithelial Tissue This is a connective tissue in which the ground substance or matrix is composed of elastin. It is one cell thick and covered with cutin and protects the underlying tissues present in the plant body. The plant body is made up of different kinds of tissues. They have lost the power of dividing. Simple Tissues A simple tissue is made up of one type of cells forming a uniform mass. which is impregnated with salts of calcium and magnesium. Animal Tissues Cells are organized into four types of tissues in higher animals including man. Classification of Plant Tissues These tissues are derived from meristematic tissues. Muscular Tissue Muscles of the body are made up of elongated muscle cells also known as muscle fibre. In their earlier stages the cells are more or less similar in structure but slowly they become specialized and form permanent tissues. having attained their definite form and size.hese tissues are usually present in the outermost layer of the plant body such as leaves. They can be classified into simple and complex. stem and roots.

• • Collenchyma Sclerenchyma Parenchyma Parenchyma Nature • • • • • • Cells are isodiametric i. crystals and resins • Collenchyma . ground tissue in stems and mesophyll of leaves. polygonal or elongated. Parenchyma which contain chlorophyll are called chlorenchyma. Intercellular spaces may be present. • Occurrence Found in the cortex of root.e. The cell walls are thin and made of cellulose. equally expanded on all sides. gum. May contain chlorophyll. They may be oval. round. Cytoplasm is dense with a single large vacuole. Nucleus is present and hence living. Function • • • Store and assimilate food Give mechanical strength by maintaining turgidity Prepare food if chlorophyll is present Store waste products like tanin.

Vacuoles are small. Sclerenchyma . Function • • Provide mechanical support to the stem. oval or polygonal in cross-section. Cell wall is unevenly thickened with cellulose at the corners against the intercellular spaces. these cells readily adapt themselves to the rapid elongation of the stem. Being extensible. Intercellular spaces are generally absent. Nucleus is present and hence the tissue is living. • Occurrence Found under the skin i. below the epidermis in dicot stems. If they contain chlorophyll they are known as chlorenchyma.Collenchyma Nature • • • • • The cells are elongated and are circular.e.

hard and strongly lignified. oblique pits in the walls. Function Gives mechanical support to the plant by giving rigidity. They are isodiametric. their length varying from 1 mm to 550 mm. narrow.As seen in longitudinal section As seen in trans-section Nature • • • • • The cells are long. usually pointed at both ends. Occurrence Found abundantly in stems of plants like hemp. The middle lamella i. jute and coconut. The flesh of the pear and guava are sometimes gritty due to the presence of selereids. Sclereids . phloem. slightly elongated or irregular in shape. hard seeds. They have simple often. Their function is to give firmness and hardness to the part concerned. polyhedral. flexibility and elasticity to the plant body. The cell wall is evenly thickened with lignin and sometimes is so thick that the cell cavity or lumen is absent. pith.e. the wall between adjacent cells is conspicuous. nuts and stony fruit. Nucleus is absent and hence the tissue is made up of dead cells. Sclereids These are special sclerenchymatous cells found in the cortex. thick and lignified. These cells are very thick walled.

Cell walls are thickened with lignin. The cells are dead. The transverse walls between the cells are almost dissolved forming a continuous channel or water-pipe. Complex tissues are of two types. They occur along with phloem to form the vascular bundle. salt and prepared food material to various parts of the plant body.Complex tissues are made up of more than one type of cells and they work together as a unit. The cells are dead. The cells are dead. Xylem sclerenchyma These are sclerenchymatous cells and form the wood in older plants. . They transport water. stem and leaves. They are: • • • Tracheids Vessels or tracheae Xylem parenchyma Xylem sclerenchyma • Nature Tracheids These are elongated cells with sloping walls enclosing a large empty cavity. Xylem parenchyma These are made up of parenchymatous cells. Xylem Xylem or wood is a conducting tissue and is composed of elements of different kinds. Vessels or trachea These are cylindrical tube-like structures formed by a row of cells placed end to end. They are thin walled and are living. Occurrence Found in the root. Function: • • Conduct water and minerals upwards from the roots to the stem and leaves. Cells that are lignified to give mechanical strength to the plant. • Xylem Phloem (bast) • Xylem and Phloem are also called vascular tissue and together they constitute vascular bundles.

Phloem Parenchyma These are ordinary parenchymatous cells and are living. . placed end-to-end forming a slender tubular structure. Transverse walls are perforated forming a sieve plate. Occurrence Phloem is found in all parts of the plantlike roots. The cells are dead. They occur together with the xylem to form the vascular bundle. Elements of phloem Nature Sieve Tubes The cell walls are thin and the cells elongated. They are absent in monocot stems. Function The function of the phloem is to conduct prepared food from the leaves to the growing parts of the plant and the storage organs. stem and leaves. Companion cells Associated with the sieve tube is a small cell containing dense cytoplasm and a large elongated nucleus. Bast Fibres These are sclerenchymatous cells. Cytoplasm of one sieve element is continuous with those of the sieve elements above and below by cytoplasmic connections passing through the pores of the sieve plate.Tracheids with scalariform pits Phloem (bast) Phloem or bast is also a conducting tissue and is composed of elements of different kinds.

Therefore. Xylem Transport . It occurs through tracheary elements of xylem. Consists of mainly dead elements 1. and growing parts of the body Introduction to xylem and phloem transport: Conducting tissue of plants are complex permanent tissues. Second is the region of storage. some organic nitrogen and hormones. Therefore. Storage area is used as a source only when the photosynthetic region or supply end is deficient during early spring in deciduous plants. Is a complex tissue 2. developing leaves.Xylem and Phloem Transport Translocation of organic nutrients is a long distance passage of organic substances from the region of their source or supply to the area of their sink or utilization. mostly from leaves to other parts. transpiration pull lifts the water column upwardly like as there are a very a rope. Conducts prepared food from the leaves to storage organs aerial parts of the plant. It is also known as Dixon’s theory of ascent of sap. The rate of ascent of sap is 10-75 cm/min. It is sufficient to overcome resistance of water conducting channels to transpiring mesophyll cells. Ascent of sap or translocation of water is usually upward movement of water or sap from root towards the top of the body. fruits and the storage region. Consists of living tissue Phloem 3. It consists of mature foliage. Storage region also functions as a source during formation of fruits. Transpiration creates a pull over water column which is lifted upwards like a rope and is not broken due to presence of strong cohesion force amongst its molecules. mineral salts. storage region functions both as source and sink. Xylem takes part in translocation from roots to aerial parts of mainly water. As a result thesophll cells withdraw water from xylem channels as large number of leaves with each leaf having thousands of transpiring mesophll cells. Phloem Transport .Sieve-tube in transection In a nutshell Xylem and Phloem can be summarized like this: Xylem 1. . They are of two types. The sink area consists of meristems. transpiration pull over the water column called transpiration pull force of transpiration pull is -10 to -30 bars. Phloem translocates organic and some inorganic solutes. xylem and phloem xylem and phloem helps in translocation. One is the region of manufacture or photosynthesis. Is a complex tissue 2. Mesophyll cells transpire water and develop a strong negative water potential.Xylem and Phloem Transport The water absorbed by the plants is also called sap because it is actually a dilute solution of minerals. Conducts water and minerals from the roots to the 3. Therefore. flowers. There are two regions of source or supply of organic nutrients.

Movement of solute is both upwards and downwards or bidirectional. travels across root cortex to the xylem and ascends in the xylem to the leaves. Water in the soil is at a higher water potential and water in atmosphere is at a lower potential. Water is brought to the leaves in the xylem vessels and can escape easily through their cellulose walls to the mesophyll cells of leaves. the symplast pathway (cytoplasm and plasmodesmata) and the vacuolar pathway (from vacuole to vacuole). According to mass flow or pressure flow hypothesis. Conclusion on Xylem and Phloem Transport Xylem and phloem are the vascular tissues of the plants which take over the major function of transportation of substances. The pressure gradient develops due to loading of phloem with organic solutes in the region of source and phloem unloading in the area of sink. These three pathways end with transpiration. Such transport in plants occurring through the conducting or vascular tissues of plants is called translocation. In vascular plants. Transport in Plants through Xylem • • Xylem translocates mainly water and mineral salts (as well as some organic nitrogen and hormones) from the roots to the aerial parts of the plants. They are made of various types of cells which help in translocation. The channel for this transport comprises sieve tubes in angiosperms and sieve cells in non-angiospermic vascular plants. Transport in plants is a process by which water. • • • Water enters plant through roothairs. Water moves from high to low potential down a gradient through plant. It is in contrast to unidirectional movement of water. • The cohesion tension theory is the most important theory explaining the ascent of sap during the transport in plants.The apoplast pathway is the most vital. . The three pathways water can follow during the transport in plants are the apoplast pathway (cell walls).mineral salts as well as food are distributed throughout the plant body. organic substances flow in solution form in sieve elements due to development of an osmotically generated pressure gradient between source and sink ends. Such gradient is maintained by solar energy and transpiration. the vascular tissues involved in the transport in plants are highly specialized tissues called xylem and phloem.

Transport in Plants through Phloem • • Phloem deals with the transport of various organic and inorganic solutes.• The uptake of mineral ions by roots is a combination of passive uptake where ions move by mass flow and diffusion through the apoplast and active uptake where ions are taken up into cells against concentration gradient using energy from respiration. mainly from the leaves or storage organs to other parts of the plant. a mass flow of solution occurs through sieve tubes as explained by Munch’s mass flow hypothesis or pressure flow hypothesis. About 90% of the total solute carried in the phloem during the transport in plants is the carbohydrate sucrose that can be converted at the destination back into respective monosaccharides glucose and fructose. • This sort of transport in plants occurs through the sieve tubes. Actually. .

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