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Exposed and
e Origin, Hisiry irs Effects
;

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Dar Rm. GV1547 A75
1862

the Christian

a Key to all onry; giving a tiio Manner of
jgrecs, as prac-

hout the Olobe. $0 25

ne-Teller Price
of

and
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foretelling

lodiac, Lists of Avith Presages

ce of Foretell)ominoes, &c. ure Events by .tions, to be rcof the year, by other insights ined, but more Courtship and

w Method,
ly.

A new

as and

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and Breaking with his Img Young Colts ho Saddle, the with ten cn-

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in

Since

England and

d in London a

:-Taming on his cr one hundred en sold, at half 5 new edition of iondon Edition,

and

is superior kind printed in

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,

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Pettengill's Perfect Fortune-Teller & Dream-Book ; or, The Art of Discerning Futaro Events, as practiced by Modern Seers and Astrologers. Being also a Key to the Hidden Mysteries of the Middle Ages. To wiiich is added, Curious aud

ae BiiuuTO «, „vi)k. It costs but trifle, and you' will positively find it an excellent guide in the management of that noble animal. lA handsome book of 64pages. Price
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12

Knowlson's Farrier

Amusing Charms, Invocations, Signs, &c., &c. By Peletiah Pettengill,
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Horse Doctor. We have printed a new and revised edition of this celebrated book, which contains Knowlson's fanrNJUs Recipe for the Cure of Spavin, and other new matter. This new edition is the neatest and most convenient one that has been issued, being a small-sized book for the pocket, and containing a full and complete index. There is no disease to which the Horse is liable, that this book docs not explain and point out the mode of treatment and the remedy. We sell our new edition (64 pages, 18mo) at
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of reference 3,000 abbreviations for the solution of all literary mysteries. By Edwakd S. C. CouRXENEYjEsq. This Everybody should is a very useful book. get a copy.

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^M.C

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iJfU

THE

MAGICIAN'S

OWN

BOOK,

OR THS

WHOLE ART OF CONJURING.
BEING A

COMPLETE HAND-BOOK OF PARLOR MAGIC,
AND CONTAINING

OYER ONE THOUSAND
UPTICAL, CHEMICAL, MECHANICAL, MAGXETICAL, AND MAGICAL EIPERIMKNT8, AMUSING TRANSMUTATIONS, ASTONISHING SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES, CELEBRATED CARD DECEPTIONS, INGE^^OUS TRICKS WITH NUMBERS, CURIOUS AND ENTERTAINING PUZZLES, TOGETHER WITH ALL THE MOST NOTED TRICKS OF MOFERN PERFORMERS.

THE WHOLE

niiTJSTRATED

WITH OVER

500

WOOD
FOS

CUTS,

ITD INTSNDSD AS A SOUBOB 07

AMTTSBlCEirr

ONE THOUSAND AND ONE EVENINGS
DICK
<fe

NEW YORK: FITZGERALD, 18 ANN STREET.
1862.

. t»r DICK & FITZGERALD. In the Clerk's Ofiace of the District Court for the Southern District of New York.Entered according to Act of Congress. In the year 185T.

To do this is what the publishers propose in the issue of this volume and they flatter themselves. may all not be inappropriate as a preface to The Magician's Own Book. They are called forth circle. that these effects are developed. tion . necromancy. all Sleight of hand. therefore. since the " black art. Some brief remarks. and and thought he may devote to the are acquisition of the necessary skill and dexterity. the more it engages our fancy and are mystified in fascinates our attention." as a pecuniary speculation. to enable the domestic group to master and enjoy it in all its ever. And it is not only when we public. magic. PREFACE. a useful thing to place all source of harmless amusement within the reach of its eccentricities. can readily appreciate. and in the presence of crowds. cajoled in great saloons. &c. it will prepare the into Toung Conjuror ample repay him to convert the parlor. to gather up the more available of It would seem." as in lessen lightened ages the practice of is these innocent and interesting feats was termed. The publishers of this interesting volume do not conceive that it requires an elaborate introduction to the reading public. in legerdemain. There a charm old.varying phases of novelty and gratification. that all. whether it young or spectator. who can relish and instead of leaving it in the hands of " professors. The parlor student. by the performances whose ingenuity of these practhis even of some humble artist in the family mind has enabled him tical puzzles.. a place of genuine entertainment for himself and for the little time companions. There is a mystery in that piques the understanding as well as provokes the curiosity of the If the trick be executed with address. however.. at any desirable his moment. [3] . terms of art applicable to the same series of performances. or sleight of hand. it it excites our admira- and the simpler appears. that if carefully studied. is not yet as popularly understood in this country as is it abroad.

the parlor needs some increase in it its means of social amusement. not always wholesome. creates an appetite for outside attractions. so unim- peachable in nature. always tempting. The publishers only consider list The Magician's Own Book character . upon which these therefore. afford innoxious Enigmas and puzzles. . independent of his his own account its at home. The number This weariness embraces is extremely limited. and so mirth provoking in its results. to present an may be made ever-changing. that gentleman furnished clear and simple explanations to parlor feats many of his most surprising and fancies. and too often insidiously fills pernicious. am- usement to thousands. This will be a new source of ability to turn " Conjuror " on pleasure to him. notwithstanding all the show of gorgeous paraphernalia and auxiliary machinery employed. as well as the piquant source of good humor- we would say. while the ? little practitioner only holds the key to the mystery In truth. therefore. many of which print. Acting Charades are common. " is but a puzzle repeated to those tacitly who behold each one of whom expected to guess how accomplished. They soon weary. stay-at- home inducement. and deceptions. John Wyman. The Magician's Own Book nicely It up. the void in the category of parlor recreations. and ed bamboozlement. having kindly the celebrated magician. In conclusion in this shape becomes a moral assistant of no unimportant description. and for many of which the publishers beg to acknowledge their indebtedness to Mr. Nor can we well conceive of any rational objection likely to be urged against a kind of knowledge. that the Magician's Own Book con- tains a great variety of curious tricks have never before appeared in Junior. in pantomime and speech. even among the most fastidious families. once familiar with the general principles " experiments " are effected. the modus operandi of every one of them he may witness in public.IV PREFACE. will find little difficulty in comprehending at a glance. a new addition to the current for of entertainments of that what is a sleight of hand feat but an enigma placed ? before the spectator for solution What it is is a trick in " natural magic it.

51 To Conjure Nuts in your Ear.. The Infallible Prophet. The Beads and Strings. - - - hole.. - 11 - the Hand.. 59 » Philosophy Cheated. rAov The Burned Handkerchief Eestored. 8 Wyman's Gun Trick. New Perpetual Rotary Motion.. 11 Dollars pass through a Wine Glass. 47 out letting the right hand approach The Enchanted Coin. 46 The Old" Man and his Chair.. 63 The Hat and Cannon Ball Trick. 863 19 Advantageous Wager The Double Meaning. 48 it. - - - . 21 The Card told by an Opera Glass.21 To Tell a Card by its Back. . three unseen Cards. - - . 80 The Surprise. 854 The Knotted Handkerchief. • 80 Heads and Tails. • 82 The Slipped Card. The Three Cups.. 58 An Omelet Cooked in a Hat.86 The Fire Eater. 61 The Vanished Half Dime.. or Impossibilities The Gordian Knot. .. 23 .41 The Magic Funnel. 18 The Magnetized Cane.. 56 22 The Four Kings. 19 The Knotted Thread. 12 The Egyptian Fluids. - . The Impossible Omelet.INDEX. 49 The Cut Stri% Restored. The Three Spoons. 24 To guess the Card thought of. - .. 50 The Knot Loosened. 20 Tricks and Deceptions fv^ith 20 . 44 To tie a Handkerchief round your Leg. To tie a Knot in a Handkerchief which Cannot be drawn Tight.22 The Four Accomplices. in a Circle of Ten. 14 Wyman's Mode of performing the Egg Bag Trick. 18 The Tape Trick. . 58 ..44 To change a Dime to a Quarter. 83 ... . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. 10 The Mysterious Coin.. . 68 The Fish and Ink Trick. 61 The Flying Coins. 65 21 The Card named without being seen. 33 To ascertain the number of Points on The Egg and Bag Trick. 62 Tiie Restored Document. To pull a String through your Buttona China Plate. 82 The Nailed Card.. 60 The Disappearing Dime. To Cause Water and Wine to Change 21 To Make the Pass.. 84 To tell the numbers on two unseen Cards.. 6 The Magic Bottle. 860 The Erratic Egg. 81 The Revolution.. The Flying Dime. The Doll Trick. Houdin's Nut Trick. . . a Table. or How to Make The Magic Handcuffs. 85 8 The Egg Box Trick. . 52 To Crack Walnuts in your Elbow. . and get it off Without Untying the Knot. (another method.56 The Toper's Stratagem. 860 The Obedient Dime. To Take Feathers out of an Empty 52 14 The Dancing Automaton. . withA Magician's Box Explained. 27 Audacity. 64 64 The Bell and Shot Trick. 62 The ^ra2ic Rings. The Hat and Die Trick.. The Jugglers Joke. 41 7 The Bottle Trick. 64 83 The Dancing Egg. Places. Gl The Penetrative Cents. 23 To Tell the Card thought of. 37 5 The Handkerchief Trick. • . . Handkerchief. or Is it Possible. 59 26 To tell the number of Cards by Weight.) 86 5 The Coffee Trick. 12 Accomplished. - . i - I I ' .. 855 16 The Flight of the Ring... • 80 To call the Cards out of the Pack. 13 The Magician's Snow Ball. 20 Cards. . . 19 The Transposable Pieces. . The FJying Dime. 861 The Prisoner Released. 14 The Invisible Sprines. • 84 The Knaves and the Constable. 46 The Magic Bond.. 29 The Card found under the Hat. 63 The Dime in the Ball of Cotton. Tricks. 8 The Hatched Bird.. 856 Conjuring a Ring. To get a Ring out of a Handkerchief. 8 The Apple and Orange Trick. The Miraculous Apple... 27 The Card found at the second guess 61 . and fall into Sleight of Band . 55 The Wizard's Wit. 86 4 The Globe Box Trick. CVJ . 17 The Magic Book. 47 To tie a Knot on the Left Wrist. 42 The Magic Quarter. .

- To Make Paper Apparently Incombusj i Spontaneous Combustion.111 Camphor Sublimated by Flame. 112 Fiery Fountain. Opaque Mass..103 Proof that Flame is Hollow. 86 86 Mimic Rain. io4 Curious Change of Colors. - - Tlie Quadruple Deal. The Triple Deal. 112 Cumbustion without Flame.. The Surprising Experiments with Potas89 sium.. . Sublimation by Heat. 106 . from Crystallization." To tell the Names of the Cards by . 113 Rose Colored Flame upon Water. 111 Green Fire. Two Solids Make a Liquid. Iu6 Changes of the Rose. 108 Water of different Temperatures in the 109 same Vessel.1 13 113 Flame upon Water. 110 Ill Magic Vapor. Solid Changed to a Liquid. . . The Card Discovered by the Touch Smell. 1C7 Instantaneous Flame.109 Substitute for Fire. a colored - 70 71 73 Change of Color.. The Metamorphosis. To Change a Card in a Person's Hand. To Hold a Hot Tea Kettle on the Hand. . - • . 90 The Magical Illumination. 106 . 103 The Spectral Lamp. or Two colorless Transparent Liquids be- The Ingenious Confederacy. Tin. 113 ' - - .. 84 65 The Silver Tree. Veritable " Black " Tea. Ic.. . 357 858 The Double Dozen. Masfie of Heat.. 11^ Water from the Flame of a Candlo. - . Colored Flames. 105 To Change the Colors of Flowers. 105 The Protean Light. 108 . The Cards in the Vase. - 100 100 100 ICO 101 101 101 The Same Agent may Produce and 102 102 102 Two Bitters Make a Sweet. PAGE PAO« Magic Inks.. 112 Purple Fire.VI LMDEX. Light changing White into Black.. lol Two cold Liquids Make a Hot one. and intense Cold from the Liquefaction. The Trick of " Thirty-one. - their Weight. 112 Silver Fire.> Melted bv Air..106 The Visibly Growing Acorn. "Wonderful Experiments in Combustion. Solid. do. - - . . . The Card in the Egg. - Magic of Chemistry.. Metals unequally Influenced ' - - by Heat. . A Floating Metal on Fira. Phosphorus in Chlorine. Incombustible Linen. - - - 91 92 93 93 - - - 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 97 97 97 | A A and Heat • - . tible. - come Black and Opaque. To Cool Flume by Metal. . 108 The Burning Circle. . To Crystallize Camphor. . The Charmed Twelve. 79 80 Cure for Troublesome Spectators To make a Card jump out of the Pack. 78 Hints to Amateurs. Make one... 90 The CheTidcal Chimney Sweep. Evaporation of a Metal.103 Quintuple Transmutation. Hold it - Fast.. 86 Cleopatra's Pearls..110 Flame from Cold Metals. and then to Four Aces. - 74 76 76 77 The Fifteen Thousand Livres. . . Beautiful Experiment. Wine Changed into Water.. . Beauties of Crystallization.. 111 Gas from the Union of Metals. Inequality of Heat in Fire Irons. of two Metals without Heat. -111 Waves of Fire on Water.. Restoration of Color by Water. - A . - - - Crystallizations of Metals. To Crystals in Hard Water.. 107 lOT Emerald Green Flame. 105 Changes of the Poppy.. 108 . 89 The Water Demon. - Splendid Sublimation. and to Change them suddenly into Blank Cards. Two colorless Fluids. The Chemical Chimeleon. - - - - 65 66 67 67 67 67 69 69 • - • • - - 98 -99 99 99 100 Tlie Ma'4c Dyes... 109 Warmth of Different Colors. 114 To Set a Mixture on Fire by Water.. 113 Combustion of Three Metals. Two Liquids Make a Solid. 87 Marine Illumination. . . 857 The Tell-Tale Cards. .. Sympathetic or Invisible Inks. 105 The Chameleon Flowers. - - - 97 98 98 98 98 i j ' Heat not to be estimated by Touch. Liquid Changed to a Solid. 101 . 89 Flame produced veith Ice. 359 The Housebreakers. 103 Visible and Invisible. . 107 Orange colored Flame. 108 To Form a Liquid of two So]|iiis. Varieties of Crystals. by colorless Fluids. . 112 Brilliant Red Fire. 'JThe . . Chameleon Liquids. The Pairs Repaired. 8S The Mimic Explosion. Makes a Transparent Liquid. - Union Destroy Color. To hold Four Kings.. Expansion of Metal by Heat. 109 Laughing Gas. The Queens Digging for Diamonds. . - - A .. - • j I Heat Passing through Glass. - Magic Breath. or Four Knaves in your Hand. . 88 The Magical Heat. To Change Blue Liquid to White. 89 Magic Lamp. • 88 The Shower of Fire.

Air Balloon. - - - - . The Cup of Tantalus. The Prisoner Leech. The Bacchus Experiment. Influence of Galvanism on Porter an 1 To Make Fire Balloons. The Electrical Cat.. To Make a Magnet by Galvanism.. To Make a Prism. Air in the Egg. To Melt Steel as Easily as Lead. 135 185 185 136 136 186 137 137 137 13S 138 188 188 I The The The The The Soundless Bell. • - - 139 140 140 Test of Magnetic Power. The Electrical Kiss.. The Metamorphosed Knife. The Unneighborly Balls.. Change of Color by Galvanism. . How to Get a Jar full of Electricity.. To Make Artificial Magnets without - the Aid of either Natural Load- stone. Weight of the Air Proved by a Pair Bellows. The Discontented Pith Ball. Electrical - Nijrth and South Poles of the Magnet. - -150 - - 148 149 149 lEO 150 - - IM - - ITl PJnging Working Power of Electricity. 152 152 152 154 154 155 156 156 157 157 15T 363 The inagic of Light as an Effect. To Prove Air Elastic. The Attractive Sealing Wax. 143 The Pressnre Glass. The Air Pump. Bells. The Dancing Bran. The Watch Magnetized. Half Eagle and''Feather. Artificial Fire Balls.. Hot Water Lighter than Cold. . The Lightning Stroke Imitated. . Mysterious Circles.. To J ell a Lady if She is in Love. - - 142 Power of the Electro-Magnet. - pulsion. The Magical Cup. The Plate Electrical Machine. The Electrical Battery. A Galvanic Tongue. The Sportsman. Imitation Thunder Clouds. - and of Shock from a Sheet of Pape. - Optics. To Astonish a Large Party. Interesting Particulars Concerning the - Magnet. To Prove that Air has Weight. 140 To Show Magnetic Attraction and Re- 118 - 113 118 113 . The Electrified Wig. FA6B Porniation of "Water by Fire^ Boiling upon Cold Water.. The Eccentric Feather. Attraction and Repulsion Exhibited. Simple means of Producin? Electricity. Currents in Boiliug Water. 142 The Mariners Compass. 159 159 159 160 160 16C 161 161 . S27 To Melt a Piece of Money in a Walnut 355 Shell.. Elasticitv of the Air.lerostatics. Floating Fish. 354 The Pyramid of Alum. The Multiplying Glass. of Air Shown by - a - Wine 148 - The Pressure of Air Shown by - a Glass • - Jar.INDEX. - - 141 141 141 141 142 - by Magnetism. Experiments in Electricity. - - - " . - . The Erratic Feather.. Caoutchouc Balloons. Expansion of Water by Cold. the Nose. . . The Galvanic Shock. How to Make a Parachute. - Experiments in Galranism. - - - How to Make an Air Balloon. The Eotary Tobacco Pipe... . " The Magnetic Table. i Composition of Light. - Ale. Polarity of the Magnet. - The Descendihff Smoke. Transparent' Bodies. or Artificial Magnets. - - Dancins: Balls and Dolls. Light under Water. Variation of the Needle. - 143 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 146 The - Iflagic of JPnenniatics . Conductor. The Sociable Feather. How to Make an Electrical Machine. without Injuring the Shell. How to Draw Sparks from the Tip of . To Pas^s Magnetism through a Table. The Invisible Coin Made Visible. - - • The Galvanized Floundsr. The Mysterious Bottle. The Magic Whirlpool. With Plates in Water. - - - - - Diving Bell. • - rii PAQX - 114 114 114 115 115 115 116 117 118 Experiments iu magnetism. - - . Magnetic Action and Reaction. The Prism. How to Fill a Balloon. To Suspend a Needle in the Air. - Magnetism bv Hammering. 119 Infinite Divisibility. The Merry Iron Filings.. To put an Egg in a Phial. • The Flash of Light. Effects of Galvanism on a Magnet. How to Magnetize a Poker. Singular Galvanic Shock. - .. - . • - Refraction. The Electrified Paper. Magical Test Papers. Dip of the Needle. The Impromptu Magnet. Chemistry an Agent in Secret "Writing. . 140 To Make Artificial Magnets. Exaggerated Magnetism.

Aphorisms of Number. The Tuning Fork a Flute Player. - The Bird - Construction of the Phantasmae^ope. 188 848 Tricks in Hydraulics and Hydrostatics. Tl'e SeU-Ealanced l^ail. in the Cage. The Mysterious Bottle.. Tlie Magic Coin.. Progress of Sound. - The miagic of Numbers... . shall. do. The Invisible Girl. - ----- - Second Method. Fifth Sixth do. The Camera Obscura... The Camera Lucida.. 187 The Bridge of Knives. Ocular Spectra. To Lift a Bott'e with a Straw.. - - - - - 199 200 201 202 208 2C8 204 205 205 206 2. The Magical Snake. and Inclined in any Position. of Acoustics. - - - - Magic of Acoustics with the Ancients. - 162 162 ]62 163 164 164 IG.. The Chinese Mandarin. . Syphon. Tl. . The Ka'eidoscope. - To Tiine a Guitar without the Assist ance of the Ear. or - - - the Obliquity of Motion. Breathing Light and Darkness. 196 196 196 197 198 81 The Secret of Ventriloquism. Theory of Whispering. To See through a Philadelphia Brick. Currents in Boiling Water.. To Construct a Figure. - of. Hydraulic Dancer. - - - 165 165 166 167 Fountain and Pump. The Magic Whirlpool. - - The Magician's Mirror. - - - - 182 182 182 183 183 To Make an ^olian Harp. 18T 188 Sand in the Hour Gla»».. Importance of Mechanics. The Waglc Lantern. Briliant Water Mirror. Fourth do.' - - The Magical Gyroscope. To Cause a Cylinder to Roll of its own Weight. Bullock's A Natural PAGI Resistance of Sand........ PAGE Camera Obssura. . - Champagne and Sound. - Experiment of the Law of Motion. The Perspective Mirror. Transmited Vibration. . 867 - Former Position. ----.. . The Picture in the Air. - - - - - Music of the Snail. Expansion of "Water by Cold. Palpable Arithmetic. The Arithmetica" Boomerang. How to praise a Ghost. The Science Distorted Landscapes. - The Prancing Horse. . Difference between Sound and Noise. Eyes Experiment. .6 To Discover two or more Numbers thAt a Person has Thought o^ - . The Cup of Tantalus. To Make a Quarter Dollar Turn on its Edge on the Point of a Needle. Another. The Dancing Pea. Optics of a Soap Bubble. To Make a Carriage Run - in an Inverted Position.. To Show how Sound Travels through Solid. - Tricks in Acoustics. Curious Optical Illusion. - - - - - - - - Theory of the Voice. To Exhilit the Magic Lantern. Simple Solar Microscope. Scales. The The The The The Science of Hydraulics. Another. To Empty a Glass under Water. - • - - Painting the Slides. - - - - The Laws Balancing. Effei ts of the Magic Lantern. To Siiow what Pays of Light do not Obstruct each other. The Boundless Prospect.Vlll INDEX.. Musical Figures Resulting fVom Sound. Hot Water Lighter than Cold. The Magic of Hydrostatics with the Ancients.. . up Hill.. - - 193 193 193 194 194 194 195 195 195 195 196 Tricks in ITIcchanics.. Keturn to its - -198 a - To Show 183 183 that Sound depends upon Vi19S bration. - Anamorphoses. of Motion. without Falling. . Dis Giving Views. Thaumatrope. The Toper's Tripod. Boiling upon Cold Water. • Water Screw. . being Placed on a Curved Surface. Snail. To Find a Number Thought . - . 184 184 184 184 185 185 186 186 The Abacus. Musical Bottles.e . . Double Vibration. The Cosmorama.. - - . or Curious Tricks in Arithiuctic.. Ten-pest at Sea. The Balanced Stick.. . - - - - - - 198 192 157 114 114 115 115 116 llf 858 861 To Weigh Water without More than Full. The Artificial Landscape. The Enchanted Palace. The Stereoscope. Visible Vibration. .. which. Third Method. The Phantasmagoria. - 167 168 168 163 169 170 170 171 171 172 172 173 175 175 176 176 177 17S 180 180 181 844 845 348 350 352 ----- 189 189 190 191 191 192 or Archimedean - The Bottle Ejectment. - Napier's Rods... •when left to itself.

Three Jealous Husbands. many Coanters have I in IZ PAGB Hofir my 207 Hands? The Mysterious Number Halvings.INDEX. 217 many Different Deals can be made with Thirteen Cards out of Fifty - .. The Unfair Division. 269 242 The Puzzle of Fourteen. and the Same when Counted in Ten Files Horizontally. The Mathematical Blacksmith. 274 246 The Twenty-Four Nuns. The United Digits. 273 • 246 The Four Tenants. The Magical Century. 250 251 251 252 252 252 258 253 253 255 255 The Wine and the Tables. - . The Philosopher's Pupils. To Kub out Twenty Chaiks at Five Times. - - What Counter Geometrical Definitions.267 267 Chinese Maze. . 258 258 259 260 260 261 262 The Money Trick. - The Perplexed Cabinet Maker. 272 245 The Three Square Puzzle. Curious Properties of some Figures. . Trianjcular Problem. - a Square.the Willow Pattern Plate. Rubbing out every Time an Odd one.The Three Rabbits. - - - . Goose and Corn. Multiplying Money by Money. - - - Second Method. The Figures. The Difficull Case of Decimation of Fruit. The Industrious Frog. The Three Graces. 272 245 The Card Puzzle. to find how has altogether. December and May. The Bricklayer Puzzled. when Counted in Ten Columns Perpen dicularly. The Square of Gotham. The Impossible Triangle Odd or Even.. Third Method. 269 241 The Quarto Puzzle. to tell a a Person has Thought of. - - The Ten Ten's. and the Sheep Fold. The Famous Forty-Five. Graces and Muses.. . - - . The Countrywoman and the Eggs. The Two Drovers. The Council of Ten. - - . ? - - - - 9 211 212 213 To to rise. Amusing Combinations. 273 246 The Cylinder Puzzle. - - - - - - - - - - - - - Txick in SubtractioQ. 278 246 The Puzzle Wall. The Sheep. . the Greater of which is - Unknown. - . The Sovereign and the Sage. The Knowing Shepherd. The Mathematical Fortune Teller The Dice Guessed Unseen. - - 256 256 257 Odd Magic Squares. The Divided Garden. has been Thought of out of Sixteen. How to Make Five Squares large one Stuff. find the Difference 249 between Two Numbers.. 243 The H«art Puzzle. arranged as to make 505 in each Column. The Old Woman and Her Eggs. having an equal each Hand. - - - - - - - To Form Arithmetical Trick.. The Visitors to the Crystal 214 Palace. in Number - Changes can be Given to 217 Seven Notes of a Piano? - many he - The Arithmetical two. 271 . The Astonished Farmer. The Mysterious Addition. 266 266 267 . The Basket of Nuts. 249 250 217 How many How of Counters. The Certain Game. 269 . Squaring the Circle. • 27S - Alexander the Great's Puzzle. - A Person The The The The The The Magic Remainder. 208 The Expunged Figure. To Discover a Square Number. The Endless String. - The Carpenter Puzzled.The Fortunate Ninth. - into a without any Waste of - Deceptive Vision. - • .272 244 The Cross Puzzle. up to 100. - The Five Geometrical Solids. 244 The Yankee Square. . 269 240 The Button Puzzle. 240 The Cardboard Puzzle. False Scales. or Pieces of Money. The Basket and Stones. . . The Two Travelers. The Parallelogram. To tell at what Hour a Person Intends - 24** 248 Who Second Method Wears the Eing ? is What Probable Variations. 270 . - Triangle.270 242 The Square and Circle Puzzle. The Hatter Cheated.270 248 The Scale and Eing Puzzle. Magic Squares - Curious Tricks in Creometry. Wine - The Fox. - - Apple Woman. Nine Quaint Questions.. -274 • 247 The Card Square. -269 The Accommodating Square.. Jesuitical Teacher.269 The Circle Puzzle. 268 ---4. The Inventor of Geometry... The Three Travelers. - The Chinese Cross. A Popular Fallacy. . - Dividing the Beer. - - 277 Curious and Amusing Puzzles. 268 The Vertical Line Puzzle. • 274 * 247 The Horse Shoe Puzzle.

The Curved Line Pervades all Nature. Various Modes of Communicating Se 327 cret Intelligence. The Card Puzzle. Breaking the Rope. The Fountain Puzzle. - Puzzling Epitaph. Double Headed Puzzle. The Chinese Puzzle. The Triangular Puzzle. Anoi. - - 801 801 303 sua The magic of To Trace an Oval. Parallelograms in Combination. The Square and Circle Puzzle^ The Scale and Ring Puzzle. Pnrzle. for - Magic - Lantern - The Magic of Secret Writing. Variations of the Oval. The Card Square. - - Trouble. The Circular Cvpher. Cuiious Letter. - The Chinese Cross. - - be done with a Square. Rosamond s Bower. - The Art of Secret "Writing very 326 Ancient. The Cylinder Puzzle. Proportions of the Human Figure. - - - One Man Drawing against Two Horses. - - 810 311 in The Parallelogram and Triangle The Labyrinth. Importance of the Triangle. The Counter Puzzle. String and Balls Puzzle. The Heart Puzzle. The Cut Card Puzzle. Puzzling Epitaph. - The Star Puzzle.rithmetlcal Puzzle. - Mechanical Inventions of the Ancients 334 few in Number.Wit." and "Mother Hubbard. 334 Feats of Eckeberg particularly des- Double Headed Puzzle. - Puzzle of the Two Fathers. Curring out a Cross. Attitude Formed upon the Curved Line. er Cross Puzzle.INDEX.arto Puzzle. - The Magic "What of the Oval. Chemistry an Agent in Secret "Writing. Another Cross Puzzle. A Central Line through Everything. The Secret of Comic Drawing. - Another Method. The Parallelogram. The Three Square Puzzle. - " Punch. Arithmetical Puzzle. The Circle Puzzle. Another Method. The Vertical Line Puale. Figure. Puzzling Kings. - - - • Another Method. A. - Two Combination. - - The Human Chinese Maze. 327 828 Ingenious Mode of Secret "Writing. The Counter Puzzle. The Cabinet Maker's Puzzle. Caricature Sketching. PA6B The Dog TAQm Grammatical Puzzle. 275 275 276 276 276 276 277 277 277 277 277 278 273 273 279 279 279 279 279 283 234 287 287 The Tree A A Puzzling Inscription. The Three Rabbits The Accommodating Square. Cabinet Maker's Puzzle. The Puzzle Wall." Comical Beards. - Answers to - Puzzles. The ChiflFre IndechiflFrable. Importance of the Circle in Drawing. Hobbs to Pick. Comic Profiles. The Yankee Square. The Knights Puzzle. - 293 294 2C4 294 294 295 295 295 295 295 296 296 296 296 297 297 297 297 293 298 293 299 299 299 300 . Japan Square Puzzle. - - - 335 385 336 . A Lock for Mr. Variation of the Square and Circle. The Q :. Curious Letter. Comical Drawing of the Human Figure. Simple Elements of "the Profile. String and Balls Puzzle. 301 801 801 cribed. The Cross Puzzle. The Endless String. The Horse Shoe Puzzle. - The Tree Puzzle. The Four Tenants. - 312 312 813 318 314 315 316 316 316 817 318 318 319 820 820 321 323 - 824 825 How to Draw upon Slides. Standard Height of the Body. - - . The Puzzle of Fourteen. - Art. Grammatical Puzzle. - 328 830 831 332 333 The ITIagic of Strength. - 290 Magic of the Parallelogram. The Divided Garden. - Japan Square Puzzle. Ancient and Modern Feats of Strength. - - - - The Musical Cypher. The Two Fathers. The Fountain Puzzle. The Triangle Works Wonders in Per- may How 803 303 303 304 305 to make - 3u6 307 307 308 809 - - spective. The Droll Landscape. a Circle. The Dog Puzzle. The Twenty-Four Nuns. - Puzzle. A Puzzling Inscription. - An Endless Source cf Amusement. Exaggerated Drawing. The Puzzle of the Stars. The Triangular Puzzle. How to Construct a Triangle. Glass. The Centre of Gravity. The Button Puzzle. - - Cutting out a Cross.

- The Magical Measure.. .862 .bove of the Day or Night told by a Suspended Shilling. The Magical Gyroscope. PAQB rhe Anvil Feat.INDEX. -863 The Transposable Pieces. 361 The Knotted Thread. 353 To Know which of Two DiflPerent "Waters is the Lightest. . . - 344 345 346 343 Easy and Curious Method of Foretell . 8i0 E<xnarkable Power of Lifting Heavy Persons when the Lungs are In841 flated. - - - - 850 850 852 Musical Figures resulting from Sound. Th« MafiJ. More than Full.. .. 343 - - The Magician's Mirror. 362 Curious Method of Measuring the Height of a Tree.349 iug Eainy or Fine "Weather. To Melt a Piece of Money - - 354 in a "W&lnut Shell without Injuring the Shell. Geneial Explanation on Feats.jil Watch Lamp.. 339 Eeal Feats of Strength Performed by Tl. The Tape Trick. • To Make a Card Jump out The Tell-Tale Cards. - - - - - Twisting Iron Bars.857 358 .. The Housebreakers.355 The Flight of the Pving. An Artificial Memory. The Hour The Dancing Automaton. The Double Dozen. 357 . - -----all 837 337 333 338 339 the A.. The Magic Book.861 Floating Needles. 356 miscellaneous Cnrions Tricks and Fancies. The Perspective Mirror.. The Boundless Prospect.554 The Pyramid of Alum. . The Knee Feat.359 360 360 861 .. without any Scales.. . 842 Pyramids of Men. 353 To Know if a Suspicious Piece of Money is Good or Bad...omas Topham. .. 851 The Enchanted Palace. 83(j - XI PAOl - - - The Chair Feat. 357 of the Pack. . The Bacchus Experiment. 353 . The Oannon Feat. .. 355 The Invisible Springs. Artificial - - - - - Landscape. Breaking Stones..

.

1 to be. tricks of the tongue by which the word was kept to the ear. more or less. and were. from the earliest timrs. and various miraculous deceptions. were the means by which the priests of Egypt. Sleight of hand. m . WITH OBJECTS OR CARDS. INCLUDING SLEIGHT OF HAND. WITH AND WITHOUT APPARATUS. Happy ought we of every kind beams of truth. but broken to the hope. tissues of trickery. the pages of history abundantly prove. and Rome used to subjugate mankind. possessed. in living in an age when humbug is sure to meet exposure by the daylight The Eastern nations. Greece. That there has been "Jugglery" in all ages of the world.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. The ancient religions of the heathen were mixed up with an extensive system of legerdemain.

and witches." and the old poet goes on to say to them. not only with ruffians. book Upon iii. and sorcerers and in more modern times. James I. by way of derision. " Sometimes they will bring on the similitude of a grim lion. profession had already fallen very low. The tregetours were adepts at every kind of sleight of hand. heretics. charmeresses. a table of eycamour. deceived the eyes of the spectators. magicians. was perfectly convinced that these and other inferior feats exhibited by the tregetours of his day." House of Fame. " There I sawe playenge jogelours. a term applicab^. and produced such illusions as were usually supposed to be the effect of enchantment. the performers were ranked by the moral writers of that time.— THE MAGICIAN . could only be performed by the agency The of the " old gentleman. and at the close of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. old witches. or hocus-pocus. and vagabonds." whom it is not polite to name. 2 S OWN BOOK. Play an uncouthe thynge to tell I sawe hym eary a wyndemell. for which reason they were frequ(jntly ranked with sorcerers. but also with Jews. and by the assistance of machinery of various kinds. or make flowers spring up as in a meadow sometimes they cause a vine to flourish. The learned monarch. and when they please. or joculator. he says . besides these religious jugglers. Turks. astrologer. bearing white and red grapes. and bore the name of Tregetour. . he seems to have become more entirely a performer of tricks and feats. others who made a liyeli hood by going from place to place. and merry-andrew. and sorceresses . and performing various tricks and feats by which the judgement was bewildered and the reason bamboozled and even now the performers of the East infinitely exceed those of the West. Under a walnot shale. thieves. . trageteours. magyciens. the juggler was called a mocuspocus.^ Chaucer. . and united in one the minstrel. says. blasphemers. In the Norman times the juggler was termed jongleur. they cause the whole to disappear :" and in another part of his work. pagans. In the fourteenth century. or show a castle built with stone. : " There saw I Coll Tregetour. who no doubt had frequently an opportunity of seeing the tricks exhibited by the tregetours of his time. phetonysses. to a pick-pocket» or a common cheat.

and have three dimes in your hand. and truth . and have caused me some reputation in the magic art. and who is the father of it. but pressed into his service articles borrowed from his audience. intention. so utterly contemptible in every-day life. 3 The following pages are not intended to make the young reader either a cheat or a trickster there is nothing. . For my own part. straightforwardness. " Ah the trick lies in the box he dares not show it to us The following tricks have almost all been successfully performed by myself. openness. But we would advise him strongly to cultivate in his own mind the virtues of sincerity. keeping tlio otlior one firmly fixed against the first joint of the . but only show two. or the assistance It is is required. which is only allowable in such feats of amusement. per haps." THE YOUNG CONJIROK. Some are my own invention my of a confederate. to lay more stress upon those tricks which require no apparatus. when every one knows he is deceived. bottles. or walked among them. The spectators should never be able to say. Borrow two colored silk handkerchiefs from the company. we shall present a collection of amusing conjuring tricks. SLEIGHT OF HAND. candor. and which is in no way culpable. and we would caution our young master not to obtain by these amusements a love of deception. ! ! . than upon those for which special apparatus. : L THE FLYING DIME. to shun subterfuge and deception as he would a venomous reptile and to hate a lie as he would hate that same old gentleman whom we were too polite to . No one is nearly so well pleased by a trick whose essence evidently lies in the machinery. With this sage advice. I despise all the numerous boxes. in the following pages. as trickery and deception. and other gimcracks which are generally seen on a conjuror's table and I have never been so pleased with any performer as with one who did not even require a table. name. as he stood before them. variegated covers. . while every one feels pleasure at seeing a sleight of hand trick neatly executed. it is This trick must be frequently practiced before pro- duced in public.

Take the same handkerchief. and give him the dime to hold that is already enclosed in it. tell him to drop the dime when you have counted three. of the handkerchiefs. In this case. and ask one of the company to lay the second handkerchief over it. draw out the thread thai . dropping the marked dime into the palm of your hand.4 THE magician's OWN BOOK. and while he is examining the dime to see if it is the same one that he marked. but is really held in the handkerchief. and at the third knock let the marked dime fall into the tumbler. and every one is persuaded that you have conjured one of the dimes out of a person's hand. Twist it up as before. taking hold of another corner. Becond and third fingers. and cover it w^ith a basin or saucer. and you whisk the handkerchief into the air. as in the last trick. Ask him to give you a cup or tumbler. ANOTHER METHOD. while you twist up the handkerchief. leaving one corner hanging out. Ask some one (always choose the most incredulous of the party) to mark a dime of his own. spread one corner of the handkerchief over the hand of the person who is still holding the dime. and tliread stuck inside the You must cufif also have a fine needle of your coat. Now hold up the third. with both hands concealed under the handkerciiief. and replace the needle. This being done. The two dimes are heard to fall into the hat. At the word "three. Perhaps the spectators may ask to see it again. and hold it under the table. 2. While doing so. Hand him the tumbler. beneath the place where the saucer is. take up the saucer." he lets go the dime. and give it you. and put in both dimes. and while you pretend to b<' searching for the marks. you pass a few stitches under the dime. Then take one . and. when the dime appears to have vanished. Then tell him to knock three times on the saucer. dime (which the spectators imagine is the second). and then leave it entirely in his hands. and shake out the handkerchief that is lying under it. as in the last trick. You then tell the astonished individual to draw the other handkerchief out of the hat by the corner that is hanging out. Direct him to place it on a table. You then ask him to hold the dime tight between his finger and thumb. and sent it into the hat. or demand to mark the dime. vary it as follows. You must then return the handkerchief. but pretend that only one is in the handkerchief then put the handkerchief into a hat.

the manner in which they are arranged will not be seen. and all the beads in your right hand. 3. in order to eradicate the marks. You then.TPP YOUNG CONJUROR. then bring the ends of the string 1 and 2 together.» held the dime. even if they pull hard. Then get some one cut two pieces of thin string of equal length. directing the holders to slacken the strings. particularly if you keep the point of junction hidden either by a finger. and always try to make a joke. a piece of gold wire into the form of a ring. THE EEADS AND STEINGS. . by twisting them together with apparent carelessness. or by throwing the shade of your hand upon it. Now give the tied ends to two persons. and drop the coin into the palm of your hand. while you are executing the necessary changes. and then. Tell the holders to pull hard. which you may hand round for examination. under cover of the left hand. doing the same with 3 and 4. taking care to rub between your finger and thumb the spot where the threads had been. slip the center bead to one side. or otherwise to distract the attention of the audience. Then grasp the beads with both hands. and twist them about your fingers. Then hand round the beads and strings as before. moment remove your hands. When the beads are returned. but in reality placing them as in the figure. You must remember to keep talking the whole time. TO GET A EIXG OUT OF A HANDKERCHIEP. The beads will then easily come off into your right hand. and tie them so. 4. appearing to lay them side by side. You need not fear that the beads will come off. and draw out the two loops which have been hidden in it. showing the empty strings. thread them all. or five or six beads. This variation seldom fails to confuse the company. You have a real ring Bend . taking care You to pass the center bead over the point of juncture. before you remove your hands. Remember to rub out the marks in the strings caused by the loops. which is placed above the beads. and the sairx. directing them to hold them tight. Ask some lady have by you to to lend you the beads off her bracelet. which they will do. having previously sharpened both ends.

and give the end out of your right hand to some spectator. which has lain concealed there. so as to enclose it in a bag. and inside your cuff. without any knot and it will . Let the handkerchief fall over it. about eighteen inches long. which you Then tell them to immediately cover with your right. Throw the handkerchief over the ring. Just as he pulls. slip the real ring into yonr left hand. carefully rubbing between the thumb and finger the place Hang the empty handkerchief where it came through. the same piece of wire. Cast an ordinary knot on a handkerchief. and give a piece of string to a second spectator. while taking it from the lender. and spected. to lay them on your left hand. and tell him to do so as tightly as he can. While they are so doing. made of 5. directing him to tie it round the handkerchief. and tell him to pull hard and sharp when you count three. as cut.one at its point of junction. which you exhibit empty. when he will find the ring gone out of the handkerchief. and concealing' the false ring in the palm of your hand. and take away your hands. and to say after you any nonsense that you like to invent. over the ring which is on the rod. Slip your left hand to the center of the rod. and take the false. and give it to some one to hold between his finger and thumb. taking care to slip over it the real ring. borrow a handkerchief. and when the knot is tied. as you have stuck the false ring Take away the upper handkerchief. offer the real one to be inWhen it is returned. passing the rod into your left hand. and hung upon the rod. While he is doing this. take up your conjuring wand. a rod of some hard wood.6 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. unbend the false ring. spread another handkerchief over your hands. and draw it through the handkerchiefs by one of its points. drawn in the be pulled out quite straight. TO TIE A KNOT IN A HANDKERCHIEF WHICH CANNOT BE DRAWN TIGHT. let a third person come to examine. and direct each of the two persons to hold one end Then tell the one who has the ring of it in his right hand. about two inches below the ring. slip your left thumb under the handkerchief. step forward. and handkerchief.

THE YWJNG CONJUROR. in order to give a better hold. and pretends to throw it away. When they are returned. 6. and then commences a sham search after the lost ball. and pretends to throw the ball into No. the spectators imagine that he really has thrown the ball into it. together with the cups. an admirable delusion. 3 over both balls. and slips among them ball No. but requires very careful management. 3. the young conjuror begins by placing each ball under a cup. He takes up ball No. of the shape is exhibited publicly. hand. He then takes up cup No. if he chooses. to his pretended astonishment. and should be practiced repeatedly before it You get three tin cups. and grasp the handkerchief between the thumb and fore finger. taking care to slip the fourth ball under cup No. He does the same with the three cups. THE THEEE CUPS. 1. They should have two or three ridges running round them at the mouth. He then takes up cup No. and while the spectators are being astonished. 3. but in reality he slips it into the place which the fourth ball had occupied. shown in the cut. and. or. with its mouth uDwards- . and on knocking ovei cup No. and at the same time slips the fourth ball under it. but hides it as before. While this is being done. ball No 2 can be quickly got rid of. He then knocks over both the other cups. 1. He again places the balls under the cups. Four balls should now be made of cork. and goes through the same process. in which he accidentally (1) knocks over one of the cups. while the • • • other three are handed round for examination. finds a ball under it. asking one of the spectators to do so for him. and carefully blackThis is ened. he slips the fourth ball to the tips of the second and third fingers. A rather startling termination to this trick can be managed by taking uq ">ne of the cups. He then lifts up cup No. and finds in them the two missing balls. V You must let go the end that hangs over the left at all. replaces it on the table a few inches from its first position. all three balls are found together under It. 1. As there are already two balls in No. 3. 2. One of the balls is held concealed between the roots of the third and fourth fingers. 3. 1. He replaces cup No.

The engraving represents the manner in which the loop ia made. and the whole affair will 9. 7. that lies across the roots of the fingers. and hang the string . hold hand with the palm uppermost. Take a piece of and tie the two ends together with a weaver^s knot. and by giving it a sharp pull. but it must be made considerably smaller than it is shown. TO TIE A HANDKERCHIEF ROUND YOUR LEG. string. appearing to cross them. holding the finger and thumb close to its month. lift both loops off the thumb. or it will be seen. as represented in the engraving. which shows the manner in which this is managed. after showing the spectators how firmly it is tied. let the long loop hang loose. Then. it will come off. you appear to have thrown the second cup through the first. it will stand a good pull. and pass the two ends below. but in reality hitching them within each other. come off. Take vour the left same piece of string as in the last trick. Then by throwing another cup into it. as represented in the engraving. by passing them between the second and Then pull the part of the string third fingers. lay the center of the handkerchief on your knee. If the loop is properly made. Having done so. draw them forward until the string is quite tight. Do not show this in public until you can tie it with rapidity and precision. as that holds the best. it ought not to be a loop at all. and then put them behind the hand. Hold the handkerchief by both ends. 8. THE MAGIC BOND. and arrange it over the fingers. as it should be almost concealed under the fold of the handkerchief. put your hand under the knot. and bring back the ends to the same side on which they were originally.8 THE iMAGICIA^'S OWN BOOK. THE OLD MAN AND HIS CHAIR. AND GET IT GPP WITHOUT UNTYING THE KNOT. letting go the first and catching the second. and tie them above. In fact. Draw this loop tight.

Loose the loop." You then hitch the right foro finger and middle finger under the two loopfj that will be found hanging behind the left hand. Here are the scissors. 4. insert the fore-finger and little finger of the right hand under the string that encircles the left fore-finger and little finger. Then begin your story " There was once upon a time. Rieht fore hn. or the chair will be all aside. " and sat down in his highbacked chair. raise them perpendicularly. which you see here. and produced his I* . " The old man being tired hung (See Fig. an old man. Loose the loop.'cr Move the blades and handles of the scissors. Fig. Tuck both loops under the crossstrings at the back. take hold of the part of the string that crosses the hand. pass it to the back of the hand." you then hang the long loop over your thumb. and your preliminaries are completed. Ri^lu middlf " Just as as if cutting something with them. " When the old man was rested. who stole a pound of candles. The thumb must be raised perpendicularly. bring them to the front.3 as much as possible into the center of the hand. and draw it slowly the front. Spread all the fingers. and the chair will be seen as in Fig. and : it downward until it is long enough to be passed over the second and third fingers to Pass it over. When tight. and brought draw Gy. when the similitude of a pound of candles hanging by tlieir strings will be seen. by passing it over the second and third fingers. 1. it began to become dark.THE YOUNG CONJUROR." While you are saying this. upwards. you slip the loop ofi*the thumb. and pull it forwards. and you get Fig. 2. and he took a pair of scissors to cut down a candle for himself. finger. as shown in the cut. Here they are. 3. and pass the two loops to the back of the hand. the reversal of the movement that brought it forwards.'' You thr a hold youi left hand as at the commencement. and with the right hand bring forward the loops that hang behind. hook the right for^^ finger under the cross-piece at the back.) up his candles. in came a policeman. he had lighted it. over the palit.

Take a piece of thick pliant string by each end. Little finger left * Fore finger of right hand.10 staff. of left haind. Left band. and they tied a cord round the old 1. 5. you will obtain Fig. WITHOUT LETTIM THE KIGHT HAND APPROACH IT. producing Fig. __ 2. Right fore finger. 1." 10. la r and its impetus will cause the loop to run up the string until it falls over the left wrist. 2. Right middle finger. sc? that the loop is drawn tight directly it has . The jerk must be given upwards and towards the left hand. 1." finger of the left Now let go the hand and the loop will run up the 3. like this " — slip the right finger out of its loop. "The old man in vain tried to resist. for the policeman called a comrade to his assistance. as in Fig. man's arms in a tight knot. Fore finger of hand. little THE MAGICIAN S OWN BOOK with the Queen's crown at the top. The moment that the forward jerk is given t'ue right hand should be drawn back. and with a quick jerk of the right hand cast a loop on it as in Fig. 4. 6 middle — "and TO TIE A OOr ON THE LEFT WRIST. ^ string towards the right hand. 2. Middle finger of right hand. and carried him off to prison.

of string about two feet in length. and separate the hands smartly. Then Take a piece draw the hands well outward. This is U. if. slip it over a's hand. . It is an improvement of the trick. Let two persons. to free themselves from each engraving other without untying the knot. and the string will look very complicated. By a reversal of the same process. TO JPULL A STRING THROUGH TOUR BUTTON-HOLE. pass the loop under the string that binds either of a's wrists. THE HA!a)CUITS. and. although rather difficult to learn. To get out the string. and both will be free. 12. so that the strings cross. when the string will appear to have been pulled out through the substance of your coat.THE YOUxXG CONJUROR. li Both ends should be let fall when the a very nice little sleight of hand trick to practice in the intervals between more showy ones. immediately on loosing the hold of the right thumb. settled on the wrist. as in the engraving. : It is executed in the following manner Let B gather up the string that joins his hands. have their hands tied together with string. hook the little fingers into the upper strings of the opoosite hand. hitch one thumb at each end. Pass it thiou^^li a button-hole of your coat . and tie the ends together. you change the string from the right little fing^^ on to the thumb. loose the hold of the right thumb and left little finger. knot is firm. the string may be replaced. as represented in the The object is. is soon acquired. a and b.

twist it once round. 2. pass one hand through each end. as is represented in the engraving. and tell some one to cut the string between them. Fig. Take each of the corners. The manner of holdi"^ it.12 THE magician's OWN BOOK. and will fancy that you really ha^^e joined them. the sp*ictators will not notice the absence of so small a portion of its length. THE CUT STRING KESTOEED. The twisted string. 13. Take a silk handkerchief. and put both ends into the left hand. and lay it on a table. as seen in the engraving. and remove with your tongue the little loop that has been cut off. 2 No ends will be then perceptible. Draw the right hand rapidly along the double strings until you come to the place where the strings have crossed each other. When you take the string out of your mouth. Conceal the junction with the thumb and finger of the right hand. and say that you will join them with your teeth.and a perunacquainted with the mode will never be ablp . your mouth. hold the strings in a similar manner with the left hand. and pull it towards you Then turn it a little as far as it will come. and go on until the handkerchief is reduced to the size of your hand. Put all four ends into 1. Then with your left finger and thumb take hold of the center. Fig. as in the cut. 1. which will then be 14. on your left hand. *' Bon who 5- square. taking care to grasp all the four corners that lie there. and repeat the operation until it is all screwed up into a tight ball. and lay them across each other in the mid die of the handkerchief. Do the same with the new corners. You show that the string has been divided into two pieces. and with the right finger and thumb take hold of the outer layer of silk. Tie together the ends of a piece of string. THE GORDIAN KNOT.

When 15. Take three nuts in the left hand. or pull the ends as tight as he pleases. Of course you must prepare it previously. and when it is loose a good shake will release it. 16. and direct the holder You count. end A. and the knot will apparently remain : firm.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. you draw out a with the finger and thumb of the left hand. although in reality it is nothing but a double twiMt of which of course falls loose when the handkerchief is dropped. You then throw the center of the handkerchief over the knot. silk. show them. two. to drop the handkerchief at the word "three. Do this when you tie it the second time. and on the stretch horizont?ally." at which word he looses his hold of the handkerchief. three. and lake out one of them between 3'our right finger and thumb. unknown to the spectators. keeping We will call the tight one end tight. and tie the ends firmly together in a double knot. and draw b tight. the person to whom you give it has failed to untie it. This second one you carry to your ear. Take The method of managing this trick is as follows the handkerchief and tie the ends in a simple knot. and the handkerchief will look as in the cut. him if the knot is still there. and the loose one b. TO PUT NUTS INTO YOUE EAR. hold of any part of the handkerchief. THE KNOT LOOSENED. allowing him to feel it. You ask any one for a handkerchief." " one. and another between the first and third finger.sert it there. ask the person to hold it tight between You ask his finger and thumb. and on replacing it in your left . to untie 13 it. as if you meant to ii. chief over the knot. you reverse the method by which it was tied. Keep a always in the right hand. which will then form a double tie roimd When you throw the handkerA. while you exhibit the second as the one that you put into your mouth. and there is no vestige left of the knot. but will not hold it firm. and holding it behind your back. and the other -end loose. to You then take which he will answer in the affirmative. You then put one of them in your mouth and retain it there. This latter is not seen by the company. you take the ball in your hand. This is a very amusing deception.

and strike it an apparently violent blow with the right hand. Conceal a very strong walnut in your right hand. at the same time giving it a flourish in the air. when pretending to take out the walnut which jou had placed there. Borrow a handkerchief from one of the spectators. Then open your arm very gently (for fear of dropping any of the fragments. and the spectators hearing the crash will be sure to fancy that it is caused by the demolition of the walnut in your arm. which will loosen all the fibers of the feather. the. and take two other walnuts out of the dish. stem being toward your hand Now put on your coat again. which will smash the second walnut in it.14 THE magician's 0W\ ROOK. 18. then letting any person hold the knots. 19. Place one of them on the joint of your arm. You can carry enough plumes under the sleeve to cover a table with. This feat consists in tying a number of hard knots in a pocket-handkerchief borrowed from one of the company. THE KNOTTED HANDKERCHIEF. Take off your coat. you must say). Close your left arm. and if you prepare a board or an ornamental vase full of holes. and with the it is empty. the third of which appears to have gone into 3'our ear. 17. Procure at the military clothier's four or five large plumes. you can place the plumes upright as you take them out. TO CRACK WALNUTS IN YOUR ELBOW. you substitute for it the broken one from your right hand. all the knots become . the handkerchief again. only two nnts will be left instead of three. right draw out one of the plumes from up the coat-sleeve. and repeat the operation until all the plumes are gone. at the same time clenching the right hand violently. hand. and lay the plumes along your arms. You will now have one walnut in your arm and two in your right hand. and make it appear much Wave too large to have been concealed about the person. and. and the feathers will lie quite smoothly and unsuspected. and wave it about to show that Throw it over your left hand. and by the operator merely shaking the handkerchief. such as are worn by officers. and say that you are going to break it by the power of 3'our muscles. TO TAKE FEATHERS OUT OF AN EMPTY HANDKERCHIEF.

Press the thumb of your left hand against the knot to prevent its slipping. M'hen. you draw out the right-hand end of the handkerchief. at the same time. the person who holds the handkerchief will declare he feels them you then take hold of one of the ends of the handkerchief which hangs down. taking care always to throw the right-hand end over As you go on tying the knots. You now tie another knot exactly in the same way as the first. as if you were going to tie a knot in the usual way. throw the right hand over the left. the whole of the knots wiL becoriK' unloosed. they are firm knots then hold the handkerchief in your right hand. two. get as soft a handkerchief as possible. Before they take the handkerchief in hand. and which you may easily do. Again throw the right-hand end over the left. you to pull the knots tighter press the thumb of the right hand against the knot. right-hand end of the handkerchief decreasing considerably i in length. one. just below the knots. and the krots being still held together by the loose part of the handkerchief. draw the handkerchief.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. three then tell him to let go. you will find the the left. . : . . and give the lefthand end to some person to pull. while your left hand holds the handkerchief just behind the knot. you should stoop down a little after each knot. . in fact. always taking care to let the person to whom you gave one end pull first so that. and pretend while. hand them round for the company to feel that : . and the handkerchief Btate. one in each hand. To prevent this from being noticed. you at the same time pulling the right-hand end with your right hand. which you have in the right hand. keeping it at each knot as nearly the length of the right-hand end as possible. he is only pulling against your left hand. and with the fingers and palm of the same hand. and desire him to repeat after you. so as to make the left-hand end shorter. you are merely' tying the rightas at first hand end round the left. and taking the opposite ends. When you have tied as many knots as the handkerchief will admit of. unloosened. is 15 its original restored to To perform this excellent trick. by giving the handkerchief a smart shake. while the left-hand one remains nearly as long because. and with the left hand turn the loose part of the center of the handkerchief over them. desiring some person to hold them. and draw it through. in fact.

sugared almonds. Having finished tying the knots." a good trick or pipe two will give equal pleasure to the " bright blue eyes" peering at you. nuts. wrong end . give the to be pulled. 20. by accident. and tell him that. by asking any one of the company to see how long it will take him to untie one knot. Should you. turn this mistake to the best advantage. you must solve conundrums. You may excite some laughter during the performance ol this trick. . . and bend them quite flat. The nut trick is exhibited thus The professor hands the audience a dessert plate and a cambric handkerchief for examination these being returned. he places the plate upon a table near to him the handkerchief is then spread out quite flat over the plate. a hard knot will be the consequence. each spiing to . To perform . If you cannot sing. producing an effect that would have astonished the magi of old. When he has untied the knot. as tl\e handkerchief is not yours you may likewise go to the owner of the handkerchief. which will cause a laugh against him. as he took two minutes to untie one knot. to pull as hard as they please. let the same person hold them. or dance a hornif neither of these be " your forte. The way in which it is done is this Make a calico bag large enough to hold the nuts and sweetmeats you intend to distribute. or the letter A procure two pieces is turned up at the bottom of the bag of vvatch spring. . You must. and comfits pour into the dessert plate the instant the kerchief is lifted up. At command. your other knots will remain right as they were before. : . you counting the seconds. by desiring those who pull the knots along with you. therefore. you will be satisfied with fourteen seconds. whilst tying the knots. exactly a small selvage to the pattern of a nightcap. and you will know when this has happened the instant you try to draw the left-hand end of the handkerchief shorter. it is only right that he should have a share of it you may likewise say that he does not pull very hard.16 THE magician's OWN BOOK. . a clever trick with dexterity before a " small party" is at once to become the hero of the evening. and desire him to assist you in pulling a knot. : . he ought to allow you fourteen minutes to untie the seven but as you do not wish to take any advantage. and not to be afraid. saying. HOUDIN'S NUT TEICK. that if the handkerchief is to be torn.

Now the kerchief is picked up with the right hand in the center (just as a lady does when she wishes to exhibit the lace edge). the suspended ring must always hang on the side facing the magician the handkerchief can then be shakcm. 17 be exactly half the diameter of the bag". so as to make it appear " all fair. and sewn up jBrm. COKJURING A RING. it A long pin will close itself in consequence of the springs. without any danger of the nuts or anything else falling out. while he advances to the audience. .. say at about three or four inches from When the handkerchief is held up by two the kerchief. it may be suspended by the hook. folded. The plate is and when the handkerchief is laid also placed on that side over the plate a portion is left to fall over the side of the table. I shall be happy to exhibit the electric and magnetic action . because. "Will you take a few nuts or sweetmeats ?" . corners. and other feats of legerdemain of a similar kind. When the bag is opened. as passing it through the table. These tricks are so good that they are always shown by the professors of magic at evening parties. although the mouth of the bag is downwards. we will attempt it. . an ale-glass or a plate. These are put into the selvage. to pass a ring through a drinkingglass and plate. ." Now. politely inquiring. the prepared bag is hung on the side of the table that is away from the audience. is passed through the top of the bag and bent round hookshape. and crumpled up in the hands. . . and with it the bag of nuts the folds of the cambric hide the bag. The left hand is now used to draw over the handkerchief and to press the bag this causes the springs to open. and let the ring hang from it. When this trick is to be shown. 21. suspended by the end of the silk. double handkerchief. Several very marvelous tricks can be shown with an ordinary finger ring. then into a box or nest of boxes. but are never explained however. through a basin. the springs keep it shut. . This causes sufficient diversion for the merest tyro of a conjuror to drop the bag behind the table unseen. &c. " If any lady or gentleman will kindly lend me a ring. and through the table on which it is placed. and out fall the "good things" upon the plate. such. If the bag be now filled with nuts. Procure a soft now a neeclean silk handkerchief and a sham gold ring sew the silk to the middle of the dleful of black silk.THE YOUNG CONJUROR.

THE ERRATIC EGG. is to blow smartly on one side of the egg. you will secure the most bashful lady or gentleman in the company to hold the (your) ring in the handkerchief '* You will perceive. which I shall place under the table. Who will kindly hold it for me while I put the glass on the plate in the cenWhile you thus freely ask who will ter of the table ? " hold the kerchief. . and keep it there pretend to pass it to the right hand. or allowing any person or any thing to touch them. Take the borrowed ring in the left hand. . 1 : 22." all must reply. ." says Aunt Caroline. but determine to do the trick well. and put it into your pocket. " Yes. They rush to the plate and glass. it is not there now the box. miss (or sir) be good enough to let Silence Ting You heard the ring fall into the glass. but you could. down your brow with it. and repeal it will hop into the next glass this and it will hop back again. and back again to its original position. without touching the egg or glasses. behold it is as sound as ever how it got there Aunt Carry could never tell. except the deaf Presto it fall ? " You lift tjie handkerchief. To perform this trick. and deserve praise. and request the ladj^ (or gent) to place the ring and the handkerchief over the glass. smooth It is now in the box. Now. Transfer the egg from one wine-glass to the other. " what an extraordinary youth " Do not. You will then be but at my command it shall certain that it is in the glass pass into this box (show the box round). " I will place it in the handkerchief. however. allow yourself to be carried away by any flattery of this kind. and say. I shall now place the glass in the plate on to the center of the table. ! ! I . The audience are now left to themselves. I particularly draw your attention to the fact that you will hear the ring fall into the glass when I request it to be released. by showing their imperviousness. that the glass and the plate are now quite empty." IS THE magician's OWN BOOK. ladies and gentlemen. and the po" Hem rosity of ligneous products of the Honduras. for you put it there out of your left hand when you placed the box under the table. all that you have to do. of metallic substances on diaphonous bodies and ceramic manufactures. I I .

After having placed the glass and coins as indicated. THE PRISONER RELEASED. as in the diagram.'' Show her the watch. : " Little dime. The dime will be expelled by the force of the air. 19 THE OBEDIENT DOTE.. Like a good fellow come • me. simply scratch the tablecloth with the nail of the fore finger in the direction you would have the dime to move. Lay a dime between two half-dollars. "What is this which I hold in my hand?" . Examine it. The amusement will be heightened by reciting the following words prior to moving the finger . A CAPITAL TRICK AT THE DINNER TABLE. ADVANTAGEOUS WAGER. out displacing either of the half-dollars or the glass. she. and give a guess as to its value then offer to lay the owner a wager. The puzzle is to remove the small coin from beneath the larger one. The table cloth is necessary for this reason the trick is best suited to the breakfast or dinner table. as Remove the dime within the diagram. THE YOUNG CONJUROR. and place upon the larger coins a glass. Place a dime in the bottom of a glass. of course. and say. and over the latter put a quarter. do not stay In a place so out-of-the-way But when my finger moved to shall bei. will not fail to reply. without touching either of the coins. A little practice will render the performance of this feat very easy. Request a lady to lend you a watch. " My watch. considerably below the real value of the watch." 24. that she will not answer to three questions which you will put to her consecutively. To do this or touching or upsetting the glass. " My watch. capital trick you must blow with considerable force down one side of the gla«s upon the edge of the quarter. and will fall either upon the upper surface of the quarter or upon the table. and it will answer immediately. 23. 25." Next .

eager to see if you drank the iiquor. makes some sign. " I will engage to drink the liquor under that You then get under hat. as if trying to ascertain whether there are any finger-marks upon them. and even if he touches it so gently as not to disarrange the order in which and they are once put in the slightest degree. win . of course. repeating the same If she name the object you present. . gentlemen. walk up to the table and inspect the spoons. but if she be on her guard." she must. You are all witnesses that / I have fulfilled my promise. ." the table. she replies for the third time. should observe to her. THE DOUBLE MEANING. touching a button of his jacket for the top spoon. Your confederate.20 THE magician's OWN riOOK. a most capital trick. " You are certain to win the stake. so that the spoon they indicate be understood. to divert her attention. 28. and drink the contents. when you instantly take the glass. put a hat over it. did not touch the hat. but supposing 1 lose. and tien decide. This is . 26. Then getting from under the table." 27. " Gentlemen. and you. but it requires a confedPlace three silver spoons crosswise on a table. of course. Place a glass of any liquor upon the table. Take a little ball in each hand. saying. therefore. and assure him you will although find out the one he touches by a single inspection you will leave the room while he does so. present to her notice some other object. be pleased to look. she loses question. " My watch. THE JUGGLER'S JOKE. request any person to touch one. to give you notice which is the identical spoon the actions may be. you make a noise with your mouth as if you were swallowing the liquor. " Now. and stretch your hands as . and putting his finger to his lips may signify the lowest but the precise actions are immaterial. what will you give me 1 " and if." then take it and leave her the wager agreed on. will raise up the hat. you say." Some one. and remembering the wager her stake. and after giving three knocks. previously agreed upon. she says. . erate's aid. confident of success. and yet I'll not touch the hat. " My watch. and say. You retire when he gives you notice to enter. . THE THREE SPOONS. touching his chin for the second.

The whole of the colored fluid will shortly have ascended. Get a bottle full of water. By removing the right hand piece to the side of the you thus take away the center without touching it. eggs. and without injuring the bottle. but not too hard. THE TOPER'S STRATAGEM. a small narrow-necked bulb with port wine. and strike it evenly and repeatedly. far apart as 21 the into you possibly can. post. and the colored and the colorless liquids be seen to pass each other in the narrow neck of the bulb without mixing. By close inspection. Both the balls will thus be in one of your hands. without the latter approaching the other. IS IT POSSIBLE ? Side by side place three pieces of anything. and the bulb will be entirely filled with clear water. 29. 32. 31. the descending current of the water may also be observed. and after some time the cork will be driven out of the bottle. while colorless water will be seen accumulating at the bottom of the bulb. and other ingredients for making an omelet. then tell come into whichever hand they please.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. without bringing the hands contact with each other. and accumulate on the surface of the water in the jar. Produce some butter. in a room where . and take it up with your other hand. turn yourself round. or with water and colored spirit of wine. Wrap a towel round the bottom of the bottle. Fill : 30. or tree. THE niPOSSIBLE OMELET. If any of the lookers-on challenge your ability of achieving this feat. must remove the cork from the bottle without touching the cork with anything. agreeably to your promise. and the top of it level with the neck of the bottle.) then take away the middle piece without touching it. and put the bulb into a tall. (money is most convenient. one from the company that you will make both the other balls . with the cork driven tightly You in. left. the colored fluid will issue from the bulb. narrow glass jar. against a wall. TO CAUSE WINE AND WATER TO CHANGE PLACES. together with a frying-pan. which is then to be filled up with cold water immediately. all you have to do is to lay one of the balls down upon a table.

or quartz. and held parallel. &c. may be attached. thus explains the phenomenon "The crystal has six sides. a rotary motion commences. waltzers. produces. or any smooth surface. harlequins. NEW PERPETUAL ROTARY MOTION. that the cleverest cook will not be able to make an omelet with them. and without any apparent impetus. when. The curiosity of this philosophical toy having excited general interest in the scientific world." : By an . according to the movements of the crystal to heighten the pleasing efi'ect of which. 34. The firist trial of the experiment had better be made by giving a slight rotatory motion to the crystal. accidental occurrence. if properly managed.. as grease or a particle of dust would impede its motion. which is easily done by putting the needle in again at the same hole it came out of. cut in & peculiar form. — . Wet the surface. which may be kept up for an indefinite period of time. an extraordinary rotary motion. if placed upon a wetted smooth surface. in his lecture. and give the plane a slight inclination. a variety of paper figures. Place the crystal on a piece of plate or common window glass. The impetus once given. which may be kept up for any length of time by giving alternate inclinations to the plane surface. a rotatory motion will commence. Professor Leslie. no motion will take place. the centrifugal force increases the rotary motion to such a degree. perfectly clean. " To produce the effed. upon an inclined plane. apple. as for an observer to be unable to distinguish the form of the crystal. into several parts. it has recently been dis covered that a piece of rock-crystal. is a fire. 33. The wager is won by having previously caused the eggs to be \>oiled very hard. without breaking Pass a needle and thread under the rind of the the rind.22 there THE magician's own B0|>K. in consequence of the support being removed from the center of gravity. and offer to bet a wager. and so passing on till you To divide an apple . because the center of gravity of each face is balanced and supported in this position of the plane surface but if a slight inclination is given to the plane. THE MIRACULOUS APPLE. a china or glazed plate. and being cut accurately from the faces to a perfect convex surface.

that you are about to cook an omelet then you break four eggs in a hat. THE INFALLIBLE PROPHET. dime or shilling. and yet the rind will remain entire. and that whoever takes the ring is to take also as many counters as he already has he who takes the shilling. by being sucked through a small aperture but to prevent the company from suspecting this. he gives one to the first person. term the ring a. and according to their number and the underneath line. Some persons will be credulous enough to believe that by the help of certain ingredients you have been enabled to cook the omelet without fire but the secret of the trick is. Sta-te . twice as many . two to the second and three to the third and placing the remainder of the counters on the table. as if by accident. 3'ou may divide it into as many parts as you please. which . the operator should. former advances. which breaking. induces a belief that the others are also full. you propose to tell the article each person has taken. completely cooked. This being done. second and third. and quite hot. the per. In the same manner. We will suppose the articles to be a ring. Then take both ends r. let a full egg fall on the table. by which means the apple will be divided into two parts. and a key. The performer must in his own mind. because the operator. and reckons the remaining counters. and shortly after produce an omelet. The eggs were empty ones. OVER THE ELAME OE A CANDLE . . telling the persons each to take an article. 35. . THE YOUNG CONJUROR 23 have gone round the apple. that the omelet had been previously cooked and placed in the hat. Present the apple to any one to peel. but could not be seen. the shilling or dime e. AN OICELET COOKED IN A HAT. Then taking twenty-four counters or cards. 86. place the hat for a short time ovei the flame of a candle. four times as many. placed it too high for the spectators to observe the contents. the contents having bwcn previously extracted. when breaking the eggs.. In this trick one of three articles being taken by each of three persons. and he who takes the key. and it will immediately fall to pieces. he turns his back or leaves the loom. and key i : (this being the alphabetical order of the vowels. can be easily recollected) and he must also mentally distinguish the persons as first.f the thread in your hands and draw it out.

he each of the different articles. 3. Thus. tells fae must have previously acquired. Salve certa animae semita vita quies. shows that the first person took i. consequently. the key and the second person took a. or their representative vowels. . . It must be observed. and the corresponding numerical arrangement of the counters.24 THE magician's own book. thus . the ring and. 5. : 1. that in no instance can there be a remainder of four counters and that the first syllable of each word represents the first person. This ingenious feat is founded on the permutation of the three articles. 6. the position of the vowels in the corresponding word vita. 1. which can only be placed in six different positions. who has taken 7. and the second syllable the second person. the third person must have taken the shilling. 2. . if there had been a remainder of six counters.

Now. suffer the wood to drop. and. they must. in doing this feat. and expose the trick. and as soon as the wood comes undermost. lest you be suspected of supporting the wood with them. stretch out the forefinger of your right hand. Begin by stating that you are about perfoiming what you have no doubt will be regarded as a very extraordinary maneuver. . doubtless. The mode of performance is as follows Lay the piece of wood across the palm of your left hand. . Next. . support it with such forefinger. and while they are gravely philosophizing up(m it. *and try to do it themselves but. they will imagine the others are beneath the cuff. that its action may not be detected and if it be not. do not keep the stick too long upheld. si. as you state. This will. create much amusement. It is two to one but the spectators will suppose it to be produced by the action of the air. if the spectators only see two or even 'ne. which keep wide open. of course. You may now shake the hand. of giving the hand more steadiness. and discover the trick before their surprise is over. When you have turned your hand over. for the purpose. lest the spectators should take hold of your hands. Zt} it. remove your forefinger. take your left wrist in your right hand. and you will leave the company to decide upon what principle of natural philosophy it is accomplished. 2 . If you have no objection to reveal the secret.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. with the thumb and all : fingers far apart. and grasp it tightly. suddenly turn the back of your left hand uppermost. you can do it again. some of the fingers being naturally supposed to be under the coat so that. you must keep your fingers so low that no one can see the palm of your left hand and move 3'our finger so carefully. and suffer the stick tlie . fail in its performance. unless you have performed the feat so awkwardly as to be discovered. and as your wrist moves in your right hand. . j^ou may rest satisfied that its absence from round the wrist of the left hand will not be discovered.d denly lift up your hand {vide Cut). after a moment or two. to fall. Observe that.

cannot be inspected by the audience. and after having done this. much to the astonishment of the person wlm thinks he is about to receive it. The apparatus. It is better to have the dime in the left arm sleeve. Tlie young conjuror should always varj^ the mode of performance in the non-essentials. showing it to the company. sew the cord to your coat sleeve lining. every trick mentioned in the following pages must be carefully practiced in private before it is produced in public. and the contraction of the elastic cord will make the coin disappear up your sleeve. and just as he is about to receive it you must let it slip from between your fingers. as I think they are unworthy of notic^. and for that reason it is better to mix them with •"hose tricks that have been already mentioned. by which means he will produce more astonishing results than if he restricted himself He should also into the methods mentioned in this work. Therefore. Great care should be taken not to let any part of the cord be seen. and place it between the thumb and index finger of the left hand. I admit no tricks that are wholly managed by the apparatus. . You must then select one of the audience to whom you proffer the dime. and its chief beauty consists in its extreme simplicit3\ The writer has frequently astonished a whole room fall of company by the performance of this trick. Having done this. THE DISAPPEARING DlJki. as this would. tell them that you will give the coin to any one present who will not let it slip away. or a handkerchief. Provide yourself with a piece of India rubber cord aboat twelve inches long. 38. of course. and. This feat can be varied by pretending to wrap the coin in a piece of paper. but be very careful and ascertain that the end upon which the dime is attached does not extend lower than within two inches of the extreme end of the sleeve when the coat is on.. bring down the dime with the right hand. and a dime with a hole on the edge attach the dime to the cord with a piece of white sewing silk. discover This is one of the most surprising feats of legthe trick. TRICKS REQUIRING SPECIAL APPARATUS. erdemain. '3^' THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. of course. in order that Buspicious persons may be quieted by an occasional permission to inspect the objects used in the performances. and should study combinations of one trick with another.

and replacing the upper hat. Place both hats on the table. or to demand inspection of any of his apparatus. give it a few flourishes. It will be better to let an accidental flaw appear on the same side of each. and should therefore request the company not to ask any questions. onl^ . it is my intention to place these hats one above another. and you will find that the die is not under the cover. ladies and gentlemen. When they are returned. Now for the trick itself. as it is now. Then get a tin cover (4) that exactly fits the dice. 39. so that the die tumbles out of it Always use plenty of gesture about your tricks. and bring it down on the cover. and a hollow tin die exactly the size of the wooden one." taking it off. and push the lower one off the table. when both cover and false die will come up together put the end of your wand into them. 40. Grasp the cover tightly near the bottom.) and place the cover over it. ** and after I have knocked on the cover. but I will soon convince you. and give them a good rattle. THE DIE TRICK Get a wooden die about two inches and a half square (1). put the die on the upper hat (of course. 3." which you do. Jj^ . Borrow two hats.' You then put the real die into the hat.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. slip into one of them the false die.'You then take out the false die. thus. as in the engraving. ladies and gentlemen. " You do not believe me. " I shall then cover the die thus. with the open side downward. the ^ ^ |w hollow die being in the bottom hat. Then knock off the upper hat with a blow of the wand. say. "but inside the hat. and while you turn your back upon the audience as you go to your table. I shall take it off." You then place the two hats as in No. 27 vaiiably make a little speech. Then paint them both exactly alike. THE PENETRATIVE CENTS. and send round the real die and cover for inspection. like this. but without one of the sides (2). " Now. Pick up your conjuring wand. Get a brazier to cut oiit all the interior of five cents. acknowledging that he is only deceiving the eye and not the mind.

I have only given mere outlines of this really excellent trick. This maneuver generally disarms all suspicion. Fig. which passes easily over the heap of cents. as you can rattle them or move them about upon each other. merely leaving a shell of copper at the top. is then made. No. 1. Fig. as shown in Fig. The rivet is to be passed through the holes in the rings.2« THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. No. and knock the cover with your wand. is capable of picking up the hollow cents with it. put the end of your wand into them and hold them up triumphantly. as in No. 1. place six real cents on the little shelf. No. He must then bore out nearly all the interior of a sixth cent. 1. which draws the catch. To perform the trick. No. To the under surface of the table you fasten a little shelf. make a short speech. and as you put them down. slip the sixpence under them. so that all the rings can play easily upon it. one of whom you ask to pick it up and bring it to you. and is let fall by placing the foot on the pedal. 2. They can then be placed as shown in Fig. Fig. showing the spectators that the six cents have been replaced by a silver sixpence. pick up the sham cents. but being pliable. 2. 1. is a section of the entire apparatus. Keep a sixpence in the palm of your hand. when it is held firmly. Fig. leathern cover. slip the sham ones out of the cover into 3^our left hand. long rivet must then be let into the rim. 4. which will cause all the six real cents to tumble down with a great crash. the dotted lines representing the rivet. leaving" the rims. While you are picking up the cents. as you do the ball in trick 6. A No. and take some opportunity of letting the empt}' cover roll towards the audience. 3. 2. at the same time pressing the pedal with your foot. No. and no one will imagine that they are only shams. which may be varied in a hundred ways. 2. Take the cover. for the picker-up is sure to ex- A amine it very closely. 2. No. 2. 2. and a hole must be drilled in each of the five rings. and put it over the sham cents. 1. and is capa- . 3. and fastened below. and put them down as in Fig. Take them up and rattle them. and have the sham cents on the table. which moves on a hinge. Take up the cover and false cents together.

the dignity of his spectacles. and cannot be found. He is professor of astronomy at Timbuctoo. The head is now supported by your left hand. taking with it the body. is. trick. and bore a hole in the body. There should be always two cloths on the table the lower one thick and soft. Pretend to give him some money. if the performer prefers to have a short cloth on it. silk. while you jingle some silver." So saying. as in the Paint his body and head carecut." ing this. here is a very learned man. which drives it into the pocket. and sow a pocket inside the edge of the skirt.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. He has the honor to wish you all farewell before starting on Now. into which the peg fits. the sagacity of ladies his nose. which you hold open for it with your left thumb and little finger. to prevent jing* ling of objects. He is going to Amsterdam to see the eclipse of the last new comet. do you ? I beg your pardon here it a quarter for you. the eloquence of his lips. ! . and gentlemen. and put the body into your pocket. 59 For ble of combination with other tricks to a large extent. and the philosophy of his pigtail. and the upper one white. and say. and if you put a gold chain or two round his neck. See Trick 67. page 48. THE DOLL THICK Get a comical looking doll. we are waiting to see you go. The ingenuity of the young conjuror will easily find methods of varying this . ! ! ! . and here is his gown of office. and then say. Take up the doll. professor. See how handsome he looks in it. it will conceal the Make also a coat of line of junction. and shake it about to show that it is empty. " What! you won't go unless Get along " Hit the head a hard rap you have more with your right hand. " O dear Saythe doctor is dead. 41. you grasp the gown by the place where the head If you like. Oh you want funds. you take your right hand from under the gown. fully. as it displays everything better than a colored oae. his journey. " Now. the pedal may be substituted a lever running immediately under the surface of the table. and cut off his head diagonally. Drive a peg into the neck. taking care to do it very neatly. Observe the development of his forehead.

42. and go out of the room to fetch your box. THE RESTORED DOCUMENT. so that it can be raised up. showing the silver side of one and the brass side of another. and grind them down until they are reduced to half their thickness. on opening them again. You then give the man bis document. THE PLYING COINS. Take two eagles. memorandum book. and working it about by the peg. The pencil with which you furnish him is very hard. In so doing. and fasten them accurately together.30 THE magician's OWN BOOK. leaf from under the black paper. and take a half-dime into the palm of the same Close the hand. and be quite concealed behind the finger when you hola your hand up. and ask some one to write a sentence. which you have While you are out of the room. Take one ef them in each hand. and one brass face. rapidly open it. Do the same with two quarter dollars. the black is transferred by the pressure of the pencil from the blackened paper to the white leaf that has been placed under it. so that you will have two coins. Then. and offer to change them without moving your arms. put the memorandum book in your pocket. Then hand. and he is forced to press upon the paper in order to mark. you take out the forgotten. and a leaf from the memorandum book placed under it. You must also make a flat box. which is of course done by taking the head out of the pocket with the left hand. and the silver piece will adhere to the wax. the nail of the middle finger of the right hand. Shut your hands and the coins will turn over. each having one silver face. THE YANISHED HALF-DIME. having a double opening. making the doctor resuscitate himself. and of course makes an exact copy of the writing. and put it into one side of 43. The paper must be loosely affixed. and line the cover with paper Make a which has been previously rubbed with a mixture of lampblack and oil. they will appear to have changed from one hand into the other. or rather brass imitations. You now take a leaf out of the memorandum book. pressing the wax on the coin. 44. you can make another oration and hold a dialogue. at the same time offering him the book to write upon. Put a little wax on .

his own hand-writing. you have four rings together. into the writer's hands. When returned. opening it as at first. and passing one of the outer rings of c through the opening. bring it down with a bang on the table. about six or seven inches in diameter. as in the cut. returns it to you. You bring in the box. Then take a in your band. and to place the ashes in the box. you produce the duplicate leaf. and shut down the cover that hides it. Take off d and substitute b which will give you six. apologising for your absence. Lay the ring-. and contrive as often as you can to have one at least of the rinffs d at libertv ecQ . you can account for it by observing that it is very difficult to get rid of all traces of the burning. So you go on weaving them into all kinds of fantastic shapes. on one another. You clash together. Get a blacksmith to make a number of rings. You must always conceal the joint ill A with your thumb. open at the other side. and d d are two simple rings. and bring out c. then a. and then c. He does so. c is a set of three rings formed in the same manner. If the lamp-black should have come off and smeared the paper. When they are returned mix them all up. strike it with your wand. Hand round d for inspection : and if any more are desired. The rings should be about the thickness of a rather large black-lead pencil.THE YOUNO CONJUROR. or grasp them in your hand. Hand them round. and after going through them some b. and they will all appear to be separate and distinct d d should be the uppermost rings. bring out which the spectators will think you have just fastened together. THE MAGIC RINGS. Then add d and you have five. b is a set of two rings forged permanently within each other. 45. and tell the company that you are going to weave all the rings together. wave it in the air. and then. complicated movements. then B. A is made with a spring opening on one side. 31 the flat box. hang them over your left arm. which the writer acknowledges to be ii. hand round the other n. and give the box. Tell him to burn his writing in a candle. You then flourish about a little with the box. and closing the box.

and which is withdrawn inside the handkerchief during the performance of the trick. This apparent impossibility is performed as follows. In the handle is a spoonful or so of ink. THE CANNON BALLS. The balls are arranged hole upwards on a shelf on your table on the side opposite to your au^ l~ „. finger. To the interior of the vessel is fitted a black silk lining.. You dip a ladle into it. which runs into the bowl when it is held downward. so that the balls are nearly level with the top of the table. in which a couple of gold fish are swimming.. a thirty-two pounder cannon ball rolls out. This is 47.. and may be diversified to extent. person his hat. which adheres closely to the sides when pressed by the water. Get a turner to make a number of wooden balls. any is a capital trick. vase and instantly withdraw it. and on turning it over. The method of performing this delusion is as follows. and pour out some of the ink upon a plate. The performer of this trick borrows a number of hats. you slip your fore or middle finger into the ball just as you would into a thimble. having a hole cut in the stall . and by bending the ball into the hat. bring the Any object may be brought into a hat in thie manner. full of ink. THE PISH AND INK TRICK. You bring before the spectators a glass vase.32 Tliis THE magician's own book. in order to convince the audience that the substance in the vase You then throw a handkerchief over the is really ink. for instance. during the act of dipping it into the vase. when the vase is found to be filled with pure water. The ladle has a hollow handle with an opening into the bowl. He then returns each and places them on the table. each the size of a thirty-two pounder cannon ball. especially if the number of rings is increased. 46. really a first-rate delusion. When you take a hat off the table.„. j /" "\ J— m ^^y^'"^'^ /fjj^i^ w^-^^^=^i^^ dience. a great cabbage.. and let a hole be bored in each which will admit the middle finger.

and she has laid an egg. you break the them by ocular inspection.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. This is then. Take down the ball from the place where it is lying. you drop the bag behind your table. with the end of the worsted wrapped tightly round it. tinman to make a flat tin tube. egg in a saucer with your right hand. You repeated until all the eggs but one are gone. These preliminaries having been accomplished. * That is. marked dime into the middle of a ball of worsted. say that some people think the eggs are not real. turn it inside out. " These are real eggs. and you are ready for the performance. each of which will hold an egg. so as to make it into a ball. and shake out the hen." you then say." then turn the bag upsid > down." put your hand into the bag and take out one of the eggs. shake it. THE DliTE IN THE BALL OF COTTON. a allow a Get 49. and make a clucking like a hen. You then say " I knew So saying. A good squeeze or two will hold it tight. such as number Then tell the spectators that you will bring the 1 or 2. tlie edges together. but you will convince Saying this. Place the ball in a tumbler. so that actually there will be A tliird b-iar het«-. into which you have put a hen. that you are sure there is a hen Put your head near the mouth of the bag. and give it to some one to unwind. THE EGG AND BAG TRICK. much wiser For it. drop the dime into the tube. and take up another exactly like it. and withdraw the tube.*and between the two bags make six or seven pockets. " and if any one doubts their Yuu reality. 33 48. Then tell the spectators. and obliterate every mark of the tube. the dime will be found in the very center of the ball. and while the people are occupied with it. If any one wishes to inspect that bag. perform any trick that will get a dime out of Right. Wind a quantity of worsted round it. and show that there is nothing in it. make two bags and sew tho tuo. Get a chintz or cloth bag made double. leaving the dime in the ball. they cannot doubt that this is a real hen. in the bag. take the end of the worsted.'pn . he can do so without beinji. you I was right. which will just dime to pass through it. taking care to pretend to grope in one of the corners for it. This being done. or hang it on a hook out of sight. Hold the bag by the place where the eggs are. after taking out the last egg. Fill the pockets with eggs. and have an opening into the bag.

that wheo it is at rest. Then place the egg on an inverted hat. Borrow a small stick from one of the spectators.) but was so long haggling over three shots.) of the gunmakcr's shop. and closes the aperture. Into this you privately put a cent. heaping it compensate for the cent. to cent for his trouble. it is forced upwards by a spring. You make up a tale about a man going out shooting. Send for some eggs. and directly it begins to sound. so as apparently to vary the distance of the egg from the body. and draws up the round piece of wood to which the clapper chain is attached. (you pour the shot into the bell and back again two or three times. and ringing the bell (You then ring jouv wooden bell. You must be careful to turn gently round now and then. and by pressing on the handle. as shown in the engraving. (Here you again ring the bell which is now aoparently empty. that the gunraaker took away the shot.) and kept the and then fill a little.ci THR MA 50. and as you go behind your table contrive to hook the bent pin into your coat. Get a wooden bell made. up the measure with shot. and invert . You have a cardboard measure. 51. allow them all to run into the hollow. THE DANCING EGG. so thick that there is a considerable space between the outer and inner surfaces. A hollow must be cut in this. which is of precisely the same capacity as the cavity in the bell. and take care to place among tnem one which has been emptied of its contents. and ask for some music. ICIAN'S OWx\ BOOK. (here you again pour the shot into the bell. passing it over the stick. and to which is fastened a long hair. but soon came in again. The man went out of the shop. and just wide enough to hold a cent. How the man bought a measure full of shot for a cent. especially on the upper part of the bell. a slight and imperceptible depression or elevation of the stick will cause the egg to twist and roll about upon it as if it had life. and rang furiously. and the handle so made. BELL AND SHOT. at the other end of which is tied a crooked pin.

This must so slide within a tin tube. Will the owner say what mark it has?" While the audience are looking towards the owner. the shots will refill it. it 52. is where the end a In this position is shown. When the mark has been declared. for here are his shots in his measure. THE EIRE EATER. and pretend to verify the mark. place them in this canister. such as is shown in the cut. so that A is uppermost again. you open B. 35 The cent not being held the measure on the table. " ladies and gentlemen. when you put the bell aside. Borrow a cambric handkerchief. with an opening at each end. it rather adds to the trick if you drop a little eau de cologne into A before commencing. and when it has burned entirely to ashes. as seen in the engraving. open a.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. You then put it into a candle flame. you turn the canister over. The interior is divided into two Into b put a piece of cambric made parts. ring it again.) " and Now when I have uttered a spell. and say. it an ordinary canister. to make a double canister. shut it up." (so saying you put it into a. When you have finished. Do not touch until you have done another trick or two. THE BURNED HAJs^DKERCHTEF RESTORED. it will be restored perfectly whole. invert the bell over the empty measure. and then. and push up the canister until the shoulder of b is on a level with the top of the tube. to look like a handkerchief. take out the cambric. and take out the handkerchief uninjured. and on pressing the handle. that either end can be Get a tinman concealed within it alternately. by the finger and thumb. 53. will now fall on the tablecloth. is it If the young conjuror character of a fire-eater. is desirous of appearing in the very easily managed. put the ashes into b. Then utter any nonsense you like.) Then finish the story with an account of the manner in which the man got back his cent. He . and b looks like concealed. and remark that the purchaser was a silly fellow ofter ail. and rapidly reverse it as you turn round to your audience. I shall burn this handkerchief to ashes.

b." 65. and the whole interior of the mouth is soon lighted up with a glow. taken into the mouth. " There is nothing. and taking the lid of c in your fiuger and thumb.36 THE magician's OWN BOOK. and with it the piece in which is the string. As he puts this into his mouth. the fire goes More tow is then out. and treated in the same manner. call for an egg. THE GLOBE-BOX. A. and appears to swallow it. and wraps it up in a piece of tow which he holds in his left hand. so clapping that in again. puts it into his mouth. " There it is gone again. say. He then takes another handful. . " There is the egg again. 64. To do the trick. " You see it fairly in. THE EGG-BOX. take off the upper part. the upper shell c. except the piece of prepared string." and uncovering it again. . and taking b by the bottom." which it appears to the spectators to be. He cuts off a piece about an inch in length. the egg-box . covered over with the shell of an egg d. set the box on the table. smoke begins to issue forth. likewise say." close your hand about the middle of your box. as may be conveniently contained therein ball serves as the egg does in the egg-box. He takes a handful of tow in his right hand. the lower part of the box. then bid all the look at it. must prepare a piece of thick string. When the mouth is shut. to deceive the This trick is . ." open your box again :ind say. and put it in my pocket in your sight . " You shall see me take it out. and the tow pressed together. and a the ball as hip. The trifling smoke will be concealed by a huge bundle of loose tow also carried in the left hand. and see that it is a real egg. It is done with a box made of four pieces. by soaking it in a solution of niter. with ^ F-^m/^""^^ your fore finger and thumb. say. and breathing it out through the mouth. chews it up. the inner shell. not inferior to the best that is shown with boxes. say. then Aby-standers ^^ ^F^ placing the egg in the box. lights one end. By taking breath through the nostrils. he takes out the piece which he has already chewed. and then drying it.

" and taking off the top. blue. . when he was expected to throw out the wet handkerchiefs. 56. and there will appear another of a different color. He now brought out a box. . 37 nand and eyes of spectators. is thrown out of the box upon the table. one to see that . . to be another ball. or any other color you may fancy this will seem . . THE COPFEE AND HANDKERCHIEF TRICKS. though. lie opened it again. . q. and immediately afterwards the performer said to the persons in front " I will give you these . We will illustrate this by two popular K number of handkerchiefs taken from the audience feats.' another N is an inner shell o. the top of which represents the ball p. as you may perceive by the cuts. for every it is substantial then put the ball into the box. and shoved and uttprinsr o it to be empty then shutting it. and they were washed for a few minutes. . These globes may be made with more or less varieties. . taken off the figure m. a third shell s. made of wood or ivory. They were then placed in a ves sel like the figure (*) on the next page. all that fell was a number of flowers. . of the greatest means of wonder-working is that of ingenious contrivance. into which water was poured. This ball. THE YOUNG CONJUROR. which : One he opened. which close up with all the pieces one within another remove the upper shell with your fore finger and thumb. it is no more tlian a shell of wood. yd'ow. ingeniously turned and fitted to the box. in fact. l is the outer sliell of the globe. the cover of the same inner shell r. red. by more than one popular performer. were placed in a small washing tub. the cover of the same that which covers it. according to the desire of the practitionei . few cabalistic words..

he said.3P THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. the vessel appeared liquid coffee. . while they would utterly escape those whose object is merely amusement. . let it simmer for three quarters of an hour perhaps." done full of hot In another vessel of the same kind he oband in a third. and placing it under a cover b. These feats are the result of considerable ingenuity. in reference to the first experiment. then. would be likely to describe the result as supernatural. and who. We . Another experiment of a popular performer was called million. that a number of handkerchiefs are collected in the early part of the evening for various and on removing the cover. if they thought at all. whicii he distributed to their respective claimants. here then it is . It is probable that the devices employed would not readily occur to spectators in general. and scented. to the unraveling of the mystery. that. warm tained lump-sugar from rape-seed and pouring out the coffee into milk from horse-beans cups. Let it be observed. and there were the handkerchiefs. proceed. folded. when you have . but. th3 performed filled it with unground coffee. all dry. amidst their loud and approving shouts at so great a transformation. you will not like to wait so long . sent them round to regale his auditory. " There." *' coffee for the Producing a vo'^sel like the diagram A.

while the upper part holds the flowers till they are scattered among the spectators. which. and sugar. milk. he could easily substitute his own of the same kind for those of his auditory. we have a representation of the box containing the liandkerchiefs. See Trick No. there is . one interior is first shown. though this mystifies the spectators. therefore. Meanwhile. no diflBculty. he draws it out with the outer one. At B. for the inner drawer holding the handkerchiefs remains in the case but when a few sounds are uttered. defies detection. It is only necessary to add that the box is very nicely made the part within the other drawn out to the end.THE YOU\G CONJUROR. are washed and placed in the vase already described and the so called change into flowers is nothing more than the retention of the handkerchiefs in the lower part of the ap. contains nothing. would complete the preparation but granting that they are washed. but as it is double. . all that is required is done to their handkerchiefs. as the curtain falls. . may be easily explained for if the vessels containing respectively thp still . according to the arrangements of the evening. paratus. pressing. Provided with a collection of these articles. between the collection of the handkerchiefs and the subsequent processes. In the diagram a. . 39 illusions. of course. The preparation of coffee. from the handsome silk handkerchief to one trimmed with lace. It is not absolutely necessary that they should be washed for folding. who have the idea that drying is a long affair for it may be effected in a minute or two by a machine that is readily obtained. His own handkerchiefs. used by a fashionable lady. The box brought out has them deposited in it. which the figure illustrates. . and that many of them appear for a time on the performer's table. which disengages the inner box. and a little eau-de-Cologne. 65. . and presents the handkerchiefs to the audience. the box is shown as empty. and the professor touches a secret spring behind.

and the horse-beans. always placed under a cover. unground coffee. be put on a part of the table having a circular trap-door and for this there is full provision in a confederate the cover of the table extending to the floor may readily substitute one for the other. — — . the rape-seed.40 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK.

is one of the most wonderful that can be performed in a drawing-room without apparatus but it requires dexterity at the conclusion. A saturated solution of bicarbonate of potash. you must make solutions of the following chemicals. hole in a vessel the water will flow out. which is covered with the finger. however. space for The funnel is always prepared before the audience by pouring in water. every time the finger is withdrawn water flows out from tube T. The person performing the trick offers to pour from a common wine bottle. One of the audience is now requested to step up to the table. as every time the finger is withdrawn from the hole n the pressure of the air is admitted. 3. all ending. and communicating with the hollow of the funnel by a liole in the tube. and label the bottles with numbers. occasionally stopping the end of the pipe t with the finger. A saturated solution of perchloride of iron. ears. and the water flows out 58. 4. in succession. sherry. 7 A clear scl-iti^u of gum-arabic. a pin-hole at the top. filled water between the funnels. eyes. if well managed. &c. port wine. N. that if there is a . • This trick. To accomplish the : trick. 5. milk. and in any order. THE MAGIC EOTTLE. When the funnel is prepared for use. thus 1 A saturated solution of the sulphocyanate of potash. in the fact. Our drawing will assist the explanation. and you proceed to draw water from his hair. s s. 2 A diluted solution of the above one part of the solution to four of water. one funnel soldered into the other so as to leave a space between them for water. 41 THE MAGIC FUNNEL This favorite and siraple trick is carried out by the assistance of a double funuel. so that the inner space may be filled whilst this is being eftected the conjuror must fill up the time with a philosophical disquisition on funnels. A saturated solution of nitrate of lead. that is to say.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. and champagne . 57.. which is by etopping end cf tube i with the finger: the water flows in and out at K. — . 6 Sulphuric acid.

the mechanical one will be easily understood from the " Magic Funnel Trick. the body of which is constructed . they must not be left about in the way of children. and add a tablespoonful of No. Everything being ready. 2. 59. then the tray must be adroitly exchanged for another with the proper wines placed on it. not to hold it high above the glasses. and holding it up to show the company that it is clear and empty. Provide some wine glasses of four different patterns. and is not diflScult to comprehend. . into another that marked No. and of course the fluid in the wine glasses must not even be tasted but if smy of the company wish to drink the wines you have made. otherwise persons will observe that it undergoes change of color after it is poured into the wine glasses. This is an excellent parlor trick if well managed. it will produce sherry. then pour three teaspoonfuls of No. it will not be observed. 2. in order to show that it is water then say. you must desire some person to hand j'ou the water bottle or jug.42 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. and wash it out well. it will change to milk. and if into No. " change to champagne. THE BOTTLE TRICK. 1. Be careful in pouring the fluid from the bottle. 3 and 5. and so on for Nos. 1. . Pour some distilled or rain water into a common water-bottle or jug. and on this account the glasses should be held rather high. . and it will change to port wine but if poured into No. from two or three others. but to keep the mouth of it close to the edges of the glasses. . The chemical method of performing this delusion has been already explained. . take the champagne bottle that you have prepared. and arrange the glasses on a small tray. and into one pattern pour the solution marked No. 5 glass rinsed with No. As the quantity is very small." and pour the liquid from the bottle then pour into a into one of the glasses rinsed with No. especially if you are quick in your movements." It is usually carried out with a bottle. 7 to it then set it aside ready for use. and then fill up the bottle with the water. 4 into it. Return the solutions to their respective bottles. 3. Procure a champagn3 bottle. remembering the solutions that were poured into each pattern. Pour some of the contents of the bottle into an unprepared glass. *^* As the solutions used in the above trick are deleterious.

for ordinary use arrangement will be understood as shown beneath. and they are filled with their respective liquids by the pear-shaped vessel already exEach compartment is perforated with a little hole plained. from <). 2. Vg) l port. . so that when the fingers are placed ove? them (as on the holes of a flute) the liquid cannot run out on inverting the bottle. holding a liquors. three of which are sufficient. sherry. the neck of glass compartments. into which the assistant may pour by mistake the contents of the bottle labeled " Ink. and punch the middle compartment may hold the tea and coffee berries. coffee. /i JLf_\ I 1. the one. . very small quantity of fluid. the center compartment). the performer alludes to his wonderful bottle full of the milk of human kindness. keeping the three holes tight with his fingers. which he pours out carefully from the center compartment. still keeping his fingers over the holes. he may pour the rest into a jug. the spirit supplies the others. sherry. in the bottom of which some milk has been already placed. A small drop of oil of almonds or other flavoring materials may be used for the different A thick wine-glass must be employed. noyeau. It must be understood that little tubes from each compartment terminate in the neck. brandy. A magic cofi'ee-pot may be arranged in a similar manner. center of which milk may be poured. with a center by cutting the bottle in two. gin. 3. the center being tilled and emptied in the ordinary manner after pouring out and handing round a few glasses of milk.THE YOUNG CONJUROR of . On showing the trick. 43 the body is divided into sundry tin. . and for the sake of a little mystification put the bottle upright under a hat. &c. : bottle. syrup and juniper for gin. commanding the bottle to change its temperance habits. so that the company may believe the bottle was originally filled with it he may now wash out the bottle (that is to say. The sherry and port are poured from their compartments. as a number of wine-glasses can be prepared with drops of burnt sugar for brandy. at the top.compartment8holding and alcohol. He may now ask the company to call for port." The performer. after scratch. with three compartments to hold hot tea.

you dexterously place on one side. whilst you direct the audience to look into a book. for instance). it surprises on account of at an evening party. it will heighten the effect if a number of single quarters or cents are hidden about the room.U THE magician's OWN BOOK ing his head. this . as in the This mode of showing the trick is good. because. of course. . THE MAGIC QUAETER. about seven inches square. and having put the marble backs of the paper together. but when performed with dexterity is calculated to produce much astonishment In fact. and substitute the prepared one and putit gravely into the box. ask all to be sure they have seen it enter when the lid is on. or a pair of the prepared coin can be slippers. however large your audience. to which line the box with any dark fit accurately a quarter or cent paper (crimson. and before performing the trick. and disto be gone play the interior the paper on the coin conceals it. This is quite a simple parlor trick. cent is concealed in the hand. in places known to yourself. Procure two pieces of marbled paper its very simplicity. shake up and down the noise betrays the metal now command it to disappear. This trick may be repeated two or three times with the greatest success. : Procure a small round box. which can be fastened up with a cork or proper lid. as if in deep thought. 61 TO CHANGE A DDIE TO A QUARTER. and it is displayed with great efi'ect by Signer Blitz. Then. you can provide everybody with something to drink. . and Wyman. so that when it lies in the lower part of This quarter or the box it shall appear like the real box. ting : — . and paste some of it on one side of the coin. and the box handed round for examination. will take a lump of whiting and powder up. no noise is apparent the coin seems in proof of which you open the box. and is so simple that nobody guesses the manner of performance. about one inch deep. if the holes from the compartments terminate in the handle and the pipes in the spout. cut them the shape of diagram . Having borrowed a coin. . and shake laterally from side to side as the quarter is made to fit accurately. when the fingers are removed the three liquids pour out separately. 60. for the missing quarter slipped out. Bottle Trick. in which. placing it in the center compartment. nothing Will be found. — .

After cutting the paper in the manner described. When you have done this turn down the end marked d upon the center a. twenty-two inches When . Having done this. two feet eight inches high. a secret confederate is required. and fold it up exactly the same size and shape as the first piece. DESCRIPTION OF THE MAGICUN'S TABLE.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. two feet nine inches wide. have a table four and a half feet long. When this is accomplished. with a curtain ~ound it. 2. place a dime in the center of one of the pieces at the place marked a. you will discover that you have formed a small parcel the same shape as Fig. and also again at the side marked c. I have seen much merriment created by this excellent feat. as the success of the trick depends in a great measure upon the regularity of the paper. 45 Fig. Be very careful to have them exactly the same size. instead of a dime they wil behold a genuine quarter. mutter some cabalistic words and dexterously turn over the side containing the quarter. You can then open the side of the paper containing the dime and show it to your audience. to the astonishment of the company. at the same time informing them that you are going to open a mint on a small plan. in Fig. and coin a quarter from a dime. and upon opening the paper. You must then place a quarter of a dollar -%i center of the other piece of paper. and the sides will be so even that both parcels will appear as one. 1. and again fold over on e. with a dime in the center. 2. gum the two parcels together at the in the back of the ends marked f. 62. When you have done this. then fold it carefully over at the crease on the side marked b.

and then. WTMAN'S GUN TRICK. and at the side which is farthest from the spectaThis box is about twenty inches deep. for you break the egg^ and say. so that they may be let down lying flat. and hung upon con- but when cealed hinges. as the artificial ball is easily reduced to a powder on the application of the ramrod besides the smallness of the balls preclude all discovery of the deception. but instead of which you must provide yourself with an artificial one made of black lead. . the top of the table appears to present a perfect Under this surface are buttons. egg. 64. THE magician's own book. THE HATCHED BIRD. join the two halves together. Having provided yourself with a to load it. because. or drawer. you do not fail in the trick. any person . having no idea of the trick to be performed. . which may be easily concealed between your fingers. it will instantly be acknowledged. . . . . permit retaining for yourself the privilege of putting in the ball. having first put a live canary bird inside it. . which contains the bird. from three to five inches across . also. producing it after the gun has been and a mark having been previously put upon discharged This trick is quite it. which will continue unhurt in it for some time. a whole egg in readisupply the bird with air put the Present the two eggs for one to be chosen ness. In the top of this table are several secret square holes. provided you make a small pinhole in the shell to have. 63. and concealed tors. which prevent surface. to the evident satisfaction of the company. those lids from falling down when not made use of. if the wrong one be taken. open at the top. of different sizes. " You see that this egg is fair and fresh madam . simple. next to the person who is to she choose. Separate an egg in the middle as nearly as possible empty it. these naving covers which exactly fit. Under the top of the table is fastened a box. and retain the real ball in your possession. by the curtain and in this box is placed the secret agent who assists the performer . . with a fine piece of paper and a little glue. there is no apparent reason to take the further one at any rate.46 deep. fowling-piece. and for this purpose be sure to select a lady naturally chooses the nearest to her.

THE YOUNG CONJUROR. or a canary bird ?" She naturally declares for the bird nevertheless. 2. 80 that when it is in the drawer B. . THE APPLE AND ORANGE TRICK. when put into it the sides and ends of the drawer 0. it cannot be discovered without minute examination then push them both into the . marked A. which slides into the box A. and gather the majority of votes. in all pA'obability. . marked C. Have a box made with a drawer fitted to it as in the figure No. which. . with their end and sides sloping towards the sides of the drawer B. 80 47 other. there are means to escape you ask the same question of several ladies. has no end piece then have another drawer made. will be in favour of the bird you would have found the Now. do you choose . if you had chosen it. that will fit the drawer B rather easy. to find in it a mouse. which you then produce. The back part of the drawer B. if she ask for the mouse. made of rather thin wood. open at the top. 65.

and have a small hole bored through the top of the box A. You . so as to prevent the same from slipping out of its place. and you put the pin D in its place. the end of the drawer C will then appear as if it was the end of the drawer B as represented in the plate. the drawer C out alone. in which yon put a small pin with a flat top.48 THE magician's own book. and exhibit it then pull the drawer B out. slide back the drawer B. in the bottom of the drawer C. to the great astonishment of the company take the fruit out and present it to the spectators. It is now ready to perform experiments with. that the drawer B is open at the inner end. and convince them that. box A. You can then show it to the company. that the drawer C will not slip from the bottom of the drawer B. as marked D in the plate this pin is so long that it will just catch drawer C. close the drawer B. inside of the box A. and under the plate and in your left hand have previously . then place the left hand on the secret pin D. and take it out then with the right hand pull out the drawer B. . which is full of fruit. To Perform the Experiment. figure 2. C will come out inside of the drawer B without the trick being discovered it being understood that the false drawer C is invariably concealed from the spectator. privately. to prevent it from coming out with the drawer B. as represented in the plate. when not necessary to be . which will convince the spectators that it is empty. when that with the loose drawer C is pushed into the box A. and the drawer B has been drawn out. This concludes the performance. take out five and mysteriously pass them back into the hat and it covered. 66. nothing is concealed. apparCare must be taken in pulling ently. ENCHANTED COIN. . and you may also measure the inside of the drawer B. the drawer B may be pulled out. exposed. consequently. A — . with the secret drawer C. Put fifteen pieces of money into a hat. but if you remove or pushed back. are aware. alone. withouu interruption the pin out of the box. and the outside of the box A. . When the drawer C is in the box A. AS PERFORMED BY PROFESSOR WTMAN. as has already been described. To do this trick you must have in your left hand a plate. the drawer C with fruit. When you have satisfied them on that point. which otherwise would prevent little catch may be affixed it from being pushed back. Fill.

OE GLASS. After performing trick 40. to see that there is no mistake. you then ask the person whom you have selected from the audience to assist you in performing the tricks. to count the money out of the hat into the plate. and lay is done. 27. place upon that a wine glass upside down.) and show the audience that the five pieces are gone. watch closely. 49 placed five pieces of coin such as you will have placed in after you have counted the fifteeo pieces into the hat. which will be secreted therein. Presto. AND PALL INTO THE HAND. to convince them that nothing is inside. you then open the drawer. MYSTERIOUS COIX. which will still leave fifteen. in a careless manner. you may see the money go through this glass and fall upon the plate. and if you have very penetrating eyes. Take the loose coins and throw them on the table bring them again under the table. then you go through the magic words. Pass. and they may discover the whole process. and place them over the ball. (after placing your finger on the spring to hold the inside drawer in which the five pieces were placed. Now tell the company to keep a sharp look out. Place it. fifteen.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. WINE HOW TO JTAXE DOLLARS PASS TFROUGH A A CHINA PLATE.) you may address the company again. he counts the hat . . if it you will show you the nature of only look sharp enough to see how : " I will Therefore. . you take the five that is drawn out and place them in a drawer (see the orange and apple trick). A TABLE. and take the empty leathern case and hold it before the audience. and to the surprise of all. . 67. 3 . and say this trick. you then tell him to get the hat and see how many pieces are in it he gets the hat. so that you may have every opportunity of detecting the deception. I will do it deliberately. after which you turn the money out of the plate into the hat. and from that through the table into my hand. which will make you as wise as myself. which you had before put a little aside from the view of the spo^tators." Now you take a plate and place it on the table. over the riveted money. Place a small ball on the bottom of the glass. then take the case with the concealed coins therein. Facillo. and at the same time let fall the five pieces you have secreted in your hand under the plate you then ask him to draw out five pieces. (p. and exchange them for a ball previouslv deposited on the shelf. the original number.

as at first. about twe inches from the top. " I presume that you have discovered the whole uystery but if not. in the center make a hole about the same in diameter. of an obeliatic form. Remove the case alone. ladies. Our performer makes the following concluding speech " Now. consequently keeps the liquid from coming out at the* small hole made iq the center of the partition. as there is in the other cover^ and place that cover over it now have a tumbler with a hole through the center of the bottom (made with a drillj.you must have three covers (tin) made. copper. then through your trick table have a small auger hole made t« . that yoii. place the cover over that. I hope. terminating at about one inch and a half on top. discovered the whole mystery. have this hole closed with a long peg from the under side.i»GlCIAiN'S 0W\ BOOK the same upon the taMe. then cork them well which excludes the air. and bring the ball which you previously exposed to the spectator under the table. the other with wine.) Previous to performing tht» trick fill the two covers (the tops of them) one with water. which. as you have. and. and exchange it for the money on the shelf. aad will return the money whence it^ came. . upon the top of twc of these covers is soldered a piece of thick brass. will not set up an opposition line aga'nst me since. (thi? partition must be water tight. and the ball will appear on the top of the glass. Remove the case with the coins concealed therein. PEOEESSOR WYMAICS GREAT THICK OF THE EGYPTIAN FLUITQ." Cover the money with the case. say about a quarter of an irch in thickness. through the center of which make a small a hole. and leave me in an empty house with empty pockets. then put about the same quantity of wine in the other tumbler. I will give you another opportunity.60 THE Rl. "Now. 68. if you do. of course. To perform this trick. which you again toss upon the table. will leave the money exposed on the top of the glass. I suppose. or lead. CH IMPOSSIBILITIES ACCOMPLISHED Mix wine and water together. then separate them by mean? of a red and white tape. and on the inside will be a partition or floor. then take two sound tumblers and put about as much water in one as thero is water in one of the covers." . yo« will very seriously injure my pockets. of course. the tumbler that has the water." says th-T performer. : . attract all the company.

but two inches deeper than . and place it in the top of the cover that is over the false tumbler. 69. then change it into a handTo do this trick you have two cups (tin) made kerchief. which has a small wire to it. after which bring it out in presence of the audience. cover it over. then fill the inside cup (which to the audience appears to be the only cup) with rice. (keeping your hand in front of the peg. then remove the cover and the inside cup will fit one within the other. Professor Wyman. Past. by the performance of this wonderful experiment. let the rims be turned square down all round. place the tumblers back and cover them over. .) place it back with peg through the hole. after which repeat the mystic words Presto. THE MAGICIAN'S SNOW BALL. then reach your hand under the table and draw the peg ont of the tumbler and let the mixture run down into a tumbler or cup secreted there for that purpose now remove the covers and show the audience that the tumbler you poured the mixture into is empty. place the cover over it. ONE OP THE FAKER OF AVA'S FEATS. Previous to performing this trick you must place in the bottom of the deep cup a white pocket handkerchief. so that when the tin cover (which you must also have) is put over them it will fit sufiQciently tight to lift out the inside cup when it is taken off. this tumbler i^ust also be covered with a you then take the covsimilar cover in external appearance ers ojQf the tumblers containing water and wine. drop the end of the wire into the whole . then take a red and white tape string that has previously been fastened to a small stick.THE YOUNG CONJUROK. Take a cup and fill it with rice. and in presence of the audience mix the two liquids. . which lets it run down into the tumblers underneath. has astonished applauding and delighted thousands in every city in the United States and Canada. then place the other cup in it. the air is then let into the wine. PacMo. to let the outside cup be about the inside one. and after removing the cork from the cover over the wine. now lift the tumbler up containing the mixture that the audience msLj see it. then pour both into the tumbler that has the hole through the bottom. That accomplished magician. but let that of the inside cup be a trifle larger than the outside one. and the one you poured it out of contains it again. which will greatly astonish them. do likewise with the white tape. 51 admit tbe peg. then take the end of the red tape.

it is in these that the eggs are placed let the end of the cells be closed at the mouth of the large bag.52 THE MAGICIAN to it S OWN BOOK. and be concealed from view. Then place the cane (it should be a dark one and not too heavy). then take strips of the same cloth about three inches wide and sew them on each side of the strip lengthwise of the bag. within the inner part of the thread. PROFESSOR "^fTMAN'S MODE OP PERPORMING THE EGG BAG TRICK. about two inches below the bend of the knees. little Is a very surprising fancy. these are called cells. that he intends to magnetize the cane. and about five eighths deep. you can make the cane dance about. take a piece of black silk thread or horse hair. and apparently the cane will have no support whatever. now take out it the handkerchief. At night your audience cannot perceive the thread. have you a bag about a half yard wide. THE MAGNETIZED CANE. . and is calculated to create much astonishment in the parlor or Mrawing room. Take a bag and exhibit it to the audience. and perform a great variety of fantastic movements. When unobserved. after which take several eggs out of it. made of black cambric. as represented in the engraving. the motion of the legs will not be noticed. turn the bag inside out. and by moving his hands as professors of magnetism do. then back again. 71. To perform this trick. about two feet long. and will greatly astonish those who see 70. so that the mouth of the cells will be . The performer should inform the company before commencing this trick. fasten the hooks in the back part of your pantaloon-legs. and fasten to each end of the same bent hooks of a similar color. To perform this trick. have stuck it. and by a simple movement of the legs.

to convince the audience that they are genuine. after which he turns the bag again and takes out several eggs.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. A boy of any ingenuity will make the greater part of the apparatus himself. or at all events he ought not to be encouraged in the notion of spending much money on objects of no real use. Such apparatus is either entirely beyond a boy's reach. with the exception of one or two natural eggs. if a boy is acquainted with the use of tools. or at least he can do the painting and polishing of his machinery. the eggs are in the bottom of the cells at the mouth of the large bag. It has also been my especial care to introduce only such experiments as are adapted for performance at the parlor or drawing-room table or fireside. to . which you take out first. I have mentioned no machinery that need cost more than a dollar at the outside. these . and give it a few wraps across the other hand. and by imparting interesting facts. and break. and as the large bag is turned upside down. I have purposely avoided such tricks as require expensive apparatus. When you turn the bag you keep these cells next to you. above all. The performer will then catch the bag just above the eggs.53 are filled with eggs made of wood. to convince the audience that there is nothing in it. by aiding him to acquire dexterity of prac. to enable him to escape an imputation which every boy of spirit would consider the depth of disgracethat of being 1(0 CDfnj«r0r! . In this account of conjuring. to stimulate the young experimentalist to inquire into the laws that regulate them tice. smoothe the road to the development of prmciples and. which to the audience is a great mystery. and not that. the reverse of that of the large bag.

leaves. too. Playing cards are believed to have been invented in Spain as early as the fourteenth century for. In accordance with my rule. The a very fashionable court amusement in England. add to the strength of the supposition. in an edict which is anterior to any similar The figures legislative measure in other parts of Europe. upon them as also bells. difiered materially in their figures from those now in vogue. in our most pernicious accomplishment for youth. diamonds. though we have altered the figures. under this impression. spades. they had rabbits. but espadasy or swords. cards are a favorite diversion of the Spaniards. for the suits answering to those of spades and clubs have not the same inverted heart and trefoil shape which ours of the present day display. roses. cards then used. . upon the cards themselves. and hearts. deer. hearts. but rather a source of much harmless amusement and. John the First.t the present time. acorns. pinks. so that in fact we retain their names. and may be performed with ordinary cards. and the monopoly of selling them is vested in the hands of the sovereign. we do not hesitate to insert the following series of excellent deceptions and opinion. and hastos. a . In the reign of Henry the Seventh. I shall lay the principal stress on card tricks that require no apparatus. or clubs. or cudgels. as instead of clubs. and the flowers ca^ed columbines. in 1378. A. is. we do not consider sleight-of-hand tricks with a pack of cards. forbade card-playing in his dominions. king of Castile. &c. sleight-of-hand tricks. [54] . Although proficiency in games with cards. Let us now turn to the tricks that can be played with cards. at all objectionable. and one which cannot be too severely reprobated.TRIC-KS WITH CARDS. card-playing was .

which is raised for the moment to allow of passage. as in the engraving. where. as nothing looks more awkward than to see it clumsily performed. beginning at tho . It is it I will cndeav^or to describe it. its 2. the bottom card is slipped away towards the left. make the pass. and I can only say will be learned better in five minutes from a friend. right hand underneath and left above. Continue to ehuBle. Thea lay the pack on the table. 55 TO 3IAKE THE PASS. in which case two or three cards generally tumble on the floor.TRICK? I. This movement must be assiduously practiced before it is exhibited in public. By a quick movement of the right hand. and lay upon it by degrees as many cards as you like. cast a glance at the bottom card. As. <ITH CARDS. The cards are held in both hands. TO TELL A CARD BY ITS BACK. as the bottom card is to be raised to the top. shuffling the pack. under shadow of the left hand. While sa^ six. and divide it into seven heaps." is the technical term for shifting either the top or the bottom card to any place in the pack that you like. face downwards. a friend is not always to be found who can perform the pass. and bring it to the top. the little finger is seen be- tween that card and those above it. and is placed upon the top card. however. This is a necessary beginning for card tricks. that almost impossible to describe it. " Making the pass. than in as many hours from a book.

there will of course be nine heaps. 3 in each series being understood. thus leaving your slipped card at the top of the seventh heap. When you have done this. You then give any one the cards to cut. I have made mine as seen in Fig. the numbers 1. As in the last trick.56 THE magician's own book. after carefully studying the other cards. You name it accordingly. and can be picked out with seeming care. 1. take one card from the top of the seventh heap. and lay it. be seen that Fig. such as is given in Fig. on one of the other heaps. say Lay out the pack in as many heaps as the ace of spades. and place an opera-glass. For convenience. The best plan is to write the numbers. you will lay out six heaps. face upwards. but you take care to put the heap containing the bottom card upon the card which has been chosen. 2. you like. the card that immediately follows the ace of spades is the card chosen. so as to make The light will then easily pierce it semi-transparent. Ask any one to take up the top card of any heap. which must then be soaked in oil. and on counting them over. it will be seen that you are right. through it. and leave the seventh heap larger than any the others. If by any accident the two cards should be separated when cut. the upper card of the pack is the chosen one. appear to calculate. and paste them on a circular piece of cardboard. THE CARD TOLD BY THE OPERA GLASS. look at it. If you place five cards above the slipped card. 2 contains as much matter as and that two thirds of the figures are saved by it. 4.by chance. so that the figures will be visible when you look through it. or cut them out of a book. THE CARD NAMED WITHOUT BEING SEEN. and replace it. and the figures will be better visible than if it it Make in were opaque. cast a glance at the bottom card. noting where that one is laid which contains that bottom card. out a table. and if eight cards. You then announce that by the aid of the six cards you will name the seventh. 2. You then gather up the heaps apparentl}'. of bottom. and on asking a spectator to take it up. . It will Fig 1. 3. Do so with five more cards.

TRICKS WITH CARDS 57 These preliminaries being arranged. M* '^v one to take any twenty-seven cards out of a pack. an<5> ask hmi one of them. it is. and what number from the toy he would in which heap 13i 1. . an<i to ihink of any Deal them into three heaps.

Lay the cards face downwards on the table. Take the third card. place it at the bottom. So you pick up the cards. being number one. you take that card up..) and place that in the middle of the pack. and ask the person if the card he fixed on be among them. you ask if that be not his card. Take the four kings out of a pack of cards. and to examine them. accident. and tell him one of them. Then. of course one of the kings show it as if by Take the next card. the second time first. . but conceal the two court cards between the third and fourth kings. 6. THE FOUR ACCOMPLICES. and two on the top. because if the cards should slip aside. when he will find all four kings together in the middle of the pack. and bid him draw his card from the to think of .) and place that also near the middle of the pack. When he returns you the four cards. 6. Under those at the bottom you place four cards of any sort. You again deal them in three heaps. and the last time third. the second court card. you are sure it is one of the two cards on the top. which is. It is better to use court cards to place between the third and fourth kings. you spread them on the table. the chosen card will bo found to be the twenty-sixth. and also two other court cards. Take oflf the bottom card. THE FOUR KINGS. Ask any one to cut the cards. and place it on the top. taking eight or ten from the bottom cards. dexterously place two of them under the pack. and then. and drawing off the lowest of them. on counting from the top. (i. Deal them a third time. they would not be so readily distinguished as common cards. Let a person draw four cards from the pack. (which is one of the court cards. If he say no. taking care to keep that heap number two. If he again say no. and on gathering up the heaps. e. card is to be the twenty-sixth.58 THE magician's own book. You then pass two cards to the bottom. There will then be one king at the top and three at the bottom. and this time you place the heap in which is the chosen card at the top. Spread out the kings before the spectators. which are not to be shown. the heap in which it wa8 found must be for the first time placed second.

and placing those on the top.TRICKS WITH CARDS. which draw in the manner before described. you must dexterously take up the four cards that you put under them. If the person say his card is among those you first drew from the bottom. 7. Request a person to think of a number or card. Place the u ten cards of any suit in a circular form. TO TELL THE CARD THOUGHT OF IN first A CIRCLE OF TEN. let the other two be the bottom cards of the pack. . 59 bottom of the pack. as the annexed figure the ace being counted as one. and to touch also any other number or card desire mu .

twenty-one. are completed. Suppose. the spectator^ let the first be the fifteenth. that card must be the knave of hearts. such as fifteen. "And here arc fourteen cards. and again form three heaps. and again inquire in which heap the card thought form the three heaps afresh." and poising the remainder. . between the other two. TO TELL 9. asking the same question. Then take up the heaps for the last time. and cut them at poise those you have taken off in your the first long card band. . form three heaps.. and divisible by three. "There must be fifteen cards here . turn up the cards till you count half the number of those contained in the packet twelve. Take a pack of cards. place that heap in the middle then turning up the packet. top. for the card thought of will always be that in the middle of the heap in which it is found the third time. twenty-seven. &c. say forty. as before. You may therefore have the cards and then. so that it may be easily tlistinguished without counting the . to shuffle the cards. will find yi)ur calculations correct . put that containing the card thought of in the middle. Seem . cards while you are arranging the heap for the third time." then out them at the second long card. without troubling them any more ing them over for form's sake. nothing is necessary but to remember. place it as before. the card which is the middle one of each. "There are but eleven b^^re . and privately insert among them two cards rather larger than the others from the and the other the twenty-sixth. and place the packet on the table with the faces downward. the cards be at the same time odd.. . and say. and when he tells you. place the heap containof is ing the card thought of again in the center. . in reality. for example. if there be twenty-four." On counting them. in which case the twelfth card If the number of will be the one the person thought of. THE NUMBER OP CARDS BY THE WEIGHT. lookshuffled. that the middle card of the first heap be the ace of spades and that the third that the second be the king of hearts be the knave of hearts if you are told that the heap containing the required card is the third. exclaim. 60 THE magician's OWN BOOK. When this is known. for example. and say. when it occurs. ask the person in which heap the card he thoug-ht of is. and ask which of them contains the card. may name the knave of hearts . : . the trick will be much easier.

Several t icks may be successfully played by sheer audacI once astonished a whole party by holding a pack The fact was. Tell the spectators that yru will call six cards out of tho . shuffle until his card is at the bottom. you are perfectly acquainted with his card. TO CALL THE CARDS OUT OF THE PACK. cover them with a hat. until you come to the marked one. and let him draw one. a hole nearly through the top left-hsmd corner. and preteL-d to find. and when you are about taking out another card. by some magic process. THE CAED FOUND UNDER THE HAT. that it is the chosen card. having their backs to the mirror. U. and tell him to place Pretend to make a great shuffling. then hold the cards behind your back. his. . still keeping Then hold up the cards with their faces it at the top.. you let him shuffle as much as he likes." he will probably say so. Replace the Place needle. only turn that card with its back to the others. THE CAID FOUND AT THE SECOND GUESS. ity. Hand the a needle stuck just inside your sleeve. and show him his own card at the bottom. that I was standing exactly opposite a large mirror. while the spectators. or let any one shuffle them. I will give one or two tricks that depend on audacity for success. the pack on the table. and naming each. when you get the cards back again. Draw out card by card. and then. shuffle the cards. towards the spectator. suspected nothing. saying whether it is that car^ or not. 61 AUDACITY. 10. &c. Have 12. He of course denies it. and prick to put the card on the top. of cards over my head. and you begin shuffling again furi" Let me do that. just as in the preceding trick. as ously. and the marked card will be known by a little raised knob on the rigMhand top corner. Then pass them behind your back. in which the cards were reflected. but his card on the top. and tell the taker Take out the needle. cards. you inspect his card at your leisure. You Offer the cards to any one.TRICKS WITH CARDS. stop suddenly. which you throw on the table carelessly. and ask him if the bottom card is While doing so. make a ruffling noise with them.

Put the pack upon take off a number of the upper cards. while the others are reversed. spread out the cards. 14. and fall When . in order that he may replace it. the chosen card will be standing with its head one way. turn the cards round. to the bottom of the pack. This card may be. and conceal it in the palm Then strew the others on the table. while the eyes of the spectators are fixed upon them. and. give one of the spectators your conjuring wand. and offer them to him. and on looking them over. shuffling the cards. Another card is touched. pack. which you will take up. THE SURPRISE. Secure a card. and offer them for some one to choose a card from. say the eight of diamonds. It is a good plan to ask some one to write down the names of the cards as they are called. He touches a card. say the queen of This you put with the others. and then to have the list called over. and all the cards will be struck out of his hold. say the ace of spades. in the palm of your hand. contrive to ai range their heads one way. the following plan Get the card will make a striking termination to the trick. call for the queen of clubs. While you are quietly all jecting all seven. them a sharp rap with your finger. after pretending clubs. and of your hand. queen. Then substitute the last card drawn (which is of course a wrong one) for the ace of spades. rethe diamonds except the king.62 THE magician's own book. which is already there. While he is looking at it. or as many as possible. when you name a card to touch one. 13. and passing them to the bottom. face downwards. Put it into your left hand. to calculate. Then call for the eight of diamonds. Throw the pack on the table. and place it upon the ace of spades. which you take up without showing the face of it. get rid of the card in your left hand. so that the two look like one card. Proceed in this manner until six cards have been drawn. in order that every one may see that there has been no mistake. Shuffle the cards. knav((. and the table. not with your hand. HEADS AND TAILS. First name the ace of spades. and tell one of the spectators to Give hold the cards by one corner as tightly as he can. and tell him. you have discovered a card.

if you put the chosen card at the top. . and exchange the pierced card for the other. only leaving the top card in the person's grasp. get the ace of spades to the bottom. or even shorter if anything. and conceal it in your left hand. asking some one to stop any card he chooses. 63 except the bottom card. open the pack at that card. Another neat . say the ace of spades. drop the pack on the floor. way of finishing a trick is as follows. Put the pierced card at the bottom of the pack. When the cards are returned. The nail should be about half an inch long. and the head quite flat. THE REYOLUnON. and file it down until its point is as sharp as a needle. Get and taking care that all the card to the top of the pack the cards are even. and perform the preceding trick.TRICKS WITH CARDS. and the chosen card ^\ill be seen Hailed to the door The nail should be put through the facp . to slip the top card a little off the rest of the pack. make the pass. and ask the chooser to be sure of his card hand all the cards to him. which will remain and thumb. When he has done so. 16. when the whole pack will fly about the room. shuffle them about. Place your right hand upon them. and strike them upwards. like a flock of butterflies. between his finger 15. 17. It has a rather more dash ing effect. taking care just as you let go. the resistance of the air will turn the card over. Ascertain the bottom card of the pack hold the cards in your left hand. or the floor. Pass the nail through the center of any card. In falling. Afterwards discover the card in any manner that you prefer. THE NAILED CARD. and throw the cards violently against a door. and let him shuffle as much as he chooses. and it will rest with its face upwards on the top of the pack. The following is a good plan. and bring the bottom card under the one touched. by putting his finger upon it. Hold up the cards. and with your right fore finger slide them slowly over each other. Take a flat-headed nail. Take another pack of cards. . when the nail will be driven in by the pressure of the other cards against its head. with their faces downwards. but while opening it. THE SLIPPED CARD.

it re« TO ASCERTAIN THE NUMBER OF POINTS ON THREE UNSEEN CARDS. For example. in the preceding trick. He gives you the remaining cards. and place on each as many as will make their number twentyfive. and lay them on the table. which is the number of points on the three cards. and when you have them in your hand. the ace counts eleven. the spectator chooses a four. on the eight seven. and by deducting four. and on the king fiv^. 18. fifty-two. take an ace and a queen. and the vourt cards ten each. : : 20. an eight. eleven and ten. For example. i. e. the joint number of the ace and queen. Ask any one to choose any three cards. down upon the table. On each of these he must place as many as with the number of the card will make fifteen. e. and sixteen in the other these added together make thirty-one cards these subtracted from the number of cards in the pack. one of the knaves at the bottom of the pack. fifteen cards in one heap. and the result will be twenty-two. TO TELL THE NUMBERS ON TWO UNSEEN CARDS. Select the four knaves from a pack of cards. you count them over on the pretence of shuffling them. you will have the number of points on the three cards.64 THE magician's own book. Procoed with u tale to the effect that three knaves once wer i . i. added to the eight and the four. Let the person who chooses the two cards lay them on the table with their faces downward. 19. and on the queen fifteen. As Take the remaining cards and count them. and the others according to the number of their spots. the court cards ten each. the king counting ten. and lay the other three. when they will be fouud to be just as many as the points in the two cards. Deduct from this twenty-six four. and lay them on the table. There will then be twenty-six cards left. On the four he places eleven cards. on the floor. so that when the others mains facing* the spectators. leave twenty-one. THE KNAYES AND THE CONSTABLE. with the constable. fall of the card. and a king. On the ace you must put fourThere will be then teen cards. In this amusement the ace counts eleven. with their faces downwards. and one of Secretly place the kings to perform the oflBce of constable.

A very little practice only is required to enable you to convey a knave or any other card secretly to the bottom of the pack. be found together. and closely followed the last knave (putting the king likewise upon the top of the pack).TRICKS WITH CARDS." (a people -who have yet to be discovered. if the trick is neatly performed. contrived to scramble in at the garret window (placing the third knave at the top of the pack) the constable vowed he would capture them. and lay them on the table in order. Take up the pairs in their order. "Mutus gave a name to the Coci. by getting on the parapet from a neighboring house. . . which forms a memoria technica. and ask ten people to take a pair each. to 65 rob a house .EI). Then request as many of the company to cut the cards as and tell them that you have no doubt the constable please has succeeded in his object. one got in at the parlor window (putting a knave at the bottom of the pack. taking care not to lift the pack so high that the one already at the bottom caa be seen) one effected his entrance at the first floor window (putting another knave in the midd\e of the pack) and the other. Tell out twenty cards in pairs.) u . 21. when you spread out the pack in your hands as the king and three knaves will. THE PAIRS RE-PAIP. which will be quite evident. and remember them. . . . and may be construed. according to the accompanj'ing table.

Then continue the tale. " Here are four queens going to dig for diamonds. and knaves. because they both represent the letter e. place the heaps upon each other and Have them cut four or five direct some one to cut them. (lay down the top card) with the diamonds which she had found (lay down the second card. (Place a king on They were only just in time. and the queens had not returned. But the four kings. THE QUEENS DIGGING POR DIAMONDS. who. queens. had overpowered the gucTtds and driven them off. you point out the last cards in each. each repeated. sent four soldiers to keep guard. soon vanquished the villains. for as they came each ace. Evening came. "The party then returned home in the following order. Their four kings.) spade on each diamond) and dug until they were nearly tired. First the queen. . fearing that they might have come to harm. and say. the pairs may be placed on the table back upwards. together with four common cards of each suit.66 THE magician's own book. if he says the second and third row. and to make the trick more mysterious. Lay down the four queens in a row. and continue to do so until a conmion heart appears at the bottom. times. although only armed with clubs (place a common club on each knave). For example. and you can immediately point them out.) along.) so the kings. thinking that they might be attacked by (Lay an ace on robbers. and the second on t in Dedit and so on until all the cards are laid in their places." Gather up the cards. and say. and her spade (the third card will be a spade) in the other. If another says the first and last rows. 23. goes on T in Mutus. &c . Select from a pack the aces. because the cards represent s in Mutus and s in Cocis. they met their queens being carried off by four villains (lay a knave on each king). kings. became uneasy and set off themselves. (Lay a common diamond over cmA They each took a spade with them (place a common queen. which will always point out the positions of the pairs if they are put in the places of those letters. you point out the second and fourth cards in those rows. It will be seen that the whole table consists of ten letters. Ask each person in succession in which rows his cards are. and bound them. Any number of bystanders may choose pairs. which will he a diamond) in one hand. being possessed of bold hearts (lay a common heart over each king). each spade.

Offer the long card. Take twenty-four cards. by any person present. and ask the person who took the card in which heap it is. The tenth card will be the one thought of. THE INGENIOUS CONFEDERACY. on your return. with their faces upwards. Ac. putting the heap in which is the chosen card second. You will and it 24. and lay them in four heaps. . four cards in each. Act as in No. 26. If it be the long card. THE TRIPLE DEAI. cards. 27. sixteen cards on the table. Lay them out in three heaps. as A. you may give the pack to the person who drew it. and the chosen card will always be the eleventh from the top. in four divisions. Then take the pack. will name any one card which may have been touched in your absence. D : Lay .: TRICKS WITH CARDS. be found that they will be in precisely the same order as when they were taken up. To perform this trick. and. 24. and then sagaciously declare what card it is. which is thus The cards are supposed to be divided into you likewise agree to class everyfour classes. on your return." ^57 continue dealing out the cards in that manner. This is a variation of the preceding. and allow him either to replace it or not. 25. as the person who has drawn it holds it in his hand. Gather them up and put that heap between the other two. THE CARD DISCOVERED BY THE TOUCH OR SMELL. B. You may turn your back while he searches. or any other that you thoroughly well know and. . and without looking at it. on one of the company (your confederate) pointing out a passage from any author to be read to you. decide accordingly. and ask some person to choose one from them. you previously making your confederate acquainted with your mode of proceeding. pretend to feel the pips or figures on the under side with your fore finger. Do this twice more. C. "You then state that you will leave the room. and feel whether it be there or not shuffle the cards in a careless manner. the cards should be placed in the order in which they appear in the cut inserted on the next page. or smell it. Take any twenty-one THE QUADRUPLE DEAL.

3 the vegetable. and 4 the mineral and so with the other classes. 4 to have been touched. quadruped. 2 the quadruped. vegetable. C for vegetables. B fur quadrupeds. we will suppose the age. Each class must now be subdivided in the same manner in class 7 13 A. When performing the trick.68 THE magician's OWN BOOK. thing in the world under the four denominations of biped. and mineral class A stands for bipeds. D . and D for minerals. and that a volume of 1^2 S^c : : . 1 is the biped. No. your confederate must take care to select an appropriate pass^D*' For example.

No. and holding up the pack of cards. is very sim pie.your half knave of hearts and. so that the joining may not be perceived. . ask the question of eome one else. till you obtain an answer in the aflSrmati^ e. queen knave. . shuffle. unperceived. the most athletic . and. you ask him if he recollects his card if he says. bid him lay that card. keeping the upper part. desire him to draw it away. answer. which will be the case. lay it on the table. You procure an extra knave of hearts. While he is looking up. the knave of hearts tell it is him he has made a mistake. pany whether he nervous . This feat. You then give him the remainder of the pack. : 30. THE CHAEMED TWELVE. with its face downward. him the legs of the knave of spades to hold. for the legs of tliose two knaves are so much alike You. get the knave of spades to the bottom of the pack. hold jouv hand so that the faces of the cards will be turned towards the floor. For instance if the card which the person drew was king. : . and throwing away the 1-ower When commencing your feat. and take an opportunity of removing the half-knave you may var^ the feat by having a half-knave of spades. of course." < rson in com} he will most projably answer in the negative you then ask whether he thinks he can hold a card tightly. quite a different situation. under pretence of holding the pack very tight. If he answers. 69 "HOLD IT FAST. he will find the knave of hearts in Yon commence by asking is . you show him the bottom he will card. . . having noticed it. and ask him what he will. and cut it in half. and put so many cards upon it as will make up twelve with the number of spots on the noted card. Yes. . of course. with its face downward. or ten. for if he look at his card. he will find it to be the knave of spades. 29. calling it ten upon that card let him lay another. give that there is no danger of detection.TRICKS WITH CARDS. . though it excites much admiration. and look to the ceiling. and lay over the upper part of it. take off the upper card. Let any one take a pack of cards. throw your thumb across the middle of the knave. You then desire the party to stand in the middle of the room. and request him to proclaim what card it is say it is the knave of hearts you then tell him to hold the card tightly at the bottom. telling him that if he looks over it. and when he has drawn the card away.

" for. the threes in another The object now the Jh'^irs. calling card. it twelve and so proceed to lay out in heaps. another. then. A trick often introduced by " sporting men.70 THE magician's OWN BOOK. calling it twelve then bid him take off the next uppermost card sup pose it to be nine. nor know the number of cards in each heap. and requires much practice to be well understood. then those remaining cards alone will show the number of spots on the four bottom cards. calling . if there be not enough to make up the last noted card. . another. the spots of which make him thirty-one. : . that is. without overrunning it down a card. as before. and oretend to teach you all the secrets of it. it being sufficient to know the number of heaps. the number twelve. it eleven. . he will after he gets you interested. will be to turn down cards alternately. let him lay it down on another part of tho . and endeavor to make thirty-one points by so turning. as all other tricks are. wins. he will surely beat ^ou. This trick is very deceiving. until he has gone through with the whole pack. : table. or as near to it as and the man who turns possible. him lay another." for the purpose It is called " thirtyof deceiving and making money by it. to the product. the deuces in another. and. THE TPJCK OF THIRTY-ONE. and upon that card. : . calling it eleven. . add the number of remaining cards. calling it ten. and the number of remaining cards. — . if he does not propose bet:roduces it ting on it at first. 31. as if you were present. most probably. You need not see the cards laid out. calling it nine. which he gave you but if there were but four heaps. and upon thai then let him go to the next upper* let . do thus from the number of heaps subtract four. and therefore you may perform this feat as well standing in another room. so that you can and perhaps he will let you beat him if play it with him you should play in fun but if you bet. multiply the remainder by thirteen. It is played with the first six of each suit the aces then in one row. Jives and sixes— all laid in rows. if there be any. If there be any cards at the last. I caution all not to play or bet with a man who inone. in order to tell all the numbid him give them to you ber of spots contained in all the bottom cards of the heaps. upon it upon the most latter another. or so near it that the other cannot turn down one without overrunning it.

and count : . and make 17. you add 1. so that you can easily add the remaining 1. if a court-card. which would only count 30. and. you add 1.TRICKS WITH CARDS. 31. viz. 1 7 or 24. but the suit and number of spots. or knave. TO TELL THE NAMES OP THE CARD BY THE WEIGHT. the words in italics forming the key : Eight Eight Kings threa-tened to save nine nine fair Ladies for one sick Knave. of England. as to end with the following numbers. and make 16 then. . 71 The persons using it I have known to attach great import' ancG to it. in your pocket. 10. he cannot prevent you counting 17. make trick. You well shuffled. whether it be king. which you commit to memory. no matter what numpolicy to add 1. so that it may be believed that the pack of cards of which you tell the names is the same as that you have been using with your other tricks. was the first and that it was a favorite amusement of to introduce it The chief point of this celebrated trick is to cuunt so his. or prepared pack. There are. and undertake. Queen four ace six King will three ten two seven five Knave^ perceive that this is a kind of artificial memory. t)ie circumstances of the initial letter of the words in the line and the names of the cards being identical. not only to tell the color. and which they must know have been : . then he to add 6. queen. as You formed by . . and make 24. then he cannot possibly add any number to count 31 : as the highest number he can add is 6. You must have two packs of cards exactly alike one pack to be constantly in use during the evening in performing your other tricks the second. Fox. We will suppose he add 6. which take an opportunity of exchanging. desire any person to cut a pack of cards as often as he pleases. and make 10 ber he adds. which number gives you the command of the trick. and your adversary would add 6. which would make 9 it would then be your then. 3. For example. by weighing each card for a moment on your finger. or ace.. The manner of preparing your pack (which must be done previously) is by the following line. and make 23. we will suppose it your privilege to commence the you would commence with 3. and say that Mr. however. . many variations to the 32.

next the ten of clubs. or 3^ou will be very likely to forget the ten word altog'3ther. which is chibs. then the viz. therefore. you then take the next card on your finger. begin to sort (to yourself). . as a clue to the rest and therefore takeolBf the top card. — — — Yoa : . and beginning A. two of hearts. ^2 THE magician's OWN BOOK. likewise commit to which would set you entirely wrong you should memory the order in which the suits . and go on until you come to the knave of diamonds. declare the card you are now weighing on your finger to be the two of dubs the next will of course be the seven of hearts. which finishes the pack. hand it round to be cut. you must then recollect what suit comes after diamonds. and holding it up between you and the light. you see what the card is.gain with the eight of clubs. You then take up the eight of spades. hearts spades diamonds dubs. Having done so. you. next the three of diamonds. placing heart first. you have made your exchange. and while pretending to weigh it. and so on as long as you please will which we — . when you begin again with the eight of diamonds. saying at the same time. in order that it may answer for the three and ten you should pay attention to this. and brought forward youv prepared pack. spades uiiiX. you go on until you come to the knave of clubs. you have time to recollect what is the next word in your key. face upwards. according to your key take up the eight of hearts. diamonds next. and clubs last. placing it in the left hand with its back to the palm then the king of spades. some of the words. Having thus obtained a knowledge of the first card.. but that this was very easily detected. well as the near resemblance of The " threatened " is divided into two words. and which is now ready for use when . which you lay over it. and go on in the sanie way till you come to the knave of spades. until you finish your line. which is to you consequently know that this card is a two. You now want to know the first card. and lay theiQ on the table. . the next to that the nine of spades. to te'nJd. that the old way of performing the trick was by doing so. which will terminate with the knave of hearts. : come. should now separate the different suits. suppose to be the ten of diamonds. and so on.

TRICKS WITH CARDS.

73

TRICKS WITH CARDS, THAT REQUIRE APPARATUS
I shall only give one or two of these tricks, because, in general, the apparatus required for cards is exceedingly expensive. Those that I shall give require but little apparatus, and any bo;y with the use of his hands can make it.
33.

THE CARDS IN THE YASE.

a vase with five divisions, two of which hold an pack of cards, and the remaining three are only large enough just to admit one card each, as in the figure. A
entire

Make

strong silk thread is fastened at a, passes over the three compartments, through the bottom of the vase, and running over two pulleys, terminates in the weight at b.
little

Take three cards, say the ace of spades, the ten of diamonds, and the king of hearts, out of a pack of cards, and put one into each of the little divisions pressing the thread down into the bottom of each division. If the cards are left, the weight will descend, and the string being tightened, So a kind of trigger shelf is will push the cards upwards. The remainder of the made, on which the weight rests. pack ^^-Du put into division 2. When you show the trick, you take another pack of cards exactly like that which is already in the vase, and handing it to three persons successively, compel them to choose the ace of spades, the ten of diamonds, and the king of hearts.* Let some one shuffle the cards, and wlien this is done, put
the pack into division
*

1

Tell the spectators that
the pass.

when you

This

may be done by making

74

THE MAGICIAN

S

O^N

BOOK.

have struck toree times on the table, the cards will come out At the third stroke, loosen the catch on which of the vase. the weig'ht stands, by means of the string that communicates with your table, and the three cards will rise slowly In order to show that the cards have really vanup. ished from the pack, take the pack out of division 2 and let any one examine it. If you prefer, you can draw the thread yourself, by having a kind of a pedal under your table, to which the other end of the string is attached, instead of being fastened to the weight B. If you prefer the weight, you must have a small shelf for the weight to rest upon, when it has descended sufficiently low, or the cards will be forced entirely out by the thread, c is a representation of one of the divisions, showing the semi-circular cut that is made in them for the convinience of taking out the cards.
34.

THE METAMORPHOSIS.

In this most excellent trick you choose from the pack the four eights and the two of diamonds you put the four eights in your left hand and the two on the table you take in the two, placing an eight on the table, and they are all You exchange the two for the eight, and they all twos. become black cards you again exchange the eight for the two, and they all turn red and after again exchanging, you have, as before, the four eights and the two of dia; ; ; ;

monds.

The method of accomplishing this trick is as follows Get three plain white cards, exactly like playing cards, and paint them as in the engraving. Mix them with an or'.

%^ %' s*
dinary pack, and when you are searching for the four eights, with which you say you are going to perform a trick, take them from the pack, and with them an ordinary eight of clubs and a two of diamonds.

TRICKS WITH CARDS

75

Show the cards as in fig-. 2, making the spectators observe that there are the four eights. Put the two of diamonds behind the eight of clubs, and lay the eight on the table. The two must be inserted before the eight is removed, or the mystery of the marking will be apparent Close the cards, turn them over, and spread them out, when they will appear as in Fig. 3. Take in the eight and lay the two on the table close the cards, and while shuflOiing them, turn card No. 2 the other way upwards. The cards will
;

%.^
then
all

%.3

move

appear black, as in Fig. 4. Take in the two and rethe eight, turn them over, and spread them out, when they will appear all red, as in Fig. 5. Finally, take the

eight, replacing the two on the table, reverse No. 2, and you will have the four eights and the two of diamonds, just as they were at first. You must invent plenty of talk during your changes. If the spectators say that the cards are

double, spread them out, and hold them up to the light, (for the light cannot penetrate through the places where the cards are placed over each other,) and if the}'^ are still skeptical, hand them the two of diamonds to look at, and in a moment or two hand them the eight of clubs, asking them

76

THE magician's own book.

whether they wouhl like to examine a black card also. This will effectually disarm supicion.
35.

TO HOLD POUR EIXGS OR FOUR KNATES IN TOUR HAND, AND TO CHANGE THEM SUDDENLY INTO BLANK CARDS. AND THEN TO POUR
ACES.
It is
;

necessary to have cards made on purpose for this trick half cards, as they may be properly termed, that is, one half kings or knaves, and the other half aces. When you lay the aces one over the other, of course nothing but the kings or knaves can be seen and on turning the kings or knaves downward, the four aces will make their appearance. You must have two perfect cards, one a king or knave, to put over one of the aces, else it will be seen and the other an ace, to lay over the kings or knaves. When you wish to make them all appear blank, lay the cards a little lower, and by hiding the aces, they will appear white on both sides you may then ask which they wish to have, and may show kings, aces, or knaves, as they are called for.
;

;

;

36.

TO

CHANGE A CARD IN A PERSON'S HAND.

Cut very neatly the spots from a three of spades. Lay the pierced card on an ace of diamonds, and rub pomatum on the ace of diamonds through the places which the spades Remove the pierced card, and sprinkle the ace occupied. of diamonds with jet powder, which adhering to the pomatum, will transform the card into a three of spades. Place the transformed card at the bottom of the pack, and show a person what card it is. Make him declare it that every one may hear, then place it on the table, face downwards, and pnsh it over the cloth to the spectator, which Tell him to place his action will rub off all the jet powder. hand on the card. Let a three of spades be at the top of the pack, and an ace of diamonds the second from the bottom. Show another person the ace of diamonds, and ask him to tell the name of the card openly. Put the pack down, face downwards, and in so doing make the pass, and biing the three of spades to the bottom. Tap the hand of the person who is guarding the card, and then tell him to take up the card and show it to the spectaSimtors, when it will be seen to be the ace of diamonds. ultaneously, you take up the pack, and show the three of spades at the bottom.

TRICKS WITH CARDS.
THE CARD IX THE

77

37.

EGO.

To perform this feat, provide a round hollow giick, about ten inches long and three quarters of an inch in diameter, the hollow being three eighths of an inch in diameter. Also, have another round stick to fit this hollow, and slide in it easily, with a knob to prevent its coming through. Our young readers will clearly understand our meaning, when we say, that in all respects it must resemble a pop-gun, with the single exception that the stick which fits the tube, must be of the full length of the tube exclusively of the knob Next steep a card in water for a quarter of an hour, peel off the face of it, and double it twice across, tiii it becomes one fourth of the length of a card, then roll it up tightly, and thrust it up the tube till it becomes even with the bottom. You then thrust in the stick at the other end of the tube till it just touches the card. Having thus provided your magic wand, let it lie on thf> table until you have occasion to make use of it, but be careful not to allow any person handle it. Now take a pack of cards, and let any person draw one but be sure to let it be a similar card to the one which you have in the hollow stick. This must be done by forcing. The person who has chosen it will put it into the pack again, and, while you are shuffling, you let it fall into your Then, calling for some eggs, desire the person who lap. drew the card, or any other person in the company, to choose any one of the eggs. When he has done so, ask if there be anything in it ? He will answer there is not. Place the egg in a saucer break it with the wand, and pressing the knob with the palm of your right hand, tho card will be driven into the egg. Then show it to the spec;
;

tators.

A great improvement may be made in this feat, by presenting the person who draws the card with a saucer and a pair of forceps, and instead of his returning the card to the pack, desire him to take it by the corner with the forceps and burn it, but to take care and preserve the ashes for this purpose you present him with a piece of paper (prepared as hereafter described), which he lights at the candle but a few seconds after, and before he can set the card on fire, it will suddenly divide in the middle and spring back, burning his fingers if he do not drop it quickly. Have an;

;

78

THE magician's own book.
;

other paper ready and desire him to try that when he will most likely bog to be excused, and will prefer lighting it with the candle. When the card is consumed, say that you do not wish to fix upon any particular person in company to choose an egg, therefore, lest it might be suspected he was a confederate request any two ladies in company to choose each an egg, and having done so, to decide between themselves which when this is done, take a second shall contain the card saucer, and in it receive the rejected egg, break it with your wand, and show the egg round to the company at the same time drawing their attention to the fact of those two eggs having been chosen from among a number of others, and of its not being possible for you to have told which of
; ; ;

them would be the chosen

one.

egg in the saucer containing the ashes, and having rolled it about until you have blacked it a little, blow the ashes from around it into the grate you then break the egg with the same wand, when, on touching the spring, the card will be found in the egg. The method of preparing the paper mentioned in the Take a piece of letter paper, above feat is as follows about six inches in length and three quarters of an inch in breadth, fold it longitudinally, and with a knife cut it in the then take one of the sides crease about five inches down which are still connected at the bottom, and with the back of the knife under it, and the thumb of the right hand over it, curl it outwards as a boy would the tassels of his kite repeat the same process with the other side, and lay them by for use. When about using them, (but not till then, as the papers will soon lose their curl if stretched,) draw them up so as to make them their original length, and turn the ends over a little, in order that they may remain so when set on fire, they will burn for a minute or two, until the turn-over is burnt out, when the lighted ends will turn over quickly, burning the lingers of the holder this part of the trick never fails to excite the greatest merriment.
the chosen
;
: ;

You now receive

;

;

:

38.

THE FIFTEEN THOrSAND

LIVEES.

For this trick, prepare two cards like the accompanying engraving and have a common ace and five of diamonds. Hold down th5 five of diamonds and the two prepared cards.
;

TRICKS WITH CARDS.

79
;

in the next engraving and certain Frenchman left fifteen thousand livres, which are represented by these three cards, to his three sons ; the two youngest agreed to leave their five thousand, each of them, in the hands of the elder, that he might improve it." While you are telling this story lay the five on the table, and put the ace in its place at the same time artfully change the position of the other two cards, so that the three cards appear as in this engraving. Then, resuming the tale, relate that " The eldest brother, instead of improving the money, lost it all by gaming, except three thousand livres, as you here see (laying the ace on the table, and taking \ip the five). Sorry for having lost the money, he went to the East Indies with these three thousand, and brought back fifteen thousand." Then show the cards in the same position as at first. To render this deception agreeable, it must be performed with dexterity, and should not be repeated, but the cards immediately put in the packet and

/

as

shown

say,

"A

;

;

you should have

five

common

cards ready to show,

if

any

one desire to see them.

HINTS TO AMATEURS.
The following hints are of considerable importance to the amateur exhibitor. 1. Never acquaint the company beforehand with the particulars of the feat you are about to perform, as it will give them time to discover your mode of operation.
2.

Endeavor, as much as possible, to acquire various
feat, in
likel}" to fail in

methods of performing the same
should be
one, or

have reason

order that if you to believe

that your operations are suspected, you may be prepared with another. 3. Never yield to the request of any one to repeat the same feat, as you thereby hazard the detection of your mode of operation but do not absolutely refuse, as that would appear ungracious. Promise to perform it in a different
;

that now the troublesome boy shall show the company a trick. way. There are few persons at the present day credulous enough to believe such trash. as to acquire the necessary expertness. case. and the remark made. the magic whistles may be produced. because the whistle y:>u place in his hand is perforated with a number The would-be magician is. which has previouslj'' been filled with flour or magnesia. particularly impressing on him the necessity of blowing hard. proceed to give a few directions. ! — . may state. . that the ultimate success of the whole is likely to be endangered by a troublesome person. it may not be deemed suHe perfluous to caution him against such a procedure. and truly. the business of the Should this be the conjurer to keep his youthful admirers. that everything he exhibits can be accounted for on rational principles. 5. of course. (generally a naughty boy. Never venture on a feat requiring manual dexterity. It is the plan of vulgar operators to gabble unintelligible jargon. CUEE FOR TROUBLESOME SPECTATORS. as the youth of maturer years might inadvertently be tempted to pursue this method.) who will persist in crying out. therefore. Having taken up one of the whistles. It will sometimes happen at an early stage of the performance. and then exhibit another which somewhat resembles This maneuver seldom fails to answer the purpose. and is only in obediand although we ence to the unerring laws of Nature have just cautioned him against enabling the company themselves to detect his operations. till you have previously practiced it so often. while exhibiting his skill before his younger companions.80 THE magician's OWN BOOK. As diverting the attention of the company from too closely inspecting your maneuvers is a most important object. and attribute their feats to some extraordinary and mysterious influence. it. even among the rustic and most ignorant but. 4. dust or soot. . " I know how it is done " at the same time continually advancing to the table. you should manage to talk to them during the whole course of your proceedings. from which it is. excessively of holes. there can be no objection (particularly when the party comprises many younger than himself) to occasionally show by what simple means the most apparently marvelous feats are accomplished.

Hence. : .VENTRILOQUISM. appeared to be absolutely mute while exercising their art. . Although the voice does not actually come from that region. obtain more or less expertness in this exercise in which. that some ventriloquists have acquired by practice the power of exercising the veil of . he strengthens them by a powerful action of the abdominal muscles. Gille and Louis Brabant. to receive the powder in his face. from venlcr. Any turner will make such a whistle. the voice is still modified by the mouth and tongue and it is in the concealment of this aid. be added. 81 mortified. It has lately been shown. without any movement of the lips at all. and hquor. however. and has but rarely been obtained. to speak. that much of the perfection of ventriloquism lies. though not apparently. he speaks by means of his stomach although the throat is the real source from whence the sound proceeds. the stomach. or cavity situated behind the tongue. THE SECRET OF VENTRILOQUISM. and the trachea. in order to enable the ventriloquist to utter sounds from the larynx without moving the muscles of his face. is the highest perfection of ventriloquism. two celebrated French ventriloquists. that this speaking distinctly. Thus. deep inspiration. by which a con- first siderable quantity of air is introduced into the lungs. the expiration should be slow and gradual. 6 . But the distinctive character of ventriloquism consists in its imitations being performed by the voice seeming to come from the st(jmach hence its name. St. therefore. MM. It should. The main secret of this surprising art simply consists in making a strong. . oi windpipe thus prepared. and no chango in their countenances could be discovered. Any person. can. to be afterwards acted upon by the flexible powers of the larynx. by practice. it being nothing more than the usual shaped toy perforated at the top with a number of holes. on applying his mouth and blowing hard.

and other causes. the frying of a pancake. Thus may be imitated the grinding of cutlery on a wheel. the belief is strengthened by the imagination for if we were directed to a statue. and are such as they actually yield. has represented a scene apparently with several actors. the palate in such a manner. and seems to be more or less distant if. they dilate or contract the inner nostrils. we should still be deceived. Vocal imitations are much less striking and ingenious than the feats of ventriloquism. . we see how easy is the the sounds are required to proceed from given objects. and the gurgling noise in emntving its contents. their personal identity has scarcely been recognized among the range of personations. dull. so as to imitate them with the greatest further. Thus. were to expect sounds to issue. that. by speaking with a more acute or grave pitch than usual. as to become acquainted with modifications of distance. and the man speaks with the accent of a child. these cavities are widely dilated. These ventriloquists have likewise possessed such power over their faces and jQgures that.S2 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the uncorking of a bottle. we shall necessarily believe that the voice comes from the child. Another of the secrets of ventriloquism. In this case. accuracy. the voice become loud. on the contrary. is the uncertainty with respect to the direction of sounds. if we place a man and a child in the same angle of uncertainty. . Extraordinary varieties of voice ma}' be produced. Thus. in his own single person and with his own single voice. and refer the sounds to the lifeless stone or marble. the sawing of wood. each of these artists has succeeded in carrying on a dialogue and each. the sound will be strengthened. without moving those of the face. obstruction. and by diff'erent contractions of the mouth. by raising or depressing it. . without any corresponding motion in his mouth or face. The ventriloquists of our time have carried their art it whom de- ception when any still They have not only spoken by the muscles of the throat and the abdomen. Thus. This illusion will be greatly assisted by the voice being totally different in tone and character from that of the man from really comes. the sound produced is weak. as the source from which we . but have so far overcome the uncertainty of sound. If they are closely contracted. aided by rapid changes of dress. and apparently close to us.

and as such is passed over without thought but it is a wonderful phenomenon. and then the water is evaporated. " chemical . and then by evaporation. aflSnity. each salt will be re-formed as before. From the beginning to the end. to the entire exclusion of all others. This phenomenon is the result of one of the first principles of the science. which are displayed in various forms of chemical action. Thus. Chemistry is one of tlie most attractive sciences.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. if sulphate of copper and carbonate of soda are dissolved in boiling water. as well as the power and capacity. or otherwise. cause them to reassume a solid form. and each particle will unite with its own kind. Dissolve two substances in the same fluid. and made of no account only by the fact that it is so common and so familiar. It is by the action of this same principle.'- that we produce the curious experiments [83] with . the student is surprised and delighted with the developments of the exact discrimination.

Muriatic acid and ammonia are examples. Some gases when united form liquids. By means of these. if you pour . form liquids. the letters assume a beautiful blue. if a solution of sulphate of soda be mixed with a solution of muriate of lime. becomes visible only when moistened with a particular Thus. . SYMPATHETIC INKS. and therefore knows not what to apply to bring out the lett(. and are permanent. and you apply ammonia. which unite and form water. phate of iron. as if one substance exerted a kind of 'preference for another. 2. because he does not know tlie solution which was used in writing. 4. or the efi"(!Ct of choice. as oxygen and hydrogen. the manuscript will be invisible except when held to the fire. the writing disappears.rs. When tlie ammonia evaporates. when combined. the letters are invisible. the writing the secret. If we write with a weak solution of sulphate of copper. but when warmed they will appear a bluish green. Some solids. wet with a solution of nut-galls. so as to prevent its destroying the paper. On the other hand. Write with cobalt dissolved in diluted muriatic acid the letters will be invisible when cold. We are almost sure that our secrets thus written will not be brought to the knowledge of a stranger. solid. and chose to be united to it rather than to that with wliicli it was previously combined thus. the letters will appear with metallic brilliancy. Chemical affinity is sometimes called elective. you rub over the sheet a feather or sponge. as it does on exposure to the sun or fire. two invisible gases.84 THE magician's own book. also ammonia and carbonic acid. 3. 6. when combined. If you write with oil of vitriol very much diluted. but may be revived again as before. if we write to you with a solution of sulsolution. we may carry on a correspondence which is beyond the discovery of all not ia With one class of these inks. and you moisten with a sponge or pencil dipped in water impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen. Other forms of elective affinity produce equally novel Thus. and the letters burst forth into sensible being at once. form results. the whole becomes . If we write with a solution of sugar of lead. when the letters will appear black. On the receipt of our letter. sometimes a visible solid.

which 86 is a weak acetic acid. Now oil of vitriol (strong sulphuric acid) has so powerful an aflBnity. if into a solution of blue vitriol. that it will abstract it from almrst any body in which it exists if you then pour : . if some sulphuricacid be poured on this new compound. It is on the same principle that a very beautiful preparation. and forming a compound called an acetate. . occasioned by the escape of the carbonic acid. for the sulphuric acid. with a tolerably strong solution of nitrate of silver. and set it by where it maybe quite undisturbed in a short time. some vinegar. . This is a case of elective affinity the acid with which the silver or lead was united prefers the zinc to either of those metals.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY.) or acetate of lead. Again.) the bright blade of a knife be introduced. and in consequence discards them and in order to attach the zinc to itself this process will continue until the whole of the zinc is taken up. the knife will speedily be covered with a coat of copper. displaced in consequence of the potaiih or soda preferring the acetic acid. . or the whole of the silver or lead deposited. in pure distilled water then attach a small piece of zinc by a string to the cork or stopper of the bottle. brilliant plates of silver or lead. as the case may be. upon some pearlash. (a combination of the same acid with soda. (lunar caustic. Then. . the acetic acid will in its turn be displaced by the greater attachment of either of the bases. or so great a thirst for water.) a violent effervescence will take place. dep'>sited in consequence of the acid 'preferring t\\Q iron of which the knife is made.) or some carbonate of soda. united with oxygen and hydrogen in the proportion which forms water. . Fill a wide bottle. so that the zinc shall hang about the middle of the bottle. (a combination of potassa and carbonic acid. may be formed. assuming more or less of the crystalline form. many animal and vegetable substances consist for the most part of carbon or charcoal. (a combination of sulphuric acid with oxide of copper. a quantity of it being dissolved in exact proportion to the quantity of copper deposited. called a silver-tree. will be seen to collect around the piece of zinc. or a lead-tree. Again. as they are termed. capable of holding from half a thus pint to a pint.

and introduced into a jar.) than for the carbonic acid. If you hold a glass tumbler inverted over the flame. Borae of this acid on a lump of sugar. Into an ordinary wine bottle put some pieces of granulated zinc. who chose death rather than become the mistress of her lover's conqueror. affinity the pearl being simply carbonate of lime. various plans have been devised for carrying off the water when in the state of This is generally accomplished by suspending over Rteam • . but producing so intense a heat that a piece of platinum wire instantly becomes white hot when held in the flame. or place a chip of in it. aud only the carbon. which was decomposed by the greater affinity or fondness of lime for its new acquaintance. the result of their combination is carbonic acid and water. she was exhibiting unwittingly an instance of . This is the case with the gas used for illumination and in order to prevent the water so produced from spoiling goods in shops. chemical elective . it becomes covered with minute drops of water. AVhen Cleopatra dissolved pearls of wondrous value in wood vinegar. and in this case water is the only product. (the acetic acid of the vinegar. If a piece of charcoal. left. giving out so little light as to be barely visible by daylight. the product will be carbonic acid gas only. or be charred^ as it is called. then close the bottle with a cork having a hole bored through the middle. and pour on them a mixture of sulphuric acid and water.86 THE magician's own book. . or charcoal. As most combustible bodies contain both carbon and hydrogen. be ignited. with which it had been united all its life an example of inconstancy in strong contrast with the conduct of its owner. which is pure carbon or nearly so. in consequence of the oxygen and hydrogen being removed by the sulphuric acid. the sugar or wood will speedily oecome quite black. EXPERIMENTS ON COiTBtJSTION. then apply a lighted taper to the end of the tube. in the proportion of about one part of acid to fou of water. when the gas will inflame. the result of the union of the hydrogen with the oxygen of the air. containing oxygen or common atmospheric air. . in whicii a piece of glass tube is inserted wait some minutes that the atmospheric air in the bottle may be expelled by the hydrogen gas set free by the decomposition of the water.

the oxygen has been converted partly into water. is necessary for the support of combustion. and what remains will no longer support flame that is. two thirds full of water at about 140''. i .shes of Into an >ther gla ^ put some cold water introduce carefully some of the salt called chlorate of potassa. To show that oxygen.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. . Into the half of a broken phial put some chlorate of potassa. as the gas reaches the phosphorus it will take fire. fix two or three pieces of taper on flat pieces of cork. and set them floating on in a soup-plate. to which is attached a stop-cock and a pass the end of the tube to the bottom of long fine tube the water. and invert over them a as they burn. and continue to do so until the tapers expire. Then take a bladder containing oxygen gas. drop one or two pieces of phosphorus about the size of peas. or some equivalent. and the remaining air is principally nitrogen. upon that drop a piece of phosphorus then let some strong ^^^^^r sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) trickle ^K^^r slowly down the side of the glass. : . Into an ale-glass. turn the stop-cock. brilliant il . and burn under the water with a brilliant flame. or introduce it by means of a dropping bottle. which will absorb the carbonic acid and form chalk. Tie a small ff^st tube at right angles to the end of a stick not less wax water . but the water will soon rise in the jar. and then shaking some lime-water with it. when you will find that a considerable portion of the air has disappeared. or passing outside the house. producing much the same appearance as in the last experiment. W M^^ . The phial will soon be filled with a heavy gas of a deep yellow color. and partly into carbonic acid gas. light them. the heat produced may perhaps glass jar at first expand the air so as to force a small quantity out cf the jar. As soon as it touches the salt J it decomposes it. filling the glass with ght dashing through the water. and press the bladder gently . and liberates a gaa A which ignites the phosphorus. and pour in some oil of vitriol. 87 the burners glass bells. and they will remain unaltered. by uniting with the carbon and hydrogen of which the taper consists. communicating with tubes opening into the chimney. ^^ ^A^ . with some carbonic acid the presence of the latter may be proved by decanting some of the remaining air into a bottle.

may be produced by introducing a piece of phosphorus into a jar of oxygen. probably melt their way into the sides of the jar. . the tin apparently burning away This heat is produced by the energetic action of the tin on the nitrate of copper. The phosphorus must first be ignited as soon as it is introduced into the oxygen. and having attached a small piece of charcoal to the lower part of the wire. introduce a coil of soft iron wire. formed by the union of the gas with the iron and they are so intensely hot. Bruise some fresh prepared crystals of nitrate of copper. throwing out bright scintillations. if not through them. the tin has a much greater affinity than the copper has. and the oil of vitriol destroys all animal and vegetable substances. spread them over a piece of then fold up the tin foil. that some . and the whole jar appears filled with an intensely luminous atmosphere. when an instantaneous explosion will take place. them . sprinkle them with a little water foil tightly. taking away its oxygen in order to unite with the nitric acid. But by far the most intense heat. and in a minute or two it will become red hot. with a long handle of thick wire passing through a hole in a cork that fits the and jar. or any of will .88 than a yard THE magician's own book. It is well to dilute the oxygen with about one fourth part of common air. ignite the charcoal. The following experiment shows the production of heat by chemical action alone. and the ether will be set on fire. The iron will take fire and burn with a brilliant light. and pour gentl}^ into the phial of gas. Combustion without flame may be shown in a very elegant and agreeable manner. for which. it This experiment should be performed in a place where there are no articles of furniture to be damaged. it gives out a light so brilliant that no eye can bear it. if pare oxygen is used. by making a coil of platinum wire bv twisting it round the stem of a tobacco pipe. The phosphorus may be placed in a small copper cup. which is nearly certain to break the jar. long". suspended to a cork that fits the neck of the jar. Into a jar containing oxygen gas. put a little ether into the tube. which are oxide of iron. to moderate the intense heat. and most brilliant light. as rapidly as possible. as* the ingredients are often scattered by the explosion. as well as for the oxygen.

in the beginning of the present century. but the above will be sufficient for our purpose. These little lamps were much in vogue a few years ago. on one of the lines. and burning with a purplish light. is used by its combustion an agreeable odor is diffused through the apartment. so soft as to be easily cut with a penknife. Spongy platinum. will continue to burn until all the spirit is consumed. In consequence of its great affinity for oxygen. Experiments on combustion might be multiplied. some perfume. uniting with the oxygen. . and has been employed in the formation of fumigators for the drawing-room. consisting of two thousand pairs of four inch plates. and. instead of pure spirit. Corollary hence. Potassium was discovered by Sir H. but are now nearly out of fashion. if kept from draughts of air. dipped in water. if you t©uch potassium with wet fingers. and after it has burned for a spirit lamp minute or two. the course of the potassium will be marked with a deep brown color. as it is called. on which it acts with great energy. Trace some continuous lines on paper with a camePs-hair brush. Davy. . extinguish the flame quickly the wire will soon become red hot. and so light as to swim upon water. . and form a deep hole. in which. and place a piece of potassium about the size of a pea. which should be inserted into the wick of a lig-ht the lamp. potassium must be kept in s )me fluid destitute of it. POTASSIUM. taking fire as it runs. answers rather better than wire. it will instantly take fire. almost to any amount. while acting upon potash with the enormous galvanic batter}^ of the Royal Institution. you will burn them If a small piece of the metal be placed on a piece of ice. such as naphtha : ! . and it will f(jllow the course of the pencil. for a dozen times or so. and liberating the hydrogen. EXPERIMENT. The paper will be found covered with a solution of ordinary potash. which takes fire as it escapes.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. 89 cylindrical body. leaviiig alout an inch straight. such as lavender water. If turmeric paper be used. which will be found to contain a solution of potash. It is a brilliant white metal.

and it will inThis experiment also requires stantly burst into a flame. three parts of powdered two of dry carbonate of potash. 90 THE magician's OWN BOOK. Into a solution of nitrate of silver. also powdered. The hand should be defended by a thick glove. was colorless. 1 Triturate together in a dry mortar a few grains of flowers of sulphur. or niter. may be exhibited in various waysThe silver or zinc tree has already been described. 3. caution. EXPERIMENTS. with a little lump sugar. immerse a clean plate or slip of copper. and the action will be much more violent. brimstone and heat . The different affinities of the metals for oxygen. It is one of the ingredients of gunpowder. when it will speedily melt. will soon begin to assume a greenish tint. Saltpeter. Substitute half a grain of phosphorus for the sulphur. Want of space precludes us from considering the individual metals and their compounds in detail it must suffice to describe some experiments. The solution. and drop on the mixture a little strong sulphuric acid. Another salt of potash remarkable for the same property. . will be produced. place a small quantity of the mixture in an iron it over the fire. and a succession of sharp explosions. its EXPERIMENT. 2. and the eyes carefully guarded. like the crack of a whip. and the piece of copper will be covered with a coating of a light gray color. . will save the expense of a chimney sweep : but avoid cooking time. and then explode with a very loud noise and if held under a foul chimney. showing some of their properties. Rub niter. which is the silver formerly united to the nitric . in making this experiment. and has the property of quickening the combustion of all combustible bodies. is a compound of this metal (or rather oxide) with nitric acid.. with a small quantit}^ of the chlorate of potash. in distilled water. and one of flour of . Mix very carefully a little of this salt. EXPERIMENTS. ladle. reduced to powder. together in a warm mortar. which 1. in even a greater degree. is the chlorate of potash.

being merely transferred from one metal to another. and red. 3. so that nitrate of iron is found in the liquid. are produced . 2. To produced. that the solutions before mixing may be nearly colorless. and the glass now contains a solution oi cojpper. and forms a transparent solution of the most splendid rich blue color. on account of the beautiful tints obtained from its various combinations with oxygen and the other metals.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. A piece of zinc will displace the iron in like mauner. a solution of sulphate of iron. of quite a different tint. which liking of the 91 affinity or has been displaced by the greater oxygen and acid for the copper. leav- ing a solution of nitrate of zinc. may be produced by letting a few drops of a solution of ammonia fall into one of sulphate of copper. and a blue color will be 1. which is dissolved by an additional quantity of the ammonia. all the silver has been deposited. but remains clean and bright when immersed in the fluid. EXPERIMENTS. Solutions of most of the metallic salts give precipitates with solutions of alkalies and their salts. such as what are usually called prussiate of potash. hydro-sulphuret of ammonia. by metals and their combinations indeed. When the copper is no longer coated. 2. yellow. All the various tints of green. The oxygen and nitric acid remain unaltered in quantity or quality during these changes. Another blue. Into a solution of sulphate of iron. and its place filled by an equivalent quantity of iron. and it will almost instantly be coated with a film of copper. 4. &c. add a drop or two of a solution of prussiate of potash. are obtained from this metal. . acid. and the colors differ according to the metal employed and so small a quantity is required to produce the color. Substitute sulphate of copper for iron. when a precipitate of a light blue falls down. and this will continue until the whole of tliat metal is removed. from a Greek word signif3^ing color. and the color will become a bluish- . Nearly all the colors used in the arts. orange. and the color will be a rich brown. . one is named chromium. drop a few drops of a strong infusion of galls. Place a piece of clean iron in the solution. as well as with many other substances.

called spongy platinum. A very small quantity of gas should be employed. or the explosion would be dangerous. and boil the water. Put into a largish test tube. produced all the effect of a drop of ink. but its heated. than vermilion. if possible. Some EXPERIMENT. as it was called. sufficient to inflame the hydrogen of course this experiment must be made in the presence of atmospheric air or oxygen. . . with the metal platinum. fumes. gradually fading as the Add a little more iodine iodine combines with the zinc. are so very unpleasant. which will at first acquire a dark purple color. and placed in a jar lightly covered with a card. . the lightest body known. fill it about one third full of water. CRTSTALLIZATIOX OF ilETALS. that few would encounter them. until the zinc is nearly all dissolved. If a small piece of the metal in the state above named be intioduced into a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen. One of the most remarkable facts in chemistry a science abounding in wonders is the circumstance that the mere contact of hydrogen. of the metals assume certain definite forms in return from the fluid to the solid state. 5. from time to time. Sulphur may be crystallized in the same manner. a precipitate will take place of a splendid scarlet color. If a few drops of this solution be added to an equally colorless solution of corrosive sublimate (a salt of mercury). black in fact. which is also a preparation of mercury. Bismuth shows this property more readily than most others. a drop of tea accidentally spilled. the heaviest. it will cause them to explode. Melt a pound or two of bismuth in an iron ladle over the remove it as soon as the whole is fluid and when the fire surface has become solid break a hole in it. produces an intense heat.92 THE magician's owx\ book. ink. brighter. put in a few grains of iodine. when in a state of minute division. and pour out the still fluid metal from the interior what remains will ex. when wish to — — : . A little tea will answer as well as the This is the reason why certain stuffs formerly in general use for dressing gowns for gentlemen were so objectionable for as they were indebted to a salt of iron for their color. buff. — infusion of galls. hibit beautifully-formed crystals of a cubic shape. two or three small pieces of granulated zinc.

and almost metallic surface. and then placed in the alum and water. it will sink in the solution according to the length of the string. . : and clear. If crystals be formed on wire. . placed across a hot solution of alum it will float but. To keep colored alum crystals from breaking or losing their color. the crystals will adhere to the rough surfaces. while they will cling only to the most irregular and porous parts. as it becomes loaded with crystals. Bore a hole through a piece of coke. the crystals cling to the rough surface of the stick. but the glass rod will be free from them in this case. black and the more muddy the solution.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. and leave the smooth bright in . BEAUTIES OE CRTSTALLEATION. and the threads will be covered with beautiful blue crystals. TO CRYSTALLIZE CAMPHOR. the stick will be found covered with crystals. strong as above. If powdered turmeric be added to the hot solution of alum. the crystals will be of a bright yellow litmus will cause them to be of a bright red logwood will yield purple and common writing ink. . they will be liable to break off. . such as we see in the show-glasses of camphor in druggists' windows. until the spirit will not dissolve . Gas-coke has mostly a smooth. Tie some threads of lamp-cotton irregularly around a copper wire or glass rod place it in a hot solution of blue vitriol. moderately heated. . . which the crystals will avoid. But if the rod be roughened with a file at certain intervals. . any more pour some of the solution into a cold glass. and suspend it by a string from a stick. . Dissolve camphor in spirit of wiae. but have no hold upon the smooth surface of the glass rod. and the camphor will instantly crj'stallize in beautiful tree-like forms. . 93 Dissolve alum in hot water until no more can be dissolved it place in it a smooth glass rod and a stick of the same size next day. and prevent the crystals getting too dry. while the glass rod will be bare. place them under a glass shade with a saucer of water this will preserve the atmosphere moist. shining. the finer will be the crystals. . from the expansion and contraction of the wire by changes of temperature.

they will always appear in the same forms. Hold in a wine-glass of hard water a crystal of oxalic acid. in the mixture it will bear a beautiful crystalline surface. and white threads. . niter. of the salt to 2 lbs. will instantly descend through the liquid suspended from the crystal. of water) bottle and cork quickly also tie over the neck a piece of wet bladder. set them in three saucers in any warm place. A LIQUID CHANGED TO A SOLID. at the same time the whole at last becoming nearly solid becomes warm. : by the change of the liquid will not crystallize quickly tal of to the solid state. CRYSTALS IN HARD WATER. Glauber's salt to on removing the corls tie a crysa bit of wire. but not all of the same figure the common salt will yield crystals with six square and equal faces. and the salt will immediately crystallize. distinct solutions of common salt. and after washing it . : Make . and alum . shooting out the most beautiful crystals. and form crystals. eight-sided crystals and if these crystals be dissolved over and over again. or even a few days afterwards. when varnished. &c. When perfectly cold. VARIETIES OF CRYSTALS. six drams of muriatic acid. and. is made into ornamental boxes. A strong saline solution excluded from the air will frequently crystallize the instant that air is admitted. The particles of the salts in each sacerwill begin to attract each other. and two ounces of water pour the mixture upon a piece of tin plate previously made hot. The figures will vary according to the degree of heat previously given to the metal. AND HEAT FROM CRYSTALLEATION. touch the surface of . e. i. If the liquid . or sides . This is the celebrated moiree metallique. For this purpose make a solution of Glauber's salt (sulphate of soda) in boiling water (3 lbs. remove the cork. oxalate of lime. CRYSTALLIZED TIN. and let part of the water dry away or evaporate then remove them to a warm room.94 THE magician's OWi\ BOOK. in feathery forms. the niter six-sided crystals . and the alum. Mix half an ounce of nitric acid. . in consequence of the latent heat generated .

be surrounded with a suflBcient quantity of . demonstrating again that the condensation of a liquid produces heat. AND INTENSE COLD FROM THE PACTION. Remove the spoon from the flame. water. LIQUB- Mix five parts by weight of powdered muriate of ammonia. Take the lumps out without breaking them. . steam is produced then laid on the sulphate of copper. that it can hardly be kept in the hand. it gives out steam from the spout while the addition of water to the other produces so much cold. or any convenient metallic cylinder containing water. ahd proves that a sudden reduction of a solid to the liquid condition always afifords cold. The ice clings to the removed by dipping This experiment is the reverse of the last. Thus heat and cold are afforded by the same medium. it ignites. but may easily be it in tepid water. The addition of the water restores the blue color. and sixteen parts of water. the freezing mixture. and the color changes to a gray. ice is obtained. 95 then generally and the crystallization will ANOTHER EXPERIMENT. A SOLID CHANGED TO A HQIHD. commonly termed sal ammoniac. occur (sulphate of copper) in an contained in the crystals is driven off. An amusing combination of two experiments may be made by putting some fresh-burned lime into one tea-pot and this freezing mixture into another. and lay the if this be moistened with dried blue vitriol on a plate and if a slice of phosphorus is water. when the liquid .THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. . interior of the tube. thus proving that water was necessary to the composition of blue Heat some blue till vitriol iron ladle all the water . . and produce a liquid of a dark green color. five parts of niter in powder. MAGIC OP HEAT. When water is poured on the one containing lime. Melt a small quantity of the sulphate of potassa and copper in a spoon over a spirit lamp it will be fused at a heat just below redness. vitriol. the liquid. A temperature of twenty-two and degrees below the freezing point of water is produced if a phial of water.

while the larger ones will have become opaque.R. Move them slowly over the flame of a lamp or candle. and forms in its focus the image of a distant light.06 will THE magician's OWN BOOK. Each cluster consists of thousands of transparent globules. HEAT PASSING THROUGH GLASS. SrELDTATION BY HEAT. so remain till its . : The following experiment is also by Mr. and their consequent pressure against the surface of the upper one. F. and place upon it the other piece of glass. to be a satisfactory argument in favor of the repulsive power . F. as if animated. until it vanishes from minuteness. become a solid of a brilliant emerald green color. Provide two small pieces of glass sprinkle a minute portion of sulphur upon one piece. If they are examined again after a certain number of hours. that the globules are found adhering to the upper glass only the reason of which is.Talbot. and form gray nebulous patches. beginning from the surface. apply the poker quickly very near to the outside of a pane. lay thin slips of wood around it.. This experiment is considered by its originator. that the upper glass is somewhat cooler than the lower one by which means we see that the vapor of sulphur is very powerfully repelled by heated glass. each of them acts the part of a little lens. and having opened a window. till. By observing the largest particles. and heat sinks nearly to that of boiling water when suddenly a commotion will take place throughout the mass. and . and each atom. which are very curious microscopic objects. in consequence of the sulphur having undergone some internal spontaneous change. in a few moments. The flattened form of the particles is owing to the force with which they endeavor to recede from the lower glass. the whole will become a heap of powder. Mr. . will start up and separate itself from the rest. which can be perceived even in the smaller globules. Talbot Heat a poker bright red hot. we shall find them to be flattened on one side. England. But the most remarkable circumstance attending this experiment is. and the sulphur will become sublimed. : of heat. Being very transparent. imitating in miniature the nebulae which we see figured in treatises on astronomy. H. the smaller globules will generally be found to have retained their transparency.S.

and an orange vapor will arise and burst into flame with a loud Mix . the polish of fire-irons is not merely ornamental. Hence. (as a fireshovel. a piece of silver wire and a piece of platina wire. in a free or radiant state. when the silver wire will become too hot to hold. therefore. so as not to be used without inconvenience. • Place before a brisk fire a set of polished fire-irons. crackling sound. it will retain some part of that heat for a minute but in this experiment the heat will vanish in a or more moment. become speedily hot. and place it upon a heated plate. INEQUALITY OP HEAT IN FTRE-IRONS. It will not. or thrown off. 7 . it is well known that if a piece of glass be so much warmed as to convey the impression of heat to the hand. be the heated pane of glass that we shall feel. and beside them a rough unpolished poker. . All metals do not conduct heat at the same rate. instead of a bright poker. 97 th } hand to the inside . . but heat which has come through the glass. such as is used in a The polished irons kitchen. but useful. by the polished surThe rough face of the irons. much Or.) when the wax will melt at different periods. Observe an iron gate on a warm day. and fit it exactly into a metal ring heat the rod red hot. which will cease as soon as the poker is withdrawn. will remain for a long time without becoming warmer than the temperature of the room. poker will. ITETALS UNEQUALLY DfFLUEXCED BY HEAT. . a small quantity of chlorate of potassa with spirit of wine in a strong saucer add a little sulphuric acid. Now. a strong heat will be felt at the instant. and may be again renewed. because the heat radiated from the fire is all reflected.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. it with wax. SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION. and it will no longer enter the ring.er than the platina. tip sooi. when it will shut with difficulty whereas it will shut loosely and easily on a cold day. cut a cone of each wire. EXPANSION OP JLETAL BY HEAT Provide an iron rod. as may be proved by holding in the flame of a candle at the same time. however. and made to cease as quickly as before. and none of it is absorbed.

which will dis: . Dissolve nitrate of bismuth in water write with the solu tion. the mercury be left for some time on the spoon. of iodine hold the flask over the flame of a spirit-lamp. to which add a write with this solution hold the writing to little niter the fire. and the spoon may then be polished until it recovers its usual luster if.98 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the iodine. EYAPOMTION OP A METAL. Dissolve oxide of cobalt in acetic acid. and the two metals will combine with a white appearance heat the spoon carefully in the flame of a spirit lamp. a globule of mercury upon a silver spoon. the solid texture of the silver will be destroyed throughout. in cooling. by blowing on it with a pair of bellows. appear on cooling. Put into a flask a small portion . and it will swim upon the surface and burn with a beautiful light. its crystalline form. on being heated. when the mercury will volatilize and disappear. potassium. Care must be taken to avoid the fumes of mercury. into a basin of water. bul will become legible on immersion in water. which is of a . and burns with a red light. Dissolve. potassium takes violet. : Rub A FLOATI^^G METAL OX FIEE. . however. . fire. muriate of cobalt. and it will of ammonia in water give a yellow color when heated. a small piece of that marvelous substance. when cold. in water. and the characters will be invisible when dry. and from the state of bluishblack crystals. and tlien the silver can only be recovered by heating it in a ladle. will resume violet-colored transparent gas . If two pieces of ice SPLENDID SUBLfflATION. Dissolve equal parts of sulphate of copper and muriate write with the solution. of a red color mixed with When moderately heated in the air. and it will be of pale rose color. which will disappear . will become a but. ICE Throw MELTED BY AIR be placed in a warm room. which are very poisonous. MAGIC INKS. one of them may be made to melt much sooner than the other.

and the solution will be pink write and the characters will be scarcely visible but. pour upon each water at different temperatures. it will be changed to blue yellow cloth. which may be inflamed. Make a colorless solution of sulphate of copper add to it a little ammonia. WIXE CHANGED INTO WATER. and the blue color will disappear pour in a little solution of caustic ammonia.* CHAMELEON LIQUIDS. . Nearly fill a wine-glass with the juice of beet-root. if gentl}' heated. and the mixture will be colorless dip into it a piece of white cloth. and the mixture will be of an intense blue color add to it a little sulphuric acid. and the blue color will be restored.THK MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. which will disappear as the paper cools. 99 colour. Dissolve indigo in diluted sulphuric acid. is of . made by dissolving a nail in a little aqua fortis a blue and legible writing is with it. . solution of subacetate of lead with port wine filter the mixture through blotting-paper. . . dry it rapidly. Put a small portion of the compound called mineral chameleon into several glasses. to red. : . and the contents of each glass will exhibit a different shade of color. biii'^^li-greeii . If a piece of white cloth be dipped in the mixture. in the same mixture. when a spirit will arise. little . . equally colorless. and a colorlesa liquid will pass through to this add a small quantity of dry salt of tartar distil in a retort.V^th will become red. . they will appear in brilliant green. immediately apparent. Dissolve in water a few grains of prussiate of potash write with this liquid. Mix a . may be changed to green red to purple and blue litmus paper . THE MAGIC DYES. and add to it an equal quantity of solution of carbonate of potassa. Thus may the liquor be changed at pleasure. . . which a deep red color add a little lime-water. . and in a few hours the (. . A very hot solution will be of a beautiful green color a cold one. a deep purple. which is invisible when dry wash over with a dilute solution of iron. . * See also page 84.

Put into a wine-glass of water a few drops of prussiate of potash. so as to then pour some of it into strong chloride dilute the blue of lime. add a small quantity of solution three wine-glasses to the second. and the. Tel(>city. the a bright green. Or. (derate heat. mix the solution of prussiate of potash with that of nitrate of bismuth. Or. TO CHANGE A BLUE LIQUID TO WHITE. CHANGE OE COLOR BY COLORLESS FLUIDS. and they will be immediately changed to a bright deep blue. third a rich crimson. TWO COLORLESS FLUIDS MAKE A COLORED ONE. and the mixture will be of a reddish. LIQUIDS BECOilE BLACK TWO COLORLESS TRANSPARENT AND OPAQIJB. which add to the tea. and the blue will be bleached with almost magical . pour boiling water upon it. in . a few drops of muriatic acid. aid ()!' color Dissolve a small lump of indigo in sulphuric acid by the you will obtain an intense blue 111. . in water : . and a yellow will be the product. . mix the solution of prussiate of potash with that of sulphate of copper. and they will beci. brown color. and in another a solution of acetate of lead they are both mix them. merely by the addition of three colorless fluids. one vessel some dilute hydrosulphate of ammonia. which divide into to one. and when cold decant the clear infusion. and its color will be black.100 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. VEPJTABLE " BLACK " TEA. Slice a little red cabbage. Make a cup of strong green tea dissolve a little green copperas in water. a little solution of potash of alum in water and to the third. Three different colors may be produced from the same infusion. . . The liquor secon 1 in the first glass will assume a purple color. and into a second glass of water a little weak solution of sulphate of iron in water pour the colorless mixtures together into a tumbler.me colorless and transparent black and opaque. Have . and add a drop of this to half a pint of water.

equal quantities of the crystals of Glauber salts and nitrate of ammonia. and the solid opaque mass A TRANSPAREiYT LIQUID. RESTORATION OF COLOR BY WATER. they will become a solid mass. Heat a few crystals of the vitriol in a fire-shovel. suddenly. and the mixture will be nearly half as hot again as boiling water. when a slight hissing noise will be heard. Dissolve . . TWO SOLIDS MAKE A LIQUID. muriate of lime in water until it will dissolve no more measure out an equal quantity of oil of vitriol both will be transparent fluids but if equal quantities of each be slowly mixed and stirred together. 101 Water 1-eing a colorless fluid. in a cup. owes its vivid blueness. it is to water only that blue vitriol. as will be plainly evinced by the following simple experiment. If a crystal of prussiate of potash be similarly heated. • TWO LIQUIDS MAKE A SOLID. ought. with the evolution of smoke or fumes of muriatic acid. ^ All expevhnents marked thus. should be performed on the hob af the grate.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. pour acid. A SOLID OPAQUE MASS MAKES solid mixture of the and carbonate of potash. Nevertheless. or sulphate of copper. . produce a colorless compound. but reappear on being dropped into water. TWO COLD LIQULDS MAKE A HOT Mix four drams of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) with one dram of cold water. . this Under the microscope the beauty of be increased. and the powder will be of a dull and dirty white appearence. when mixed with other substances of no decided color. for the instant experiment will that a drop of water is placed in contact with the vitriol. Rub together in a mortar. one would imagine. Pour a little water upon this. and the two salts will slowly become a liquid. the powder may be seen to shoot into blue prisms. ~-. to permit the fumes to escape up the chimney. its yellow color will vanish. Take the solutions of muriate of lime upon it a very little nitric will be changed to a transONE. parent liquid. pulverize them. and at the same to moment the blue color will instantly reappear.

102 THE magician's OWN BOOK. . afford a magnificent purple in the iodide of potassium and starch. The following changes occur. making a soft mass of the color of mercury. produces a black precipifive : Take . 1 added to No. MAGIC BREATH. QUINTUPLE TRANSMTATTON. into No. about the size of a small pea. producing a purple compound. . changes a milky transparent again white No. and if they be left for a short time. so as to pour out half the gas. which combines with the starch. 3. sufficiently strong to yield a scarlet precipitate with the iodide in the first glass. poured into No. . Half it breathe into a glass tumbler with lime-water frequently. poured into No. because it sets free iodine. and both vessels. . the scarlet again becomes colorless milky white and the white. and the other with a very provide each vessel dilute solution of sulphate of indigo with a plate glass or cardboard valve. . place into the first a solution of ale-glasses into the second. as the effect of the experiment depends on the adjustment of into the third. 4. a strong solution of iodide this beforehand of potassium with some oxalate of ammonia into the fourth." about half an inch in diameter drop upon it a globule of mercury. quickly changing No. . . tate. the gold will lose its solidity and yellow color. THE SAAIE AGENT MAY PRODUCE AND DESTROY COLOR. 4. laid on the top carefully open the bottle of chlorine. a solution of corrosive iodide of potassium sublimate. No. without redissolving. into the fifth. a clear and colorless liquid is changed to scarlet the colorless liquid. black. : . UNION OF TWO METALS WITHOUT HEAT. 3. and shake up The chlorine will bleach the indigo. 5. becomes clear and to a scarlet No. . and the mercury its liquid form. . a solution of a solution of muriate of lime hydrosulphate of ammonia. Cut a circular piece of gold leaf. wliich is very heavy add the remainder to the other. called " dentists' gold. 2 produces a yellow.. at the same time stirruig it with a piece of fill . . Thus. . . Procure a bottle of chlorine. 2. invert it slowly over one cylindrical vessel. and arrange two tall cylinfill one half full with a dilute solution of drical glasses iodide of potassium and starch.

and in a few days crystals of the several salts will deposit themselves on the baskets. . and after the lapse of a considerable period. that a mixture of nitrate of silver with hyposulphate of soda. the solution is allowed to evaporate slowly. which before was perfectly tr&. and as they mix they Rub will become liquid. when passing from the fluid to the solid state and the size and regularity of the crystals depends in a great measure on the slow or rapid escape of the fluid in which they were dissolved. and they will reappear.nsparent. The greater number of salts have a tendency to assume regular forms. will produce the sweetest known substance. together in a Wedgewood mortar a small quantity of sulphate of soda and acetate of lead. . and acquire a most splendid blue color. has been discovered. Write with French chalk on a looking-glass wipe it with a handkerchief. and set them by in a cool place. or become crystallized. Make a strong solution of alum. Sugar is a capital example of this property the ordinary loaf-sugar being rapidly boiled down. which is nothing but sugar in a crystallized form. TWO BITTERS It MAO A SWEET. or wire baskets. or of sulphate of copper. . glass. 1. and the lines will will disappear breathe on it. This alternation will take place for a great number of times. VISIBLE Ai\D INVISIBLE. Carbonate of ammonia and sulphate of copper. and dried in an oven not tr)o h(>t. &c. will also. both of which are remarkably bitter. real chalk will be deposited. TO FORM A LIQUID FROM TWO SOLIDS. when they form ver^'. They should then be taken out of the solutions. and as it cools it forms into those beautiful crystals termed rockcandy. : — . as it is called while to make rock-candy. previously reduced to powder separately.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. and if allowed to remain at rest. become liquid. when mixed. and place in them rough and irregular pieces of clinker from stoves. will presently become quite white. 103 The fluid. where they will be free from dust. Experiment No. The threads found in the center of some of the crystals are merely placed for the purpose of hastening the formation of the crystals. or blue vitriol.pretty ornaments for a room.

knife. . the white light be introduced within a wire sieve. THE SPECTEAL LAMP. and restoring the usual when one side of each person's or white light at the other dress will resume its original color. of which we have spoken before. Or if. it should not be perfectly yellow. fair or brunette. the yellow of jaundice. and the other. howignited. it will burn with a strong yellow flame ever. for the least shake will often cause the crystallization to take place before the proper time. death-like yellow whilst the gayest dresses. to provide against accidents. the same time. and the complexions of the several persons. and the percussion of the air will cause the whole mass instantly to crystallize. mottled with white. which should be inclosed on each side. Red light may be produced by mixing with the spirit i» . : the spectral company. will be metamorphosed to a ghastly. when an appalling change will be exhibited all the objects in the room but of one color. while the other will remain yellow one cheek may bear the bloom of health. and the yellow lamp introduced. whether old or young. if. or Glauber salt.104 THE magician's OWN BOOK. Their astonishment may be heightened by removing the yellow light to one end of the room. or in a when the cup becomes heated. Fill a Florence flask up to the nock with a strong solution of sulphate of soda. the most vivid blue or green— all will be changed into one monotonous yellow each person will be inclined to laugh at his neighbor. the company and the objects in th*» apartment will appear yellow. The lamp being thus prepared. 2. all other lights : should be extinguished. as the brightest crimson. boil it. Experiment No. and the spirit dark-lantern Mix some common . and the flask will become quite warm from the latent caloric. After twenty-four hours it will probably Pierce the bladder covering with a penstill remain fluid. himself insensible of being one of . throw more salt into the cup. the choicest lilac. given out by the salt in passing from the fluid to the It is better to prepare two or three flasks at solid state. and set it by in a place where it cannot be disturbed. and tie the mouth over with a piece of moistened bladder while boiling. or metallic cup : — salt with spirit of wine in a platinum set the cup upon a wire frame over a spirit-lamp. . when the yellow light only is burning. .

The order of colors green. therefore. it will loose all its yellow If. Trim a spirit lamp. Purple colors. who by this mode variegate their . and then to black. and it will change first to pink. view the taper with the other. salt of strontian instead of common and the effect of the white or yellow lights. . TO CHANGE THE COLORS OF FLOWERS. though the I rown streak will be discharged. If a scarlet. the lamp will be absolutely invisible. Hold over a lighted match a purple columbine. Thus. two. . It. growing dahlias. and having closed one eye. Let there be no other light than a taper in the room then put on a pair of dark green spectacles. green. you place a pale yellow glass. if introduced through a sieve upon the red light. The yellow of other flowers. and you will only perceive feeble violet raj'S. THE PROTEAJT nGHT. and the taper will assume a bright red appearance but if the spectacles be instantly replaced. THE CHAiTELEON FLOWERS. Suddenly remove the spectacles. 105 the cup over the lamp. . will continue unchanged. be as follows . in the same light. the eye will be unable to distinguish anything for a second or . or a blue larkspur. red. fore the blue glass. the purple tint will instantly disappear and the from a heart's-ease. and light Set near it a scarlet geranium. crimson. place it in a spirit lamp. CUEIOUS CHA2iGE OF COLORS. held as above. or maroon dahlia be tried. will be even more striking than the white upon the yellow light. though a candle may be distinctly seen through the same glasses. black. appear blue. dry it. but the yellow will remain yellow of a wall-flower will continue the same. add a little salt to the wick. and when lit it wnll give a bright yellow liglit for a long time. and the flower will appear yellow. will.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. belight. If you look through a piece of blue glass at the flame. Soak a cotton wick in a strong solution of salt and water. the color will change to yellow a fact known to gardeners. salt .

having a small piece of wood tied to one end. Pierce a hole through the center of the card. will be restored. Write upon linen with permanent ink (which is a strong solution of nitrate of silver). and the color will be discharged wherever the fume touches the leaves of the flower. Cut a circular piece of card to fit the top of a hyacinthglass.-':als into very solution of potash in water. dilute muriatic acid. and the infusion will be of a florid red Some flowers. may of port wine be changed to green or yellow. Hold a red rose over the blue flame of a common match. in a few days. If it be then dipped into water. after a time. Shortly afterw irds the acorn will burst. and exclude the air. or entirely white. so as to render it beautifully variegated. surface. . TO CHANGE THE COLOR OF A ROSE. which are by adding a little chalk. become blue by merely bruising them. THE YISIBLT GROWING ACORN. they will stain it purple. so as to rest upon the ledge. .106 THE MAGICIANS OWN BOOK. and scarcely visible but expose them to a strong light. and the characters will be remove the linen into a dark room. . To the other end of and having the thread attach an acorn half filled the glass with water. the steam which has generated in the gla?3 will hang from tlie acorn in a large drop. suspend the acorn at a short distance from the . LIGHT CHANGING WHITE INTO BLACK. which may be made green by wasliing it over with a strong Put poppy p. Thus. The glass must be kept in a warm room and. if the petals of the common cornpopp3^ bo rubbed upon white paper. . . and pass through it a strong thread. it will become of the color color and this tint. prevents its being irawn through. . they will not change and they will be of an indelible black. CHANGES OF THE POPPY. red. by the addition of potash. the redness. which. resting transversely on the card.

;

THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY.
;

107

and the root will protrude and thrust itself into the water in a few days more a stem will shoot out at the other end, and rising upwards, will press against the card, in which

an orifice must be made to allow it to pass through. From this stem, small leaves will soon be observed to sprout and in the course of a few weeks you will have a handsome
oak plant, several inches in height.
COLORED FLAMES.

variety of rays of light are exhibited by colored flames, which are not to be seen in white light. Thus, pure hydrogen gas will burn with a blue flame, in which many of the rays of light are wanting. The flame of an oil lamp contains most of the rays which are wanting in the sunlight. Alcohol, mixed with water, when heated or burned, afThe followfords a flame with no other rays but yellow. ing salts, if finely powdered, and introduced into the exterior flame of a candle, or into the wick of a spirit lamp, will communicate to the flame their peculiar colors
:

A

Muriate Muriate Muriate Muriate Muriate Muriate Muriate

of of of of of of of

Soda (common
Potash
. '

salt)
.

.

Lime

....
.

Strontia Lithia

.

.

.

.

.

Borax

.....
.

Baryta Copper

.

.

.

.

.

Yellow. Pale violet. Brick red, Bright crimson. Red, Pale apple-green. Bluish green. Green.

Or, either of the above salts

may

be mixed with spirit of

wine, as directed for

Red

Fire.
FLAiTE.

ORANGE COLORED

Burn

spirit of

wine on chloride of calcium, a substance
EitERALD GREEN FLAME.

obtained by evaporating muriate of lime to dryness.

Burn

spirit of

wine on a

little

powdered

nitrate of copper

INSTANTANEOUS FLAME.

Heat together potassium and sulphur, and they will instantly burn very vividly. Heat a little niter on a fire-shovel, sprinkle on it flour of sulphur, and it will instantly burn. If iron filings be thrown upon red-hot n^^<^v. they will detonate and burn.

108

THE magician's OWN BOOK.

Pound, separately, equal parts of chlorate of potash and mix them, and put upon a plate a small quandip a glass rod into sulphuric acid, touch the powder tity "with it, and it will burst into a brilliant flame. Or, put a few grains of chlorate of potash into a tablespoonful of spirit of wine add one or two drops of sulphuric acid, and the whole will burst into a beautiful flame.

lump sugar
;

;

;

TO COOL FLAJTE

BY METAL.

Encircle the very small flame of a floating night light, with a cold iron wire, which will instantly cause its
extinction.

PEOOP THAT FLAME

IS

HOLLOW.

Pour some spirit of wine into a watch-glass, and inflame place a straw across this flame, and it will only be igniit ted and charred at the outer edge the middle of the straw will be uninjured, for there is no ignited matter in the cen;
;

ter of the flame.
TO

HOLD A HOT TEA KETTLE ON THE HAND.

of the kettle is well covered the water in it boils, remove it from the fire, and place it upon the palm of the hand no inconvenience will be felt, as the soot will prevent the heat being transmitted from the water within and the heated metal, to the hand.

Be sure that the bottom
;

with soot

when

;

INCOMBUSTIBLE LINEN.

linen, muslin, or

a strong solution of borax in water, and steep in it any article of clothing when dry, they cannot easily be inflamed. A solution of phosphate of
;

Make

ammonia with

sal

ammoniac answers much
THE BURNING CmCLE.

better.

and whirl it round with a rapid motion, when its burning end will produce a complete circle of light, although that end can only be in one part of the cirThis is caused by the duration of cle at the same instant. Another example the impression of light upon the retina. is, that during the winking of the eye we never lose sigrh*
Light a
stick,

of the objc^ct

we

are viewing.

THE MAGIC OF CHKMISTRY
WATER OF Dn'FEREXT Of heat and cold, as
TE^HPERATURES IN THE SAME VESSEL.

109

of wit and madness, it may be said that " thin partitions do their bounds divide." Thus, paint one half of the surface of a tin pot x^ith a mixture of lamp black and size, and leave the other half, or side, bright Gil the vessel with boiling water, and by dipping a thermometer, or even the finger, into it shortly after, it will be found to cool much more rapidly upon the blackened than upon the bright side of the pot.
;

WAKMTH

OE DIFFERENT COLORS.

Place upon the surface of snow, as upon the window sill, in bright daylight or sunshine, pieces of cloth of the 8ame size and quality, but of different colors, black, blue, green, yellow, and white the black cloth will soon melt the '^now beneath it, and sink downwards next the blue, and then the green the yellow but slightly but the snow benoath the white cloth will be as firm as at first.
:

;

;

;

SUESTITUTE FOR FIRE.

Put into a cup a lump of quicklime, fresh from the kiln, pour water upon it, and the heat will be verj^ great. A pailful of quicklime, if dipped in water, and shut clonely
into a box constructed f(n- the purpose, will give out suflBcient heat to warm a room, even in very cold weather. This is the source of steam vapor in theatrical representations.

LAUGHING

GAS.

fanciful appellation has been given to nitrous oxide, from the very agreeable sensations excited by inhaling it. In its pure state it destroys animal life, but loses this noxious quality when inhaled, because it becomes

The above

blended with the atmospheric air which it meets in the This gas is made by putting three or four drams lungs. of nitrate of ammonia, in crystals, into a small glass retort, which being held over a spirit lamp, the crystals will melt, and the gas be evolved. Having thus produced the gas, it is to be passed into a large bladder, having a stop-cock and when you are desirous of exhibiting its eifects, you cause the person who wishes to experience them, to first exhale the atmospheric air from the lungs, and then quickly placing tiio cock in his month, j'^ou turn it, and id him inhale the gas. Iramedi
;

^

110

THE magician's OWN BOOK.

ately, a sense of extraordinary cheerfulness, fanciful flights of imagination, an uncontrollable propensity to laughter, and a consciousness of being capable of great muscular exertion, supervene, it does not operate in exactly the •same manner on all persons but in most cases the sensations are agreeable, and have this important difference from those produced by wine or spirituous liquors, that they are not succeeded by any depression of mind.
;

FLAME PROM COLD METALS.
Provide a bottle of the gas chlorine, vs^hich chased of any operative chemist, and with
exhibit

may be
it

pur-

you may

some brilliant experiments. For example, reduce a small piece of the metal antimony place some of this on to a very fine powder in a mortar
;

a bent card, then loosen the stopper of the bottle of chlorine, and throw in the antimony it will take fire spontaneously, and burn with much splendor, thus exlii biting a cold metal spontaneously bursting into flame. If, however, a lump of antimony be dropped into the chlorine, there will be no spontaneous combustion, nor immediate change but, in the course of time, the antimony will become incrusted with a white powder, and no chlorine will be found in the bottle. Or, provide copper in fine leaves, known as "Dutch metal ;" slightly breathe on one end of a glass rod, about ten inches long, and cause one or two leaves of the metal then open a bottle of chlorine, to adhere to the damp end quickly plunge in the leaves, when they will instantly take fire, and burn with a fine red light, leaving in the bottle a
; ;

;

greenish-yellow solid substance. A small lum'p of copper, or " Dutch metal," will not burn as above, but will be slowly acted upon, like the antimony. Immerse gold leaf in ajar of chlorine gas, and combustion with a beautiful green flame will take place.
PHOSPHORUS IX CHLORINE.

Put into a deflagrating spoon about four grains of phosphorus, and let it down into a bottle of chlorine, when the phosphorus will ignite instantaneously. Or, fold a slip of blotting-paper into a match five inches long dip it into oil of t'lrpeutine, drain it an instant, drop
;

;

THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY
into another bottle of chlorine, flame, and deposit much carbon.
it

111

.

when

it

will burst into a

MAGIC VAPOR.

Provide a glass tube, about three feet long and half an inch in diameter nearly fill it with water, upon the surface of which pour a little colored ether then close the open end of the tube carefully with the palm of the hand, invert it in a basin of water, and rest the tube against the wall the ether will rise through the water to the upper end of the tube pour a little hot water over the tube, and it will soon cause the ether to boil within, and its vapor may thus be made to drive nearly all the water out of the tube into the basin if, however, you then cool the tube by pouring cold water over it, the vaporized ether will again become a
;

;

:

;

;

liquid,

and

float

upon the water as

before.

GAS FROM THE UXIOX OF METAL.
a wine-glass with diluted sulphuric acid, and place in it a wire of silver and another of zinc, taking care that they do not touch each other when the zinc will be changed by the acid, but the silver will remain inert. But cause the upper ends of the wires to touch each other, and a stream of gas will issue from them.
fill
;

Nearly

CAMPHOR SUBLIMED BY FLAME.
Set a metallic plate over the flame of a spirit lamp; place upon it a small portion of camphor under a glass funnel and the camphor will be beautifully sublimed by the heat of the lamp, in an efflorescent crust on the sides of the funnel

GREEN

FIRE.

beautiful green fire may be thus made. Take of flour of sulphur thirteen parts, nitrate of baryta seventy-seven, oxymuriate of potassa five, metallic arsenic two, and Let the nitrate of baryta be well dried and charcoal three. powdered; then add to it the other ingredients, all finely pulverized, and exceedingly well mixed and rubbed together. Place a portion of the composition in a small tin pan, having a polished reflector fitted to one side, and set light to it when a splendid green illumination will be the result. Bv adding a little calamine, it will burn more slowly.
:

A

112

THE
V

MAGICIA.\"S

OWN

BOOK.

Weigh

five

BRILLIANT RED FIRE. ounces of dry nitrate of strontia, one ounce

and a half of finely powdered sulphur, five drams of chlorate of potash, and four drams of sulphuret of antimony. Powder the chlorate of potash and the sulphuret of antimony separately in a mortar, and mix them on paper after which add them to the other ingredients, previously powdered and mixed. No other kind of mixture than rubbing together on paper is required. For use, mix with a portion of the powder a small quantity of spirits of wine, in a tin pan resembling a cheese toaster, light the mixture, and it will shed a rich crimson hue. When the fire burns dim and badly, a very small quantity of finely powdered charcoal or lamp
;

black will revive

it.

PURPLE FIRE.
Dissolve chloride of lithium in spirit of wine, and lighted, it will burn with a purplish flame,
SILVER FIRE.

when

Place upon a piece of burning charcoal a morsel of the dried crystals of nitrate of silver (not the lunar caustic), and it will immediately throw out the most beautiful sparks that can be imagined, whilst the surface of the charcoal will be coated with silver.

THE FIERY FOUNTAIN.

Put into a glass tumbler fifteen grains of finely granulated zinc, and six grains of phosphorus, cut into very small pieces beneath water. Mix in another glass, gradually, a dram of sulphuric acid, with two drams of water. Remove both glasses into a dark room, and there pour the diluted acid over the zinc and phosphorus in the glass in a short time
;

beautiful jets of bluish flame will dart from all parts of the surface of the mixture it will become quite luminous, and beautiful luminous smoke will rise in a column from the glass, thus representing a fountain of fire.
;

COilBUSTION

WITHOUT FLA¥E.

Light a small green wax taper; in a minute or two, blow out the flame, and the wick will continue red hot for many hours and if the taper were regularly and carefully uncoiled, and the room kept free from the current of air, the wick would burn on in this manner until the whole wap
;

THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY.

113

consumed. The same effect is not produced when the coloi of the wax is red, on which account red wax tapers are safer than green, for the latter, if left imperfectly extinguished, may set fire to any object w^ith which they are in contact. COilBrSTION OF THKEE iTETALS.

Mix a grain or two of potassium witli an equal quantity add a globule of quicksilver, and the three of sodium metals, when shaken, will take fire, and burn vividly.
;

TO ITAKE

PAPER APPARENTLY INCOilBUSTIBLE.

Take a smooth cylindrical piece of metal, about one inch and a half in diameter, and eight inches long wrap very
;

closely round it a piece of clean writing paper, then hold the paper in the flame of a spirit lamp, and it ^vill not take but it may be held there for a considerable time, withfire out being in the least affected by the flame. If the paper be strained over a C3dinder of wood, it is quickly scorched.
;

HEAT NOT

TO BE ESTIilATED BY TOUCH.

water which causes the thermometer to rise to ninety degrees, and when the liquid has become still, you will be insensible to the heat, and that the hand is touching anything. Then remove one hand to water that causes the thermometer to rise to two hundred degrees, and the other in water at thirty-two degrees. After holding the hands thus for some time, remove them, and again immerse them in the water at ninety degrees when you will find warmth in one hand and cold in the other. To the hand which had been immersed in the water at thirty-two degrees, the water at ninety degrees will feel hot; and to the hand which had been immersed in the water at two hundred degrees, the water at ninety degrees will feel cool. If, therefore, the touch in this case be trusted, the same water will be judged to be hot and cold at the same time

Hold both hands

in

;

FLAME UPON WATER.
a wine glass with cold water, pour lightly upon its light it by a slip of paper, and it will surface a little ether burn for some time.
Fill
;

IIOSE-COLOREB

FLAME UPON WATER.

Drop a globule of potassium, about the
into u small cup,
i

size of a large pea, early full of water, containing a drop or

. which Put may be collected by a dry sponge. This experiment should be exhibited in the dark. and watery vapor will bo directly condensed on the cold surface. FORMATION OF WATER BY FIRE. Pour into a saucer a little sulphuric acid. and place upon it a chip of sodium. set it on fire. which. and place in it an air thermometer. Hold a cold and dry bell glass over a lighted candle. CURRENTS IN BOILING WATER. a perfectly clear liquid. and turn the mouth uppermost remove the card. but the addition of a drop of water will set it on fire. enveloped with a beautiful rose-colored flame. . and it will instantly become turbid and milky. will instantly appear on fire at the surface.lU THE magician's OWN BOOK. upon the surface place a small copper basin. filled with cold water. quickly pour in a little lime-water. On WATER FROM THE FLAME OF A CANDLE. it will float upon its surface. into a tea cup a little spirit of wine. while the thermometer will show that the water beneath is scarcely warmer than it was at : first. then clase the mouth of the glass with a card or plate. and in waves. which will nearly reach the surface. and In a short time. into which put a little live charcoal the surface of the water will soon be made to boil. and entirely dissolve. upon meeting with the contents of the glass. TO SET A MIXTURE ON FIEE WITH WATER. a thick Invert a large bell-glass over it. then hold the tube by a . and put the sugar into a glass of warm water. just as lime-water changes when dropped into a glass full of water. which will float and remain uninflamed. watery vapor will be seen upon the inside of the bell. and throw into it a particles of bruised amber. WAVES OF FIRE OX WATER. two of strong uitric acid the moment that the metal touches the liquid. BOILING UrON COLD WATER. Provide a tall glass jar. Fill few a large glass tube with water. if gently blown with the breath. a lump of refined sugar let fall a few drops of phosphuretted ether.

will begin to ascend in the center. and then plunge the bulb into pounded ice and salt. These currents will soon become rapid in their motions. say of the temperature of eighty degrees. The circulation of warm water may be very pleasingly shown.) it will be seen slowly to expand. except water. in which is placed a standing human figure. so as not to mix them apply heat at the bottom of the tube. and one inch in diameter. Thus. . This pretty toy may be purchased at any optician's for two or three shillings. carrying with them the pieces of amber. Pour into a glass tube. In this case. fill a large thermometer tube with water. This rises in one leg of the figure to reach the chin. or any other freezing mixture the water will go on shrinking in the tube till it has attained the temperature of about forty degrees and then. instead of continuing to contract till it freezes. through the bottom of the cup to a If you pour water in the cup. about ten inches long. and descends through the other leg. concealing a syphon. . THE CUP OF TANTALUS. it will rise reservoir beneath. the water having diffused in it some particles of any light . and as the water becomes warm. at eight degrees above or below forty degrees. seem to be equal of the same bulk at thirty-two degrees as at forty-eight degrees. and to descend towards the circumference of the tube. . : . and above so that the water will be forty degrees. (as in the case with all other liquids.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. upright in the flame of a lamp. diminish in bulk till they freeze. and the colored water will ascend and be difi'used throughout the whole. it will be seen that currents. EXPANSION OP WATER BY COLD. All fluids. and continue till the water boils. substance not soluble in water. the expansion below forty degrees. until it congeals. or bent tube with one end longer than the other. a little water colored with pink or other dye then fill it up gradually and carefully with colorless water. It consists of a cup. by heating water in a tube similar to the foregoing. HOT WATEE LIGHTER THAN COLD. 115 handle for the purpose. that is. and consequently to rise in the tube.

if thin slices of cork be steeped in sulphuric ether in a closed bottle for two or three days. . one containing water at flfty-eight degrees. and they will instantly begin to move.116 THE magician's OWN BOOK. . will gradually decline in velocity. white. instead of being dull. and opaque. level with the chin of the figure. by any substance which is at all greasy. and the remaining pieces. and evidently soaked with water. the motion of the cam. be instantly deprived of their motion and vivacity. driving out . however. and acquire a motion both progressive and rotary. while the rotation of the camphor in about half the hot water will last only nineteen minutes the camphor will pass off". Thus. which will continue for a consideraDuring these rotations. and then placed upon the water. which. who is represented by the poets as punished in Erebus with an insatiable thirst. they will keep at rest. If the water be made hot. tumbler with water. and placed up to the chin in a pool of water. by its in the shorter leg air before it upward pressure. which at first will be very rapid. but it will cease in proportionately less time. if the water be touched ble time. provide two glasses. will be vitreous and transThe gyrations. and the cup will be emptied: the toy thus imitating Tantalus of mythology. and as if by a stroke of magic. the floating particles will quickly dart back. parent. too. (that is.phor will be more rapid than in cold w^ater. until they become quite sluggish. flowed away as soon as he attempted to taste it. tliey will rotate for several minutes. and the other at two hundred and ten degrees place raspings of camphor upon each at the same time the campl>or in the first glass will rotate for about five hours. until all but a ver}^ minute portion has evaporated. throw upon its surface a few fragments or thin shavings of camphor.) the pressure of the water will force it over into the longer leg of the syphon. like the camphor until the slices of cork having discharged all their ether. : : . The stilling influence of oil upon weaves has become prothe extraordinary manner in which a small quanverbial tity of oil instantly spreads over a very large surface ol Fill a glass . In like manner. toe through the longer leg and when the cup is filled above the bend of the syphon. and become soaked with water. THE MAGIC WHIRLPOOL.

kept steady by thrusting one end into an upright piece of wood. the motion of the camphor will be more slowly stopped than by oil or fluid grease. and allow a single drop thereof to trickle down the inner side of the glass to the surface of the water. they will gradually stop the motion of the camphor. and supported on a wire ring. and it will be seen that they cause the rotations. may be employed. placed above. but if camphor be dropped into nitric acid diluted with its own bulk of water. By this means the current may be detected. &c. it will rotate rapidly for a few seconds. and somewhat on one side of the watch glass. like a retort stand. Then put the camphor and water in the watch-glass. Or a flat watch-glass. called a lunar. jetting out.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. If a piece of the rotating camphor be attentively examined with a lens. AEnPICIAL FIEE BALLS. as follows phor. and then stop. as given out by the camphor. the rotations and currents can be distinguished.. If a few drops of sulphuric or muriatic acid be let fall into the water. as the latter spreads over the surface of the water with greater rapidity. By the same principle a drop of oil may be made to stop Throw some camthe motion of the camphor. dip a glass rod into oil of turpentine. so that it may receive the shadow of the glass. Put thirty grains of phosphorus into a bottle. ma}^ also be seen by means of the microscope a drop or two of pure water being placed upon a slip of glass. If a piece of hard tallow or lard be employed. the currents of the water can be well distinguished. Place the vessel over . and cease to rotate. chiefly from the corners of the camphor. The currents. upon the surface of water. On observing the shadow. and while they are rotating. : . camphor. both in slices and in small particles. and place under the frame a sheet of white paper. which con tains three or four ounces of water. the camphor will instantly dart to the opposite point of the liquid surface. with a particle of camphor floating upon it. raised a tew inches. to be cast by a steady light. and the stealthy manner in which even a rough wind glides over it. which may be considered a magnified representation of the object itself. 117 troubled water. and bearing it round with irregular force. must have excited the admiration of all who have witnessed it.

the In a few minutes the substance solid mass will dissolve. TO TELL A LADY IE SHE Put into a phial some sulphuric IS IN LOVE. ether. which must then be filled with cold water. add one teaspoonful of strong acetic acid This will render to every two tablespoonfuls of vinegar. and tell her that if Irv love. color it red with orchanet. A little shake of the hand. Immediately after their contact. so that it may be extended lengthways without breaking then insert it into the neck of a small bottle. requires the You must take an egg and soak it following preparation and in process of time its shell will in strong vinegar become quite soft. AN EGG PUT INTO A PHIAL. and baffles those who are not in the secret to find out how it is accomplished. To accomplish TO ASTONISH A LAEGE PARTY. and give it a boiling heat. Place the phial which contains it in a lady's hand. then hold it with a pair of pincers or tongs take in the other hand a stick of brimstone. . this : . you will see the steel melt and drop like . the egg perfectly flexible. With some lycopodium. and melts and boils at twenty degrees. and that you will get The lycopodium it with the hand without wetting your skin. adheres to the hand. . If the vinegar used to saturate the egg is not sufficiently strong to produce the required softness of shell. TO MELT STEEL AS EASILY AS LEAD.118 THE magician's OWN BoOK. will d'slodge the powder. and touch the piece of steel with it. the surface of a large or small vessel of water you may then challenge any one to drop a piece of money into the water. seemingly incredible act. This preparation is solid ten degrees above freezing point. a piece of steel red in the fire. powder . curiosity. it will reassume This is really a complete its former figure and hardness. and by pouring cold water upon it. after the feat is over. and prevents its contact with the water. attended with the most beautiful coruscations. will become fluid. then saturate the tincture with spermaceti. a lamp. Make a liquid. Balls of fire will soon be seen to issue from the water. after the manner of an artificial fire-work. and of easy insertion into the bottle.

. this archil yields a beautiful blue pigment. let them remain together in a warm place for a few hours. labeled " Blue litmus These serve to test any fluid. repeat the operation. it will become covered with a coat of copper thus showing that the copper can be infinitely divided without any alteration in its properties . If your blue paper becomes red. to ascertain if test papers. it is changed to red by so minute a portion of any acid. such as lime-water. one of the first practical lessons to a student in Put into chemistry. is acid. pour one portion into a saucer. Dissolve a single grain of copper in about one dram of nitric acid.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. this "red it is red litmus test paper" serves to indicate the presence of alkaEed litmus test lies. a class of bodies opposed to acids. that it becomes. the fluid. the milk is sour it On — : . mix. paper. divide the solution obtained into two parts. thus a flask half an ounce of litraus. a test of the presence of the latter substance. known in the chemical laboratory by the name of Few colors are more fugitive than litmus. grows the archil weed or lichen. . By a particular process of manufacture. As it is so frequently desirable to know whether a fluid be acid or alkaline. renowned among dyers. INFINITE DIYISIBILITY OP MATTER. Being a litmus. When dry. when properly applied. by once dipping and drying. and dilute the solution with about one ounce of water. cautiously. Test some stale milk. 119 the otherwise barren rocks which fringe the shore of a famous seathe Cape de Verd Islands. and three ounces of water . is immediately restored to its original blue color. Yet. the liquid. on being put into any fluid that is alkaline. It is instructive to learn how very small a portion of any acid in water will be indicated by With the second portion of the reddening of the litmus." it has an acid reaction. preserve these strips in a box. When dry. Put the ashes of a cigar into w^ater. line violet-blue. is to prepare litmus test paper. when it will be evident that a single drop of the mixture must contain an almost immeasurably small portion of copper." will indicate the presence of an alkali. a few drops of lemon juice. if the blade of a knife be dipped into it. and soak strips of white writing paper in it until If not colored enough it has acquired a distinct blue color. TEST PAPERS. until then color paper as before. then filter the dark blue liquid from its impurities. when "tested.

&c. is friction but the bodies rubbed together must consist of different substances for. [120] . wax. are called non-conductors. are called ^ood conductors. gold. feathers. and other metals.. water. copper. silver. Some substances. It exists in all bodies. charcoal. leather. iron. one of the most active principles in nature. and the most generally employed. GALVANISM AND MAGNETISM THE ORIGIN OF GALVANISM. . if they are alike. hair. because they transfer with great facility to other bodies the electric fluid. electricity will not be evolved. . &c. which glides over the surface with the velocity of light while others.. dry paper. such as soot. because they resist the progress of the fluid. such as silk. wool. glass. Electricity is . and is exhibited by various means.AMUSEMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. one of which.

The uses of Galvanic Electricity for scientific purposes are incalculable. and immediately the muscles of the limb were violently agitated. The next branch of the science of Electricity is Galvanism. . bodies with each other. indeed. happened to be lying on the table of Galvani's laboratory. as it is sometimes called. water is made inflammable.ELECTRICITY AND GALVANiSM. Voltaic Electricity it is obtained through the simple contact of different conducting . Madame Galvani having observed the phenomenon. . which lay close to the conductor of the machine. It from these media that are obtained the usual phenomena of electricity. His wife being possessed of a penetrating understanding. Its effects are felt in almost every part is of nature tric fluid. when the point of a knife was unintentionally brought into contact with the nerves of one of the frog's legs. as to render the study of this science exceedingly interesting. are amongst a few of its effects. and professor of anatomy from whom. substances are decomposed. and taking soup made of frogs. and which is discharged when the heavy lurid masses come in contact with each other the mysterious sweeping whirlwind. 121 which accumulates all the time the friction continues. skinned for the purpose. The experiments we give on Galvanism show the effect of the combination which forms what is called a simple . or. in the year 1791. instantly informed her husband of it. the terrific rising and rolling of the sand in the desert wilds of Africa. an Italian philosopher of great merit. and passionately loving him. and its' phenomena are so various and extraordinary. the science received its name. Through means of a galvanic battery. colors changed. by the lady of Louis Galvani. and motion is given to lifeless bodies. by way of restorative. and this incident led to the experiments and interesting discoveries which will transmit his name to the . and the beautiful yet evanescent Aurora Borealis of the northern climes. she was in a declining state of health. Some of these animals. It was first discovered at Bologna. latest posterity. At the time the incident we are about to narrate took place. the awful lightning is the exhibition of the elec- which accumulates in the clouds. as exhibited in the experiments which we shall hereafter describe. took a lively interest in the science which so much occupied his attention. where also stood an electrical machine.

difterently to what it does upon the other. and of a dark gray This ore alone is the local habicolor and peculiar luster. A galvanic circle may also be formed of one metal. and those which do not possess the property. THE magician's own book. The property designated b}^ the word magnetism is found in an iron ore of a certain composition. which will act chemically upon one of them. We . by rubbing and keeping them if a metal be of a close together for some length of time hard texture like steel. and subject them to tho action of a fluid. by means of two metals. proceed to give the youthful amateur the opportunity of exemplifying the principles of electricity. or to be attracted by it. which have a different action upon the zinc and copper. The metals thus prepared. it retains the magnetic principle permanently but if soft. non-magnetic. whilst all others are subject to its Still. Magnetism is sufficient is a modification of electricity: at least. tation of magnetism.122 galvanic circle. by several simple experimeu's. This singular property of the loadstone is imparted to other metallic substances. and are employed for purposes of the utmost importance. and magnetism. it loses the power as soon as seperated from* the magnet. zinc and siWer. or and water. without knowing in which resides the power. so little difference influence. galvanism. if rant of its nature. : . and two diJBferent fluids. there nected. metal. or loadstone. is brought within the sphere of attraction. that only practiced minand an experieralogists can discern on@ from the other enced e^^e may see two ores join each other by the principle of attraction. . when it will adhere only to that which con. until another ore. evidence that these causes are intimately conbut philosophers are as yet ignonot identical tains the principle. is there between the magnetic ore. and all that is necessary to disturb the galvanic fhiid is to unite two metals together. acquire the same directive and attractive power as the loadstone or natural magnet. Galvanic action is always accompanied by chemical action.

but soon after will fly rapidly from it. rub it 1. attracted by the electricity evolved by the friction and warmth in the former. — Lay a a tal)le. Warm a glass tube. quickly with a silk handkerchief. 2. fly back to t!ie glass. the feather will adhere to the glass. and you may drive it about the room by holding* the glass between it and the surrounding objects should it. rub it with a warm flannel. it will instantly . On the first moment of contact. always in front of the pipe. and then bring a downy feather near it. . — . and hold it for half a minute before the fire then apply it near to the end of the pipe. however. Next take a wine-glass. [128] . and the latter. watch down upon and on its face balance a tobacco-pipe very carefully.EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. will immediately follow it and by carrying the glass around. . come in contact with anything not under the influence of electricity. the latter will continue its rotatory motion the watch-glass being the center or pivot on which it acts.

very singular manner. 4. it will be attracted to the paper. perceptible shocks of elecShocks may also be tricity will be felt in the left hand. if instantly applied at the distance of about an inch. excited as in the former experiment. — for some minutes without while the paper adheres to the wall. it will remain there — . that when at rest they may hang in contact with each other on applying a piece of sealing wax. Suspend two small pith balls. Place your left hand upon the throat of a cat. and drawn under the before. wall. and place some bran underneath then rub the upper side of the glass with a black silk handkerchief. 7. so as to rub it on both sides at once by the coat.. Take a piece of common brown paper. they will repel each other. and excite the paper as before.-— -A stick of sealing-wax rubbed against a warm piece of flannel or cloth. such as small pieces of paper. press slightly the Dones of the animal's shoulders then. 3. lint. about the the ball will immediately run across the size of a pea paper. upon two books. — If the paper be again warmed. hold it before the fire till quite dry and hot. 5. previously warmed. and if after a minthey will cling together very strongly ute they be all shaken off. . by fine silken threads of about six inches in length. one at each end. then draw it briskly under the arm several times. or a piece of flannel. and with the middle finger and the thumb. . if the right hand be gently passed along the back. it will again run to another part. should these fall off* from different sides at the same time. a light fleecy feather be placed against it. obtained by touching the tips of the ears after rubbing the 8. they will fly to one another in a arm as .124 THE MAGICIAN^S OWN BOOK. table.—-Support a pane of glass. and hung up by a thread attached to one corner of it. &c. about the size of an octavo book. that if placed against a wainscoted or papered wall of a room. and if a needle be pointed towards it. acquires the property of attracting light substances. . —And falling. —Warm — . in such a manner. and the bran will dance up and down under it with much rapidity. and so on for a considerable time 9. The paper will be found so powerfully electrical. 10. lay it on a and place upon it a ball made of elder pith. in the same way as the paper is attracted to the 6. if. it will hold up several feathers on each side .

bring your fore finger into contact with one of the bones of the leg. it forms a very extemporaneous electrophorus. IN ELECTRICITY. perhaps. Placing the cat on your knees. and the same may be obtained from the foot.EXPERIMENTS back. where it joins the paw when. a sensible shock will be felt. . and a book laid on them. and hold it close to the fire until all its hj^grometric moisture is in this state it is one dissipated. and a star sign of the negative electricity will be return the paper. as the case may be or he may set fire to some inflammable bodies. and sparks may be drawn from any part of his body . and to exhibit all the If four electric phenomena not requiring coated surfaces. you may feel distinctly successive shocks. that. from the knob or end of this bone. ELECTRICAL SHOCK FROM A SHEET OF PAPER. or he may draw sparks from any other person. in order to this experiment being conveniently performed. . the paper will adhere strongly to it. and the experiment be made in a dark room. . . but not so as to scorch it Hold one end down on a of the finest electrics we have. It is. remove the paper. unnecessary to add. table with the finger and thumb. and it will fall down on it like a stone if one finger be now brought under the Now lay a needle on tray. and give it about a dozen strokes with a large piece of India rubber from the left to the right. . 125 If Ihe color of the cat be black. by touching then: with a piece of ice. seen In fact. . apply the right hand to the back the left fore paw resting on the palm of your left hand. the electric sparks may be very Very distinct charges of electricity may also plainly seen. a person may stand on them insulated if he then holds the tray vertically. beaker glass then take a sheet of foolscap writing paper. the finger slightly pressing on it. similar to those obtained from the ears. so as to extend the claws. . apply the thumb to the upper side of the paw. and the positive brush will appear. which will give a spark an inch long. and by this means. Now take it up by two of the corners and bring it over the tray. beaker glasses are placed on the floor. : . and strong enough 1o set fire to some combustible bodies. the tray with its point projecting outwards. beginning at the top. the experimenter must be on good terms with the cat. be obtained by touching the tips of the ears after applying friction to the back. Place an iron japanned tea tray on a dry. clean.

so that the electric fluid cannot pass from the conductor along conductors to the earth. it is said to be insulated. which proves that the electrical fluid does not pass through these substances. periments we have shown that if a clean glass tube be rubbed several times through a silken or leather cloth. . but have the power of transmitting the These bodies comprise all the electric fluid through them. water. these phenomena will not occur. Thus the human body but if a is a conductor of electricity person standing on a glass stool (as represented in the drawing) be charged with electricity. there is another which we call conductors. By this it will be perceived that besides the class of bodies called electrics. which shows that the electrical But if for a metallic fluid passes through the metal. by rubbing the pieces of quartz together. LIGHT UNDER WATER. pieceis of fine Eub two lump sugar together \^ill and a bright electric light SIMPLE MEANS OE PRODUCING ELECTRICITY. the electric fluid cannot pass from liini to the earth. and even a vacuum.126 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the white quartz being best The same effect may also be witnessed for this purpose. . by the friction. To show the nature cf electrical action. be produced. snow. and he i« said to be jiositivdy eUctrijied because he has . These bodies cannot be excited themselves. then the lower end of the poker will exhibit the same phenomena as the tube itself. some metal and metallic ores bodies. it will immediately attract or and if a poker suspended by a dry silk repel them string be presented to its upper end. . and it will be found that while warm. the fluids of animal metals. such as straws or small pieces of pa. rub a piece of sealing-wax or amber upon the coat sleeve. in the dark. and presented to any substance. earthy substances. may be produced with two pieces of silex or quartz.per. under water. it attracts light In our exbodies. but in a more intense degree. and other fluids. . ice. except oil. steam. The same effect. When any electrified conductor is wholly surroi:nded by non-conductors. body a stick of glass or sealing wax be substituted. smoke.

and if he be touched by another person standing on the ground. 127 lis natural share he is also insulated. and will adhere to it. if MAKE AX ELECTRICAL iTACHINE. and on the second repelled. and if. the method of preparing which we shall hereafter describe. ATTRACTION AXD REPIILSIO:?^ EXHIBITED. where also the person touching will feel a pricking sensation. After they remain in contact for a few seconds. after this has been done. he must become possessed of an ELECTRICAL MACHLVE. By being touched with the finger. . In order to illustrate certain remarkable facts in this science of an amusing character. covered with an amalgam. or plate of glass. whicli is an instrument contrived for the purpose of rubbing together the surfaces of electrics and non-electrics. the very same phenomena will take place. the maker cannot afford to buy one. It is very easy form. the ball can be deprived of its electricity. Having rubbed an electron. which is suspended from the hook by a dry silken thread. attention must be directed to the figure a b. the ball will be instantaneously attracted to the glass. and again presented to the ball. which is a metal stand c is a small piece of cork or pith. Before the young reader can perform any very important experiments with electricity. sparks will be exhibited at the point of contact.EXPERIMENTS more than IS ELECTRICITY. First procure TO to HOW a common ^ine bottle of good dimensions. make a glass machine of the cylindrica. On the first application the ball will be . and thickishg-lass . we present a piece of sealing-wax in place of the glass formerly employed. as a dry rod of glass. the latter will be repelled instead of attracted. attracted. and presented it to c. They generally consist of a cylinder. as in the first instance. if the glass be withdrawn without being touched by the fingers. and a piece of silk for it to rub against.

i ed at both ends the other end of the larger cylinder is also Cover the whole with tinfoil. ij^g bowl of a tobacco pipe. and six inches long. and three inches long. Next make a cushion of wash-leather. These should be stirred about till quite cold. its it. and then reduced to a fine powder in a mortar. and fastened to the top of a frame of the following figure.128 Drill a hole THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. it is necessary to draw it off for use. fix a small wooden cylinder about throe quarters of an inch in diameter. The end of b should be squared to through ed tied round round Gx a handle on. represented in the cut. an amalgam. to which. CONDUCTOR. in the folbottle. and mixed with a sufficient quantity of lard to form a thickish paste. by igniting a piece of worstdipped in turpentine. stuffed with wool. as this. — . The electricity being generated by the friction produced between the rubber and the bottle from the motion imparted This liy the handle. and mount i^ to be rounded. which will do Through this hole and the mouth pass a spindle. and the spindle should be fixed firmly in the The bottle is then to be fixed in a frame. At right angles to one end of in the following manner (cylinder of wood. the machine is complete. bottom. formed by melting together in CUSHION. while fluid. The end of the spindle c passes through lowing manner and the other end at c has the handle for turna hole at b : . When all is done. should be added six parts of mercury. about two inches and a half in diameter. This is made is performed by what is called a conductor. and hangs over tlie The cushion should be smeared with bottle D. one part of tin with two of zinc. This frame is to be of such a height that the cushion shall press against the sides of the bottle. and a piece of black silk is sewn on to the top of the cushion. ing the machine. round: .

The points or balls at each side of the plate carry off a constant stream of positive electricity to the prime conductor c. coated A most useful . which may bo applied to any substance It consists of a glass jar. By \hese simple means a great variety of pleasing experiments ma}^ be performed but to show the various phenomena connected with this interesting stud}^. piece of electrical apparatus is called the Leyden jar. When it is wished to charge a Leyden jar it is to be placed at the round end of the conductor. and about half an inch from the bottle. When used. as seen in the engraving. . owing to the glass on which he stands being a non-conductor. we shall now describe an electrical machine of the newest construction. which diffuses the excitement over the glass. It is employed for the pur pose of obtaining a quantity of electricity. but now it consists of a plate a. the electricity will pass from the conductor to him. and as it cannot get away. If touched on the nose. and it should be of such a height as to come just below the silk apron. Negative electricity is generated by insulating the conductor to which the cushion is attached. HOW TO GET A JAR FULL OP ELECTRICITY. HOW stool TO If the person DRAW SPARKS FROM THE TIP OF THE XOSE. The plate is turned by the handle F. 129 on a stand on a glasi rod. and perform our experiments with it. and connected with the conductor by means of a glass rod. who works the machine be supported on a having glass legs. sparks of fire will issue from it. THE PLATE ELECTRICAL MACHINE. and continuing the prime conductor with the ground. so as to carry off the fluid collected from the plate. which will exhibit itself in small sparks as it passes to the person who touches him.EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. Formerly the electrical machine was made in the form of a cylinder. here represented. it is to be placed with the even piece in a line even with. any person on touching him can draw the electricit}' from him. through the rubber b b.

all of electricity can be collected the interior coatings must be made to communicate by metallic rods. acting like a pair of compasses. and connected at another by a joint which is fixed to the end of a glass handle. and a similar union must be effected among the exterior coatings. terminating at one end by brass balls. way When it is wished to charge the jar. while the glass handle secures the person holding it from ihe effects of the shock. this knob is applied to the prime conductor of the electrical machine when in action. A piece of brass chain must hang from the stem that carries the knob. when a discharge is effected . enormous quantity but in arranging them. by some good conductor of electricity. aid the other ball is then brought into contact with the knob of the jar. one of the balls is made to touch the exterior proper coating. by which a discharge is effected. a wooden top. an instrument called a discharging rod is employed. an . botb inside and without. For the purpose of making a direct conmiunication between the inner or outer coatings of a jar or battery. and a quantity of electricity being given off. four fifths of the A knob rises through up. between the knob and the outside tinfoil. the jar will remain charged with it till a connection is made.130 THE magician's OWN BOOK. allows of the balls being ^^ ^^^^^^s*'**^^ ^^^ ^^ \ ^B^ igHHijI ^^il| ^^^_^HM| '"^^"^'^^ ^ ~ ' When opened to the separated at certain distances. and which. and connect it with the interior of the ja THE ELECTRICAL BATTERY. When thus arranged. communicatin^^ with the inside of the jar. the whole series may be charged as if they formed but one jar. If several of these jars be united. It consists of two bent metallic rods. with tinfoil. degree. .

and then whelming it over them. a spark will fly in his face. and immediately he attempts to imprint the seal of soft affection upon her coral lips. passing through bell B to the bell e. and supported by a glass pillar a. The same maybe made to dance by merely holding the inside of a dry glass tumbler to the prime conductor for a few minutes. the gentleman approaches the lady. the pith balls will jump up and down. to favor her with a salute. and coat them with tin foil. The lady thereupon mounts the glass stool.EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. and let it hang' about two or three inches from the knob. and bi'ing it under the other. and from one to the other with great rapidity. or two pieces of metal plate attach one of them to the prime conductor by a chain. Let three small bells be suspended from a brass wire D D. which generally deters him from his rash and wicked in tontion. be made to ring by electricity in the following manner. THE ELECTRICAL KISS. The machine being then put in motion. and takes hold of a chain connected with the prime conductor. when they will jump about to the no small astonishment of the spectators. If some of the pith be formed into little figures. RmamG Bells BELLS. 131 DAXCING BALLS AOT) DOLLS. Immediately this is done. as the cause of their motion is not quite so appureut. The electrical apparatus being attached to the knob r the electricity paesee down the wires d d may . Get two round pieces of wood. and the upper piece is charged by electricity from . the machine. Let any lady challenge a gentleman not acquainted with the experiment. they will also dance and leap about in the most grotesque mxanner. a b. while the machine is in action. This amusing experiment is performed by means of the electrical stool. Place some pith balls U})ou the bottom piece of wood b.

. the electricity passes over the pillar b. when they strike against the center bell to dis- charge themselves. which The bells are not conductors. may be made in the folreal lowing form. four fine wires.132 THE magician's OWN BOOK. b b b b. On these rest the rotatory wire or wheel f. or deterred from anything. c c. ^ iB © k to the bells. and off at the points. the hair will rise up as in figure 2. therefore attract the clappers till they are charged. The subjoined upon which many ingeniIn the pillars a be made by the 3'oung philosopher. stretched above." A wooden head." who are seldom astonish* ed by. not your own. which are then positively electrified. but a wooden head. and fixed in the conductor of an electrical machine. wooden board or stand. upon the fretful porcupine. and thus a peal is rung on the bells until the electricity is driven OF ELECTRICITT. quills hair will stand on end. and attract the clappers c c. in consequence of being insulated by the silken strings. off. WORHNG POWER This may be shown may is in a variety of machine ous toys figure A will exhibit the principle ways. While a person with is on the electrical Each Like stool. if he be charged much electricity. having its points 'fi^ turned By the reverse way. THE ELECTRHTED WIG. 7\a the top. means of a chain attached to the conductor. and a handsome face to correspond. to astonish even "Whigs. with a wig of streaming hair. up the wire c into the wheel. When this is put in motion. and to the instrument at B. with a wire in the neck to support it by. which causes it to be turned round on an inclined plane till it reaches Q P having . that are negatively so.

by pulling the loop of the silk of a charged jar. when a beautiful flash. F and G. and but slightly joined together. .EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. one with the inside. restoring electrical equilibrium. . strongly resembling lightning in miniature. and made to communicate by means of thin wires. a a is a wooden stand. covered with tin foil. are to be fixed hori. the mast will be struck and shattered to . on which are erected two uprights. d. be put behind the stand. may he swum in water under the reIf the jar d maining cloud the mast being made of separate pieces. . pieces. zontally. will pass from one cloud to the other. THE LIGHTNING-STROKE IMITATED. a vessel communicating by means of a wire with the outside of the jar. 133 IMITATION THUNDERCLOUDS. the cloud 1 will be brought near the cloud 2 continue this slowly until the clouds (which are furnished with two small brass balls) are within an inch of each other. When the cloud is passed over the vessel. e is another silken line stretched across from one upright to another on these silken cords two pieces of thin cardboard. over which a silken cord can pull easily. and the other with the outsjde Now. b b c c are two small pulleys. line E. and cut so as to represent clouds. To show the manner in which thunderclouds perform their operations in the air. and the cloud 2 removed.

:

134

THE magician's own book.
THE SPORTSMAN.

This apparatus is capable of affording much amusement A is a stand of wood, b is a common Leyden jar, out of which proceed the wires h h, one terminating in ball f, the other in the ball d, to which are attached a number of pith e is a shelf for the birds to rest birds, by silken strings upon c is the sportsman g his gun. To put this operation in motion, the Leyden jar is to be charged with electricity, by affixing a chain to the bottom part of it, and connecting it with an electrical machine in the usual manner, or by applying it to a prime conductor, when the birds will fly off the knob to which they are fixed, If the sportsman in consequence of their being repelled. and gun be then turned, so that the end of his gun shall touch the knob f, an electric spark will pass from one to
;
;

;

other, a report will be heard, and the birds will fall as if shot, in consequence of the electricit}^ having been taken from the Leyden jar. There should be a com".he

down

munication between the sportsman and the
tinfoil,

jar,

or

some metal, as shown by the dotted

line

formed of on the

stand.

Such are a few of many experiments which may be mado by the young experimenter, who is fond of science and baa any ingenuity; but should he possess little love of research, no ingenuity, and would like to amuse himself with an electrifying machine of little cost, he may sit himself down
to a

BLACK TOM CAT, and be a Katterfelto at once.

EXPERIMENTS IN GALVANISxM.
1. Place a thin plate of zinc upon the upper surface of the tongue, and a half dollar or a piece of silver on the under Burface. Allow the metals to remain for a little time in contact with the tongue before they are made to touch each other, that the taste of the metals themselves may not be confounded with the sensation produced by their contact. When the edges of the metals, which project beyond the tongue, are then suffered to touch, a galvanic sensation is produced, which it is difficult accurately to describe. 2. Place a silver teaspoon as high as possible between the gums and the upper lip, and a piece of zinc between the gums and the under lip. On bringing the extremities of the metals into contact, a very vivid sensation, and an effect like a flash of light across the eyes, will be perceived. It is singular that this light is equally vivid in the dark and in the strongest light, and whether the eyes be shut or open. 3. Put a silver cup or mug, filled with water, upon a plate of zinc on a table, and just touch the water with the tip of the tongue it will be tasteless so long as the zinc plate is not handled, for the body does not form a voltaic circle with
;

[1351

136

THE magician's OWN BOOK.

the metals. Moisten your hand well, take hold of the plate of zinc, and touch the water with your tongue, when a very peculiar sensation, and an acid taste, will be experienced 4. Take a piece of copper of about six inches in width, and put upon it a piece of zinc of rather smaller dimensions, inserting- a piece of cloth, of the same size as the zinc, between them; place a leech upon the piece of zinc, and though there a|)pear nothing to hinder it from crawling away, yet it will not pass from th^^ zinc to the copper, because its damp body acting as a conductor to the fluid disturbed, as soon as it touches the copper it receives a galvanic shock, and of course retires to its resting-place. 5. Plunge an iron knife into a solution of sulphate of copper (blue-stone); by chemical action, only, it will become covered with metallic copper. Immerse in the same solution a piece of platinum, taking care not to let it touch the iron, and no deposition of copper will take place upon it but if the upper ends of the metals be brought into contact with each other, a copious deposition of copper will soon settle upon the platinum likewise.
;

WITH

ITETAL PLATES IN WATEE,

If we take two plates of different kinds of metal, platinum or copper, and zinc, for example, and immerse them in pure water, having wires attached to them ^->. ^...^^ above, then if the wire of each is brought iiito contact in another vessel of water, / pIB^-^d \ ^ galvanic circle will be formed, the jittSf jIS 1 I w^ter will be slowly decomposed, its HrfSlI V I 'i oxygen will be fixed on the zinc wire, / ill i'^Sl ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ same time a current of elecJ='!^^^^teL I^^M^^^^^B^^Ii tricity will be transmitted through the '^^^^^^^^^^^^y^' liquid to the platinum or copper wire, on =Tf^^^^:r?= i\^Q gnd Qf which the other element of water, namely, the hydrogen, will make its appearance in the form of minute gas bubbles. The electrical current passes back again into the zinc at the points of its contact with the platinum, and thus a continued current is kept up, and hence it is called a galvanic circle. The moment the circuit is broken by separating the wires, the current ceases, but is again renewed by making them touch either in or out of the water. If a small quantity of sulphuric acid be added tr

/^^^^JP\

\

1

EXPERIMENTS

IN

GALVANISM.

137

the water, the phenomenon will be more apparent. The end of the wire attached to the piece of platinum or copper is called the positive pole of the battery, and that of the wire attached to the zinc is the negative pole.

of electricity here generated will be extremely can be easily increased by multiplying the glasses and the number of the pieces of metal. If we take six such glasses instead of one, partially fill them with dilute sulphuric acid, and put a piece of zinc and copper into each, connecting them by means of copper wire from glass to glass through the whole series, a stronger current of electricity will be the result. The experimenter must be careful not to let the wire and zinc touch each other at the bottom of the tumblers, and must also remember that the copper of glass 1 is connected with the zinc of glass 2, and so on.
feeble, but this

The current

MAKE A MAGNET BY GALVANISM. a connection between the poles of the above or any excited battery with the two ends of a wire formed into a spiral coil, by bending common bonnet wire closely round a cj'linder, or tube, of about an inch in diameter into this coil introduce a needle, or piece of steel wire, laying it lengthways down the circles of the coil. In a few minutes after the electric fluid has passed through the spiral wire, and consequently round the needle or wire, the latter will be found to be strongly magnetized, and to possess all the properties of a magnet.
TO

To

effect this,

make

;

EFFECTS OF GALVANISM ON A MAGNET.
If a galvanic current, or any electric current, be made to pass along a wire, under which and in a line with it a compass is placed, it will be found that the needle vrill no longer

point north and south, but will take a direction nearly across the current, and point almost east and west.

CHANGE OF COLOR BY GALVANISM. Put a teaspoonful of sulphate of soda into a cup, and dissolve it in hot water pour a little cabbage blue into tho
;

138

THE magician's own book.

solution, and put a portion into two glasses, connecting them by a piece of linen or cotton cloth previously moistened On putting one of the wires of the in the same solution.

galvanic pole into each glass, the acid accumulates in the one, turning the blue to a red, and the alkali in the other, If the wires be now reversed, the acid rejidering it green. accumulates eventually in the glass where the alkali appeared, while the alkali passes to the glass where the acid was.

THE GALVANIC SHOCK. ends of the wires of a galvanic battery be placed in separate basins of water, then, on dipping the fingers of each hand in the basin, a smart shock will be felt, with a With a particular aching accompanied with trembling. strong battery this effect is felt as high as the shoulders. The shock will also be felt by simply holding the galvanic wires, one in each hand, provided the hands be moistened with salt and water. Several persons may receive the shock
If the

together by joining hands.
FAMILIAR GALVAmC EFFECTS.

Coat the point of your tongue with

tin-foil,

and

its

middle

part with gold or silver leaf, so that the two metal's touch, when a sourish taste will be produced. This simple effect is

termed "A Galvanic Tongue." Ale and porter drink better out of a pewter or tin pot, than from glass or earthenware because of the galvanic influence of the green copper as used to give the beer a
;

frothy head.

Galvanic experiments
frog.

may be made

with the legs of a

answer nearly the same purpose. Lay the fish in a plate, upon a slip of zinc, to which is attached a piece of wire, and put a quarter dollar upon the flounder's back then touch the quarter dollar with the wire, and at each contact strong muscular contractions will be
live flounder will
;

A

produced.

EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM.
1. We have said that the agency of the mag-net can be imparted to hard metallic bodies this may be done in a very easy way. If you pass a magnet (which may be either natural or artificial) over a sewing- needle several times from the eye to the point, the needle will acquire the prin
;

ciple.

and attract iron
do.

filings in the

same manner

as a natu-

But the part of the magnet which you apply to the needle must be the north pole and you Diust not pass it over the needle backward and forward, but Kft it always from the point and again begin from the eye. r^uppose you wish to impart the principle to a small bar of tempered steel, tie the piece to be magnetized to a poker with a piece of silk, and hold the part of the poker to which it is attached in the left hand take hold of the tongs, a little below the middle, with the right hand, and rub the Bteel bar with them, moving the tongs from the bottom to the top, and keeping them steadily in a vertical pc^sition ill the time. About a dozen strokes on each side will •'laral
;
;

magnet would

140

THE MAGICIAN

S

OWN

BOOK.

part sufficient magnetic power to the bar to enable the operator to lift up small pieces of iron and steel with it The lower end of the bar should be marked before it is fastened to the poker, so that the poles may be readily distin guished from each other when it is taken off the upper end being the south pole, and the lower the Qorth. 2. Scatter some iron filings upon a piece of paper, and hold a magThe instant net underneath it. the contact takes place, the filings
;

themselves upright, and as soon as the magnet is withdrawn. The effect is singular, and indeed very amusing the diminutive iron particles rising and falling, as if b^^ supernatural agency.
will raise
fall

down

;

TEST OF lIAGXE'nC POWER.

ascertain whether a piece of metal, or mineral, is magone of the poles of a poised magnet. If it be attracted at both poles, you may then conclude that the substance so tested is not magnetic. Dip a magnet into boiling water, and it will lose half of its magnetism but as the magnet cools, its full power will
netic, present it to
;

To

return.
TO

MAKE ARTIFICIAL MAGNETS.

This may be done by stroking a piece of hard steel with a natural or artificial magnet. Take a common sewing-needle, and pass the north pole of a magnet from the eye to the point, pressing it gently in so doing. After reaching the end of the needle, the magnet must not bo passed back aj-^-ain towards the eye, but must be lifted up and applied again to
that end, the friction being always in the same direction. After repeating this for a few times, the needle will become magnetized, and attract iron filings, &c.

HOW

TO

MAGNETGE A POKER

Hold it in the left hand in a position slightly inclined from the perpendicular, the lower end pointing to the north, and then strike it smartly several times with a large iron ham mer, and it will be found to possess the powers of a magnet, although but slightly.

. Suspend two short pieces of iron wire. which is a deviation from horizontal place in a downward direction in northern regions of its north. aon account of this dipping. still exhibiting their mutual repulsion. The ends s s being made south poles by induction from the north pole n. and in southern regions of its south pole. The causes of the dipping of the needle are yet unexplained. This separation of the wires will increase as the magnet approaches them. and at different times of the day. n s. . n s. VARIATION OF THE NEEDLE. but the north pole of the needle takes a direction considerably to the west of the true north. Another remarkable and evident manifestation of the influence of the magnetism of the earth upon the needle is the inclination or dip of the latter. The magnetic needle does not point exactly north and south. DIP OP THE NEEDLE. so that they will hang in contact in a vertical If the north pole of a magnet N be now brought to a moderate distance between the wires. within a little distance of the magnet. by the shifting of which either nearer to or further from the center. and varies at different parts of the earth. It is constantly changing. keeping hold of the thread to prevent the needle from attaching itsf If to the mag. they will recede from each other as in figure 1. Place a magnet on a stand to raise it a little above the tabic then bring a small sewing-needle containing a thread. but there will be a particular distance at which the attractive force of n overcomes the repulsive force of the poles s s. will repel each other. 141 TO SHOW MAGNUnC REPULSION AND ATTRACTION. the needle will always be balanced. its TO SUSPEND A NEEDLE IN THE AER BY IIAGNETISM. and causes the wires to converge as in figure 2 the north poles n n position. a small weight or moveable piece of brass is placed on one end of the needle. and so will the north poles N N. In balancing the needle on the crd.EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM.

the bar becomes a powerful ^ magnet. . The box is suspended in a square wooden case.142 net. by meane of two concentric brass circles called gimbals. like pended Mahommed's coffin. and then if a current of voltaic electricity be sent through the wire. however. from this and preceding experiments. This experiment may be easily made by the young reader with a horse-shoe magnet. The needle in endeavoring to fly to flae magnet. p is the positive and n the negative The same influence which ^ pole. or altogether destroyed. MAGNETISil BY HAiDIERING. aff'ects the magnetic needle already described. bent as in the drawing. that if you strike a magnet its magnetizing force will be either very much impaired. . and will continue so as long as the connection with the battery is preserved. THE magician's own book. surrounded by several coils of wire. or to develop that which already resides in it. the needle. and being prevented by the thread. the card or fly and 3. The mariner's compass is an artificial magnet fitted in a proper box. or a copper wire prevented from touching the iron by a winding of cotton or thread. . when it will hence it happens. Percussion and friction in the required position would seem. It is. THE MARINER'S COMPASS. originally derived from the earth. the box 2. and consists of three parts 1. On breaking the contact. so fixed by brazen axes to the two — . These operations. and give it a scries of slight blows with a hammer or poker. Place a bar of iron in a vertical position. a remarkable circumstance. will remain curiously susin the air. to be the chief means of magnetizing iron and steel. POWER OF THE ELECTRO MAGNET. as it were. acquire a feeble degree of magnetism thst the anvils and other tools employed in smithies are endowed with magnetism. the magnetism disappears. If a bar of that metal. waken up the inert particles of the metal to admit nrw magnetism. will also communicate magnetism to "soft iron. be surrounded with a common bonnet wire.

and one twentieth thick mark one end.EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM. The card is a circular piece of paper which is fastened upon the needle. and let this end be downwards. Then grasping the tongs T with the right hand a little below the middle. having a hollow agate cup in the center. which moves upon the point of a pivot made of brass. one fourth of an inch broad. a bar of soft steel about three inches long. retains a horizoD- motions of the ship. from the marked end of the bar to its u])per end. or compass-box. will turn to the north. Take an iron poker and tongs. and keeping them nearly in a vertical line. The needle is a slender bar of hardened steel. By this means the bar b will receive as much magnetism as will enable it to lift a small key at the and this end. the bar marked end . that the inner one. and moves with it. called points of the compass. of iron. tal position in all TO MAKE AUTIFICIAL MAGxVETS WITHOUT THE AID EITHER OF NATURAL LOADSTONES OR ARTIEICIAL MAGNETS. The outer edge of the card is divided into thirty-two points. about ten times on each side of it. 143 boxes. the unmarked end being . . hold to it with the left hand near the top p by a silk thread. as shown in the engraving. and is called its north pole. and fixing the poker upright. or two bars being suspended by its middle or made to rest on a joint. let the bar b be rubbed with the lower end l of the tongs. the larger and the older the better.

NORTH AND SOUTH POLES OF THE MAGNET. while the ends in contact will by induction become south poles. be attracted. Borrow a watch from the company. and allowed to swim freely on its surface. not in contact with the magnet. as north to south. Both will have a tendency to repel each other. be dipped in some iron filings. as in the figure. CaX' ton. If you fix two magnets in two pieces of cork. north and south. and cause it to stop. they will mutually repel each other trary poles point to one another. this is to take a magnet or a piece of steel rendered magnetic. they %vill be immediately Supposing this to be attracted to one end. each of the ends of the filings.144 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. THE WATCH MAGNETIZED. which he regarded superior to those in former use. the north or south poles of one magnet. in his process. that is. north to north. Then place it just over the point at which a magnet is fixed underneath the top of the table. and to place it on a piece If the of cork by laying it in a groove cut to receive it. and south to but if the consouth. This is the method recommended by Mr. and inquire if it will go when laid on the table. and the filings will stand on the magnet . it will be found to turn its north pole to the north. and they are in a parallel position with the same poles together. and of which a more detailed account will be found in his interesting volume. . the same as the mariner's compass. magnet. as in the following figure. the north pole. Each magnet has its poles. repel If a the north and south pole of another. POLARITY OF THE MAGNET. and place them also in a basin of water. cork be placed in the center of a basin of water. and its south pole to the south. will become north poles. the south pole. and the magnet will attract the balance-wheel of the watch. thev will The best method of proving . so that it is not attracted by the sides of the basin.

. over that part of the table where the magnet Then ask any one to lend a knife. Under the top of a common table. at the same time placing the table. as pendulums. in a careless manner. There may also be a drawer under the table. If either be balanced in a scale. and the other be brought within a certain distance beneath it. or a key. when which have rested in one position in a room daring the summer months are often highly magnetic. are often magnetic. whichever be in the scale. which you pull out. and fix a board under it that nothing may appear. Iron bars standing erect. by means of the pin. . on the pin at the end of the you alter the position of the magnet and giving the key 10 any persoi. but the little one would perform more of the journey in proportion to its A magnet littleness. to show that there is nothing concealed. THE MAGNETIC TABLE. or the iron railings before houses. that person will immediately perform the experiment. the very same counterpoise will be required to prevent their approach. then attract part of the nails or filings. magnet. according to the peculiar motion given to the magnet. or very small nails. You then give the key to another person.EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM. If the two were hanging near each other. Place a common sewing-needle on a smooth horizontal board. when the needle will revolve along the board. which he will then not be able to perform. TO PASS MAGNETISM THROUGfl A BOARD. in the first position. At one end of the table there must be a pin that communicates with a magnet. place a magnet that turns on a pivot. hand. 145 MAGNETIC ACTION AND REACTION. you desire him to make the experiment. whatever disproportion there is between their sizes. Then placing your . INTERESTING^ PARTICULARS CONCERNDfG THE MAGNET. and by which it may be placed in different positions this pin must be so placed as not to be visible to the spectators. they would approach and meet. and move a strong magnet underneath the board. and a piece of iron attract each other equally. which will is. The uppermost of the iron tires round a carriage wheel Fire-irons 10 . such as the gratings of a prison cell. Strew some steel filings.

we have selected for the simple yet clear expoBitions which they offer of the fundamental principles of those branches of philosophy more elaborate experiments we have refrained from inserting. came pricking o'er the plain. who volunpassage to the effect following teered to adventure forward from the body of cavalry that were bent on this exploit. to reconnoitre the position of this gigantic enchanter's castle. Other accounts of its virtues. alas he had scarcely approached within view of the chivalric troop. Pursuant to the instructions he had received. and. the dwarfs who were theii iriends. the damsels they relieved. in which the powers of the magnet are greatly exaggerated. the costly and cumbrous apparatus which they require. forthwith. lUtracts the north end of a CONCLUSION. doubtless.e south while the lower end attracting the south end of the same. and. In a German collection of fairy tales. without some consideration. 1 of loadstone. The preceding experiments amusement we Our readers cater. for whose instruction and . by its attractive powers on his steel armor.146 THE magician's OWN BOOK. He now heard the giant in pursuit. has north polarity. when he beheld the enormous bulk of the giant himself leaning against the outward wall. Galvanism. and has hen. we remember s " The knight. as although. turned his gallant steed's head towards his companions in arms. EXAGGERATED MAGNETISM. in which the ancient chivalry of the court of the famous Charlemagne. at a swift pace. recollect several stories. the knight. more astonishing and impressive in their effects. yet really appear. had scarcely approached within sight of it. will. when the mighty hand of the giant magician was stretched forth. in Electricity." are the principal characters. which was made >n distress ful squires who attended on whom : . and the giants and magicians who "worked theii earthly woe. and struck his spurs into his good steed's flank but. though true in fact. and Magnetism. perhaps." . pohu'it}'. armed only with one of his horse's shoes. to be fictitious. his grieved associates had the mortification of seeing the knight unhorsed. raise them far above the means of most boys. the faithhis heroic knights. magnet.

[147] . The leather is made quite wet and pliable. compressibility. color. By it learn many curious particulars. the common leather sucker by which boys raise stones will show It consists of a piece of the pressure of the atmosphere. and some other properties with which we shall endeavor to make the young reader acquainted by many pleasing experiments. soft but firm leather. " There is a tricksey spirit in the air That plays sad gambols. and then its under partis placed on the stone and stamped down by the foot. and by pulling the string a vacuum is left underneath its center consequently the weight of the air about the edges of the leather.— THE MAGIC OF PNEUMATICS AND AEROSTATICS. not we . By it we find that the air has weight and pressure. having a piece of string drawn through its center. density. earnestly impressing upon him to lose no opportunity of making ph^'sical science his study. This pressing of the leather excludes the aii from between the leather and the stone. elasticity." Ben Jonso* air The branch of the physical sciences which ^-elates to the and its various phenomena is called Pneumatics. To show that the air has weight and pressure.

it being counterbalanced by any air between enables the boy to lift it.148 THE MAGTCIAi\*S OWN BOOK. the operator holds the flame of a lamp under a bell-shaped glass. is necessary for separating the boards. Shut the nozzle and valve-hole of a pair of bellows. In this state the glass is placed upon the . the water from the pressure without rises up to supply the place of the air removed by the combustion. and the stcne. even some hundreds of pounds. WEIGHT OF THE AIR PROVED BY A PAIR OF BELLOWS. They are kept together by the weight of the heavy air which surrounds them in the same manner as if they were surrounded by water. In the operation of cupping. a considerable portion is given off. . ANOTHER. the pressure of the atmosphere on the outside of the card being sufficient to support the water. the w^ater will not escape. THE PRESSURE OF THE AIR SHOWN BY A WINE-GLASS. if they are perfectly air-tight. Place a card on a wine-glass filled with water. The air within this being rarefied and expanded. and after having squeezed the air out of them. then invert the glass. and place a lighted taper under it as the taper consumes the air in the jar. Invert a tall glass jar in a dish of water. we shall find that a very great force.

rising and falling. owing to our " cheap way of doing things. forcing as much more water into them as to render them heavier than water. and having each a minute opening at the heel. . Then mould three or four little figures in wax. The time was. according to the pressure made. or by persoDS of enlarged means. as it will be a source of and. air . and influences it through its whole extent. and the glass adheres to the flesh by the difference of the pressure of the internal and external air. and make them hollow within." a small air-pump may be obtained for about five or six dollars. . as seen in the figure. mouth of the jar should now be covered with a piece of skin or India-rubber. and that not very long ago. the figures will be seen to rise or descend as the pressure is gentle or heavy. we give him the following experiments. if the hand be pressed upon the top or mouth of the jar. and then. The reason of fore heavy enough to sink. such as is easily be constructed. and therethis is. Place them in the jar. c(»mpressing also the air in the figures. it contracts. and as the air within it cools. ELASTICITY OP THE AIR. 140 flesh. may REASON FOR THIS. and we would strongly advise our young friend to procure one.PWElIviATlCS AND AEROSTATICS. when the pump was only obtainable by the philosophical professor. and adjust them by the quantity of water admitted to them. here represented. This can be shown by a beautiful philosophical toy which Procure a glass jar. so that The in specific gravity they differ a little from each other. that the pressure on the top of the jar condenses the air between the cover and the water surface this condensation then presses on the water below. THE Am-PUiTP. supendless amusement to him posing that he takes our advice. or standing still. But now. by which water may pass in and out.

fresh egg and cut off a little of the shell and film from its smaller end. gunpowder will not explode. exhaust the air. Screw the flask on the plate of the air-pump. a stop-cock is turned. Put a corked bottle into the receiver. magnets are powerless. and the cork will fly out. Then let in the air. and again weigh the whole. florence flask. consists of a bell glass. and a stand. Place a bladder. take it off the plate and weigh it. and waters and other fluids turn to vapor. exhaust the air.150 THE magician's OWN BOOK. TO PROVE THAT AIR HAS WEIGHT. exhaust the air. and then the experiments may be performed. light and heavy bodies fall with the same swiftness. The air-pump A. called the receiver. When the air is taken out. The hole in this plate is connected with two pistons. Under the receiver of an air-pump. then put the egg under a receiver and Take a . Animals quickly die for want of air. and it will be found to have increased by several grains. out of which all the air has apparently been squeezed. AIR m THE EGG. a bell sounds faint. when the air has been thoroughly exhausted. upon it lay a weight. and thus pump the air out of the receiver. the rods of which are moved by a wheel handle backwards and forwards. and it will be seen that the small quantity of air left within the bladder will so expand itself as to lift the weight. Take a TO PROYE AIR ELASTIC. fitted up with a screw and fine oiled Bilk valve. under the receiver. combustion ceases. upon which is a perforated plate b.

and cover it with a receiver. and the smoke from the wick. upon which all the contents of the egg will be forced out by the expansion of the small bubble of air contained in the great end between the shell and the film. they will fill both together. and having done so. communicating with the top at the outside through a hole.PNEUMATICS AND yEROSTATICS. In the open air the half-eagle will fall long before the feather. DESCENDING SMOKE THE DESCENDING SMOKE. Exhaust the air from the receiver. detach the objects. will go out. AIR IN THE EGG. remains. HALF EAGLE AXD FEATHER. having a contrivance so as to r^'ng it at pleasure. THE SOUNDLESS BELL. so that they may be opened by the fingers. because the would have supported it has been withdrawn. 151 pump out the air. will descend in dense clouds towards the bottom of the glass. theD . air which Place a nicely-adjusted pair of forceps at the top of the receiver. Set a bell on the pump-plate. instead of rising. Set a lighted candle on a plate. and cover it with a tall The candle will continue to burn while the air receiver. but in vacuo. Then place on each of the little plates a half-eagle and a feather. as in the receiver now exhausted of its air. but when exhausted. and reach the bottom of the glass at same instant. so that they may fall.

. the sound can be scarcely heard. when the clapper strikes against the sides of the bell. the clapper sound against the bell. In the center of one of them make a hole. upon the surface CIECLES. and U will be found impossible. and — sometimes but when the edges of the it will be thrown off cards are. THE ELOATING HSH. and lay its center over the end of the quill. the fish will be unable to keep at the bottom of the glass. and it make will be SOUNDLESS BELL. of the water. about two inches in diameter. If a glass vessel. into which put the tube of a common quill. heard to sound very well now exhaust the receiver of air. containing water. contained in the air bladder. however. They will consequently rise fish are and float.152 THE magician's own book. one end being even with the surface of the card. in which a couple of put be placed under the receiver. THE MYSTERIOUS Cut from a card two discs or circular pieces. owing to the expansion of the air within their bodies. the center of the upper card being from one eighth to one fourth attempt to blow off of an inch above the end of the quill iiie upper card by blowing through the quill. with the concave side of the card downwards. If. belly upwards. the upper card will move. and then. the edges of the two cards be made to fit each other very accurately. upon exhausting the air. . FLOATING FISH. sufficiently far apart to permit the . on two sides. Make the other piece a little convex.

Robert Hare. whether the current of air be made from the mouth or from a pair of bellows. bring the two cards towards each other . from the humidity of the breath. directly in proportion to the force of the current of air. some years since. the loose card may be instantly thrown off with the least puff of air. meantime. by the Royal Society.If the card through which the quill passes has several holes made in it. if the discs were to be separated (their surfaces remaining parallel) with a velocity as great as that of the air blast. a column of air must. that. late of the University of Pennsylvania. Such explanation has been given by Dr. and is as follows Supposing the diameters of the discs of card to be to that : of the hole as 8 to 1. the loose card will suddenly rise. the loose card will retain its position. 64 times greater than that which would escape from the tube during the interim consequently. The ex- periment will succeed equall}' well. those depressed sides maj^ be seen distinctly to rise and approach the upper card. For the explanation of the above phenomenon. then. When the quill fits the card rather loosely. be interposed. a gold . the upper surface of the perforated card has a little expanded. . and adhere to the perforated card. if all the air necessary to preserve the balance be supplied from the tube. unfavorable to their separation. if the current of air be strong. and. as the column required between them is greater than that yielded by the tube and yet the air cannot be supplied from any other source. at the same time. 153 when air to escape.PNEUMATICS AND ^ROSTATICS. unless a deficit of pressure be created between the discs. It follows. Lay the loose card upon the hand with the concave side up blow forcibly through the tube. even the current of air sent against it be strong*. . a comparatively light puff will throw both cards three or four feet in height. Another fact to be shown with this simple apparatus appears equally inexplicable with the former. when within three eighths of an inch. When. the discs must be separated with a velocity as much less than that of the blast. . Hence. and the two opposite sides are somewhat depressed. the discs cannot be made to move asunder with a velocity t^-reater than one sijtv-fourtli of that of the blast. medal and one hundred guineas were offered. under the circumstances in question. Of course . the area of the former to the latter must be as 64 to 1.

THE DIYING BELL. The air within the tumbler does not entirely exclude the water. and must be driven . so as to hold three or four persons. Its principle may be well illustrated by the following experiment. and there i» . by means of which persons can descend to great depths in the sea. Icarus is said to have called aeronautics. but instead of being of glass. THE AIR BALLOON. and he fell into the ^gein sea. it is a wooden or metal vessel. the ring of air in the interstice must experience nearly all the force of the jet. in various currents radiair ing from the common center of the tube and discs. and plunge it into the water with the diving-bell is The mouth downwards. because air is elastic. Take a glass tumbler. and it will be found that the water will not rise much more than half way in tlie tumbler. formed upon the above principle. The art of sailing or navigating a body through the air is In remote ages.154 all THE MA«^IClA\y OWN BOOK. and was drowned . and recover from it valuable portions of wrecks and other matters. and consequently compressible. which exists round the orifice between the discs and since the moveable discs can only move with one sixty-fourth the velocity of the blast. who are supplied with air from above by means of a tube. and hence the air in the tumbler is what The diving-bell is is called condensed. This may be made very evident if a piece of cork be suffered to float inside of the glass on the surface of the water. having a corresponding tube to let off the breathed air. which pump the air in and draw it out of the bell. the circulation of which is kept up by pumps. a pneumatic engine. risen so high in the air that the sun melted his wings. of very large dimensions. the force of the current of air through the tube will bo expended on the moveable disc. outwards. and the thin ring of air. the blast following it.

is a bag of silk of large dimensions. And in preparing the gores proceed is that of a peg-top. an air-balloon. from some figures that have recently been discovered on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments. of course. Over the whole of the upper part should be a net-work. the breadths of each piece must be measured accordingly. It is. in fact. The air-balloon. and it will be found useful if the gores are covered with an interior coating of varnish before they are finally sewn together. To the upper part of the balloon there should be a valve opening inv/ards. It ascends in the atmosphere because its whole bulk is much lighter than the air would be in the space it occupies. as now constructed. of a pear shape. or the balloun will be drawn out of shape. a vessel filled with a fluid which will float on another fluid lighter than itself.u. Fourteen of these pieces will be found to be the best number and. part of the balloon. so that the aeronaut may open the valve when he wishes to descend and this should be imitated on a small scale. with various cords. and cut it into a form resembling a narrow pear with a very thin stalk. that the ancients possessed means of rising in the air with which we are not now acquainted. The threads must be placed very regularly. and is. When sewing them together. passing through a hole made in a small piece of wood fixed in the lower for . .-.PNEUMATICS AND iEROSTATICS. or rather a gas-balloon. so that the young aeronaut may be perfectly familiar with the construction of a balloon. 155 reason to believe. usually cut in gores. as follows Get some close texture silk. and hold the silk firmer in its place during the stitchiu. when expanded by gas. as this will save much trouble afterwards. it will be of advantage to coat the parts that overlap with a layer of varnish. which should come down to the middle. to which a string should be fastened. proceeding circumference of a circle about two feet . The gores are to be covered with a varnish of India rubber dissolved in a mixture of turpentine and naphtha. Take care not to have the varnish too thick. HOW The best shape : TO MAKE AN AIR-BALLOON.

against which part of the balloon the inflammable air exerts the greatest force. which is now . while you dip the cotton in spirits of wine till it is thoroughly saturated. or of thin gutta-percha cloth. Then take a tube. They may be made smaller of thin slips of bladder. either of glass or metal. paste the gores nicely together. Pass a wire round the neck of the balloon. It is suspended by ropes proceeding from the net which goes over the balloon. TO MAKE FIRE-BALLOONS. . from tissue paper. and add to this by degrees one pint of sulphuric acid. of oiled silk. When all is prepared let some one hold the balloon from its top by means of a stick. with two quarts of water. according well woven . into this put a pound of iron filings. over which paste a piece of paper. or other membrane glued together. The circle may be made of wood. and tie the neck it. The car is made of wicker work it is usually covered with leather. If freed it will now rise in the air. place it under the balloon and set fire to it. then put the other end into the neck of the balloon. of the balloon with strong cord very tightly. extensively used for this purpose with this they made a foot in diameter. may be HOW TO FILL A BALLOON.156 THE magician's own book. or granulated zinc. The meshes should be small at the top. Balloons of this kind cannot be made smaller than six feet in diameter. which place in the bottle. and introduce one end of it through a cork. and increase in size as they recede from the top. and have two cross pieces at its diameter a little bent. Procure a large stone bottle which will hold a gallon of water. and the gas will rise into the body of When quite full withdraw the tube. so that a piece of soft cotton dipped in spirits of wine may be laid on them. and look well over the surface of the paper ii||j for any small hole or slit. and let it dry. as the weight of the material is too great for the air to buoy it up. and will rise beautifully. but b« Cut the gores. to the form already given. below the balloon. and is well varnished or painted. or of several pieces of slender cane bound together.

Put a .EROSTATICb. and when it pulls very hard. 3 157 ou do not set fire 10 the balthe air is sufficiently heated within. the size of a walnut. CAOUTCHOUC BALLOONS. at which a cork may be placed as a balance. with a funnel. These globes may be made so thin as to be transparent. They ascend by the air getting under them. which may be made to converge to a point. A piece of caoutchouc. and was found one hurdred and thirty miles from that city little . PAEACHUTES. and it will become inflated to a considerable size. escaoed from Philadelphia. the balloon will indicate a desire to rise. not leak The moment the cork is drawn. and give it to some person to uncork. so that the neck only is above the surface. close it tightly. and placing threads round the edges. the water will begin to run out of the bottom of the bottle. has thus been extended to a ball fifteen inches in diameter and a few years since a caoutchouc balloon. and it will ascend to a great height in the air. . let it go. Take it out. very careful loon. Pierce a few holes with a glazier's diamond in a common black bottle place it in a vase or jug of water. to the party's astonishment. fill the bottle and cork it well. soak it in hot water.PNEUMATICS AND . and are frequently blown to a great distance. thus made. and at night present a very beauti- When ful appearance. Then. and while it is in the jug or vase. ether into a bottle of caoutchouc. it will wipe it dry. notwithstanding the holes in the bottom. THE MYSTERIOUS BOHLE. These are easily made by cutting a piece of paper in a circular form. .

' so the sages say.THE MAGrc OP OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. io prove this false. And — Optics is the science of light and vision. •' ' Sct'ing is believing. One is termed the Newtonian theory. very soon you all will be agreeing. hear lue. or any other luminous [168] . Martin. my friends. Concerning the uature of light. two theories are at present very ably maintained by their respective advocates. and the other the Huygenean. The Newtonian theory considers light to consist of inconceivably small bodies emanating from the sun. I pray. That nought is so deceptive as our seeing.

placed in a basin. but are said to be refracted. Bodies which suffer the rays of light to pass through them. Thus. such as water or glass. are called refracting media. THE INVISIBLE If a coin be COrN" MADE VISIBLE. REFRACTION. in the But if . there is no refraction. and its intensity or degree decreases as the square of the distance from tht luminous body increases. The ray of light proceeding from B through tb^ glass l g is bent from the point c. at the distance of two yards from a candle we shall have four times less light than wc should have. instead of passing direction of the dotted line. and it proceeds in a direct line to k hence refraction only takes place wheji rays fall obliquely or aslant on the media. like those arising in a placid lake when a stone is dropped irto the water. and so on in the same proportion. When rays of light enter these. so that on standing at a certain distance it be just hid from the eye of an observe^ . Light follows the same laws as gravity.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. were we only one yard from it. or bent out of their course. the ray f c falls perpendicularly on the glass. The HuygeDean conceives it to consist in the undulations of a highly elastic and subtle fluid. they do not proceed in straight lines. as seen in the drawing. 159 body. LIGHT AS AN EFFECT. propagated round luminous centers in spherical waves.

red. so called from its resembling the crescent moon. The best way to perform this experiment is tu cut a small slit in a window-shutter. by the rim or edge of the basin. may be made of such form as to cause all the rays which "^ P^^'^ through them from any given M . D.^fi^^^^^^^^^^*^i> fraction. TRANSPARENT BODIES.^ m W W ^ . the first keeping his position as the water rises the coin will become visible. . . or which will disperse them from the given point. These are are called lenses. violet. and have different names according to their form. . Transparent bodies. a meniscus. point to meet in any other given ^ ^ ^ point beyond them. and if let fall upon a sheet of white paper. and directly opposite the hole place a prism p a beam of light ir passing through it will then l)e decomposed.M Ml. for a ray of light is of a compound nature. By the prism the ray A is divided into its three primitive colors. The prism is a triangular solid of glass. blue. is a semicircular piece of glass cut facets or distinct surfaces and in looking through it we have an illustration of the laws of re. THE MULTIPLTrNG GLASS. 1 is called the plano-convex lens 3. The multiplying glass into . and orange. THE PRISM. an eye at E will see as many flies as there are surfaces or facets on the glass. and then water be poured by a second person. and by young optician may decompose a ray of light into its it the primitive and supplementary colors. such as a fly. ( . in . or .160 THE MAGICIAN S OWX BOOK. 2. plano-concave double convex 4. green. for if a small object. on which the sun shines at some period of the day. . double concave 5. and yellow and their four supplementary )nes. such as glass. and will appear to have moved from the side to the middle of the basin. be placed at d. indigo.

and look through the drop of water. with even edges. By a little practice. p is the prism. 1). stick the two pieces of glass upon it. and several of its properties be beautifully illustrated. when you will see a beautiful train of colors. g and g the glasses stuck to it (Fig. at the other violet. ^3 : COMPOSITION OF LIGHT. view (Fig. and proved to consist of colored rays. place it close to your eye. make a small hole. h the hole in the shutter or pasteboard. called a spectrum at one end red. so that they meet. orange. e is the eye of the spectator. or a narrow horizontal slit. will serve the purpose of the hole in the shutter. where w is The end the wax. . you will soon become accustomed to look in the right direction. and in the middle yellowish green. 4 . and an inch or two long. with a slit cut in it.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. 2. The slit should be about one tenth of an inch wide. 161 against a white wall. yellow. To use the instrument thus made. By means of this simple contrivance white light may be analyzed. which the pieces of glass meet into which angle put a drop of water. when you stand at some distance from it in the room or a piece of pasteboard placed in the upper part of . s the spectrum. in the fol. Provide two small pieces of window-glass and a lump of wax soften and mould the wax. The annexed figure 3 will better explain the direction in which we look here. so that yon can see the sky through it. 6 . . The beam of light passing through the prism posed. 7 . a. Then hold the prism in j^our hand. at i'ig. the seven colors of the rainbow will be observed TO MAXE A PRISM. . 2) will show the angle. and will see the colors very bright and distinct. the window-sash. red. as in the cut. and the spaces occupied by the colors are lowing proportions : is decomgreen.

16S

THE magician's OWN BOOK.

8; blue, 8; indigo, 6; violet, 11. Now, if jou paste a sheet of white paper on a circular piece of board about six inches in diameter, and divide it with a pencil into fifty parts, and paint colors in them in the proportions given above, painting them dark in the center parts, and gradually fainter at the edges, till they blend with the one adjoining; and if the board be then fixed to an axle, and made to revolve quickly, the colors will no longer appear separate and distinct, but becoming gradually less visible, they will ultimately appear white, giving this appearance to the whole surface of the paper.
A NATURAL CAMERA OBSCURA.
it,

is a camera obscura, for on the back of on the retina, every object in a landscape is beautifully depicted in miniature. This may be proved by the

The human eye

BULLOCK'S EYE EXPERIMENT.

Procure a fresh bullock's eye from the butcher, and caretake care not to cut fully thin the outer coat of it behind it, for if this should be done the vitreous humor will escape, and the experiment cannot be performed. Having so prepared the eye, if the pupil of it be directed to any bright objects, they will appear distinctly delineated on the back part precisely as objects appear in the instrument we are about to describe. The effect will be heightened if the eye is viewed in a dark room with a small hole in the shutter, but in every case the appearance will be very striking.
;

THE CAMERA OBSCURA.
This
is

and mav

a very pleasing and instructive optical apparatus purchased for four or five shillings. Bui it may be easily made by the young optician. Procure an oblong box, alx)ut two feet long, twelve inches wide, and eight high. In one end of this a tube must be fitted containing a lens, and

be made to slide

backwards

OPTICS

AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS.
suit

163
"box

and forwards so as to

the

focus.

Within the

should be a plane mirror, reclining backwards from the tube At the top of the box at an angle of forty-five degrees. is a square of unpolished glass, upon which from beneath the picture will be thrown, and may be seen by raising the To use the camera, place the tube with the lens on it lid A. opposite to the object, and having adjusted the focus, the image will be thrown upon the ground-glass as above stated, where it may be easily copied by a pencil or in colors. The form of a camera obscura used in a public exhibition d d is a large wooden box stained black is as follows in the inside, and capable of containing from one to eight persons, a b is a sliding piece, having a sloping mirror c, and a double convex lens f, which may, with the mirror c, be slid up or down so as to accommodate the lens to near
:

and distant objects. When the rays proceeding from an object without fall upon the mirror, they are reflected upon the lens f, and brought to fall on the bottom of the box, or upon a table placed horizontally to receive them, which may be seen whose eye is at e.
THE MAGIC LANTERN.

by

the spectator

one of the most pleasing of all optical instruments, and it is used to produce enlarged pictures of objects, which being painted on a glass in various colors are thrown
This
is

upon

a screen or white sheet placed against the wall of a largo room. It consists of a sort of tin box, within which

164

THE magician's OWM BOOK.

is a lamp, the light of which (strongly reflected by the reflector!,) passes through a great plano-convex lens e fixed in the front. This strongly illuminates the objects which are painted on the slides or slips of glass, and placed before the lens in an inverted position, and the rays passing

through them and the lens f, fall on a sheet, or other white surface, placed to receive the image. The glasses on which the figures are drawn are inverted, in order that the images of them may be erect.
THE CAMERA

LTICIDA.

This instrument consists of a glass

having four sides coverc. d, being exposed to the object to be delineated, rays pass through the glass and fall on the sloping side D, E from this they are reflected to the top, and finally pass out of the prism to the eye * now from the direction at which the rays enter the eye, it receives them as if coming from an image at a, b, and if a sheet of paper be placed below the instrument, a perprism,
ed.
c, d, d, e,

The sides

;

;

delineation of the object may be traced with a pencil. This is a very useful instrument to young draughtsfect

men.
PAINTING THE SLIDES.

The slides containing the objects usually shown in a magic lantern, are to be bought of opticians with the lantern, and can be procured cheaper and better in this way than by any attempt at manufacturing them. Should, however, the young optician wish to make a few slides of
objects of particular interest to himself, he may proceed as follows Draw first on paper the figures you wish to paint, lay it
:

*

The eye

is

to be applied to the little circular hole seen on the

upper

Burface.

OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS.

165

on the table, and cover it over with a pi»ece of glass of now draw the outlines with a fine earners this shape
;

hair pencil in black paint mixed with varnish, and when fill up the other parts with the proper colors, shading with bistre also mixed with varnish. The transparent colors are alone to be used in this kind of painting.
this is dry,

TO EXHIBIT

THE MAGIC LANTERN.

ought to be large, and of an it suspend a large sheet so as to cover the whole of the wall. The company being all seated, darken the room, and placing the lantern with its tube in the direction of the sheet, introduce one of the slides into the slit, taking care to invert the figures then adjust the focus of the glasses in the tube by drawing it in or out as required, and a perfect representation of the
for the exhibition

The room

oblong shape.

At one end of

;

object will appear.
EFFECTS OP THE MAGIC LANTERN.

Most extraordinary effects may be produced by means of the magic lantern one of the most effective of which is a
;

TEMPEST AT SEA.

This is effected by having two slides painted, one with the tempest as approaching on one side, and continuing in

intensity

till

it

reaches the other.

Another slide has ships

166

THE magician's OWN POOR.

painted on it, and while the lantern is in use, that containing the ships is dexterously drawn before the other, and represents ships in the storm. The effects of sunrise, moonlight, starlight, &c., may be imitated, also by means of double sliders ; and figures may be introduced sometimes
of fearful proportions.

Heads may be made
laugh
;

to

nod, faces to

may be made to roll, teeth crocodiles may be made to to gnash swallow tigers combats may be repreeyes
; ;

sented but one of the most instructive uses of the slides is to make them illustrative of astronom}^ and to show the rotation of the seasons, the cause of eclipses, the mountains in the moon, spots on the sun, and the various motions of the planetary bodies, and their satellites.
;

THE PHANTASMAGORIA.

Between the phantasmagoria and the magic lantern there in common magic lanterns the figures this difference are painted on transparent glass, consequently the image
is
;

on the screen is a circle of light having figures upon it but in the phantasmagoria all the glass is made opaque, except the figures, which, being painted in transparent colors, the light shines through them, and no liglit can come upon the screen except that which passes through the figure, as is
;

here represented.

no sheet to receive the picture, but the representhrown on a thin screen of silk or muslin placed between the spectators and the lantern. The images are made to appear approaching and receding by removing the lantern

There

is

tation

is

further from the screen, or bringing it nearer to it. This is a great advantage over the arrangements of the magic lantern, and by it the iriost astonishing effects are often pro*

duced.

OPTICS AxND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS.
DISSOLVIXG VIEWS.

167

or scene appears to pass into the other while tlie scene is changing, are produced by using two magic lanterns placed side by bide, and that can be a little inclined towards each other when necessary, so as to mix the rays of light proceeding from the lenses of each together, which produces that confusion of images, in which one view melts as it were into the other, which gradually becomes clear and distinct.

The dissolving views, by which one landscape

now

TO RAISE

A GHOST.

The magic lantern or phantasmagoria, may be used in a number of marvelous ways, but in none more striking than
in raising an apparent specter. Let an open box, a b, about three feet long, a foot and half broad, and two feet high, be prepared. At one end of this place a small swing dressing glass, and at the other let a magic lantern be fixed with its lenses in a direction towards the glass. A glass should now be made to slide up and down in the groove c d, to which a cord and pulley should be attached, the end of the cord coming to the part of the box marked a. On this glass the most hideous specter that can be imagined may be painted, but in a squat or contracted position, and when all is done, the lid of the box must be prepared by raising a kind of gable at the end of the box b, and in its lower part at e, an oval hole should be cut sujQficiently large to suffer the rays

reflected from the glass to pass through them. On the top of tlie box F place a chafing dish, upon which put some burning charcoal. Now light the lamp g in the lantern, sprinke some powdered camphor or white incense on the charcoal, adjust the slide on which the specter is painted, and the image will be thrown upon the smoke. In performing this feat

168
the

THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK.

room must be darkened, and the box should be placed on a high table, that the hole through which the light comes may not be noticed.
THE THAUMATROPE.
derived from two Greek words, one of which It is a very pretty signifies wonder, and the other to turn. philosophical toy, and is founded upon the principle in optics, that an impression made upon the retina of the eye la.sts for a short interval after the object which produced it has been withdrawn. The impression which the mind receives lasts for about the eighth part of a second, as may be easily shown by whirling round a lighted stick, which if made to complete the circle within that period, will exhibit not a fiery point, but a fiery circle in the air.
This word
is

THE BIRD IN THE CAGE.

Cut a piece of cardboard of the size of a penny piece, and fasten paint on one side a bird, and on the other a cage two pieces of thread, one on each side, at opposite points of the card, so that the card can be made to revolve hy twirling the threads with the finger and thumb while the toy is A in its revolution, the bird will be seen within the cage. bat may in the same manner be painted on one side of the
:
;

card,

and a cricketer upon the other, which will exhibit the same phenomenon, arising from the same principle.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE PHANTASMASCOPE.
figure is a Thaumatrope, as much as the one we are about to describe, although the term Phantasmascope is generally applied to the latter instrument which consists of a disc of darkened tin-plate, with a slit or narrow opening in it, about two inches in length. It is fixed upon a stand, and the slit placed upwards, so that it may easily be looked through. Another disc of pasteboard, about a foot in diameter, is now prepared and fixed on a similar stand, but with this difierence, that it is made to revolve

The above-named

;

instead of appearing to revolve with the disc. the point will be as far to The point in question is the basis of the optic nerve. . jugglers throwing up balls. or to the right of the axis of the eye. and its insensibilit}^ to light was first observed by the French philosopher. and when this second disc is made to . the right-hand wafer will become invisible and a similar effect will take place if we close the right eye. and both eyes parallel with the line w^hich forms the wafers. crRioiJS OPTICAL mrsiON. When we look with the right eye. increasing in agility as the velocity of the motion is increased. Mariotte. men dancing.. will seem to be in motion. toads crawling. all of which. 169 disc_. &c. so that the image of any object falling on that point would be invisible. and look with the left. It is necessary. On this pasteboard paint in colors a number of frogs in relative and progressive posiitions of leaping make between each figure a slit of about a quarter of an inch deep . the left eye being closed. A little ingenuity displayed in the construction and painting of the figures upon the pasteboard disc will afford a great fund of amuse- — ment. this point will be about fifteen degrees to the right of the object observed. of the most curious facts relating to the science of vision is the absolute insensibility of a certain portion of the retina to the impression of light. on looking at the left-hand wafer with the right eye. at the distance of about three inches apart.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. This remarkable phenomenon may be experimentally proved in the following manner Place on a sheet of writing-paper. snakes twisting and writhing. the left. when trying the effect of this instrument. When looking with the left eye. or the point of most distinct vision. two colored wafers then. and the eye is placed near the slit. will all appear in the attitudes of leaping up and down. to stand before a lookingglass. at the distance of about a foot. and to present the painted face of the machine to- wards the glass. : . keeping the eye straight above the wafer. One . by the peculiar arrangement above detailed. round an axis in the center. revolve at a foot distance behind the first. faces laughing and crying. A very great number of figures may be prepared to preduce similar effects horses with riders in various attitudes of leaping. the whole of the figures.

suppose the first and second alter your position a second time. but never the whole three pieces together. the line joining the two eyes shall be parallel to that joining the center of the wafers. and to the left. make two marks then place yourself directly opposite the paper. the other being completely invisible. Vertically above the paper. or other dark ground. when you will see only two of them. two inches in diameter. at the height of your eye on a dark wall a little lower than this. Or. . and so. Place yourself directly before them. and look at them with your left. as it " It will cease to be thought singuwere. the second piece of paper will be . about two inches in diameter. the paper disc will be invisible. keep the right eye still fixed on the first object. look with the right eye. that when looking down on it. and when the left eye is open the mark on your right. close your right eye. . At the distance of two feet on each side. when this wafer only will be seen. ANOTHER. so that when the right eye is open it shall conceal the mark on your left. it will become immediately visible." says Sir John Herschel. and. On a sheet of black paper. into existence. and when at the distance of about ten feet. But if it be removed ever so little from its place. and hold the end of your finger before your face. at the distance of two feet on the right hand. but a little lower. when we learn that it is not extremely . at equal distances. In this situation close the left eye. lar. either to the right or left. Invisible. having their centers three inches distant. " that this fact of the absolute invisibility of rbjects in a certain point of the field of view of each eye sh( aid be one of which not one person in ten thousand is apprized. Fix a similar disc of paper. fix another of about three inches in diameter now place yourself opposite the first sheet of paper. If you then look with both eyes at the end of your finger. at twelve inches from it. and start. . at the height of the eye. Cut a circular piece of white paper. wliich affix to a dark wall. above or below. and look full with the right perpendicularly at the wafer below it. ANOTHER. fix three pieces of paper against the wall of a room. shutting the left eye. and you will see the second and third. place two white wafers. at a few yards distance.170 THE magician's OWN BOOK.

Let s be a candle. a b. the center of which may be five feet from the floor behind the screen is placed a large mirror of an elliptical form. 171 ancoiumon tally blind to find persons who have for some time been towith one eye without being aware of the fact. The following experiment. This is produced by means of a mirror. and is received by the mirror and reflected to the center of the arched cavity in the screen. placed and let the reflected rays. of the numerous optical illusions which have. fall close to each other at the same angle upon two similar plates. is that of making an image or picture appear in the air. so that the spectator at e. When this is done. if performed with care. been evolved by scientific minds. An object is now placed behind the screen. or made nearly 53° 11'. upon which the light of a strong lamp is thrown from a point above the mirror. One — : . is exceedingly striking. upon which a strong light is thrown the mirror being set at such an angle as to throw up the reflection of the image to a certain point. . where it will appear to the spectator. b d. and an object in relief. whose light falls at an angle of 56^^ 45' upon two plate glasses. allowing the plate Change the position of d till its inc to remain where it is. the image that had dispractice. and looking at the same time on the two plates. but so placed that the plane of reflection from the latter is at right angles to the plane of reflection from the former. upon looking into the two mirrors. and the light should be so placed that none of it may reach the opening the light must also be very powerful. c d. of the candle s may be made to disappear almost wholly. Care should be taken to place the image in an inverted position. c and D. will little .OPTICS AND OPTICAL aMUBEMENTS. in the view of the spectator. This illusion is produced as follows Let a screen be constructed in which is an arched aperture. will be restored. appeared on looking into d. An eye placed at e. THE PICTURE IN THE AIE. : BREATHING LIGHT AND DARKNESS. a c. The distance may be easily found by a . c d. from time to time. clination to the ray b d is diminished about 3^. will see very faint images which by a slight adjustment of the plates.

either he or anothei person breathes upon them gently and quickly. One side is purposely removed in the engraving. or they would not suffer reflection from the plates c d. at an angle of 53° 1 1'. TO SHOW WHAT RAYS OP LIGHT DO NOT OBSTRUCT EACH OTHER. while the candle is distinctly seen in d. Fce no light in c. with respect to those sides of the box on which they are fixed at e and g. b d. to enable you to see the arrangement of the interior. and none from the former that is. d is polarized by reflection from the plates a b. as in the eye-glass of a telescope. the candle from which they proceed would not be visible. If. When we breathe upon the plates c D. b c. and will extinguish the visible image in d. c. so that if the polarized rays a c. so that when a film of water is — breathed upon them. At all the other angles the light would be reflected. we form upon their surface a thin film of water. whose polarizing angle is 53° 11'. the act of breathing upon the glass plates will restore the invisible. a. although all cross in passin< through the hole HOW TO SEE THROUGH A PHTLABELPHIA BRICK. . while the spectator is looking into these two mirrors. like the figure in the margin. two flat pieces of glass Supposing are inserted. Construct a hollow box or case. it will be found that the images of all the candle flames will be formed separately on a piece of paper c. and the candle visible. the breath will revive the extinguished image in c. and placing upright before three candles b. Explanation. and D. Make it a small hole in a sheet of pasteboard a. the light will be reflected from the latter. b. . because the candle has nearly disappeared. are four small pieces of looking-glass. laid on the table to receive them.172 THE magician's OWN BOOK. and extinguish the visible image. placed closely together. This proves that the rays of light do not obstruct each other in their progress. and c at an angle of 56° 45'. you look through the opening e. all placed at an ang'le of 45°. Now the plate d is placed at an angle of 53° 11'. fall upon the plates c d. The light a. because it is incident at the polarizing angle 56° 45' for glass. in the direction of an .

figures. The effect consists in obtaining the perfect solidity of a geometric object from two ordinary drawings. the instrument supplied with the necessary pictures may suflSce. pictures of columns.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. " Solids I see. having a rounded appearance. it matters not which. object placed at o.. plained. " breadth. The image of the object at o is received on the looking-glass A. in the direction of the dotted line from o to e. and they are now sold like the kaleidoscope at all optical instrument makers. or any other opaque object. Of course. flowers. THE STEREOSCOPE. This is one of the newest and most interesting optical surprises invented. of the instrument is concealed. like many other instruments. statuary. Our limits j reclude a lengthened description of the . at any object placed beyond. which induce the spectator to believe he is gazing at the natural figure. will answer the same purpose. you are willing to satisfy his doubts at once. by which it is reflected to b. and afterwards to d. as it is again from B to c.. that he may look through e or o. in the same direction as if in reality he was looking at the real object itself. but. &c." For mere amusement. cannot prevent Of course all this arrangement the object at o being seen. it is indulged with a very hard name. and equally wonderful. you would see it in the same manner as if there was an uninterrupted view between e and g. toyshops. the hand or the hat. which The cause of this is readily exis evidently not the case. &c." and keeping. but as a single brick will be more convenient. which means. From this it is evident that the placing an opaque body at f. and you place it in the hands of a companion. and this last image in d is seen by the eye of the spectator placed at e. You maj^ then safely lay a wager that your instrument is of so magical a nature that it will enable you to see through a brick wall. &c.

and look in upon the retina. Brewster remarks. he could not reproduce the statue by their union. first recommend our readers to study the structure of the eye. and is considered the "mind of the eye. that an object presents an entirely difSir D. placed at the same distance as the two eyes. giving solidity and a perfect relievo appearance to any two pictures which might be drawn separately from the two lenses in the camera obscura menThat is to say. with two small holes in it. in which we can appreciate the geometric niceties of length. . consequently. instead of perfect images. In order to do this. as we have two eyes at a distance from each other. and draw the two pictures of any object seen by our eyes. on points which are similarly situated with respect to the two centers. Now. How then. he would fix at the height of his eyes a metallic plate. a camera with two lenses of the same aperture and focal length. must be constructed and used. which is a delicate network of nerves. quoting Professor Wheatstone. and thickness ? Now the stereoscope assists us in understanding these difand.174 THE magician's own book. breadth. ferent appearance to each eye. This theory supposes that the pictures projected on the retinae. retina of each eye. the fact is. : . "That were a painter called upon to take drawings of a statue. in Brewster's Treatise on Optics. The stereoscope is. those pictures put into the stereoscope. however. do we see them upright ? Again. an imitation of the powers of the eyes. if it were possible to be behind the tioned." Now." With the utmost care. and he would then draw the statue as seen through the holes by each eye. philosophy of this instrument. if we cut open a portion of the eye of a recently killed animal. We ma}''. the invention of Professor Wheatstone. both in distance and position. as seen by each eye. the images formed on the two retinae cannot be precisely alike how is it that confusion is not the result." we shall behold all images inverted. however. are exactly similar to each other corresponding points of the two pictures falling on corresponding points of the two retince. we ficult questions find he states "that the theory which has obtained the greatest currency is that which assumes that an object is seen single because its pictures fall on corresponding points of the two retinae. which may be thoroughly impressed on the mind by dissecting" carefully the eye of a sheep or bullock. that is.

and. with a little Red. Indigo. b b. so adjusted that their backs form an angle of ninety degrees with each other. Blue. Violet. as we continue to look at it. the two mirrors. the reflecting and the refracting stereoscope. Black. the two pictures. 175 solidity from which they were drawn. OCULAR SPECTRA. Red. . if we turn the same eye to another part of the paper. closing one eye.. Bluish Green. . the quarter of a circle. it. Violet.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. White. By using differently-colored wafers. we obtain the folio wirg results : WAFER. Black. and hold witk .. If we place a red wafer on a sheet of white paper. SPECIMEN. BRILLIANT Nf^arly fill WATER ICOIROR.. REFRACTING STERESCOPE. Orange. the color of which will continue to grow fainter and fainter. viz. White. we shall see a green wafer. Orange Red. i. Yellow. of which we give drawings. a glass tumbler with water. e. would reproduce the Two : Tiyn THE REFLECTING STEREOSCOPE. or accidental colors. One of the most curious affections of the eye is that in virtue of which it sees what are called ocular spectra. . Green. a a. almost at any optician's. then. Bluish Green. Orange Yellow. Indigo. and may be obtained with the photographic pictures. koep the other directed for some time to the center of the wafer. instruments are sold. Blue.

and spread themselves from thence down the sides of the bubble. He must. several colors will successively appear at the top. or from the most highly-polished metals.176 THE magician's OWN BOOR. immersed in the water. invented by Sir David Brewster. obliquely. a. under an infinite arrangement of beautiful forms and colors. of about ten is * The thinnest 8ubstance ever observed is the aqueous film of the soapbubble previous to bursting yet it is capable of reflecting the faint image of a candle. as in a mirror. any object be placed between two plane mirrors. and bj' means of which the reflected images viewed from a particular point exhibit symmetrical figures. of a circle. as the water glides down the sides and the top grows thinner. but with a brilliancy far surpassing that which can be obtained from quicksilver. so that the motion of air may not affect it. At length. . Hence its thickness must correspond with what Sir Isaac Newton calls the beginning of black. or the sun. reflected on the surface. by any means whatever. OPTICS OF A SOAP BUBBLE. and spreads till the bubble bursts. as in the engraving. but it requisite that every ^''oung person should be able to construct one for himself. with a strong metallic and any object. above the level t>f Then look the eye. inclined towards each other at an angle of thirty degrees. will have its immersed part. The kaleidoscope may be bought at any toy-shop. which appears in water ut the thickness of the seven hundred and fifty thousandth part of an inch . C B. and you will see the whole surface shining like burnished silver.* THE If KALEIIX)SCOPE. B. a black spot appears at the top. procure a tube of tin or paper. and set under a glass. your back to the window. three several images will be perceived in the circumference On this principle is formed the kaleidoscope. If a soap-bubble be blown up. as a spoon. A. therefore. c. as in the direction E. C. till they vanish in the same order in which they appear. reflection .

so as to fit over the glass end of the tube and in this. a piece of ground glass must be fastened. and it will be supported by the edges of the tube. securely fastened. are now to be prDcured they must be not quite so long as the tube. . to go through the immense number of changes of which it is capable. having at a small distance from the lens a slit. the most beautiful forms will appear. and separating to the points c c. Then. so that the broken glass. and that you make 10 changes in a minute. and they should be placed in the tube lengthwise. in the most wonderful combinations. obtain some small pieces of broken glass of various colors. by their not being quite so long as reflectors. . meeting together in a point at a. and two and a half or three inches in diaOne end of this should be stopped up with tin or meter. Two pieces of well-silvered looking-glass. To the inside of the hole adapt a tube. and 360 days. SIMPLE SOLAR MICROSCOPE. which may be slightly bent over. the polished surfaces looking inwards. apply the eye to the the instrument is complete. 17"? inches in tength. 462.899. to which the object to be viewed must be affixed by Having made a 12 . capable of receiving one or two very thin plates of glass. circular hole in a window-shutter. or any and by passing it other object. A circular piece of glass is a now to be laid on the top of the edges of the which. at an angle of 60 degrees. &c. little strips of wire. b b. it will take an inconceivable space of time. has free motion. about three inches in diameter. A rim of tin or pasteboard must be cut. now proceed to make the "cap "of the instrument. about the size of a small pea.880. and. The following curious calculation has been made of the number of changes this instrument will admit of. This having been done. To use it. for the eye to look through.OPTICS Ai\n OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. to prevent the glass from falling out. in which is to be made a hole. before putting it on. small hole. beads. . on the outer side. i. place in it a glass lens of about twelve inches focal distance. Supposing it to contain 20 small pieces of glass. . on turning it. papei.516 years. and place them in the cap over the end. b b the tube. so that the whole may fit on the tube like the lid of a pill-box. e. will allow room for its falling in.

or affix it to one of them with very transparent gum water. Place a mirror before the hole of the window-shutter on the outside. V 2. held at a proper distance. 3. : . d. is derived from two Greek words. will appear as a large animal. a very curious optical effect. prepare a drawing similar to Fig. r 4. furnished at its extremity with a lens of half an inch focal distance. place some small object between the two moveable plates of glass. to the di visions of a h. Take any subject. ev. ANAMORPHOSES. a h. draw the line * h. 2 hy the following means 1. and you will have a solar magic lantern. so will the anamorphoses be more and more deformed. in such a manner as to throw the light of the sun into the tube. or piece of white paper. Then.178 THE magician's own book. and by means of the mirror reflected the sun's rays on the glasses in a direction parallel to the axis. and then draw * v parallel to a b. Let fall a perpendicular line. small insect and will appear to be greatly magnified. a. c. The method of employing this arrangement of lenses for microscopic purposes is as follows Having darkened the room. but the longer the first is. on a separate piece of paper. fit another. and bring it exactly into the axis of the tube . Both e V and s v may be any length at pleasure. The proportions in our figures are sufficiently difierent. and the whole shall be equi-distant. from the middle of a h. it will be seen painted very distinctly on a card. and by its means many optical puzzles may be produced geometrically. or cardboard. signifying a distortion of figure. and This is . equal to a b. till the object be a little beyond the focus. of which the outer sides shall form the boundary. and the almost invisible eels in paste or vinegar as means : A large as common eels. a hair as big as a walkingstick. 4 After having drawn from the point v right lines. 2. if the moveable tube be then pushed out or drawn in. b. producing a disThe term torted and grotesque figure from a regular one. v 1. and the shorter the other. such as the portrait of a head divide it vertically and horizontally with parallel lines. Draw a horizontal line. this tube Into of a little gum water exceedingly transparent. and divide it into as many equal parts as the latter is divided. u 3.

through each point where draw other We 1 2 e 3 4:^ The next step is to fill up all the cells of Fig. and would require geometrical reasoning of a lengthened kind. proportionate to their position in Fig. exactly like the symmetrical figure. which. and assume an appearance resembling that in Fig. It would be very difficult. For instance. and it will be found that as soon as the eye has become accustomed to the novelty of the experiment the anamorphosis will lose its distortion. and at a height from it equal to the length ui the line s v. and appear almost : . 1. and that portion of the face must accordingly be placed in a corresponding part of Fig. 2 with por< tions of the device. horizontal lines parallel to a b. This position lies immediately over the point v.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. will lose all its distortion. when viewed from a particular position. then. By these means we procure the anamorphosis seen in Fig. 1. abed. and in the third and fourth horizontal divisions from the top. the card being accurately vertical pierce a small hole in the card vertically over the point v. and at a height above it equal to the length of the line s v . 1 the nose is in the second vertical division from the left. . with the eye placed immediately behind the card. 2. now have a trapezium. divided into as many cells as the square in Fig. and rest its lower edge on the line s v. 179 s b intersects the divergent lines. look through the orifice at the anamorphosis. 2. in Fig. to show why this particular form of construction should lead t© such results. 1. . and the means of determining it are as follow Place the drawing horizontally before a window take a slip of card.

is to be hung. and sketch the design upon it. Should it be wished to show the picture by candle-light. and put a lighted candle behind it. a lamp. To get your eye in the pro . and you have produced a distorted landNow take away the candle and the pricked drawing. c. DISTORTED LAOT)SCAPES. white pasteboard. Prick the outlines in every part with a fine pin or needle. and place your eye where the light was. may be placed on the top of the wooden frame. Place before it another piece of pasteboard. To absorb all the rays of lip^ht bnt those necesfiary for seeing the picture. Landscapes or other matters may be drawn so as to produce curious optical illusions by Take a piece of smooth the following method. &c. it will be more effective. and at rather less than this distance a picture. a. THE COSMORAMA. or in a small closet illuminated in the same manner. and the drawing wUl assume the regular form. Nothing more is necessary than to fix in a hole a double convex lens of about three feet focus. scape. a squared frame of wood blackened on the The picinside is placed between the lens and the picture. and follow with a pencil the lines given by the light. then place the pricked drawing in a perpendicular position.180 THE magician's OWN BOOK. The principle upon which the cosmorama is formed is so simple. that any person may easily fit up one in a small summer house. b. ture may be hang in a large box having a light coming in upon it from above. and if the light of this be converged by a lens to a moderate radius.

the inscription will now be less luminoua than the depressed parts. and roughening its raised parts. THE 3IAG7f mS. To do this. take a silver coin (I have always used an old one).pattern. numerous experiments with wiiich science astonishes and sometimes even strikes terror into the ignorant. and removed into a dark room. 181 per position. Among that . or those which are to be rendered darkest. there is none more calculated to produce this effect than the of displaying to the eye in absolute darkness the legend or inscription upon a coin. when the object will appear in its proper proportions. both for the purpose of rendering the eye fitter for observing the effect. so The masn that it may be distinctly read by the spectator. B. polishing xiie depressed parts. without receiving any light.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. the inscription upon it will become less luminous than the rest. and roaghen the depressed parts. and raising it on its base. that is. the parts not raised. If the coin thus prepared is placed upon a mass of red-hot iron. make the parts of it which are raised rough by the action of an acid. retaining their polish. from any other body. If. and after polishing the surface as much as possible. and of removing all doubt that the inscription is really road in the dark. of red-hot iron should be concealed from the observer's eye. in place of direct or reflected. look through the hole at a. it will be advisable to cut out a piece of card according to the preceding. we make the raised parts polished.

as principles are founded upon the properties of matter and and in knowing something. it will move in an oblique direction direction." if the marble be struck " plump. The laws of motion are as follow 1. 3. and Tenacity. "These are machinatione comical." as it is called. Solidity (or The properties of matter are the following Impenetrability). it moves forward exactly in the same line of but if struck sidew^ays.— TmCKS IN MECHANICS. In shooting at " taw. and its course will be in a line situated between . 2. is no subject of such importance as Mechanics. EXPERDIENT OF THE LAW OE MOTION. Divisibility. Action and reaction are always equal and contrary." Ford. C1821 . unless affected by some extraneous force. Ductility. The change of motion is always proportionate to the There Its . Elasticity. : : impelling force. Brittleness. Malleability.of these. Every body continues in a state of rest or of uniform rectilineal motion. Mobility. the laws of motion the tyro will lay the foundation of all substantial knowledge.

SHALL. MAKE A CARRIAGE RUN LN AN INVERTED POSITION WITHOUT FALLING. the horse would immediately tumble. and the horse is again in equilibrio. 183 the direction of its former motion and that of the force impressed. it will ascend the curve. legs of the horse on the table.TRrrKS I\ MFCHANICS. and is brought under the prop. It is owing to the centrifugal force. a stick upon the finger. because unsupported. . if a small carriage be placed on an iron band or rail. and having fixed a curved iron wire to the under part of its body. feet of the figure rest on a curved pivot. the center of gravity being in the front of the prop but upon the ball being replaced. or upon the chin. without falling. If the ball be removed. The center of gravity all THE PRANCING HORSE. that if a tumbler of water be placed within a broad wooden hoop. their effect is to bring the center of gravity of the whole beneath consequently the equilibrium the point on which it rests IS . TO CONSTRUCT A HGURE. On . become inverted. pretty well known to most boys. BEING PLACED UPON A CURVED SURTO ITSELF. Cut out the figure of a horse. . place a small Place the hind ball of lead upon it. the whole may be whirled round without falling. FACE. AND INCLINED Df ANY POSITION. This is called the resolution of forces. and descend again. the same principle. WHEN LEFT RETURN TO ITS FORMER POSITION. BALANCING in a body is that part about which In balancing the other parts equally balance each other. it is necessary only to keep the chin or finger exactly under the point which is called the center of gravity. which sustained by two loaded balls below for the weight of these balls being much greater than that of the figure. the center of gravity immediately changes its position. The will resist TO any slight force to disturb it. and it will rock to and fro. WHICH.

about nine incnes in length and about half an inch in thickness. Take a bottle. it will. immediately return to its upright position. and loading THE BALANCED STICK. . ITS EDGE ON THE POINT OP i it. when left to itself. such as half a leaden bullet fasten the figure to this. THE CHINESE MANDARIN. Place the other end upon tho tip of the fore-finger. and the loaded part above. A CYLINDER TO ROLL BY ITS OWN WEIGHT UP HILL it at f with a piece of lead. . like a kettle-drum. and thrust into its upper end the blades of two penknives. and in whatever position it may be placed. on either side one.184 TO CAUSE THE magician's OWN BOOK. it will roll up hill without assistance. Procure a cofiee canister. with a cork in its neck. Procure a piece of wood. then Construct out of the pith of elder a little mandarin provide a base for it to sit in. TO HAKE A QUARTER DOLLAR TURN ON NEEDLE. the position of the center of gravity is thus altered. and in in a per- . Into this put some heavy substance. If a cylinder so constructed be placed on an inclined plane. wliich may be fixed in with solder. and it will keep its place without falling.

in such a manner that the . sion. where there should be a notch to retain it. so that the bent part may rest against its side you may then take the other end. By these means. Fix a quarter dollar into another cork. THE SELP-BALAKCED PAtt. and this will be the more readily accomplished as the angulai part of the straw ap. and this (eat the or letting the pail rest on any support laws of gravitation will enable you literally t<j accomplish. You may rest on it in an inclined position. If the rim of the quarter dollar be now poised on the point of the needle. without either fastening the stick on tiie table. with the middle of the pail within the edge of the That it may be fixed in table. and the water it contains. a middle-sized needle. You take the pail of water. TO LIFT A BOTTLE WITH A STRAW. or move along its edge. . 185 pendicular position. Cake a straw. letting one thiid of it and you undertake to hang a pail of project over the edge water on it. and lift up the bottle by it. and having bent the thicker end of it in a sharp angle. as the center of gravity is below the the center of suspen. it may easily be made to spin round without falling.it by the handle upon the projecting end of the stick. this .TRICKS h\ MECHANICS. with the handles inclining downwards. without being able to incline to either side nor can the stick slide along the table. by and stick into the cutting a nick in it same cork two small table-forks. as in figure subjoined. place another stick with one of its ends resting against the side at the bottom of the pail. without raising the center of gravity of the pail. . handle situation. the pail will remain fixed in that situation. lay a stick across the table. and its other end against the first stick. and hano. put this hooked end into the bottle. without breaking the straw. opposite each other.

and the lower end of the stems upon the stem just by the bowls. which imparts a rotary motion to the pea. as the pea alone will dance quite as well. This tripod. to be particularly careful in choosing a stout straw. or damaged. if carefully put together. as it will be too weak in the part so l)ent. you stick through a pea. it is blown from . .?S6 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN COOK. " The pins are only used to hold the pea steady before the pipe. it is unfit for the purpose of performing this trick. proaches nearer to that which comes out of the bottle. THE TOPER'S TRIPOD. or small ball of pith. the mouth of the bowls downwards. which is neither broken nor bruised if it have been previously bent or damaged. will support considerably more than a pot of ale. it may be kept in equilibrio at a short distance from the end of a straight tube by means of a current of breath from the mouth. in order to succeed in this feat. It is necessary. two pins* at right angles. to support the bottle. Place three tobacco pipes in the position shown in the engraving. THE DANCING PEA. and defend the points with pieces of sealIf ing wax.

after being cut into the spiral. 3. THE BRIDGE OF KNIVES Place three glasses. and that over No. as seen in the engraving. 1 over that of No. which rests on No. as shown in the figure. a a a. may be made to represent a snake or dragon. The card. and arrange three knives upon them.TRICKS IN MECHANICS. 2. it will revolve with considerable velocity. and cut this out with a penknife. the blade of No. into the following Hhape. and when in motion will produce a very pleasing effect. OBLIQUITY OF MOHON. If the whole be now placed on a warm stove. 1. 187 Cut a piece of pasteboard describe on it a spiral line . and then suspend it on a large skewer or pin. in the form of a triangle. The bridge so made will be self-sup» ported . or over the flame of a candle or lamp.

SAND IN THE HOtJR-GLASS. when full of sand. the tube will burst at the sides. Provide some silver sand. and the same quantity of sand will flow even if you press the sand in the tube with a ruler or stick. and that all the weight which the bottom of the tube sustains is only that of the heap which first falls upon it as the succeeding heaps do not press downwards. for a like time. of any length or diameter. . Hold the tube steadily. say the eighth of an inch stop this with a peg. however. The fact of the even flow of sand may be proved by a very simple experiment. is found to be the case. It would. and fill up the tube with the sifted sand. or fix it to a wall. than when the glass was only a quarter full. or frame. it would be more swiftly urged through the aperture. : . and note the quantity. Then. . the flow of the sand through the hole will not be increased. dry it over or before the fire. and permit the sand to flow in any measure for any given time. and near the close of the hour. but OLly against the sides or walls of the tube. that when the sand is poured into the tube. whatever may be the quantity in the glass that is. Then take a tube. in which make a small hole. that the flow of sand in the hourglass is perfectly equable.) pour some sand in.188 THE magician's OWi\ BOOK. and pass it through a tolerably fine sieve. that it is extremely difficult to thrust sand out of a tube by means of a fitting plug or piston and this. let the tube be emptied. The above is explained by the fact. it fills it with a succession of conical heaps. RESISTANCE OF SAND. From . and try with the utmost strength of the arm to push out the sand. at any height from a table remove the peg. be natural enough to conclude that. It is a remarkable fact. the sand runs no faster when the upper half of the glass is quite full than when it is nearly empty. upon trial. . and only half or a quarter filled with the sand measure again. closed at one end. Fit a piston to a tube (exactly like a boy's pop-gun. It will be found impossible to do this rather than the sand should be shot out. . the above experiment it may be concluded. : .

so that the water may be let en or shut off at pleasure. friends wish to form a fountain. Then by leading it through the earth. Hence water can be distributed over a town from any reservoir that is higher than the houses to be supplied and the same principle will enable us to form fountains in a garden. a water-tank. which should be at the upper part of the house. that they always preserve their own level. The principal law concerning fluids is. THE PUMP. underneath the path or grass plot. by bringing a pipe from t. and : [189] . The part of the pipe at b should have a turnkey. they may. and especially water. and turning it to a perpendicular position. Should any of our young — . or jet-d'-eau. or other place. The action of the common the handle a is raised. Water can only be set in motion by two causes the pressure of the atmosphere. convey the water down to the garden. the water will spring out. or its own gravity. and rise nearly as high as th*^ level of that in the tank. the pump is as follows When piston-rod b descends.TRICKS m HYDRAULICS The science of Hydraulics comprehends the laws which regulate non-elastic fluids in motion. &c.

and the water in consequence is again raised a rittle further. in the stiftpe of a dancing mountebank.190 THE MAGICIAX S OWN BOOK. brings the piston-valve. and is raisea by it. which is fixed. as it is air-tight. to another valve. water rises above the lower valve at every stroke afterwards. on its ascent. . This operation continues until thr. sailor. c. the water passes through the valve oi the descending piston. and. Make a little figure of cork. called the sucker. THE niDRAUIIC DANCER. In tintj figure When place a small hollow cone. a vacuum is produced between the two valves the air in the valve of the pump. . until it issues out of the spout. the piston is raised. When the piston again descends to the lower valve. betwixt the lower valve and the water. &c. then forces open the lower valve. the water is forced a short way up the barrel. a vacuum is again produced. made of thin leaf brass. . and opens inwards towards the piston. the air between them is again forced out by forcing open the upper valve and when the piston is raised. and the air below the lower valve rushes up. When the handle is drawn down. and rushes through to fill up this vacuum . or bucket. . and the air in the pump being less dense than the external atmosphere.

above. as in the following figure. the force of the stream will turn the pipe. of amusing motions. level at In order to full act.thin copper. and the water will rise in it till it empties itself . constructed. and perform a great variety If a hollow ball of ver^. 191 placed upon any jet-d'-eau. which makes syphon fill it to rise b. Between the last turn of the pipe and and twist the orifice place a paddle-wheel. having one leg shorter than It acts by the pressure the other. c. sucn as that of the fountain recommended to be constructed. THE WATER SNAIL. about an inch in diameter. A place a handle at its upper end. above its common make a first to . turning round and spreading the water all about it. of the atmosphere being removed from the surface of a fluid. b. OR ARCHIMEDIAN SCREW may easily be pipe. it is necessary both legs quite of the fluid and then the shorter leg must be placed in the vessel to be emptied. be placed on a similar cone. and let its lower end rest in the water. The syphon is a bent tube. bent into the form leg. THE SYPHON. . Immediately upon withdrawing the finger from the longer Any young person may form a syphon by a small piece of leaden pipe. should the water be that of a running stream. Now.TRICKS this figure is IN HYDRAULICS. it will be suspended on the top of the water. the liquor will flow. it will remain suspended. Purchase a yard of small leaden it round a pole.

Fill a wine-glass with water. a small white glass bottle. when air will ascend in bubbles to the highest part of the glass. which was full of oil. and expel the water from it and. when once emptied by Xerxes. — — — — — TO EilPTY A GLASS UNDER WATER. THE MAGIC OF HYDROSTATICS WITH THE ANCIENTS. and which. and the perpetual lamps of the ancients.192 THE magician's own book. Fill and foi'ces it to rise toward the surface. Then insert one end of a quill or reed in the water below the mouth of the glass. and water during the rest of the year. which must previously have suflScient water in it to rise above the mouth of the bottle. place it in a glass vase. begin to take the place of The cause of this is. and the water will. in the mean time. could not again be filled. which filled themselves with wine at the annual feast of Bacchus in the city of Elis. that the water is heavier than the wine. the into the trough at d. THE BOTTLE EJECTMENT. so that the glass still remains completely filled with water. mouth downwards. which it displaces. the glass tomb of Belus. and raise the glass partly above the surface. The principles of Hydrostatics were available in the work The marvelous fountain which Pliny of magical deception. in the form of a little column. into a basin of water. remove the card. Next. which will be filled . the spring of oil which broke out in Rome to welcome the return the three empty urns of Augustus from the Sicilian war. Should the water have no motion. with air. if you continue to blow throw the quill. but keep its mouth below the surface. all the water will be emptied from the glass. were all the obvious effect of the equilibrium and pressure of fluids. and blow gently at the other end. . toward the surface of the water. describes in the island of Andros as discharging wine for seven days. the wine at the bottom of the bottle. Immediately you will perceive the wine rise. turning of the handle at b will elevate the water from the lower to the higher level. full of wine. and put the glass. the weeping statues. with a very narrow neck. place over its mouth a card. so as to prevent the water from escaping.

the creak of a file or saw. Noises are made by the cracks of whips. and above the surface of the water. VISIBLE VIBRATION. and pipes may be made to convey the voice over every part of the house. the water will be elevated and depressed. Sounds in liquids and in solids are more rapid than in air. draw the bow strongly against its edge. bodies much after the manner that waves are in water. SOUNDS. or the hubbub of a multitude. with a velocity of 1. Acoustics is the science relating to sound and hearing. and when the vibration has ceased. Sound DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOITND AND NOISE. passing round the interior surface of the glass. and the surface of the water will exhibit a pleasing figure. nearly fill a glass with water. Provide a glass goblet about two thirds filled with colored water. we have what are properly called sounds. above the liquid surface. the bow of a violia drawn across the strings. six. Sounds are propagated on all . four. the water will be sprinkled on the inside of the glass. Or. and the surface of the water has become tranquil. But when a bell is struck. or eight in number. If the action of the bow be strong. and this sprinkling will show the curved line 13 [1^3] . these elevations will be exhibited in the form of a curved line. the beating of nammers. dependent on the dimensions of the vessel. HOW PROPAGATED. composed of fans.142 feet in a second. but chiefly on the pitch of the note produced. or the wetted finger turned round a musical glass. Two stones rubbed together may be heard in water at half a mile solid bodies convey sounds to great distances.TRICKS IN ACOUSTICS. or to any other body which is in contact directly or indirectly with the ear. is heard when any shock or impulse is given to the air. draw a fiddle bow against its edge.

and the motions will be communicated to If the appathe rod without any change in their direction.. and strew its upper liiiilllllillliiiilili^ liP surface witii sand. and when the air-bubbles have entirely disappeared. fixed into a wooden stand. to vibrate by a bow. and filled with air-bubbles. until it is half the glass will lose its power of ringing by a stroke upon its edge. but as the effervescence subsides. and will emit only a disagreeable and Nor will a glass ring while the wine is brisk. and its vibration will be exactly imitated by the lower disk. The water should be very perfectly. ratus be inverted. as in the engraving. TRANgMITTED VIBRATION. viz. the portion of the glass between the edge and curved line will then be seen partially sprinkled. thereby indicating the height to which the fluid has been thrown. the glass wiU Pour sparkling champagne when . Provide a long. as in the engraving. support the other end of the rod very lightly on a piece of cork. Cause one of the disks. and sand be strewed on the under side of the rod. flat glass ruler or rod. precisely of the same dimensions. between the level of the water and the curved line. and the sand strewed over both will arrange itself in precisely the same forms on both disks. and a glass or metal rod. and strew their upper surfaces with sand. pufiy sound. the upper one. the figures will be seen to correspond with those produced on the upper surface. CHAMPAGNE AND SOUND. Provide two disks of metal or glass. so that the glass above the liquid be preserved dry. but.194 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the sound will become clearer and clearer. as in the engraviDg. and cement it with mastic to the edge of a drinking glass. it will have become wholly wetted. at a point opposite where the rod meets it. carefully poured. cement the two disks at their centers to the ends of the rod. DOUBLE YIBRATION'. set the &^ass in vibration by a bow. full. into a glass.

THE TUmNG-FORK A FLUTE PLAYER. in each case. by holding close to the opening a vibrating tuning-fork. as in the engraving. ginger wine.. a flute may be made to "speak" perfectly w^ell. of the size of a small wafer. and effervescence be reproduced. while the fingering proper to the note of the fork is at the same time performed. Place a garden snail upon a pane of glass. as the sliding of the upper end of a flute with the mouth stopped: it may (a be tuned in unison with the loaded tuning-fork f. THEORY OF WHI3PERI}fG. ^ C fork). when that sound only will be heard. by means of the g: 1 '-^—-^ moveable stopper or card. the glass will again cease to ring.TRICKS IN ACOUSTIC!?. Take a common tuning-fork.as usual. and in drawing itself along. mouth of each bottle alternately. Then set the fork in vibration by a blow on the unloaded branch. by that bottle which conant bottle tains a column of air. . If a person stand near the wall. and hold the card closely over the mouth of the pipe. or the fork may be loaded till the unison is perfect. Indeed. Provide two glass bottles. If a crumb of bread be thrown into the champagne. and whispej . when a note of surprising clearness and strength will be heard. susceptible of vibrating in unison ^ith the fork. with his face turned to it. Apartments of a circular or elliptical form are best calcuated for the exhibition of this phenomenon. so that each corresponds to the sound of a difThen apply both tuning-forks to the ferent taning-fork. MUSICAL BOTTLES. or any other effervesc- ing liquid. MUSIC OF THE SNAIL. it will frequently produce sounds similar to those of musical glasses. The same experiment will also succeed with soda water. 195 ring. which is reciprocated by the unisonor. and on one of its branches fasten with sealing-wax a circular piece of card. or sufficient nearly to cover the aperture of a pipe. and tune them by pouring water into them. in other words.

This simple instrument. of an inch and half in diameter. moro strings of very fine catgut are stretched over bridges at each end like the bridge of a fiddle. ten. this string heart the other. about six inches deep. in which On this side seven. PROGRESS OF SOUND. TO TUNE A GIHTAR WITHOUT THE ASSISTANCE OF THE EAB. Tins instrument consists of a long narrow box of very thin pine. the bead will seem to form a series of dots during the passage of the bow. the strings of a violin. which is the organ of voice. with much force. blow through it. When a bow is drawn across . the saddle will be shaken. a few wurds. THEORY OF THE VOICE. in the form of a hollow cylinder. or small steel bead upon the bow in sunshine. be transferred to the next string: this transference may be seen. with a circle in the middle of the upper side. they m-dv be more distinctly heard at nearly the opposite side of the apartment. closed at both ends bj Hold this flat circular plates. abou three fourths of an inch in diameter. the paper will be When very little. or not at all shaken. or toy.196 THE magician's own BOOK. TO MAKE AN uEOLIAN HARP. tones even yet graver may be brought out. The strings must all be tuned to . Provide a species of whistle. all the sounds within the compass of a double octave may be produced from it. has indeed the greatest resemblance to the larynx. than if the listener was situated near to the speaker. when both strings are in harmony. or arc to be drilled small holes. If the air be cautiously graduated. toy between the teeth and lips. or fall off . and. and you may produce sounds varying in pitch with the force with which you blow. common as a child's toy or 4 sportsman's call. and its vibrations will. at first in a state of rest. Make one string to sound. and screwed up or relaxed with screw pins. with holes in their centers. if great precaution be taken in the management of the wind. the impulses produced may be rendered evident by fixing a when looked at by light. by placing a saddle of paper (like an inverted j^) upon the string.

not more than a foot in diameter. The " harmonics. who was interested in the success of the experiment. with the sash just raised to give the air admission.* and the instrument should be placed window partly open." since the apparatus was so constructed that the voice of a female at a distance was heard as if it originated from a hollow globe. called the "giant's harp.itest full concert. to the house of a Signer Moscate. In a storm this music was sometimes heard at the distance of several miles. under the name of the "Invisible Girl. Sometimes the blast brings out all the in a tones in so. and D D. THE IMISIBLE GIEL The facility with which the voice circulates through tubes was known to the ancients. to the The upper string may be tuned to the upper lower D. and afterwards exhibited in New York and other cities in the United States. and no doubt has afforded the priests of all religions means of deception to the ignorant and credulous.TRICKS IN ACOUSTICS. When the air blows upon these strings with different degrees of force it will excite different tones of sound." in blowing weather yielded lengthened peals of harmonious music." are . and sometimes it sinks them to the murmurs. by the Abbate Gattoni. in which the width is exactly equal to the length of the harp. It consisted of a wooden frame something like a tent bedstead. He stretched seven strong iron wires. A colossal imitation of the instrument just described was invented at Milan in 1786. and this apparatus. and the two lower the sounds produced. D. from the top of a tower sixty feet high. tuned to the notes of the gamut. formed * D is a good note for it. But of late days the light of science dispels all such wicked deceptions. 197 one and the same note. A very clever machine was produced at Paris several years ago.

whose trumpet Delphos. hung in the center of the frame. notes scared the robber from the treasure which it guarded. which began at Lesbos. . and carried into another apartment. were all deat the break of day to accost the rising sun. and the noise ceases the same may be done to a musical string with the same reHold a musical pitchfork to the lips. by four pillars aaaa. The science of Acoustics furnished the ancient sorcerers with some of their best deceptions. . and a quivering motion will be felt from its vibraThese experiments show that sound is produced by tions. ceptions derived from science. to sound. apply your ear to the other. Touch a bell when it is sounding. TO SHOW THAT SOUND DEPENDS ON VIBRATION. and the reply was returned from the same orifice. crossing from it i^t right angles. —the speaking head which uttered its oracular responses and the vocal statue of Memnon. while it terminated above in four bent wires c c. THE MAGIC OF ACOUSTICS. the quick motions and vibrations of different bodies. had apertures exactly opposo that what was spoken site two of the trumpet mouths was immediately answered through a very simple mode of communication. The hollow copper ball d. proceeding at right angles of the frame. 198 THE magician's own book. in which a female was placed and this tube having been carried up the leg or pillar of the instrument to the cross-rails. : . and similar rails below. and placing a watch at one end. t t. SOLID. when it is made sults. The means used in the deception were as follows a pipe or tube was attached to one of the hollow pillars. TO SHOW HOW SOUND TRAVELS THROUGH A Take a long piece of wood. and the tickings will be distinctly heard. with four trumpets. and meeting in a central point. and from a diligent observa- — — — tion of the phemomena of nature. such as the handle of a hair broom. being connected with the wires alone by four narrow ribbons r r. The questions were proposed close to the open mouth of one of these trurapetn.. connected by upper cross rails hh. The imitation of thunder in their subterranean temples could not fail to indicate The golden virgins the presence of a supernatural agent. whose ravishing voices resounded through the temple of the stone from the river Pactolus.

their sum or difference will be an even 1. and the product of two uneven numbers will be an 2. The product of two even numbers will be an even number. uneven number. 4. APHORISMS OF NTHTBER. The product of an even and uneven number will be an Gven number. their or difference will be an even number. The sum or difference of an even and an uneven number added or subtracted. we shall. present him with some arithmetical aphorisms. If number.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS OR. upon which most of the following examples are founded. 4. will be an uneven number. CURIOUS PROBLEMS IN ARITHMETIC. 3. 5. or subtracted from each other.S the principal object of this volume is to enable the young reader to learn something in his sports. 6. and to understand what he is doing. If two different numbers be divisible by any one nuna[199] . before proceeding to the curious tricks and feats connected with the science of numbers. two even numbers be added together. sum If two uneven numbers be added or subtracted.

their sum and their difference will also be divisible by that number. If amount will be added together. the product will be the twentieth term. In every geometric progression. divisible by 9. if the first and last term be each multiplied by the number of terms. 7. the quotient will be the sum of the series. it is not necessary to continue the series beyond a few of the first terms. Saunderson. 11. thus : and in one face o of 12 4 7 5 8 3 6 9 coo o o o o . or a num- any number be multiplied by 9. adopted a very ingenious device for performing arithmetical operations by the sense of touch. Previous to the numerical recreations. Therefore. 8. ber. we shall here describe certain mechanical methods of performing arithmetical calculations. Thus. the product 128 will be the seventh term of the In like manner. in number the series 3 4 5 8 16 32 4 If the third and fourth terms 8 and 16 be. be added or multiplied together. such as are not only in themselves entertaining. their product will be equal to that term. their sum and their product will also be divisible by 3. itself. of the figures in the ber divisible by 9. to find the last. and the sum of the two products be divided by 2.multiplied together. 10. In every arithmetical progression. if any two terms be multiplied together. or any other term of a geometric series. Small cubes of wood were provided. The blind mathematician. Dr. the be either 9. which answers to the sum of these two indices. if the fifth term be multiplied into series. sum 9. divided by 3. If two numbers. or by any other divisible by 9.— 200 THE magician's own book. the product will be the tenth term. or a number divisible by 9. and if that sum be multiplied into itself. but will be found more or less useful to the young 2 12 reader PALPABLE ARITHMETIC. each. the amount of the figures of the product will be either 9. nine holes were pierced. If several different numbers.

being placed as in the margin. If i' 'l 1 4 Li 1 at a frame are placed wires. and inserted in the central hole. and to denote any figure. 201 Tiiesc holes represented the nine digits. a square board was provided. In using the abacus. .781. divided by ridges into recesses of the same width as the cubes. 859. and a number of them are then moved to the other end of each wire. Ten small balls are strung upon each wire. parone another. the next tens. The right wire denotes units. 124. more cubes were used. as in the figure. and so on. all the balls are first ranged at one end. represented by a peg of difi"erent shape from that of the others. and at equal distances.THE MAGIC OP NUMBERS. The example given in the margin is 15. to correspond to the figures required. the A cubes and pegs would be arranged thus : coo • O o o o 00 o • 00 THE ABACUS. and the principles of arithmetic. a small peg was inserted into the hole corresponding to it. and by this the cubes were retained in the required horizontal and perpindicular lines. the 7th wire being the place of millions. If the number consisted of several cipher was figures. one for each. the height of allel to Upon Mounft Blano. This instrument first is used for teaching numeration. Suppose it was necessary to add together the numbers 763. To perform any arithmetical process.

4. or bone. and on that line will be found the product of each of the integers 8. &c.679 : 69. in multiplication. 63. making some other sum of it than the right one. .\ BOOK. are each divided into 9 equal squares. after multiplying the 7 by the 8. the 3 being put down as the second figure 6 is carried to add to the product of 6 by 8. we might add to the resulting 56 some other figure than the 7. 9. and in each of the squares underneath is the product of multiplying that figure by 2. the : We * Aneentor of the fighting and writing Naiuers of our day. 3. we might reckon 8 times 9 as some other number than 72. 2d. carry the 7 to add to the next product of 7 by 8=^56.679 by 8. strips of card. for 1st. 9 times as long as they are broad. garithms. have then to write down the 2 as the first figure of the product. select the top figures of which make the number to be multiplied. look at the eighth line of squares from the top. 6. To appreciate the merits of this invention. we may add 56 to 7 inaccuratel}^. and to secure its correctness it was much used by astronomers before the invention of lo..202 THE magician's 0W.679 by 8 8. To use these strips. and We first . when multiplied by 8. 7. The object of this contrivance is to render arithmetical multiplication more easy. A blunder may be made in each part of this process. and so on. . we must consider the process of multiplication as usually performed Suppose we had to multiply 8.432 multiply 9 by 8=72. and putting down 2 as the first figure in the product. a figure is printed or written on the top square. which we carried 3d. this gives us 63. For example To multiply 8. up to 9. to prevent such errors. Thin wood. Errors in a long multiplication problem are usually made in one of these three ways. NAPIER'S RODS. Lord Napier* this introduced useful contrivance.

seems very surprising but. there should be several slips or rods for each of the digits. . OP. and for placing the left-hand figure higher I to than the right is. that the eye may le thus assisted in adding the carried figure of one slip to the unit of the next. think of any number under 10. for the purpose of killing wild fowl and other small animals. tell him to add 1 to make the sum even. The boomerang is an instrument of peculiar form. He is next to halve the sum. and then. In practice the rods are placed on a flat piece of wood.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. it is very simple. returns in the direction of the place where it wae thrown. carry add to the sum of 8 and 5. 209 udd 7 and 6 together = 13. by which they are preserved in a proper position. The term is applied to those arithmetical processes by which you can divine a number thought of by another. making it proceed in a track so circuitous as to evade the superficial notice of the tyro. ask a person to plained. THE AEITIDIETICAL BOOilERANG. multiplied by each of the numbers I to 9. when exFor instance. the sum of the number he has thought of (now multiplied by 3"^ be odd or even if odd. You throw forwards the number by means of addition and multiplication. This is an arithmetical trick which. you bring it back to the original starting point. To provide for the occurrence of more than one of the same figures in the multiplicand. and after performing sundry peculiar gyrations. If projected forwards. with two ridges at right angles. and so on." by making by means of it a table of the product of the divisor. and then treble A^ain ask whether the amount be odd or even. ^hat half . TO FIND A OTMBER THOUGHT First Method. write 3 as the next figure. The reason for dividing the figures in each square by a diagonal line. to those who are unacquainted with it. When he says he has done Then ask him whether 80. This instrument can be made useful in "divisions. by means of subtraction and division. but afterwards rises in the air. . desire him to treble that number. used by the natives of New South Wales. it at first proceeds in a straight line.

and the remainder contains two nines. 3 is odd the first and the second time. 2 is even the first and odd the second time (retain 2). No. added to 4. make 7. if odd. For example. 1 is odd the first time (retain 1). still there is no nine in the remainder. No. No. 6 is odd the second time. and even the second (of which no notice is taken). 7 is odd the first and also the second time and the remainder (IT) contains one nine so that . 5 is odd the first time and the remainder contains one nine. mainder. after being divided by nine. need be taken of any overplus of a remainder. and contains one nine. No. but the remainder is not equal to nine. 4 is even both times. No. but the remainder contains no nine. No. No. retain 1 in the memory if odd a second time. . The following are illustrations of the result with each 1. add 1 (as before) to make it even. make 3. number 123456789 33 33 33 3 3 3 3 . THE magician's own book. nines are contained in the remainder. and then halve it. and contains one nine in the remainder. retain 2 more (making in all 3 to be retained in the memory j ) to which add 4 for every nine contained in the re- Now ask how many . and 3. the number thought of.: 204 If odd. No. to bear in mind whether the first sum be odd or even . The secret is. 8 is even both No notice times. added to 2.

205 EXAMPLE. EXAMPLE. Let him inform you what always end with 3. Suppose the number thought of to be 1. and inform him that he Third Method. Desire a person to think of a number. 3. 6. Let him multiply it by 3 2. 4. in this strike off the two ciphers. Strike thought of 6. - - 6 - -18 - Add 1 - 3 4. Multiply by 6 Add 12 Multiply by 10 80 92 920 Let him inform you what is the number produced. He must . - - Add 4 - 6 12 16 4. Let a p3rson think of a number. Fourth Method. . 3. 1. duct and the former - - - - H 12 6 You must then add 1 to it And halve this number Which will be the number thought of. say then proceed EXAMPLE. say 1.— THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. number by itself 36 So take 1 from the number thought of 5 To multiply this by itself 25 To tell you the difference between this prothis . Let him double it 2. must . off the number produced it will the 3. Multiply by 3 - - - Add to this the number thought of is 19 5t 63 . He must To multiply 2. Fifth Method. say then proceed as follows : 6. and announce 6 example. Second Method. 5. Desire a person to think of a number. You in every case subtract 320 the remainder is. 600 as the number thought of.

number he thought he will subtract from this the remainder will be. if three. 555. To add the third number And to proceed in the same manner for as many numbers as were thought of Let him tell you the last sum produced (in this case 290). which are the uumhers thought af. 1. 6. 2. in the case supposed. 3. To multiply by 5 25 28 4. Note.— 236 THE magician's own rook. . tell —The 2. say 4 it 16 8 if To halve You can then the tell him that of. Let him double it 2. EXAMPLE. if there were two numbers thought if four.. TO DISCOVER TWO OR MORE NUMBERS THAT A PERSON HAS THOUGHT OF each of the numbers is less than 10. Then. 8 and 5 ' . remainder is always half of the number you him to add. To add 1 to it 6 3. —Where EXAMPLE. him. You then subtract And divide by 4 is you the figures produced (28): 4 from it the Which you can say number thought EXAMPLE. 55 You of. Desire him to double the first number 4 making 2. - 7 21 Add tell the number thought of 22 28 24 6 Let him 5.. To multiply by 5 290 8. Sixth Method. Add 1 to it 2. of. Multiply by 3 Add 1 again . Ijt Case. 5.. Desire him to add to this any number you tell 3. you must subtract 5 must here subtract 55. Suppose the numbers thought of were 2. To double it 6. To add the second number There being a third number. Suppose the number thought of 6 12 1. repeat this process 56 5. 1. . leaving a remainder of 235. 3. 4. To add 1 to it 67 286 7.

viz. more than 207 —Where 10. The sum of the 1st and last 20 You must then add together the 1st. viz. The sum of the 3d and 4th 24 4. He must add together the numbers as follows. the half of this 2d you will get the 1st take the 2nd from the sum of the 2d and 3d. The sum of the 3d and 4th 22 4. and the 3d and 5th sums. . 3^ Case. HOW MAXY COTJXTERS HATE I IK ilT HANDS ? person having an equal number of counters in each hand. and you will have the 3d. Desire him to transfer from oae hand to the other a certain number A . and so on. The sura of the 2d and last 24 You must then add together the 2d. and the 2d and 4th. 22 + 34 = 56. it is required to find how many he has altogether. . The sum of the 1st and 2d 10 2. 16. 6. or and where there is an o^c^ number of numbers thought of. leaving 8. . 2. 16. one or more of the numbers are 10. He must add together the numbers as follows. . 9. 4th and 6th sums. 1. or 8 in each hand. and telJ you the various sums 1. The sum of the 2d and 3d 15 3. Where one or more of the numbers are 10. 6.— THE MAGfC OF NUxMBERS. Subtract one from the other. The sum of the 4th and 5th 31 5. — been thought of Suppose he fixes on six numbers. 15. 9 and so on for the other numbers. and where an even number of numbers has : . 6 this taken from the sum of the 2d and 3d will give you the 3d. 4. viz. 15 + 31=46. The half of this is the 1st num ber. take one from the other. 3d and 5th sums. 7. 10 + 244-20=54. 13 + 31+24=68. Suppose he fixes upon five numbers. or more than 10. leaving 12. the 2d number will be take the 2d from the sum of the 1st and 6. The sum of the 5th and 6th 34 6. 4 if you take this from the sum of the 1st and 2d jon will have the 2d number. Suppose he has 16 counters. and tell you the sum in each case : The sum of the 1st and 2d 8 2. 18. The sum of the 4th and 5th 31 6. The sum of the 2d and 3d 13 3. 15. 2d Case.

the hands will contain 6 and 14. and to tell you the number so transferred. making 12. c. - Triple it Halve Triple it* it Halve Triple it it it Halve Triple it halving. 2-^. 13^. by the 3..208 THE magician's owx bock. Carry in your mind.When an exact half cannot be taken without a fraction. To tell the number a person has thought of. making . 4. number in each hand. THE MYSTERIOUS HALVINGS. or on a slip of paper. and add tiie 4. He will divide 14 by 6 and inform you that the quotient is 2t or 2^. it be 4." having ascertained this point. Suppose of them. Ask him how many in this times the smaller number is contained in the larger case it is 3 times. the following list of names in which the letter a occurs in one or more of the three syllables of all except the last. : when In most cases fractions will occur in the process 10 counters are in each hand. giving 10. leaving 1^ or %. Here it is the larger half. equal to V Subtract 1 from 2^. — halving— —2d halving — 3d halving— —4th 1st - . Divide V by f. making this will bring 8. but He he must let you know in which of the four halvings he was obliged to take a " larger half . he must take the larger half— you must tell him this before he commences. One of the company must fix upon any one of the numbers from 1 to 15 this he keeps secret. : Suppose he fixes on He must add 1 to it. You Add whichis 9^. . . you discover the number fixed upon in the following manner.. and if 4 be transferred. the hands now contain 4 and 12. as well as the numbers produced by the succeeding operations . making - . multiply 4 by 4 to this. Halve it need not inform you that 48 is the figure produced. the then divide 16 by the 3 minus 1 16 . You must then multiply the number transferred. (larger half) - 8 9 21 - - - {larger half) - 14 42 21 63 32 96 48 . the number in each hand..

and against it stand two numbers. The tliree syllables are intended to represent the and 3d halvings. and the occurrence of the letter a corresponds to the occurrence of a "larger half" in one or more Having been informed where the of these three halvings. f . one of which was the number thought of and of these two. larger half was taken. refer to the word which has a in the corresponding syllable. ber fixed upon. and the left hand one was exact. a larger half occurred in the 1st and 3d stage this points us to Car-ro-way. 209 1st. the right hand number is the correct one if a larger half was the Uh halving taken in the Uh stage. If the 4th halving If a larger half occur* . and the halving in the 4th stage being exact. 2d. shows us that 8 was the num. In the example given.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS.

or left-hand column but if not. In this operation there are four distinct cases or stages where the half is to be taken. and. 1 is being again added.^^Suppose the number chosen to be nine. that the figure in the Kecund column. which represents the figures one and nine. 1 23 69 35 being added. being tripled. Ni-mi-um No-tar-i In-fer-nos Or-di-nes Ti-mi-di le-ne-ant Example. the number chosen is in the first. one had be added. Then : 1st case. and which last. Mi-ser-is Ob-tin-git The numbers 8 denoted. each word being composed of three syllables. and that tripled. To take the half of the last half. shows which of the two numbers corresponding to each word has been chosen. For if the fourth half can be taken without adding one. is The half of the last half. . we find that the only corresponding word having an i in its second and third syllables is Ob-tin-git. . 4th case. we know by the rule. makes The half of tha triple. it is in the second column to . looking at the table. The three first are denoted by one of the eight following Latin words. that in the second and third case. 9. is 15 45 3rd case. Then. and the syllables containing the letter i corresponding in numerical order with the cases where the half cannot be taken without a fraction consequently. making ten. THE magician's OWN BOOK. as one had to be added in the fourth case. 2nd case The half of the triple is which tripled. the right. gives thirty. 1 being added to make an even number. to wliich is to be added one. 18 Here we to see. The words. in those cases the person who makes the deduction The fourth case is to add one to the number to be divided.210 4th. makes The half of the last triple.

the finger No. . 6. Multiply by 5 Add 10 the number denoting number the hand - - - Multiply by 10 the the of the finger joint - 7. These preliminaries having been arranged. : 1 Double the number of the person who has the ring in the case supposed. Observe. the number thought of will be fifteen and if one addition only be required at the fourth stage. &c. WHO WEARS THE KING ? This is an elegant application of the principles involved in discovering a number fixed upon. and the left hand two. 3. the fore finger being the second the joint nearest the extremity must be called the first joint the right hand is one. 6 II 2. . The wearer of the ring. The hand. 2. on the right hand. 2d. Add Add Add 5 3. - - 35 55 65 66 660 063 6630 6631 6666 . the number will be seven. and it is your object to discover 1st. The finger. and first joint your object is to discover the figures 3131. The joint. leave the room in order that the ring may be placed unobserved by We will suppose that the third person has the ring you. 4th. - 8.TRE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. 211 IS the one required. No 1 . and the joint He must will then in all cases . Desire one of the company to perform secretly the following arithmetical operations — . third finger. 4. 5. 6666 subtract from it 3535 in the present instance there will remain 3131. . 3. the thumb must be termed the first finger. Multiply by 10 10. figures now produced. Add Add number of the . The company being seated in order the persons must be numbered 1. 9. you apprise you of the. The number of persons participating in the game should not exceed nine. denoting the person No. Ong of them puts a ring on one of his fingers. this will produce . . 3. 3d. 1. the hand No. that if no addition be required at any of the four stages.

" Had he put on been more less butter. a capital work published b? Philadelphia. in a large number.212 THE magician's own book. When we throw a copper into the air. But fell upon the sanded floor. he does a comparativelj'safe business. As it is. but the average will be about right. we may readily mark the boundaries. We : " I never had a piece of bread. happening at times and points least expected but the insurer has learned by observation to estimate probabilities. we may pretty accurately estimate our chances. Death takes the young and the old. . speak of Chance as something without plan or design. the chances of "heads or tails. are equal. and studied the ages of those who have died. Parkes* Philosophy of Arithmetic. or an annual sum paid for life. the results will bo about equally divided. say a thousand. perhaps the sides would have equal in weight. or engage for a present sum. see accidents from fire and flood. When we . we are led to regard them as isolated incidents subject to no law or rule but could we see and understand the secret workings and connection existing between cause and effect. but the life insurer has conned the bills of mortality. In this case the sides of the coin must be equal in weight. and though one or the other may occur most frequently for a few throws. ma}'^ often shape the result but in the absence of these. else it will be like the grumbler's bread and butter . In one instance his estimate may fall short. Disturbing causes unknown to us. Particularly good and wide. until he can estimate at once the probability of duration of life. and the probability of the but- tered side being uppermost would have been increased. PROBABILITIES* look around us at results happening daily. but taking in a large range. We . of the causes of which we are ignorant." as the boys say. we might frequently discover that all works by rule. to pay the heirs at the death of the insured. And always on the buttered Bide. . and in another exceed. * From Moss & Bro. and determine what he can afford to pay for an annuity contingent on life. within which events must happen in very many instances and do much to estimate their probability. our calculations will approximate closely to the truth. and by taking a wide range of country and a period of years.

depends on the data in each case. o i. a i e o u y. &c. VARIATIONS. or. u y. we may take three. and it is reasonable to suppose that the numa time ber of possible changes may. we may arrange the six vowels. y u. as ao. fifteen thousand would be deducted at once. e i o u y. be calculated. u. When all are taken together. his estimates of probabilities are based on mathematical principles.THB MAG So. the data and calculates carefully the probabilities. oy. e a i o u y. It is true that in his good fortune he would not probably regard the abatement. or we may take only part at once. . The probabilities are always against the casual operator. even if all be conducted fairly what then must they be when fraud and dishonesty are superadded? It is downright swindling In lottery schemes generally. uy. as a. are three other variations. in a great number of ways. we may take all together. and it is not within the range of our present plan to attempt more than giving a general idea of the and this with any one of ordinary prudence. ai. or we may form them into groups. four. i o. are distinct combinations. will subject knows . . the C OF NUMBERS. o. is reserved as profit. It is obvious that if we have a number of single things arranged in any order. but this is a small part of what may be secured yet even this amounts to a great deal. all at . but that does not change the principle. io. too. a e. For instance. and though " luck" may sometimes be against him. If a man were to draw a prize nominally of $100. as above. I . the operation is called Permutation but if a part only be taken. . 213 man who deals in lotteries and games of chance. be sufficient to prevent all intermeddling with lotteries and every other species of gambling. How these chances are calculated. or. a e. in all cases. and in doing so. The doctrine of variations and combinations *brm8 tho eu. and he is secure in being ultimately the gaining party. .000. i. and are also considered one of the variations of two of which those six letters are susceptible e a. and he would be entitled to only $85. we may change the arrangement into a variety of forms. . five. but they are the same combinafor a change of order will constitute a new variation tions but not a new combination hence the number of variations will always exceed the number of combinations. &c. . . &c. fifteen per cent.000. it is called either a Variation or a Combination .. . y.

when taken 1 at a time. and each of the three may suc« cossively be placed first. How many changes can be made in the arrangement of 5 grains of corn. b and c. If th(nc were but one thing. bd. ac. for the last two will admit of two variations. cd. . 2 at a time.. " Combinations are the difierent ways in which a certain number of things can be selected out of a larger number. c. it would admit of but one position but if two. Example 1. b. figures. ca. as ab. but if there were but a single grain more. SiS a b c. c and d if we regard the order of the selected letters we shall find that these 4 letters are capable of 12 different permutations. 1X2X3 6 changes. but without regard to the order in which the selected numbers can be arranged among themselves.8i4 THE ma«3Ictan's own uook. as a. and 24 different changes of grouping. will be obvious on a little scrunity. the possible changes would be 720 and another would extend the limit to 5040 and so onward in a constantly increasing ratio. it would admit of two positions. and of other calculations used in practical life. and multiply by the successive terms of the natural series 1. ad. as a b. Ans. 3. the number being so great. da. . but sometimes involves a multitude of . in addition to this. as a b c. Thus 4 things can be taken 2 at a time in 6 different ways for instance. basis of many forms of lotteries. . and. and two changes made to each of . laid in Solution. ba. db. = This may seem improbable. = . all of different colors." which refers to the different ways in which a number can be selected out of one that is larger. a and b. The rule to compute the number of these different ways is very simple. or any other number each time. then they will admit of ab. ha. a ro w ? 1X2X3X4X5 120. b and d. a and d. d. dc. a cb. can be taken 2 at a time thus. COiTBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS. the letters a. be. however. If three things. 2. cb. a and c. to the different ways of grouping these selected numbers. To determine the number of permutations. If we selected 3 letters at a time we could make 4 different selections. until the highest multiplier shall express the number of individual things. The reason. commence with unity. The last product will indicate the number of possible changes. &c. The latter is the province of " Permutation.

the mind is lost in astonishment. What is my chance of success worth? Ans. When we consider that this would require a period of The story 9935. I am offered $10 to draw the cards successively. Uf cents. and the combination is of the 4th class and. I have put into the wheel as many cards as I can put 4 letters of the word Charleston on. The number of permutations of four individual things is 1 X 2 X 3 X 4=i24. is thrown into the shade and we incline to doubt whether there is not some mistake and yet on just such chances as one to all these. and having thrown them confusedly into a hat. 3. without having the same letters in the same order upon any two cards. we find the whole number of combinations of the 4th class which the word admits of is 210. according to the mode of determining combinations with repetitions. there will be 5 times as many changes as when there were but 4 . and $100 divided by 5040 gives Ans. In the same way we may show that if there be four individual things. so that 3X2=6. each one will be first in each of the six changes which the other three will undergo. of the man who bought a horse at a farthing for the first nail in his slioe. be ulaccd upon 78 cards. In order to form a lottery scheme.j5g5_ years.. there will be 6 times as many changes as when and so on ad infinitum. inclusive. Example 4. so as to spell the name correctly. 215 the others. and when 6. . . Suppose that the numbers from 1 to 78. I have written the letters contained in the word N I R D on 6 cards being one letter on each. in some order. according to the there are only 5 same law. there will be 24 changes in all. do gamblers constantly risk their money Example 3. . might show that when there are 5 individual things. and conseIn this way we quently. I M . and 210 X 24=5040 his chance of drawing them in the right order. I offer $100 to him who draws the card having on it the first four letters of the said word in their natural order (Char).800.628. and the cards placed in a wheel by . Then he has one chance in 210 of drawing the letters Char. a penny for the second. Example 2. What is the chance of drawing a prize worth ? There are 10 letters in the word. &c. In how many ways may a family of 10 persons seat themselves dififerently at dinner ? Ans. the number of possible changes. .THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. Ijg cents.

. ticket be worth ? Note. Of the 4 possibilities there is only one which favors the turning up of the obverse twice in successsion. . and that he who holds the ticket having on it the first three drawn numbers in their regular order. the general principle being to multiply successively together the independent probabilities of an event for the fraction expressing the chance of all the events happening. shall be entitled to what would the probability of drawing such a $100. and what the reverse ? Here there are only two possible cases.000 Ans. viz. by a person who has no means of Supposo choosing. Lotteries may be arranged on a great diversity of plans. having two faces what is the probability that the obverse (heads) side will fall upward. or having any two or one of the drawn numbers. containing each three of the 78 numbers. What is the probability of an event which A Ans j|-| and B assert. there being no reason why one side should fall uppermost rather than the other. 1 of the contingencies the probability of each will be 1 =J . hence the probability of either only \.il6 THE magician's OWN BOOK which they are thoroughly mixed . Reverse and obverse Reverse both times. and C 6 times in t. and the same is is true of the reverse. and one favors each . but no two having alt the same numbers. and the numbers on them registered. In like manner we might show that the probability of the obverse presenting upwards three times in succession will be -J. It is usual also. Obverse and reverse Obverse both times : . and in each the probability of drawing prizes will vary. and C denies ? Suppose a coin be thrown up. What would be the probability of either side presenting +1 upwards twice in two throws ? Here we have 4 possible cases. . to give smaller prizes to the holders of tickets having the numbers in any order. — . or ^-X-^^X^. A speaks the truth 3 times in 4 B 4 times in 5. 21 f^f ^ cents. and then 13 cards be successively drawn out. . also that tickets have been issued.

and that the visit should be repeated each day as long as a different trio could be selected. If Paterfamilias had granted such permission he would have had to wait 66 multiplied by 3x2x1. by the product of the latter. THE ARITHMETICAL TRIiNGLE. and divide the product of the former. before this " new series " of visits would have come to finis. So much gratified were they with the results of their agreement.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. in how many ways can 7 keys be struck in succession. 6 the result is 66. to be continued as many days as they could group 3 together in dififerent order when starting. so that there shall be some difference in the order of the notes each time The result of multiplying the ? 7X6X5X4X3X2X1 is 5. 'd. HOW MyVNT CHANGES CAN BE GIVEN TO 7 NOTES OF A PliNO! That is to say. This name has been given to a contrivance said to have originated with the famous Pascal. number of changes. 336.040. 2 . a different three going each time. or to have been perfected by him. THE VISITORS TO THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 21t In a family consisting of 8 young people. We . and also 3x2x1. that they wished to be allowed another series of visits. it was agreed that 3 at a time should visit the Crystal Palace. the number of visits. or 336 days. In how many days were the possible combinations of 3 out of 8 completed ? must multiply 8x7x6.

3 to the 3d. Rosa. i. in order that the distribution of articles and of counters may be made unobserved by you. also a continued multiplication of 13X12X11X10X9X8X1X6X5X4X3X2X1. e. 2 to the 2d. having been distributed between three persons. then the 1st will take four times as many counters as he has the 2d will take as many as (1). Place the remaining 18 on the table. and will therefore take 4 . and give 1 to the first person. is a very short one by logarithms. Emily. taking any number at a time out of a larger number. HOW MANY DrPPERENT DEALS CAN BE MADE WITH this 13 CARDS OUT OF 521 we must make a continued multiplication of52X 51 X 50 X 49X 48 X 47 X 46X 45 X 44 X 43X42X41X40. natural figures. tso . Provide 24 counters. and on as far as you wish. i. THE MAGICl. Three articles. the second has Clara (a). and the quotient is the number of different deals out This " sum. or three names inscribed on cards. This is the second vertical row. This triangle has the property of informing us. THE THREE GRACES. e. will take as many counters as he may have already the holder of e must take twice as many as he may have and the holder of i must take four times as many. having done so. you are to tell which article or card each person has. as 1st.uN'S OWN BOOK. the person who has the one which you have secretly denoted by a. . and the third has Rosa (e). Suppose also that in the division the first person has Emily (i). under the 3 4 and 6 are 10. and the third is formed from the second in a similar way. . Designate the three persons in your own mind. Request that the three persons will distribute among themselves the three articles. and that. and 3d. To discover being 13 terms for the 13 cards. we must divide one by the other. 2d. how many combinations can be made. look for the third number this is 66.218 . which you will yourself secretly denote by the letters a. Suppose the question were that just given how many On the selections can be made of 3 at a time out of 8 ? horizontal row commencing with 8. . Then leave the room. on which are the words Clara. which place under ihe U. and the three articles. . a. and- having found the two products." that looks so formidable with of 52 cards. which is the answer. without the trouble of calculation. We will suppose that the three articles are three cards.

and i. charming she in all up by the inventor of Salve certa they prefer Latin. It is plain that if the cards held by the 1st and 2d can be told. The performer must mentally distinguish the articles by the letters a. from which you can find who is the holder of each card by the following method. being twice as many as he has (3). ai admires pain — 4 5 6 7 ei ia a a ie bride. In order to recollect the combinations of a. Our young friends can amuse themselves in forming a sentence for themselves. that held by the 3d will be known. and 3d. the 2d has a (Clara). Emma. will return and observe the number of counters on the table. it will be best to keep in memory some 7 words which form a sentence. circles. 3. 7 never Now the 6 combinations of a. 12 3 ae ea easy fear.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. James Anger. 5. The persons having made their choice. you left 6 counters. represent the 2d persons. 219 he has (2). the combination ia indicates that the first person has the card you have called i (Emi'y). 4. . and 36 to the 3d. 6 counters being on the table. and will therefore take 2 the 3d will take 6. c. and which contain these vowels in the order just given. so that the 3d has E (Rosa). if now reigning with may be hid with reigns smile. e. Then request the 1st person to add together the half of the counters of the person who has chosen a. e. On the table will be The distribution having been made. viz. articles held by the 7 ie 1st and 12 3 ai ae ea — 4 5 ei 6 ia In the case supposed. 2. and never more than T. give 12 counters to the 1st. the 3d of the person who has chosen b. b. but as examples we supply three. 24 to the 2d. here given. AKOTHER METHOD. It will be found that only six numbers can remain. and i. . and the persons as 1st. Graceful Or. they can use the pentameter this beautiful pastime made 12 : 3 5 6 7 animse semita vita quies. 6. 2d. . 1.

and then ask the sum. as in the following table : 'irst. which must be either 23.220 THE magician's own book. 28. 24. or 29. 25. and the 4th of those of the person who has chosen c. 2*1. .

5. 23 ae 24 ai 25 ea — We 26 2T ia 28 ei 29 ie If you make up a line of good (or bad) English. not liking the apples. earth's final fate 21 21 3112 —enigma ever dark 23 2 122 1 1 Our dear Richard's 46 3 1 tale begins at the sea. having gone to visit a good-natured uncle. and all the apples will remain. He. sharp youth. recollc<t€d by the following line &c. and to recollect the six which do occur. was about to take the fifteen oranges. 1. The clever fellow ranged them in such a way as that. fresh from school. and desired his 3'oung friend to take half. A representing apples. all the apples were left on the table. 1 2 3 2 21 . and it ^o^^^4 ^ ^ ^ ^ will be found that. THE FORTUNATE NINTH. by commencing at the K^4 ^^y four apples. How did he arrange them ? He placed them as in the margin. the arrangement of the figures 4. and all the oranges were transferred to his capacious pockets. you will find it will aid you in their recollection. give one as a specimen : ae ai ea — ia ei ie Brave dashing sea. but this monopoly of the best fruit being objected to. and oranges. like a giant revives itself. you need take note only of what the 1st and 2d persons have. and to take every ninth. ^S^ » 1> lO A ^ ^^ *^VooO If we let the vowels a e i o u denote the figures 12 3 4 5. can be easily : Our 45 or. and there is a definite number for each of them. all ^ n ^. 221 Th3 sum which will be given to you can be one of six There are only six ways in which the articles can be only. and going round and round -«o the circle.A the oranges will be removed.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. the old gentleman told him to range all the fruit in a circle. The number 26 can never occur. the latter placed on a table fifteen fine oranges and fifteen apples. divided. by taking away every ninth.. taking away every ninth. and which you perceive are consecutive. having the vowels in the order here given. 2.

Here are ten cards. you can determine its number. . though our readers will perhaps prefer having words of their own selection.S22 THE magician's OWN BOOK. THE TEN card. but the last word on each card must commence with certain letters which you must in your own mind associate with the numbers 1 to 10. words there is Jane. find Our young friends may themselves as amusement TENS. Take ten pieces of . so that by knowing the initial letter of the last word on each card. in forming lines for much superior to these as possible. (call these the Selecting Cards j) which we give by way of example. a7:d upon each write any ten no restriction as to the initial letter of nine of the words.

4th. During the siege of Sebastopol. Let another card contain all the words which are second from the top. and request him to show you the cards which contain the words he fixed upon. The object of the game is to guess which of the worda from any of the selecting cards any person may have fixed upon. Ellen." a can of eight pints of porter waa ordered to be equally divided between two messes. the fourth from the top. Daisy. 4. and after he has fixed upon a word. Jane. by the aid of the key word. carefully note the last word upon it.cards. Clay. we give the 1st and 4th grouped cards. for the number of the word from the top on the grouped card is the same as the number of the selecting card. Putnam. Sister. Ambition Scott. choice. the number of the card this you must keep secret. but having only a five pint can. Isabel. Robert. give it back to you. Ralph. is the name he fixed upon. Aunt. Rose. when he shows you the grouped card. James. 223 upon one write down the first word from each of tne selecting. from which he made his . You can then announce the word. Let any one choose a card out of the selecting cards.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. Fulton. George. Newton. 1st. being careful to write them in the same order. till One of th^ . when the troops were on " short allowance. As an example. which will give you. when receiving it. and you then give him all the grouped cards. you will know that Ralph. which he says contains the selected word. Suppose he made his choice from the card which has Theodore for its last word this is No. and so on till all the words have been grouped together. Benton. Friendship. it was found impossible to make this division. Sarah. — DIVIDIXG THE BEER. and one which held three pints.

1. the contents of the bottles were 1. 5-pt. Transfer the 2 pints from the 5-pint to the 3-pint 6. Filled the 5-pint from the 8-pint 6. On duced the next visit of the youth to his uncle. 1. Fill up the 3-pint from the 5-pint I. Filled the 3-pint can from the 5-pint 3. Filled the 6-pint can 2. but he had nothing to measure it. one of T How did he contrive to put 6 pints. 3. Poured the 3 pints into the 8-pint. a bottle containing 1 2 pints of wine. pints into the *I-pint bottle ? A gentleman had of which he was desirous 12-pt. and offered him tho . 6. completing the feat The 8 3 3 6 6 1 5 2 2 5 3 2 2 3 14 4 4 This was a dexterous expedient of the worthy sapper. clever sappers suggested the following method. THE DIFFICULT CASE OF WINE. 6. Pour the contents of the 3-pint into the 8-pint 4. and the other of 5. 12. the 5-pint Emptied the 5-pint into the T-pint Filled again the 5-pint from the 12-pint Filled up the 1-pint from the 5 Emptied the 7-pint into the 12-pint Poured the 3 pints from the 5 into the 7 Filled the 5-pint from the 12-pint Filled up the t-pint from the 5-pint Emptied the 7-pint into the 12-piut Poured 1 pint from the 5-pint into the t-pint Filled the 5-pint from the 12-pint Poured the contents of the 5-pint into the 7-pint filled He 5 5 2 2 9 9 4 4 11 11 6 6 5 7 5 3 3 5 1 1 3 3 7 1 15 6 ANOTHER DECIMATION OF FRUJT. 12 7 1 2. Before he commenced. 7-pt. 3-pt.224 THE magician's own book. 4. we will put down the contents of each of the three cans at each stage of the process. 8-pint can full. 6 of giving to a friend. 10. and. and the others empty. 9. the only objections to it being the time the thirty men had to Wait. the latter prothirty apples and ten oranges. 5-pt. 3. commencing with 8 pt. II. and the resulting flat condition of the beer. to understand it. except two other bottles.

in Persia. Full. S25 if could arrange them in an oval. so that bj. Full A Hf. full. Hf. and 7 apparently just emptied. ST. and the same quantity of wine. 8 8 half-full. 24. Empty. Hf. 21. full. and Full. 8. full. 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 full. full. Table. Empty. 22. But A* this he could not accomplish. This being agreed to. Full. Table. . A produced 6 loaves. and in such a manner that each table had the same number of bottles. 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 4 Also with 27 bottles. 12. being "OAOAAAAAAAA^"^ well versed in the " Recreations in Science. 9 Table. certain hotel-keeper was dexterous in contrivances to produce a large appearance with small means. 7 half full. full. 36.taking every twelfth /^ A the apples should remain. 34. and 8 empty Table.: THE MAQIO OP NUMBERS. 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 1 1 I Empty 3 3 1 fall. 1 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 THE THREE TRAYELERS. and two of them brought their provision along with them." preceded to arrange them thus: The places which the oranges here occupy can be easily lemembered. Empty. Full. and B 3 loaves* 10* . He did this in two ways: Table. Empty. 5 He also performed a similar exploit with 24 bottles. 9 empty: Hf. between which he could divide 21 bottles. Hf. proposed to the others that they should eat together. 11. Table. but the third not having provided any. 1 2 3 9 half-full. being Nos. and he would pay the value of his proportion.^OOAAOOAA/^^ favorite oranges. Three men met at a caravansary or inn. 7. Full. of which 7 only were full. In the dining-room were three tables. according to the custom of the country. his nephew \ 8 THE WINE AND THE TABLES. full. and the old gentleman. Empty. Hf.

of which the travelers ate together. who decided impartially. and number them them in two rows. but quarreled about the division of it. and C paid 8 pieces as the value of his share.2f=^ furnished by B. each one ate 2f loaves of the bread he furnished. with which the others were satisfied. as at A B. What was his decision ? At first sight it would seem that the money should be divided according to the bread furnished.! 220 all THE magician's oWx\ book. to 16 A B . of money WHICH COUNTER HAS BEEN THOUGHT A-rrange OF OUT OF SIXTEEN 1 Take sixteen pieces of card. hence 2^ to -^=1 to 1. and 3. is the ratio in which the money is to be divided. and C to consume all. This from 5 would leave 2^ loaves furnished the stranger by A. Upon this the matter was referred to the judge. as the 3 ate 8 loaves. If you imagine A and B to furnish. then the division will be according to amounts furnished. but we must consider that.

You will be informed that the number is in row H. or from corner to corner. must be carried along that line of squares. . we place 5. They are divided into three principal classes 1st. . in which numbers are placed in such a manner that every column of numbers. where the reader sees it. we look for direction io th« : Then attend 1st. Thus. 3d. shall amount to the same sum. : . . and divide again two rows. it wculd be at the top after four transpositions.) 2 would fall into the exterior square above the fourth vertical line it must be therefore carried down to the lowest square of that line then. horizontal. ascending obliquely 3 falls into the square. Place one row under the other. Imagine an exterior line of squares above the magic square you wish to form. into MAGIC SQUARES. Those which have an even number of squares in each band. and another exterior line on the right hand of it These two imaginary lines are shown in the figure. by pursuing this direction. to the last square.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. Those which have an odd number of squares in each band 2d. to the end of a horizontal line. . and you may then announce it to be the top number of that row. which will now be as G H. Where this even number being divisible exactly by 4 the even number of squares in each band cannot be divided by 4 without a fraction. is given to a square divided into several smaller squares. whether vertical or horizontal. and there placed. as at N. Squares of this kind are formed thus. Resuming our oblique ascension to the right. but four falls out of it. whether vertical. and it must be carried along that line to the extreme left. 228. (see the first table on p. but finding it occupied by 1. to the two following rules In placing the numbers in the squares we must go in an ascending oblique direction from left to right any number which. . and would place 6 in the middle of the top band. The name "Magic Square" ODD ItAGIC SQUARES. would fall into the exterior line. 1 having been placed in the center of the top line. The number thought of will always be at the top of one of If there were 32 counters the rows after three transpositions.

.S28 THB MAGICIAN*S OWN BOOK.

we must place the number. and 24 scholars the rooms around it. Then 4 more "chums" were admitted . however large in the number of compartments. boys were on the premises. and none has contributed so much as "the model of practical wisdom. THE SQUAEE OF GOTHAM. and found three in each. give opposite. when four had gone out . thought all was right. 3 being in each. once undertook the management of a school . The invention of these contrivances has been traced back to the early ages of science. 6. and it was determined To assure themselves that all the to set a strict watch. we come to a square already occupied. and talismanic properties were attributed to them. can be easily filled up by attending to these two rules.THE MAGIC OP NUMBERS. and the wise men soon after visited the rooms. when in ascending obliquely. on their third round. it was suspected that the boys were in the habit of playing truant. which according to the first lule should go into that occupied square. suspicions had been unfounded. because the square next to 5 in an oblique direction is " engaged. and so came to an opinion that their previous . The four boys then came back. The wise men of Gotham. which prescribes that. a seven-placed square. Modern philosophers have amused We . There are various other kinds of magic squares but explanations of them would be too lengthy for our work. finding still 9 in each row. or 9 in each row. Four boys then went out. entertained no suspicion of what had taken place. Franklin. In spite of the strictness of discipline. at the commencement cf the wotch J the second. they visited the rooms. but the clever men. 229 2d Rule. on examining the establishment a fourth time. famous for their eccentric blun- ders. they arranged their establishment in the form of a square divided into 9 rooms. directly under the last numThus." Dr.'^ Magic squares of this class. still found 9 in each r3w. . in ascending with 4. the . the 6 must be ber placed placed directly under the 5. 6. How was all this possible ? The following figures represent the contents of each room at the four different visits the first. and finding 9 in each row. themselves in bringing them to perfection. The playground occupied the center. accompanied by four strangers and the Gothamites.

when these i. . accompanied by another 4. when 4 more had joined them. THE Magician's own book ed .230 third. had returnand the fourth.

13 can only be divided by 1 but deducting 1.296. take 357. If any row of two or more figures be reversed and subtracted from itself. 36x36=216. example. For — . The rule is invariable. 6 and 3 are 9. all the first multiples of 9. . 25 example. 54. the figures composing the remainder. as 18. and multiply by 5 the answer is 1785. Multiply 648 by itself. Now. the remainder can be divided by 6 for 7—1 = 6. — . multiply 464 by 5. 1 and 8 are 9. and the sum will consist of figures which. On dividing 357 by 2. 1. .THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. and so always. the figures sum up 18. and where there is a remainder. Thus 5x5=25 25x25 = 125. and the second quotient by itself. .552. . 8 and 1 are 9. continually number 9. and as there is no remainder you add a cipher. the figures sum up 18. and the result is again 1785.717. To multiply by 2 is the same as to multiply by 10 and divide by 5. Again. Take any number whatever and multiply it by 9 or any multiple of 9. 45. the product is 419. Each of them multiplied by any number whatever produces a similar result as 8 times 81 are 648. 36.159. 125X125=625. — . 27. the answer will be 2320 divide the same number by 2. a unit. will give the same result if divided by 2 a much quicker operation than the former but you must remember to annex a cipher to the answer where there is no remainder. and so on. If you multiply 5 by itself. 81. &c. 216x216= . added togethei the product is 27. As 17X18=306. continually makes 9.422. the last figure will constantly be 6 thus. 87. and a remainder you therefore place 5 at the right of the line.8 and 1 are 9 4591x72=330. 5 + 1 = 6 1 =24. these added together make 18. Thus. Again. added together. annex a 5 to the answer. 17-f 1 = 18 19—1=18. and so on. will. there is 178. the last figure of each quotient will always be 5. be a multiple of nine r — . 231 For instance. and you have 232. sum up 9 each. and the quotient again by itself. 2 and 7 are 9.363x54=4. if you proceed in the same manner with the figure 6. 117X27=3. .904 the sura of these digits is 27. after . 72. There is something more curious in the properties of the number 9. . 63. Any number of figures you may wish to multiply by 5. . 6X6=36. Any number multiplied by 9 produces a sum of figures which. added together. or 2 and 7 are 9. when added horizoDtally.

5. and it be required to find a multiplier which shall give the product all in 2. each figure of which shall be the Bame. 4. '•1 61 divided by 9 of these figures. the multiplier &c. added together. the first figure of the dividend. which will give a product. 886 688 826 1623 18-9X2. 9^600.— 232 42 24 THE magician's OWN BOOK. make 18. and that number will be the required multiplier. be formed of the digits in their regular a multiplier maj^ be found by a rule. Thus if 12345679 be given. Thus. omitting the 198-9x2. the product can also be divided bv 9. 27. as this : : . the 2 multi3 multiplied by 9 gives plied by 9 gives 18. the quotient will be composed of one figure only. the amount . namely. — : : 12345679 18 12345679 27 12345679 36 74074074 37037037 98765432 12345679 222222222 86419753 24691358 333333333 444444444 is The rule by which the multiplier which we do not attempt to explain) is discovered (but Multiply the last figure (the 9) of the multiplicand by the figure of which you wish the product to be composed.000 9)40. If the sum 549 is multiplied by any fi. which is divisible by 9.444-4 9)549 any sum of figures can be divided by 9 as. be divided by 9. when it was required to have the product composed of 2.000 66. 1638-9x2. with a number of ciphers attached to it. that if if in 3.^'-iu<'. 9. can be :— thus. 8. the multiplier to give the product in 3 If a figure. the multiplier will be 27 multiplier will be 18 all 4. when added together.666-6 If 4. If a multiplicand order. it will be 36 and so forth.

in any order he likes you will then.. being shown. divided by loaves a remainder of 1 you. is 19 . 9 will enable the young arithmetician to perform an amusing trick. want 8 to complete another 9 8. and deduct the sum that thus. 9)3294 366 thus. 233 549 6 And the amount of the figures of the product can also be divided by 9 . be multiplied 43. is the number erased. Any series of numbers that can be divided by 9. when added together. 472.934 by In the same manner. but 19. These properties of the figure 999. by the assistance of the knowledge of the above properties of 9.326 4. . Thus.934 38. as 365. 21 9232 the numbers returned to you will be . and the multiplier is six if then. The order of these component figures is reversed after the said number has been multiplied by 5. &c. suppose 365.754. 8 is stuck out. to multiply by 99. then. therefore.821.472 are 6 the numbers chosen. quite sufficient to excite the wonder of the uninitiated. and to let you know the figures which remain. three ciphers. : . &c. add two ciphers . a person may be requested to multiply secretly either of these series by any figure he pleases. . to strike out one number of the quotient. 19 The amount of these numbers 9. easily declare the number which has been 365472 erased. 2)18 9 To multiply by is to 9.326 Produces the same result as 9 38. The component figures of the product made by the multiplication of every digit into the number 9.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. : add a cipher.260 4. make Nine.

and at the bottom a frog anxious to get out. — . 6. but regularly Required the number of days fell back 2 feet at night. make 27 that is. or multiples of 9 (viz. . 9. and 37 so. again. 9. He got up 3 feet per day. is 81 The said number 81. and the next day he would get out. The amount of the first product (viz. and the result may be known beforehand by merely inspecting the .880 which figures. or multiples of 9 (viz. 24. . 9. thus. 2-|-7=Nine. gives for a quotient 54 : that is. 15. if divided by 9. . necessary to enable him to get out ? The frog appears to have cleared one foot per day. The amount by the several products. 3.880. . divided by 9. will be 40. he would be 27 feet up. 45. And the quotient of 362. + progressive numbers. whose respective component figures make which is the square of Nine. 405) when divided by 9. when added to the above mentioned amount of the several products. . . 45 that (viz.. 405) makes 486 which. 12. added together. that is 4 If number 37 be multiplied by any of the progressive numbers arising from the multiplication of 3 with any of the units. and 37 multiplied by 12 is equal to 444. gives for a quotient. 4 +5= Nine. 4 multiplied by multiplied by 9 is equal to 222 3 produces 12. It is also observable.) is. The component figures of the amount of the multipliers when added together. 27. THE INDUSTRIOUS FROG There was a well 30 feet deep. 18. 5-|-4=NiNE. arc the progressive numbers formed by 3 multiplied by the and the result of the multiplication of any of units 1 to 9 these numbers with 37 may be seen in the following examples :— 37X3=111 37x6=222 37x12=444 37x24= by which it appears that the numbers of which the 888 quotient is formed are the same as the units by which number 3 was multiplied to obtain the respective progressive numbers. . &c. that the number of changes that may be rung on nine bells is 362.) when added to the other product. . . 0+34-2+0=NiNE. make Nine. the figures in the quotient will be similar.320 . 21. would therefore be 28 days getting out. or within 3 He feet of the top. and at the end of 27 days. . and 80 on. Thus 3 multiplied by 2 is equal to 6.234 THE magician's own book.

and the ten by K. suppose the person had thought of 3 C. and touched 6 F tlaen. or the first ten playing cards of any suit disposed in a circular Ton cards form may be employed with great convenience for performing this feat. and so on.. the number be 16 touched. By counting in this manner. showing that the person thought of 3. and assigning it the number of the card he thought of. THE magio of numbers. towards E D B C A. or the ace. number one. beginning at the card he touched. D six. Talking. . . in the retrograde order. numbeied from one to ten. Two travelers trudged along the road together. that number will terminate at C. Then desire him to count the sum in an order contrary to that of the natural numbers. Request him then to add to the number of the card touched the number of the cards employed. A greater or less number of cards or counters may be employed at pleasure but in every instance the whole number of cards must be added to the number of the card touched. which in this case is ten. to touch any other card or number. . if ]0 be added to 6. he will end at the number or card he thought of. designated by A. about the weather . E five. the number thought of. 235 or counters. the number which corresponds to C. The accompanying figure shows the cards thus arranged. as Yankees do. Thus. for example. and so round to sixteen. 3 C 2B 1 D4 A 10 K 9 1 E5 F 6 G7 H 8 in the above order. desire a bystander to think of a card or number. and when he has done so. and consequently you will immediately Having placed the cards know it. counting F three. the sum will and if that number be counted from F. THE TWO TRAVELERS. THE COUNCIL OF T£I^.

neither less nor more. lo beside their path the foremost spies Three casks. " I see This is eight gallons. . and from that the three-gallon barrel. And had a smattering of hydrostatics : I ! . Then measured lie — . : . but the other full. can you ? The five-gallon barrel was filled first. and loud exclaims " A prize. and said. filled up the three. say. and each went home content. And thus in time they found their prize was brandy. and five. This way and that they gazed. A heavy stone lay handy. friend. And their good dames declared 'twas excellent. With eight. Two they find empty. and three they puzzle sore. therefore leaving four gallons in the five-gallon barrel. So to the barrels they at once drew near. and all around. . but all of various size. which was then emptied into the eight-gallon barrel. Each wondering if an owner might be found But not a soul was there the coast was clear. and the two gallons poured from the the five-gallon barrel into the empty three-gallon barrel five-gallon barrel was then filled. in vain Filled up the five At length a happy thought came o'er the brain Of one 'twas done." 23(1 THE magician's own book. And both agree whatever may be there I When. *' Won't we have many a jolly night. the casks. one gallon in the eight-gallon barrel. With those three casks they made division true I found the puzzle out. And straightway from his pocket one doth pull A large clasp-knife. those are five and three. and three gallons in the three-gallon barrel. and one gallon poured into the three-gallon barrel." The question then was how they might divide The brandy.T. Thus each person had four gallons of brandy in the eight and five-gallon barrels respectively. two small. my boy May no ill luck our present hopes destroy 'T was fortunate one knew the mathematics. their lips they smack.hus leaving two gallons in the five-gallon barrel the three-gallon barrel was then emptied into the eight-gallon barrel. a prize 1" One large. 'Tis tasted and approved And each pronounces 't is the famed Cognac. — : In friendly partnership they'll fairly share. so that each should be supplied With just four gallons. .

To conceal the artifice better. such as 8. and if the whole sum be odd. . hand a piece of gold. It may be readily seen. the gold will be in the right hand. as 3 then bid him add together the two products. : THB MAGIC OF NUMBERS. and in which the silver." replied the philoso: . such as three. one of whom has the even number. by the following method Some value. 237 and if 60 If from 6 you take 9. AEITHMEnCAL PUZZLE. you may tell in which hand he has the gold. instead of being in the two hands of the same person. as are performed in regard to the two hands of the same person. or piece of gold. represented by an even number. or piece of silver. THE PHUOSOPHER'S PUPILS. and the silver in the left if the sum be even. and in the other a piece of silver. must be assigned to the silver after which. The same operations may then be performed in regard to these two persons. calling the one privately the right. and seventh added to three shall be equal to itself. fourth. h^w many pupils frequent thy school ? " " One half. From SIX Take IX I From IX Take I X From XL Take L X THE MONET GAME. manner who stated the question in the following "Tell us. and in the contrary case odd. there will just half a dozen remain. and the other the left. To find a number of which the half. the contrary will be the case. it will be suflScient to ask whether the sum of the two products can be halved without a remainder for in that case the total will be even.. and that in the left by an odd number. must be assigned to the gold . and from 9 you take 10 from 40 be taken. A person . Remains. and a value represented by an odd number. ANSWER. that the pieces. may be supposed to be in the hands of two persons. such as 2. This was a favorite problem among the ancient Grecian arithmeticians. . illustrious Pythagoras. and the other the odd number. desire the person to multiply the number in the right hand by any even number whatever. having in one .

. The extraction of the square root of any number takes some time and after all your labor you may perhaps find that the number is not a square number. A SQUAEE NUMBER. she had three A countrywoman carried eggs to . how many additional hurdles would he have occasion for ? Answer. where she had three guards to pass. one fourth natural philosophy. can be divided is . for how can half an egg be sold without breaking any of the eggs ? The possibility of this seeming any of the eggs? . and half an egg more what remained. if any. capable of holding 100 sheep only supposing he wanted to make it sufficiently large to hold double that number. THE magician's own book. sold to the first guard half the number to the second. 4 multiplied by 4 is equal to 16. and 25 divided by 4 leaves a remainder of 1 . Two. one seventh observe silence. When she arrived at the market-place. the half of she had." The answer is. 16. To save this trouble. A — . .238 pher. or 9. and half an egg besides and to the third guard she sold the half of the remainder. or with two cyphers. and there are three females besides. There were 24 hurdles on each side of the pen a hurdle at the top. that if it be divided by 4. and another at the bottom so that. will be 1 thus. it is worth knowing that every square number ends either with a 1. 5. 28 : 14 + 7 + 4 + 3=28. by moving one of the sides a little back. and placing an additional hurdle at the top and bottom. preceded by one of these numbers. and half another egg. TO DISCOVER the multiplication of any number into itself thus. a garrison. . dozen still to sell . the remainder. . being a square number. and 16 is consequently a square number. 4 being the square root from whicii it springs. and again. how was It this possible. Another property of a square number is. the square of 5 is 25. 6. without breaking would seem at the first view that this is impossible. THE SHEEP-POLD. 4. "study mathematics. farmer had a pen made of 50 hurdles. COUNTRYWOMAN AND EGGS. the size of the pen would be exactly doubled. A square number a number produced by — by 4 without leaving a remainder.

17.THE MAGIC OP NUMBERS. The longest ODD OR EVEN Every odd number multiplied by an odd number produces an odd number every odd number multiplied by an even number produces an even number and every even number multiplied by an even number also produces an even numSo. ^ ^ J ii \^ u \l ^. 18. 16. by selling to that guard 148. The whole twenty are rubbed out at five times. 19. 1. of of course. as a triangle cannot be formed unless any two of the lines are longer than the third. if once seen. 10. when it is considered. again. This is a catch question. When the countrywoman passed the first guard. that is. I 6 g gin again. . 3. 15. that by taking the greater half of an odd number. 239 impossibility will be evident. as 20. THE IMPOSSIBLE TRIANGLE side of a triangle is 100 rods . 4.^ i| a trick which. 17th. an even number added to an even number. ber. and rub out these and proceed again. 9. 7. as in the margin Then begin and count backwards. and 1st. HOW TO KUB OUT TWENTY CHALKS AT FIYE TDOS. she had 147 remaining she disposed of 74. then rub out and lastly say. or long upon a board. 13. . rub out these four and be. 8. 9th. This is = . we take the exact half -f--^. then proceed say. this trick. 2. you must make twenty chalks. 12. when these these . produce an . it 19 ^^ not occurring immediately to the mind to begin to rub them out backwards. and every time an odd one. . after selling 37 out of 74 to the last guard. RUBBING OUT EYEEY TBIE AN ODD ONE. It is as simple as any thing possibly can be. and each of Required the value of the grass at $5 the other sides 50. 14. which is the major half of 147 and. ZHZ four are rubbed out. J rub out these four . may be easily retained and the puzzle at first is. per acre. 11. 13th. which is fche had 295 eggs to the second guard the half +^. : To do strokes. 6. . she had still three dozen remaining. 8 ing. 5. 6th. and an odd number added to an odd number. .

and an even number in the other. not having broken any. and 4 in the left hand. the last figure of which. THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. in the left hand thus. AND THE SAMB WHEN COUNTED IN TEN FILES HORIZONTALLY. supposing there are 5 counters in the right hand. 4x3=12. Desire the party to multiply the number in the right hand by an even number. and the odd number will consequently be in the right hand. while an odd and even number added even number together produce an odd number. . the odd number will be in the right hand and if odd. you have 10+12=22. thus 6X2=10. . which was the squire's. . 2. THE OLD WOMAN AND HER EGGS. wishing to oblige her neighbors. Required— Ans. : IKE FIGURES. multiply 5 by 2. then add the two sums together. *^ p O o o '^ Each of these ten columns. makes 605. WHEN COUNTED IN TEN COLUMNS PERPENDICULARLY. and tell you the last figure of the product if it is even. and half a one over she returned with one egg in her basket.240 . ARRANGED SO AS TO MAKE 505 IN EACH COLUMN. she left half the number of eggs she had and half a one over at the second she left half of what remained and half an egg over and at the third she again left half of the remainder. an old woman who possessed some remarkably good-laying hens. UP TO 100. when added up. and that in the left hand by an odd number. If any one holds an odd number of counters in one hand. to . (=1 10 o "^ d 00 (D ~ JS a. . sent her daughter round with a basket of eggs to three of them . is even. and 4 by 3. at the first house. 16 eggs. and then adding 10 to 12. . . At a time when eggs were scarco. the number she set out with. it is not difficult to discover in which hand the odd or even number is.

THE MATHEMATICAL FORTUNE TELLER. write in the figures neatly and legibly. bers not to exceed 60. and having ruled them the same as the following diagrams. How is this done ? by any person.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. It is required to tell the number thought the numbers being contained in the cards. 241 Procure six cards. and such num- 3 .

2. . the cards with 2 and 8 in the corners will be given. and.242 THE magician's own book.. therefore. 48 will be produced. be added. and the second figure. beginning with 1. which will give the correct answer. THE DICE GUESSED UNSEEN. and the second figure 3. 4. to find the number of points Tell the person who cast on each die without seeing them. in the present case. there be added 5. : . and add 5 to it then to multiply the sum produced by 5. the numed. die. suppose 10 is the number thought of. desire him to tell you the amount. if a pint contain 9216 grains of wheat. to the left. and the sum produced. &c. having thrown out 25. 8. . and that of the other 3 then. be multiplied by 5. 16. from which if 25 be subtractthe first figure of which is 2. who was well acquainted with the science of numbers. for it will be found by calculation that the mense sixty -fourth term of the double progression divided by 1. the remainder will be a number consisting of two figures. may be obtained by doubling the last term. to which. the number on the other. The num ber of the grains of w lie at. the number on the other. 9. is the number of points on the first die. the dice to double the number of points upon one of them. if to four. For example : together. only requested that the monarch would give him a quantity of wheat equal to that which would arise from one grain doubled sixty-three The value of the reward was imtimes successively. assuring him it should be granted. Suppose the number of points of the first die which comes up to be 2. 32. Now. Thus to the right. the first of which. The courtier. A . the product will be 45 . But the gum of all the terms of a double progression. the double of the points of the first. a gallon will con* . if 3. A . which makes the answer 10. sovereign being desirous to confer a liberal reward on one of his courtiers. desired him to ask whatever he thought proper. is 9223372036854775808. and to add to the product the number of points upon the other This being done. THE SOYEREIGN AND THE SAGE. the number of points on the other die. pair of dice being thrown. will be 18446744073709551615. 23 will remain ber of points on the first die. and so on with the others. who had performed some very important service. and subtracting from it 1.

if the latter take and so on. . he must take 2 8. and which in value would exceed all the riches. as eight gallons make one bushel. . ." Between two persons who are equally acquainted with the game. perhaps. . on the globe. Let us suppose that the first person. The first and whatever number will then take 1. it would make " and 10 make 90. 3^ and 2^ making in all 20. what means can one of them infallibly attain to that number before the other ? Two The whole artifice in this consists in immediately making choice of the numbers 1. half as many more. when he met a man who said to him. THE CERTAIN GAME. . if we ditaiu 13728 vide the above result by eight times 73728 we shall have 31274997411295 for the number of the bushels of wheat equal to the above number of grains. makes choice of 1 it is evident that his adversary. can at most reach 11." How many eheep had he ? He had 7 sheep as many more 7 half as many more. he must take 3 lowing this method he will infalliblj^ attain to 89. but if I had as many more. " Good morning. by adding 10 to it. a quantity greater than what the whole surface of the earth could produce in several years. provided he continually add the number which forms the complement of that of his adversary to 11 that is to say. and his adversary would finish by saying 100. numbers less than a given number. "I have not a score. . such as 100. and it will then be impossible for the second to prevent him from get< ting first to 100 for whatever number the second takes he can attain only to 99 after which the first may sa}^ " and 1 makes 100." said the shepherd. 11. By folif 9.— THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. for example. . and two sheep and a half. . 12." If the second take 1 after 89. I should have just a score. friend. as he must count less than 11. 243 and. up to 100. ." "No. 23. 34. who knows the game. — . with your score. alternately. persons agree to take. or of a series which continually increases by 11. THE KNOWING SHEPHERD. shepherd was going to market with some sheep. . which will make 12 the second may add the first will certainly win. A : . he who begins must necessarily win. and so on. and to add them together Bj*" till one of them has reached a certain sum.

MAGICAL CENTURY. easily settled. be multiplied by any one of the nine digits. he would have received but S4. THE ASTONISHED FARMER. which he sold as lefore. . and they have received $20 B still has 10 which he sells at " 2 for a dollar" and of course whereas had he sold them at the rate of 5 for receives $5 Hence the difficulty is $2.— 244 THE magician's OWN BOOK. They commence selling at that rate. A sold his at 3 for B at 2 for a dollar. A afterwards took 60 alone. the insinuation that the first lot were sold at the rate of five for $2. as appears in the following example If the number 11 : 11 . A's pigs are exhausted. This is : . being only true in part. and B took each 30 pigs to market. and received but $24 A a dollar. at 5 for what became of the other dollar? $2. the two figures of the product will always be alike. and together they received $25. but after making ten sales. rather a catch question.

the number by which you divided. what did he lose it $50 including the hat ? This question is generally given with nam. If to this we add 420. or six two by two. THE FNirCKY HATTER. who was compelled forthwith to borrow $50 of another friend to redeem it with but on turning to search for the blackleg he had left town. three by three. The next day the merchant discovered the note to be a counterfeit. and the blackleg having received his $42 change went his way. and 6 being 60. How many had he ? The least common multiple of 2. the note. that if 61 were divisible by 7. the least let . . there was one remaining. The queswas it $50 besides the hat. 60x4-fl. it is evident. a merchant near by. This not being the case.. as it serves to withdraw attenand in almost every case the first tion from the question impression is. dividing 52 by t. and it will be found that 801=60x5-fl. but when he counted them by sevens. and had he kept the $8 he needed only to have borrowed $42 additional to redeem A . 4. it would answer the conditions of the question. 245 number you must first stake. which is 3. for example. so that the note was useless on the hatter's hands. — . Suppose. five by by six. however. five. 5. 60x3-fl. the number to be attained be 52 (making use of a pack of cards instead of counters). . A person remarked that when he counted over his basket of nuts. and whatwill be the number which you must first stake ever your opponent stakes. blackleg passing through a town in Ohio. the remainder. and called upon the hatter. and that you are never to add more than 6 then. is divisible by 7. four by four. you must add as much to it as will make it equal to 7.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. and so in continuation. there was no remainder. THE BASKET OF NUTS.es and circumstances as a real transaction. that the hatter lost $50 besides the hat. and if the company knows such persons so much the better. 3. and consequently this number answers the conditions of the question. or was tion is. &c. though it is evident he was paid for the hat. 60x2-fl. who changed the note for him. bought a hat The hatter called on for $8 and gave in payment a $50 bill. be tried successively.

gives the woman's age. If a hundred stones be placed in a straight line. Says B to A. 4. 30 years 40 weeks. common find as multiple of 2. 5. and put them into the basket ? It is evident that. for the third. Two A THE BASKET AND STONES. the first being at the same distance from a basket. 15 36 47 98 2 that. The man's age. their united ages amounted to C. how many yards must the person walk who engages to pick them up. An old man married a young woman. . for the second.246 THE magician's own book. "but give me one of as many as you. one by one. and by adding perpetually 420. at the distance of a yard from each other. 3." Required to know the number of sheep they each had ? A had seven and B had five sheep. The man's age multiplied by 4 and divided by 9. they amount to 100. What were their respective ages ? Answer. by adding 100 DECEMBER AND JIAY. 6 and 1. to the hundredth. 60 years 12 weeks." your sheep and I will have as many again as you. six: and so oa increasing by two. the sum 121 will be another answer. the woman's age. and put it into the basket. we may many answers as we please. THE UNITED Arrange the figures 1 to 9 in such order them together. meeting on the road. the person must walk two yards. he must walk four. to pick up the first stone. " Pray give me one of your sheep and I will have "Nay." replied A. — THE TWO DROVERS. began discoursing about the number of sheep they each had. and B. DIGITS. drovers.

THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. 2. multiplied by 50. 5 yards. But the sum of the &c. to which add 2. . progression is equal to 202. which makes more than 5^ miles. any number of place desire a person to write down secretly. furlongs. yards. which the person 247 must will be equal to the sum of the progression. divided by 2. 7 From 1 mile subtract furlongs. rods. or half the number of terms that is to say. 2. the sum of the addition.e. and the quotient of the division be all equal ? How The 1st is The 2nd is The 3rd is The 4th is 8. multiplied by 20. and afterwards proceed as usual. 5 inches. from which we take 5 inches. from the second part you subtract 2.. and the fourth part you divide by 2. 2. 1 foot. and 1 remains we then carry -j to 1 and borrowing ^ a y ard=l J feet. 39 rods. and ad^ . can number 45 be divided into four such parts that.— 9 4-8 + t + 6 + 5 + 44-3 + 2 + 1=45 l re- 8 + 2+3+4+5 + 6 + 7+8 + 9::=45 + 6+4 + 1 + 9 + 7 + 5+3+2=45 SUBTRACTION. the sum of the two extremes. we have 1^ from l^^O. subtract 5. instead of borrowing 1 foot. 4. miles. the sum is the remainder is the product is the quotient is 10 10 10 10 45 Required to subtract 45 from 45. 12. From Take 10 7 39 5 1 6 In this problem. 6. therefore. The number walk of yards.100 yards. THE EXPUNGED FIGURE. and leave 45 as a mainder ? Solution. 10. . the product of the multiplication. In the in A first lir. the last term of which is 200 (22). figures he may choose. the remainder of the subtraction. : THE FAMOUS FORTY-FIVE. inches. the third part you multiply by 2. feet. if to the first part you add 2. we borrow -J a foot =6 inches.

the total will be 22. When the first line of figures is set down. these. and place it before the first figure of the line. added together. if 5. the figures put down are 76542. required to name the quotient of five or three lines each line consisting of five or more figures of figures only seeing the first line before the other lines are even put down. that sum deducted from 27 shows 8. Should the total be equal multiplies of 9. given. then desire him to strike out any figure he pleases. 19 will be the total. In order to ascertain which figure has been struck out. make a total of 24 deduct 24 from the first line. suppose the figures given are 86. as 18. If 8. as it then becomes impossible to tell wlwch of the two it is. for example. the center figure be struck 76^18 out. then 3 times 9 are total given. If 19 be 27. 27. always make up 9 with the line above. 36. when either the number 9 or a cipher is struck out. and in doing so. and 76518 remain. the first figure be struck out. tell him to subtract that sum from the line of figures originally set down. it is therefore needless to give any further examples. With very little practice any person may perform this with rapidity. The only way in which a person can fail in solving this riddle is. lines.212. when you will tell him the figure he has struck out. as units. having done this. (as in the first instance.214.) and inform you of the result. 76542-24 Qi : then 9 has been expunged. as in the following — example: . the sum of the figure in the line being an even number of nines in both cases. Any person may write down the first line of figures How do you find the quotient? for you.— 248 THE magician's own book. the quotient will be 286. units. but you must always set down the third and fifth lines. You may allow any person to put down the two first and the fourth lines. It is — Example. and add the remaining figures in the line together as units. and that is the quotient for five For example. you make a mental sum one multiple of 9 higher than the If 22 be given as the total. them together as Suppose. subtract 2 from the last right-hand figure. and 22 from 27 show that 5 was struck out. THE MYSTERIOUS ADDITION.

he tells Thomas to add to his age. first reckoning the number of the hour at which he has placed the hand. he of course takes two nines) the difference. tells Thomas. and another. who is 22. 16^ 855 shown in the above diagram. you 67.319 with the lines above them. TO TELL AT WHAT HOUR A PERSON INTENDS TO RISE. you must say we will have 37.680 that you have made 9 in the third and fifth lines 57. and tell him to count 17 on the dial. beginning with the next hour to that on which he proposes to rise.856 is 52.218 before the first figure.145 another figure. . and ttuking away the first figure of the amount add it to the last figure. given.214 42. who is older. and tell you what hour that is. and that he has placed the hand at 5.855. and the number 17 will necessarily end at 8.781 line yourself to 9. and place it 47. and counting backwards from the hour at which he intends to rise. then tell him to count privately the number of that amount upon the dial. For example John. as Qt. first reckoning 5. TO EIND THE DIPPERENCE BETWEEN TWO NIJXBERS. he therethat he can discover the difference of their ages fore privately deducts 22 from 99 (his age consisting of two figures. which shows that to be the hour he chose. In solving the puzzle with three lines. 268. For example: Suppose the hour at which he intends to rise be 8. figures in the smallest Take as many nines as there are number. and that sum will be the difference of the two numbers. Let the person set the hand of the dial of a watch at any hour he pleases.212 sets down something above 1 or 2. 3'ou will add 12 to 5. and to take 11* : .854 to put down the figures should set down a 1 or for the last figure. and so on until h« Ql. and to the number of that hour you add in your mind 12. THE GREATEST OP WHICH IS UNKNOWN.856 subtract 1 from the last figure. and the quotient will be 167. .THE MAG[C OF NUMBERS. and make up the third For example: 67. which is 77. and subtract that sum from the number of nines. the hour at which the index stands. Let another person add the difference to the largest number. 249 Therefore in the annexed diagram you will see 86. and counting backwards. If the person desire 62.

Gives the age of Thomas THE REMAINDER. thus. the first figure ing it to the figure 2. 35 very pleasing way to arrive at an arithmetical sum. . OR PIECES Oi MONEY. the figure from the amount. Let us . Any amount may ten. now halve the whole sum. be added. IN EACH HAND. is to ask a person to think of a figure. the number requested to be added. and then ask how many times the less number is contained in the greater. the sum is Which add to John's age and add13 22 . . as they will divide without fractions. The key to this lock of figures is. then to double it. as 4. TO FIND HOW MANY HE HAS ALTOGETHER Request the person to convey any number.250 THE magician's own book. A the thinker what is the remainder. Think of. but the operation is simplified by giving only even tell numbers. and finally to subYou are then to tract from that the figure first thought of. difi"erence between John's age and 99 is 77 first away figure and that The To which Thomas adding The sum Then by taking away is his age 35 112 1. Example. Double it Add 10 to it it 7 14 10 Halve 2)24 12 7 Which will leave Subtract the number thought of will The Remainder be 5 A -PERSON HAVING AN EQUAL NUMBER OF COUNTERS. without the use of either slate or pencil. . for example. five is the half of IS THE REMAINDER. and add it to tie last will be the difference of their ages . from the one hand to the other. that half of whatever sum you request to be added during the Working of the sum In the cxamplc given. then add a certain figure to it.

and if 16 be divided by the remainder 2. . as before. then. by which. by 3. find at the water side a boat which can carry but two at a time.. and A's and B's wives go over then C comes back for his wife. with their wives. be taken from 2^. we must. and add to the product the same number. or |. Lastly. and consequently the whole number is 16. who flourished a thousand years ago. being ready to pass by night over a river. was found to weigh 16 lbs. B. and when put into the other only 9 lbs. the weight required . Let us again suppose that 4 counters are passed from one hand to the other. and square root 144=12 their product.. which will give 9^ have 13^. and. multiply 4. . What is the true weight ? A The true weight is a mean proportional between the two false ones. Simple as this question may appear. — : — — — — — — THE PALSE SCALES. A and B go over C's wife returns. the remainder will be 1^. or V if 1. A. and C. so that' none of the three wives may be found in the company of one or two men. and the less number is contained in the greater 2^ times. THE THREE JEALOUS HUSBANDa Three jealous husbands. we shall 2^. the quotient will be the number contained in each hand. two at a time. in this case. which will make 16. the following may be as good as any Let A and wife go over let A return let B's and C's wives go over A's wife returns B and C go over B and wife return. take 1 from 3. euppose Ihat he says the one 251 is the triple of the other . The question is how those six persons shall pass. multiply 4 by to which. In this case. and is found by extracting the square root of Thus 16X9=144.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. the number of the counters conveyed. This curious problem deserves another example. and for want of a waterman they are compelled to row themselves over the river at several times. hundreds of years before the art of printing was invented. cheese being put into one of the scales of a false balance. it is found in the works of Alcuin. if 4 be added. if V be divided. unless her husband be present ? This may be effected in two or three ways. the quotient 10 will be the number of counters in each hand. lbs.

who asked for some and each Grace having given to each Muse the of them same number. TUES. From 30 deduct 10. They were to walk in five divisions of three ladies each. carrying each an equal number of oranges. and the remaining 20 was f of her prior stock. it was then found that they had all equal shares. but no two ladies were to be allowed to walk together twice during the week.) THE JESUITICAL TEACHER. What number had she at first ? From the 12 remaining. and the third bought half of what she had now left. and gave her back 2. and there would remain (Any multiple of 12 will answer the three for each Grace. was 22. which was half she had. the latter would each have three. therefore. wished them to take a walk each day of the week. THE GRACES AND MUSES. carrying a basket of apples. and 11 is the number she sold the last boy. . poor woman. THURS. WEDN. The three Graces. conditions of the question.252 THE magician's OWN BOOK. A MON. How could they be arranged to suit the above conditions ? SUN. A . teacher. having fifteen young ladies under her caie. FRID. THE APPLE WOMAI^. her number at that time. which was therefore 30. was met by three boys. From 22 deduct two. for if we suppose that each Grace gave one to each Muse. and returned her 1 after which she found she had 12 apples remaining. the first of whom bought half of what she had. deduct 1. How many had the Graces at first ? The least number that will answer this question is twelve. and the remainder 20 is half her original stock. SAT. consequently she had at first 40 apples. and then gave her back 10 the second boy bought a third of what remained. . wore met by the nine Muses. a b c .

a Goose. Eight cats. figures. GOOSE AND CORN. where it so happened that he could carry but one over at a time. it makes XX. was the total number of cats ? Ccvts A Prove that seven is the half of twelve. the various questions that are given for the purpose of puzzling the unwary arithmetician. Ans. IX — cross the nine and make it twenty. Amongst : . — or Ans. so as to make seven. nor the goose eat the fox yet the fox can eat the goose. Place four fives so as to make six and a half.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. and the goose eat the corn '' How shall he carry them over. and half- a-dozen dozen ? Ans. Add one to Ans. Place the figures on a piece of paper. that they shall not destroy each other ? Let him first take over the Goose. . . — Roman THE FOX. 1. . by 4. and a cat on every cat's tail. QUAINT QUESTIONS. seven What before each cat. countryman having a Fox. is ? difierence. 792: Six dozen dozen being 864. . Ans. and a peck of Corn. came to a river. . — Place three sixes together. he was at his wit's end. 5| "5 room with eight corners had a cat in each corner.—^. multiplied 1"25. the multiplicatioi lake for in of mone}' by money is one of the most curious stance the f Mowing problems . and half-a-dozen dozen. and draw a line through the middle of it. for says he *' Though the corn can't eat the goose. Ans. Ans. 253 What is tlio difference between twenty and four and twenty quart bottles four quart bottles. A MULTIPLYING MONET BY MONEY. 72. 1^. leaving the Fox and Corn then let him take over the Fox and bring the Goose back then take over the Corn and lastly take over the Goose again. What What — 56 quarts three Ans. will make precisely 5 ? the difference between six dozen dozen. Now as no two were to be left together that might destroy each other. the upper will be VII.

to answer this. shillings. and the different results obtained. but who can tell what is a penny multiplied by a penny. by £11 II5. provided the question is limited. 959 or. lOj^od. instead of this. by 99^! is £9. 11^. and after multiplying one term by the other. the quickest way of doing this. llfi. the shillings and pence might be converted into decimals of a pound. To multiply is to repea' a certain number of times. and the number of farthings in the third term is the numerator. Multiply £99 195. is £134 9* 3. by £99 19^. shillings. being 99 and a fraction. shillings. or into aliquot parts. ll^d. it is incapable of solution .. is to multiply by 100. . Others whilst some work the problem convert them into decimals in the style of duodecimals. the other must be regarded as an "abstract" mathematical quantity." 2j4 the magician's own book. of which the number of farthings in a pound is the denominator 960. and to subtract from the product the 960th part of the multiplicand. and pence multiplied by pounds. shillings. and pence. into £11 11*.-Vo^. We penny by a pound ? quite correct. and pence problem were put in this form If a capital of £1 produces by compound interest. : .999 155. return the product into pounds. as above to the product of pounds. 11^. without committing a logical absurdity. £99 19^. for what is the nature of the product of pounds. into pounds. Number and value are distinct abstract ideas. the querist remarks : " The problem itself is absurd. . or ll|f^. llffl?? It is evident that. lid. llf^^. third terms of an ordinary " rule of three " and though one of the terms is a "concrete" quantity of pounds. and it is ob all Now this is — . . shillings. ll5. and cannot. In the other question proposed. these are in fact the second and. shillings and pence ? know that a yard multiplied by a yard is a square yard. Some reduce all to farthings. in a certain time. The product of multiplying £99 19*.. 11^. and put suppose the pence. be confused. we must multiply £99 19*. To the uninitiated they usually appear easy of solution but the various modes of working them out. 1 l^d. llfi. or a . prove that there is something absurd and Multiply £11 wrong in the questions themselves. ll^d by £99' 195. the product of £11 lis. and pence. how much would be produced by a capital of £99 195. Having sufficiently puzzled the tyros.

the tenant used 45 bushels. it was proposed to give to the landlord 18 bushels from the heap. 000. .ly 255 impossible to bring value into the question.000 square miles. or 960 is . gentleman rented a farm. or 960 farthings. and the average life of man 30 years this being the utmost that could be claimed. tlie population always having been 800.000 while the mighty army of the dead would number only 160. that enough persons have lived and died in the world to cover and even two or three strata its whole surface with bodies Is this probable ? deep. leaving 2. Would this method have been correct ? The landlord would lose 7^ bushels by such an arrangement.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. : . in lieu of his share of the 45 bushels which the tenant had used.624. but what an enormous difference bedifference whatever tween multiplying by 1. 20. and the One pound is equivalent to 20 shillabsurdity is evident In value there is no ings. .000 How wide of truth then is the position often set forth so positively It is . • The tenant should give him 18 bushels from his own share after the division is completed. A A POPULAE FALLACY. viou'^. and contracted to give to his put prior to the time of dividing landlord | of the produce When the general the corn. otherwise the landlord would receive but f of the first 63 bushels. .000. . 240. I .000.624. and then to begin and divide the remainder as though none had been used.000. or 240 pence. often suggested from the pulpit and elsewhere. Allow then the State of Virginia to contain 70.000. .000 graves yet unoccupied. Value arbitrary number is fixed.000. Put it in this way. I ^ THE UNFAIR DmSIOX. as the rent would entitle him to § of the 18. division was made. and each grave to occupy a space of 6 feet by 2 the territory of the State would contain 162. Say the earth has existed 6000 years.

medes measured the sphere. introduced it from Egypt into Greece. the distance between two points parallel lines always keep at the same distance from each A right line is what is commonly called a straight other 2i 'point is A line is . In elementary geometry. carried the science to the highest pitch of usefulness. Euclid of Alexandria. According to Cassiodorus. but simply to set before the young reader some of the more curious properties of the science. c. that he may be excited and we will promise him that to study it for himself should he devote his mind to its study. who flourished about 520 b. OEOilETRICAL DEFINITIONS. and after them the Germans. by others to the Egyptians. and Pythagoras of Samos. several mathematicians were distinguished in the 16th century. who were obliged to determine the boundaries of their fields after the inundation of the Nile. Thales." • is derived from the Greek. followed while in England. is particularly distinguished. as Archieverybodj'^ knows. c. TRICKS IN GEOMETRY. and after him other philosophers prosecuted the science with the utmost assiduity. province to enter into a long disquisition on the subject. our the most prodigious discoveries. who died 548 years b. a Phoeor invented it after it was known to them. and through its aid made It is not. Newton. The French. and sigthe art of measuring land. length. by geometrical measurements. The invention of it is ascribed by some to the Chaldeans and Babylonians. In geometry nor thickness. nician. however. the Egyptians either derived tlie art from the Babylonians.. he will be amply repaid for any amount of labor he may bestow upon it. In Italy. said to have neither breadth. *• Let young beginners come and try Their hande at our geometry. The word Geometry nifies . [256^ . Hook. and others. . where the sciences first revived after the dark ages.

terminated by a convex surface. figure is a bounded space. Its diameter is a straightline drawn from one extremity of its circumference to the other. called its center.TRICKS IN GEOMETRY. every part of which is at an equal distance from a point within. the lines are drawn the board is to be partly cut through with a penknife. K solid is any body which has length. and is A triangle is a figure with either a superficies or a solid. and its center is equally distant from every A A A part of the circumference. * The following figures will show how the five geometrical Where solids may be cut out of a piece of cardboard. line. breadth. . 257 A tion. and thickness and a sphere is a solid. circle is a plaue figure bounded and four right angles. THE nVE GEOiTETRICAL SOLIDS. square has four equal sides.i. . three sides and three angles. so as to render the angles of the models as sharp and as straight as possible. by a curved line running into itself. The edges whicli require JZ/. An meeting curve is a line which continually changes its direcangle is the inclination or opening of two lines in a point.

Bs/. Fig. DECEPTIYE VISION. with eight triangular sides. find the center of squares of cloth. .258 THE magician's OWN BOOK. then cut it B from corner to corner. 5. as seen in Fig. 4. with twenty sides.t squares. an inch and a half in width. five 7 Suppose you have as in Fig. with twelve sides shaped like pentagons. 8. a dodecahedron. Take a piece of pasteboard.s. and cut them from that point to the opposite corner. . and divide it by inked A D c lines into thirty squares. and five inches in length. The following sleight shows how easily the eye may be deceived. formed of equilateral triangles Bides. an isocahedron. then place the perfect square in the centre. one side of four of these ir^. hedron. HOW TO MAKE nVE SQUARES INTO A LARGE ONE WITHOUT ANT WASTE OF STUFF. or anything else. with five equal Fig. and the other pieces round.

* and arrange the pieces in this manner : . After this cut off the top of these triangles at c and d.— TRICKS IN GEOMETRY. 259 BO as to form two triangles.

l rising ground. and it will be found that the angles which project at a and b will exactly fill up the spaces at e and f.^.— 26€ THE magician's OWN BOOK. as in the figurt'S. : n^. into eight triangles. lay 2 and 3. to represent the two parts of the wall the piece representing the straight wall on the curved piece. had to be built over a piece of A bricklayer had My. so that the base of this jmrt of the wall would necessarily be more than twelve feet. The one half of thia wall. In making out his account he charged more for this half of the wall than for that which was built on level ground from a to b. in the form shown in Figs. by drawing a line from two opposite angles. that is. A geometrician assured him that the square contents of both portions of the wall were exactly alike which may be proved in the following manner . Take four square pieces of pasteboard of the same dimen sions. . You may then lay the curved piece upon the straight one. THE BRICKLAYER PUZZLED to construct a wall. The piece of board representing the straight n^. namely from b to c.z Cut two pieces of cardboard. TRLiNGULAR PROBLEM. whose length in the direction a b c was twenty-four feet. Paint seven of these triangles with the prismatic . and reversing the experiment prove that the curved piece is capable of forming a rectangular piece equal to the other. wall may thus be found to be exactly sufficient to form a piece equal to that representing the curved wall. and divide them diagonally.

by combining four of the triangles the large square c may be formed. To find how many chequers or regular foursided figures. indigo. different either in form or color. may each of them by the eighth rank of the triangle be taken twenty-eight different ways." as it is called. may be made out of these eight triangles. The Cardinal de Cusa rolled a cylinder over a plane. orange. by a train of reasoning very unmatheraa. and then." The meaning of this phrase squaring is scientifically expressed by the term finding the quadrature of the circle that is. First. and with these three form a perfect square. To do this. consisting of four parts. may each be taken by the same rank of the triangle seventy times. blue.TRICKS IN GEOMETRY. "Squaring the circle. two squares. Now the first two squares. of card of the shape and size or proportions of the subjoined. SQUARING THE CIRCLE. And the last TO FORM A SQUARE. either the triangular square a. and cut it into three parts. violet. green. and let the eighth be white. or the inclined square b. or the long square d. which makes fifty-six. yellow. : . consisting of two parts out of eight. by combining two of these 261 triangles there may be formed. till the point which was first in contact with the plane touched it again . cut it in the direction of the dotted lines. Secondly. is the puzzle of and there are many persons who fancy this can be accomplished. colors. the act of producing a square equal to a given cirand many persons but slightly acquainted with mathecle matics have puzzled their brains to effect this object. and it will then be easy to lay down the pieces to form a perfect Take a piece square. which makes 140. called a parallelogram. puzzles. as there are also many who believe that they can discover "perpetual motion. red. called a Rhomb.

and therefore tl»e conclusion arrived at is a false one.262 THE magician's OWN BOOK. and deposited 10. and examine them with a microscope. forgetting tiiat the double of this tri angle is equal to the hexagon inscribed within the circle. Oliver de Serras worked a circle. so as to form a square. He reduced the problem to the mechanical process of dividing a circle into four quarters. no demonstration according to mathematics. which he asserted to be equal to the circle it this however was soon proved to be ridiculous. each side of the square being equal to the diameter of the circle. and is neither geometrical nor scientific. is in fact. generally proceeded on the following plan. and then turning these with their angles outwards. and also a triangle equal to an equilateral triangle.000 livres as a stake. inscribed within the circle. both in bounBy this proceeding. out into a circular form. that he could accomplish the feat. so that only the four corners touch it. But this kind of demonstration is purely mechanical. that is. we can soon convince ourselves that the boundary of the square will be greater than the circumference of the circle. and tlierefore smaller than the circle itself A Frenchman challenged the world. and imagined that the former was exactly equal to two of the latter. and cutting . and the area of the former greater than that of the latter. nor of the same length or breadth. and fitr ting the same turned pieces one into the other. The early mathematicians. tical. he endea^vored to determine the length of the line thus described. For if we take the pieces of card. arrive at the conclusion that a circle is smaller than a square . we shall soon find that none of them are geometrically true. But if the square be drawn within the circle. in their attempts to solve this problem. and by cutting that circular disc into pieces of a square form and definite dimensions. touching the square in four points. have come near to a notion of the superficial area of a circle. wo dary and area. If we draw a square exterior to a circle. Some persons have taken apiece of pasteboard. however exactly they may appear to be formed. then it is equally evident that the circle is larger. than the square. and.

named Metius. and is at the same time easily remembered. and divide it by 113. and the exact area of any figure bounded by straight lines. then the circumand that if the square of the ference will be nearly 22 diameter be 14. But if the pentagon be described within the circle. that is. tains. external to 263 Let us next it. touching it at the five angular points. Now. and gave to the area of the circle too great a measure by about one three-thousandth part of the whole. a European mathematician. . that either one will give the area of the circle with great closeness. one within and one without the circle we can ascertain the exact area of those polygons. — we beru suppose. discovered a method which makes an extraordinary approach to accuracy. then the area of the circle will be equal to about 11 but this computation was slightly in error. At a later period. and larger tlian one internal to it. and touching it on then it is evident that as the circle is wholly five points contained within the pentagon. then the circumference would equal 355 or if we multiply the square of the radius by 355. and less than another certain amount. may be so very nearly alike. a figure of five equal sides. . my young readers must bear in mind. . the area large as . He found that if the diameter be considered equal to 113. and aflSrm that the area of a circle is greater than a certain amount. however. — the exact periphery or circumference. if the number of the sides of the polygon be so . These two amounts. suppose that we draw a regular pentagon. exterior to the circle. may be determined with rigorous accuracy and if we draw two polygons say of one hundred sides. then of course the circle is larger than the pentagon which it con. By some such means as these Archimedes found that if the diameter of a circle be called 7. in geometry. it must be smaller than that which contains it.TRICKS IN GEOMETBY.

264 THE magician's own book." But after all. and know how to explain it. Sharp. the error in the proportion of the circumference would be a thousand million times less than the thickness of a hair.327.950. the result will be a little below the truth. or hear any one assert that he can do so. Mr. the diameter of which is a thousand million times greater than the distance between the sun and the earth. or of the area of a circle to its diameter. and if 9. carried the approximation to 72 places of figures Mr.358. off"er this explanation on the subject to our young friends that they may not be puzzled by the question and that should they be asked to square the circle.265. showing that if the diameter be 1. We .919. will be given. John Machin to 100 figures. or that if the last figure be 8. a little above it. de Lagny worked it out to 128 places of figures.323. the circumference •w ill be 3.338. they may be able to show that they are " awake" to the question. " If we suppose a circle. M.14. none of these computations are quite correct .159. Montucla says.846. Now this method is so very nearly correct. Ludolph Van Ceulen worked it out to 36 places of figures. Other mathematicians have carried the approximation still further. and bring us to the conclusion that there are no numbers or collection of numbers which will give the exact ratio of the circumference. and eclipsed all others. . .264. Since this. and of the degree of nearnesi to which this computation brings the proportion. they all deviate from the truth. an English mathematician.288. that the area of a circle one foot in diameter is given within the fifty-thousandth part of a square inch.

and exhibit a great degree of ingenuity. although by many persoiii* looked upon as mere trifles. . Tied up his'iujpleuiente of husbandry In the far-famed knot. patience.-ebus. We look upon a Paradox as a sort of superior riddle. have. takes precedence of a first-rate There is often considerable thought. to pass away the hours of a long and dreary imprisonment thus does the misery of a few frequently conduce to the amusement of many. . A not solved. required to solve some of these strange enigmas and we have. We can readily imagine that some of the complicated puzzles in the ensuing pages may have been originally constructed by captives. ere now. and management. cost their inventors considerable time.— PEACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. in our opinion. as tr be entirely absorbed in devising means to extricate ourselt from its bewildering difficulties and felt almost as much pleasure in eventually [265] 12 . answer. puzzle is By peipiiif^ 8t it« Paradoxes and Puzzles. and a tolerable Puzzle. . in a trice^ When Gordiiis. calculation. rash Alexander Did not undo. the plow-boy. by cutting it in twain. in numerous instances. impatient sirg. followed the mazes of a Puzzle so ardently. . king of Phrygia.

he takes the latter. who had been raised from the plow to the throne. " Pozed. in the above figures. a right dainty and pleasant pastime. 7. or perform a Puzzle. . THE CHINESE CROSS. or metal. and each piece of the same size as No. It is required to construct a cross. as is usually the case. as it is written. and perplexed. : 1. by cutting the jrordian knot. T Have six pieces of wood. as he conceives himself to be getting more and more involved. when you know that. bone. the Phrygian king. It is " in good Booth. 6. at that moment. when you are well aware that he is within a single turn of a happy termination of his toils but what a mirthful moment is that. he." to watch the stray wanderings of another person attempting to elucidate a Paradox. with which one is previously acquainted. puzzled. the one right and the other wrong.866 THE MAGlCIAN^S OWN BOOK. he is actually farther from his object than he was when he began and it is no less amusing to watch his increasing despair. tied up his implements of husbandry in the temple. considering that he was entitled to the fulfillment of the promise. when there being only two ways to turn. It is laughable to see him elated with hope at the apparent speedy end of his troubles. as we have in conquering an adversary at some superior game of skill. . achieving victory over it. at length. that universal monarchy was promised to the man wlio could undo it after having been repeatedly baffled. made of the same length as No. and becomes nore than ever . in so intricate a manner." Puzzles are by no means of modern origin the Sphynx puzzled the brains of some of the heroes of antiquity. drew his sword. . and even Alexander the Great. made several essays to untie the knot with which Gordius.

from these pieces. parallelogram. it *I 2. THE PARALLELOGRAM. so that by shifting the position of the pieces. and is given to show the dimensions. How did he do it ? A person who mates. THE DIVIDED GARDEN. may be cut into two pieces. while the pieces marked h are the right side of each piece turned over towards the left.. The shaded parts of each figure represent the parts that are cut out of the wood. • piece of wood. &c. and he was desirous of dividing it so that each of the five inmates should have an equal share of garden and two trees. 1. as shown by figs. fig. There were ten trees in the garden. and in such a manner that shall not be displaced when thrown upon the floor. as in the illustration. two other figures may be formed. # t . so represents the end of each as to face the reader. 3. and having a garden attached to the house. No. he was desirous of dividing it among them. 267 with six arms. let his house to several inoccupied different floors.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. 2 A ~ and 3. and each piece marked a is supposed to be facing the reader.

Shall watch thee wand'ring through the doubtful way. THE MAGICIAIV OWN BOOK. in continent or isle.y affection's smile. as thy footsteps stray jilone ! Long fur delights which love 6. Jet the whole form nine. can bring Whilst ruby lips diRpla. and reach the "wedding ring' The sweet Koong-see.. Shall whisper to thee. Haste through the maze. " 368 6. by other lines to them. six vertical lines. And when thou showest aught of hope or fear. THE WILLOW-PATTERN PLATE. whose spirit hovers near. as below. Y»' fair ones wim. and. THE VERTICAL LINE PUZZLE. CHINESE IFAZE. Draw adding five .

THE ACCOMMODATING SQUARE. as in the iigure. THE CIRCLE PUZZLE. they have only three ears between them. Form a square with them. Divide this figure into four equal parts. and thrust a pin through it without crossing the circle. it. of the shape and measurement indicated by the diagram. still keeping it in THE BUTTON PUZZLE. then divide four of them from corner to corner. THE CARDBOARD PUZZLE. 12. eight squares of card. 10. Make 9. Draw a circle upon a piece of paper. or thrusting it downward through the center. to get the string out again without taking off the buttons. Take a piece of cardboard or leather. so that you will now have. Draw 8. cut it in such a manner that you your- may pass through one piece. each of the same figure. . self U. puzzle is. 7. three rabbits. while. 269 THE THREE RABBITS. so that each shall appear to have two ears. twelve pieces. THE QUARTO PUZZLE. 3 Inches. and tie two buttons much larger The than the hole to the ends of the string. and just below a small hole of the same width then pass a piece of string under the slit and through the hole. .PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. in fact. o© In the center of a piece of leather make two parallel cuts with a penknife.

shown. pass one through each of the four corner holes. and punch in it twelve circles or holes in the position The puzzle is. 13.2*10 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. Provide a thin piece of wood of about two inches and a make a round hole at each corner. . Cut out fourteen pieces of paper. card. Then take four pieces of cord. thin silken each about six inches long. and in the middle of the board make four smaller round holes in the form of a square. which. sufficiently half square large to admit three or four times the thickness of the cord you will afterwards use. and pass the two ends through . or affixing a little ball or bead to prevent its drawing through take another cord. THE PUZZLE OF POURTEEN. or wood. same size and shape as those shown then form an oblong with them. 14. to cut the cardboard into four pieces of equal size. the size and shape of the diagram. and about half an inch be. tween each. when doubled. and THE SQUARE AND CIRCLE PUZZLE. 15. tying a knot underneath at the end. will be about seven inches long. of the in the diagram. Get a piece of cardboard. without cutting into any of them. each piece to be of the same shape. THE SCALE AND RING PUZZLE. and to contain three circles.

and draw it back . Cut a piece of thin wood the shape indicated by the diagram. THE HEAET PUZZLE. the middle cord. and draw it back . then pass it in the same way through the hole at corner B. will admit of being drawn up into a loop of about half an inch from the surface of the scale provide a ring of metal or bone. and proportioning the length of the cords. bringing the loop through its middle then. then. of about three quarters of an inch in diameter. and having perforated it as above. . with a smaller heart attached at the end. draw a piece of Btring. double as it is. over the knot underneath. pass it over the knot at top. besides passing through the four center holes. drawing up the loop a little more. from the front to the back of the board. through the hole at the corner A. 16.) and again from back to front through the other holes hb tie the six ends together in a knot. and the ring will be fixed. so that when you hold the scale suspended.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. and afterward through the holes C and D in succession. pass it. 271 the middle holes a a. througb . over the knot. like the others. so as to form a small scale. and place it on the scale. (one cord through each hole. drawing the loop a little through the scale toward you. \ .

17. 1. THE CROSS PFZZLE. \ <. Care should be taken to avoid twisting or entangling the The length of the string should be proportioned to string. and through 3. No. without unfastening the loop. when a loop must be made so as to enclose that part of the string which runs from 2 to 3. one to the shape of No. ee tobacco-pipe. through which c c is passed. K^ /^ ^ Cut three pieces of paper to the shape 1. 2. THE CARD One of the best puzzles hitherto made is represented in A is a piece of card 5 i a narrow slip the annexed cut. and so on to 6. 19. divided from its bottom edge.? . the size of the heart if you make the heart two inches and a half high. except just sufficient to hold it on at each side c c is another small slip of card is a bit of with two large square ends. and bring it through 2 before. and which is kept on by the two ends et. 18. and one to that of No. portional sizes.r72 THE magician's OWN BOOK. 3. . The puzzle consists in getting the pipe off without breaking it or injuring any other part of the . Let them be of proof No. then form the pride of the PUZZLE. pass it behind. The puzzle is to remove the string from the large heart altogether. the whole breadth of the card. l/\l Then place the pieces to- gether so as to form a cross. . the string when doubled should be about nine inches long. . THE YANKEE SQUARK in Cut as many pieces of each figure cardboard as they have numbers marked on each American army.

The way to put the puzzle together is as follows The slip c cee is cut out of a piece of card in the shape delineated in Fig. The card in the first figure must then be gently bent at A. and appear : . 1 cardboard of equal lengths. and also it. as represented in Fig. This. to 21. so as to allow of the slip at the bottom of it being also bent sufficiently to pass double through the pipe. Upon unbending the card the puzzle will be complete. 20. as is. which appears to be impossible. as in Fig. as there can be in taking it away. The detached slip with the square ends (Fig. THREE SQUARE PUZZLE.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. THE CYLINDER PUZZLE. and pulled through the pipe. Ou a moment's consideration it will appear plainly that there must be as much difficulty in getting the pipe in its present situation. is done in the most simple manner. 2. of the shape of the diagram. 3) is then to be passed half way through the loop / at the bottom of the pipe it is next to be doubled in the center at a. 27S puzzle. and place them on d table to form six squares. Cut a piece of cardboard about four inches k)ng. piece to pass through. by means of the loop of the slip to the card. double. yet leave but three perfect squares. 3. It is now required to take slips of Cut seventeen 4 r- -5 1 away five of the pieces. as in the diagram. to make one . and make three holes in The puzzle of wood represented. 1.

24. Four of them went out lor a walk by moonlight.274 THE magician's own book. bringing with them four friends how were they all placed still to count nine each way. THE HORSE SHOE PUZZLE. each to con tain one pin. and thus to deceive the sister. . or 32. 23. in the square ? . as to whether there were 20. divide it into six parts. Cut a piece of apple or turnip into the shape of a horse shoe. How were the remainder placed in the square so as still to count nine each way ? The four who went out returned. thus o o Suppose four evil-disposed rich men afterwards around the poor people. Twenty-four nuns were arranged in a convent by night. 25. and then. : Suppose there was a pond. so as to shut out the poor people from the pond ? have all 24. thus : built houses O o =^ o and wished to a o the water of the pond to themselves. around which four poor men built their houses. THE PUZZLE WALL. THE NMS. by a sister. stick six pins in it for nails. by two cuts. 28. How could they build a high wall. to count nine each way. as in the diagram.

PUZZLE OF THE TWO FATHERS. 27. and four of Fig. One father divides his so as to reserve to himself one fourth . With THE DOG PUZZLE. to be suddenly aroused to life and made to run. thus Two — The other father divides his so as to reserve to himself one fourth in the form of a triangle thus . Query.— PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. They each have four sons. The dogs are. fathers have each a square of land. and what should be the forms of them ? 28. form a perfect square. 26. and of proportionate sizes. a. by placing two lines upon them. c. four of Fig. • 275 THE CAED SQUAEE. eight pieces of card or paper. b. How and where should these lines be placed. and each divides the remainder . of the shape of Fig.

and with D£l one cut of the scissors.8?« THE magician's OWN BOOK. shape and size of No. a wall. Cut twenty triangles out of ten square pieces of wood mix them together. THE FOUNTAIN PUZZLE. THE TRlATfGLE PUZZLE. . and in similar shape. 30. among his sons in such a way that each son will share equally with his brother. from o to B. and request a person to make an exact square with them. and e f q three fountaine or canals. DH With three pieces of cardboard of the 1. . It is required to bring the water from e to d. and one each of to form a cross. and forms as shown in the cuts ? 31. No. all the other ANOTHER CROSS PUZZLE. U A is 1^ 32. a perfect cross. 2 and 3. b c d three houses. CUTTING OUT A CROSS. How were the two farms divided ? 29. How can be cut out of a single piece of paper.

Ten rows to form in each row three Tell me. and that of the circular piece. outside of the wall 33. Place eight counters or coins. without one crossing the other. I pray you show would so bestow. removing only one at a time. cabinet-maker has a circular piece of veneering with which he has to veneer the tops of two oval stools but it so happens that the area of the stools. how this can be ? Friends one and How you mne stars — — 34. fastening them with a knot. purpose ? THE STRING iVND BALLS PUZZLE. and then form a square with them 36. and bore three holes shown in the cut. THE PUZZLE OF THE STARS. . 35. all. THE JAPAN SQUARE PUZZLE. and thread upon it two beadg Get an oblong it. A holes in the center. or passing a. and in each removal passing the one in the hand over two on the table. as . in strip of wood or ivory. are the same.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. Cut out ten pieces of card or wood of the same sizes and shapes as in the diagram. exclusive of the hand. How must he cut his stuff so as to be exactly sufficient for his 37. passing the two ends through the holes at the extremities. THE COUNTER PUZZLE. Then take a piece of twine. 277 and from f to c. ye wits. as in the diagram it is then required to lay them in four couples. THE CABINET MAKER'S PUZZLE..

The puzzle consists slit. as depicted above. rich. The puzzle is to or rings. THE DOUBLE-HEADED PUZZLE. And pass the hours away. and so mak« the entire stanza bear quite a different meaning from that which it has as it stands above . changing the moods and tenses of verbs. and adjectives into adverbs. Cut a circular piece of wood as in the cut No. you'll find very fair The sum will be nothing. . . without removing the string from the holes. 3. and noble. 40. 2. &c. in truth I declare. nouns into adjectives. great. or untying the knots. GRAMilATICAL PUZZLE. in getting them until they look like Fig. by that change. and (D four others. AEITHMETICAL PUZZLE. all into the cross-shaped 39. as the most thoughtless revel Then seek the poor man's dreary home. turning verbs into nouns. totally after the syntactical construction of the whole sentence. like No. The Bum of four figureg in value will be. and substitute another. 38. Let the Take away one letter from a word in the above stanza. 1... get both beads on the same side. Above seven thousand nine hundred and three But when they are halved. whose very dingy walls Proclaim full well to all how low his rank and level. 278 THE magician's OWN BOOK. banquet in the festal halls. leaving the word so metamorphosed still a word of the English language and.

so that there shall be nine straight rows. Friends Sir. Plant an orchard of twenty-one trees. C. Escu Star. on geno he R.C. ELY.D.R. ^ contempt. Bene A. This perplexing invention is of great antiquity. No. Wheres Hedot e.E. shove N. N. H. Era D ! A CURIOUS LETTER.D. Lat. I. AN EPITAPH ON ELLINOR BACHELLOR. San D K. How— Ass kill'd I. la Sip. Uf. PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES.B. are ambitious. Tom. R hu S Ban D. E Yu8 E. W. Ach El Lor. B Y he. PRSVRYPRFCTMN The two lines VRKPTHSPRCPTSTN. and was treated on by Cardan. Uf fap HL. friends. N E. with five trees in each row. i. and continued to puzzle the learned congregation for several centuries. V'DL. 44. AN OLD PYE WOMAN. Uld yo L. at the beginning of the sixteenth century It consists of a flat piece of thin . is ' LL 43. A kead I. 41. Ear T. stand your disposition I bearing a man the world is whilst the ridicule. T. 279 THE TREE PUZZLE. Liens He Ver ! 'Dli Ug H S hem A. the mathematician. THE PUZZLDfG RD^GS. What was it ? 45. Yein hop Esthathe R. RUSTO! Fnel L. D. above were affixed to the communion table of a small church in Wales. Thin Thed Ustt HE MO. F. but at length the inscription was deciphered. Uch pra is 'D. and the trees all at unequal distances from each other. B.P. W. Sofp.— Oft He ove N W. M. S.. San D T Art. A PUZZLING INSCRIPTION. RUSTWI.T. the out' line a regular geometrical figure. Wa. 42.

The construction of it would be found rather troublesome to the amateur. with ten holes in it in each hole a wire is loosely fixed. to prevent its slipping through. and on to the end of it. being numbered 1st to 10th. It also exists in various parts of the country. of course. . also loose. solution. beaten out into a head at one end. and you will not be able . perhaps by some ingenious village mechanic. within its oblong space. but it may be purchased at most of the toy shops very lightly and elegantly made. as to make the releasing the rings from the bow appear an impossibility. they vnW both draw Having done this. B. all the wires to which the rings are fastened the whole presenting so complicated an appearance. consider the rings as It will be seen that the difficulty arises from each ring passing round the wire of its right-hand neighbor. hand. raised up. try to pass the third ring off. ofi". which also contains. forged in iron. The 1st will be the extreme ring to the right. may at any time be drawn off the end of the bow at A. holding it at the end." The following instructions will show the principle on which the puzzle is constructed. metal or bone. in Take the loop your left and. . viz. and will prove a key to its . and aptly named " The Tiring Irons. and the other fastened to a ring. and finally released.. and the 10th the nearest your left hand. lift up. try to pass the second ring in the same way. and drop through the bow. by putting it up through the bow. as it is obstructed by the wire of the first ring if you bring the first ring on again. After you have done this. and you will not sucbut ceed. you will then find that by taking the first and second rings together. dropped through the bow. by reversing the process by which you took it off. .280 THE magician's own book. Each wire has been passed through the ring of the next wire. being unconnected with any other wire than its own. The extreme ring at the right hand. previously to its own ring being fastened on j and through the whole of the rings runs a wire loop or bow.

281 because it is fastened on one side to its own wire. which will not drop through for the reasons before given so. by drawing the second and third off together. as you cannot release it until it in order to effect stands in the position of a second ring this you must bring the first and second rings together. leaving. which is within the bow. slip it off and through. and drop it through after which replace the fifth. drop the first off and through. . take off the first and second together. . put the first up. through and on to the bow then in order to get the third then bring on. try the fourth ring. bring the fourth through and on to the bow. . . which is without the bow. having dropped the fourth ring through. . and on the other side to the second ring". in its proper position for releasing. to release which we must make it last but one on the bow. . . Now to release the then slip second. place for releasing therefore draw it toward the end. You will now comprehend that (with the exception of the first ring) the only ring which can at any time be released is that which happens to be second on the bow. at the right-hand end because both the wires which affect it being within the bow. . releasing the first and second together. bring the first and second together on. and to effect which pass the first and second rings together through the bow. raise them up. there will be no impediment to its dropping through. and the fifth will then stand second. consequently in its proper . the third still fixed . you can only slip the third ring on again. you will have to slip the third ring off. dropping the third through. in doing this. slip the fifth off. The sixth will now stand second. and slipping the second on again. and drop them through. as you desired draw it toward the end. and. . . replace the fourth. and on to it then release the first ring again by slipping it off and dropping it through. you will draw it off without obstruction and. Therefore. and the third ring will stand as second on the bow. replace the first on the bow. . replacing the third ther.the third ring for the present. through and on to the bow ring up and on again. then the sixth. bring the first and second together up and on again. A. . and the fourth also—" . then the third the same.PRACTICAI PARADOXES kND PUZZLES. through and on the bow the two together off. and both of the wires which affect it being within the bow. slip the first off and down through the bow then bring the first the third up. all which is n(nv at the end but one. You have now the first and second rings released.

as all the changes you have gone through were only to enable you to get at the tenth ring. all the others to the right hand must be put on again. replace the third.282 THE magician's own book. that in order to get that ring off. in order to release the first and second together then bring the fourth toward the end. The eighth comes off in one hundred and twenty-eight moves. until you find that the ninth stands as second on the bow. you will release the tenth ring in one hundred and seventy moves but as you then have only the ninth on. until you arrive at the second and first rings. in order to release the first and second together. release the ninth ring in two hundred and fiftysix moves and. Then to release the seventh. or in its proper position for releasing and so you proceed until you find all the rings finally released. till you find the eighth standing as second on the bow. slipping it off and through. beginning by putting up the first and second together. . and going through the movements in the same succession as before. by one half. and which requires fifteen moves more. with each following ring which is finally released. brin^ on the third. for your encouragement. which are necessary to take off all the ringg . . release the fiist. you will. consequently you can release it. which having done. and as it is necessary to bring on again all the rings up to the ninth. replacing the second. the seventh in sixty-four moves. and so on. As you commence your operations with all the rings ready fixed on the bow. . your labor will diminish. your eighth ring will then stand second. . begin ning by putting the first and second together. . You will then find that you have only the ninth left on the bow. slipping the seventh on again. bring the first up and on. release the first. making six hundred and eighty-one moves. You will then have only the eighth left on the bow you must again put on all the rings to the right hand. bring the first and second together up and on again. then the third. This dropping of the tenth ring is the first effectual movement toward getting the rings off. and working as before. at which time you can release it. until you find you have only the tenth and ninth on the bow then slip the tenth off and through the bow. . replace the first. and replace the ninth. which come off together. and you must not be discouraged on learning. in order to release the ninth. you must begin by putting the first and second up and on together. consequently. passing the second ring on to the bow again.

: observing. euler's method. George Walker. for the present century to lay this down on a general plan and the only English writer who has noticed this is Mr. that in reckoning the fewest other squares squares commanded by him you must omit such as he has already covered. he would command the . have all given methods by which this feat might be accomplished. on the principle of always playing him to that point. De Montmart. The plan is this Let the knight be placed on any square. MOTIKG THE KNIGHT OVER ALL THE SQUARES ALTERNATELY. on both of which his powers would be equal. you begin by putting up the first and second together.« ^I? m. and others. t±^ ^^ >:>z ^¥^ > t^ A A EL 4. only necessary to say. Ozanam. It was reserved. V mV ^ ^kl vn¥^f> either. with some counters or waf- . The problem respecting the placing the knight on any given square. however. in his Treatise on Chess.iim from that square to any house on the board. has not been thought unworthy the attention of the first mathematicians. from which. If. m ^ K. it is 46. you may move him to . and follow precisely the same system as before.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. Euler. De Moivre. 283 Witli the experience you will by this time have acquired. /•\U«x ^. <> '<Xt\\ Try this on the board. De Majron. in actual play. too. and moving l. there are two squares. that to replace the rings. and move him from square to square.

It is obvious that this route may be varied many ways. the knight's covering successively each square of the board. . Thus we see. though as the above plan was not then known here. among chess-amateurs when it was first performed indeed it was generally considered a greater mental effort than that of playing three games of chess at the same time.284 ers. Chessplayer was last exhibited in England. placing one on eveiy squar<} and. that first mathematicians very ingenious system for performing the feat without seeing the board. has. a link in an endlesgi chain. is to commence by moving him to that square which commands the fewest points of attack. ANOTHER METHOD. and engaging to play him. from that square. his . attracted the attention it is only latelj^ however. THE magician's own book. . in all ages. without seeing the board. and by continuing this principle he will occupy all the squares in rotation. when you clearl it. whichever of these routes for covover all the board ering the sixty-four squares may be adapted. that if on any two or more squares his power would be equal. the last The problem of of the this . we are sure to arrive at a square. . over the remaining When the automaton sixty-three in sixty-three moves. last square being at the distance of a knight's move from his first. The general rule for moving the Knight upon all the squares of the board. has been invented by an Edinburgh We well recollect the surprise occasioned gentleman. and we have often amused ourselves by trying to work it on a slate. but used something like the method laid down by Euler. by taking one known route. he could not adopt it. and understand which we subjoin. observing. which is soon done. this was made part of the wonders he accomplished. so that whatever square we start from. by acquiring the plan by heart. each move forms. you may astonish your friends by inviting them to station the knight on any square they like. that there are different routes which the Knight-errant may take in his progress still. . he can play him over all the squares from any given point. Our young Chess-players must remember that it does not matter on which square the knight is placed at starting as. he may be placed inditferentl}^ on either of such squares. if we may so express ourselves.

if any person could commit to memory the consecutive moves of any one route over the board. Consequently. in the same manner that any of us. if required to mention the numerals up to sixty-four. 281 link of the chain. " Certainly it would be. to commit to memory the moves forming a Knight's route over the sixtyfour squares " and we reply. sibility of performing the feat " What an immense undertaking it would be. a Knight's move distant from the square of our departure." and herein lies the beauty of the invention.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. he would be able to start from any one square in that route. These considerations greatly reduce the apparent imposbut the reader will exclaim. if we used the language of Chess to designate the squares . as if we started at one and ended at sixty-four. could as easily start at thirty and end at twenty-nine. ! Met. A set of names. . are in. whose application can be understood at a glance.

This is all that has to be for the lines of learned. having learned a route of the Knight. Im. the Queen's as H. the Queen's Knight's as L. the King's Knight's as D. and the Queen's Rook's as M. the Queen's Bishop's as K. three cc. or King's sixth square. expressed by these invented names. Suppose we start from the Queen's Knights seventh square. or King's Rook's square We consider it quite unnecessary to say another word in explanation of this system its ingenious simplicity causes All that is it to be understood and learned at a glance. the King's rook's file is known as B. — . . The diagram given above represents the chess-board the distinction of white and black squares is not necessary for our purpose. commencing from the right hand are distinguished by the consonants in alphabetical succession (C and J are. and commit it to memory. for obvious reasons. and the performer of the feat. G six. seven en.286 THE magician's own book. two oo. not in the complicated terms of Chess. The files. six ix. in this system of Chess notation squares tell tlieir own numbers one being 7t?i. but in these simple equivalents. thinks in the new language which he directs the moves in the terms of chess just as many of us Odnk in English. the King's Bishops as F. in fact. — . the terminal sounds of the first eight numerals. vented for the squares. the King's as G. required now is. : Len . eight tt being. four or. omitted. Bun being B one. when we are writing or speaking French.) Thus. to select a Knight's route over all the squares of the board. Gix. the route will be as follows — .

From white to black. who •' fiery coureerB guide With headlong speed throng war's empurpled tide Alert and brave they spring aiuidst the fight. he will acquire an intimate knowledge of the peculiar powers and perplexing peregrinations of the eccentric Cahalleros. 28'j' JightcDing pages. and. from black to candid white. PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES." 1 ^9 gj 3 17 19 ^9 26 §3 Q35 58 Q Q Q .. if not quite a first-rate player.

A MAZE OR LABRTINTH.«88 THE magician's OWN BOOK. ROSAMOND'S BOWER. 48. This maze is a correct ground-plan of one in the gardens of the Palace of Hampton Court. No legendary tale is at- .

it beingquite as difficult to get out as to get in. 289 tached to it. which \^ is decidedly preferable. 3\. requires no -y>^ separate explanation. of which we are aware. being one for the purpose of constructing different figures by arranging variously-shaped pieces of card or wood in certain ways. The puzzle is to get into the center. t^^^D these figures are susceptible. or thin mahogany. THE CHINESE PUZZLE. and one of figure 3. . N. and many are the disappointments experienced before the end is attained and even then. and two of each of the other figures. It is . where seats are placed under two lofty trees . are almost infinite and we subjoin a representation of a few of the most curious. seven pieces. but its labyrinthine walks occasion much amusement to the numerous holiday parties who frequent the palace grounds. 18 . N stiff cardboard.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. in J shape like the annexed figures and bearing the same proportion to each other one piece must be made in the shape of figure 1. the trouble is not over. This puzzle. one of figure 2. Cut out of very ^y^ \. 49. The combinations of which .

\n fact. of course. that the pieces of which the puzzle consists. when the paper lies pinched in its form. and pinch it at the bottom. with compasses. which make six divi. . and it will represent a fan. . it is in the fashion represented by A when closed together. fold it down the middle of the sheet. and open the top. spreading the top. . in plaits. and it will resemble the shuffling of a pack of cards close it and turn each corner inward with your fore finger and thumb. like a ruff. . . longways then turn down the edge of each fold outward.290 to THE MAGICIANS OWN BOOK. and with the thumb of your left hand turn out the next fold. . as D let go your fore finger at the lower end. it will be like B unclose it again. as F pinch it half way. must be employed 50. Take a sheet of stiflf paper. Trouble-wit may be made to assume an infinite variety of forms. all be borne in mind. into three equal parts. and it will resemble a wicket. the breadth of a penny measure it as it is folded. as C stretch it forth. and it will be as H. . . TROrSLE-WIT. it will appear as a rosette for a lady's shoe. as E close it again. to form each figure. then pinch it a other. so that. and it will resemble a cover for an Italian couch. by a little ingenuity and practice. and the . sions in the sheet let each third part be turned outward. . . and it will appear in the form shown by G hold it in that form. will fall right quarter of an inch deep. . shuffle it with each hand. and bo productive of very considerable amusement.

3. 4 partially through the space from below upwards. All that now remains is to push No. 3 placed in the same ^position fachig you (a) in No. 2. ANS^VER TO THE " PARALLELOGRAM. . — push No. 6 which is the key through the opening M and the cross is completed as in Fig. 2 Place No. as in Fig. 5 cross. No. the desired figures may be obtained. so that the point E. THE CHINESE CROSS ANSWER. 2. — — 2. and by shifting the position of the pieces. . and it will be in the position shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 1 and 2 close together. 4^ through the opening at K.ANSWERS TO PRACTICAL PUZZLES. so Now that the profile of the pieces should be as in Fig." 00/ Divide the piece of card into five steps. 1 then hold them together with the finger and thumb of the left hand Push horizontally and with the square hole to the right. Place Nos.ways upon the part Y. Fig. is directed upwards to the right hand side then push No. as seen in f. and slide it to the left at A. 4 quite through. [291] . 1.

G A modest competence thy lot will be But richer joys than wealth are stored for thee. M Thou hast a friend can help thy onward way And such a friend will ne'er thy trust betray. E The ground Let no dishonor now your conduct stain. . . and orer then the hand the head. faint not. THE DIVIDED GARDEN ANSWER 4. Leaving fond eyelids. Beware of rivals mischief hovers near Or. the open door to gain Why — . when the experimenter may jump out of it and claim his coat. ANSWER TO THE ENDLESS STRING. But. moist with tears. but never let it bloom. ANSWER TO THE CHINESE MAZE. ! . thy love be fled. The string must be put through the armhoie. but w^in by dutiful appeal L A barren path this way thy footsteps tread Thy heart will soon grow cold. Whispers. and the string drawn down around the body until the former drops down about the waist. is rough. — THE magician's own book. B C linger near the fence ? a word or two Would kindle up a flame for ever true. J Be not too rash nor leap the Bridge of Love. parental frowns appear. K What dost thou on the house top ? do not steal . and difficult the road . Koong-see's A. then through the opposite armhoie must be put up underneath the waistcoat. 5. ! I — Thy love. Favored indeed. A Take heed take heed a strange transforming doom May fix thy love. above. thou shalt reach thy love's abode 1 F Against thy course runs the opposing tide. And waves of trouble cast thy hopes aside.— 892 8. worse mischance.

THE THREE RABBITS. NINE 7. side. 9. the wedding ring . ANSWER 8. D Joy I tliou hast reachc. and from misgiving free. Let white-robed maidens orange blossoms bring Oh may your years of happy wedlock be Bright as your hopes. at length. ANSWER TO THE CIRCLE PUZZLB. 29. Thrust it upwards from the other .ANSWERS TO PRACTICAL PUZZLES. .-d. THE ACCOiDfODATING SQUARE. 6. ANSWEE TO VERTICAL LINE PUZZLE.

) and then to the left. and will have four pieces of the same size and shape. ANSWER TO THE QUARTO PUZZLE. . By opening laurel the card or leather. the middle. and the string and buttons may be easily released. Draw the narrow slip of the leather through the hole. ANSWER TO THE BUTTON PUZZLE. and so on to the end of the card then open it and . 2 \ / 1 you Divide the figure in the direction shown by the lines. cut down A 11. leaf may be treated in the same manner. Double the cardboard or leather lengthways down the middle. 13.294 10. and then cut first to the right. 12. ANSWER TO THE CUT CARD PUZZLE. ANSWER TO THE PUZZLE OF FOURTEEN. . except the two ends. The diagram shows the proper cuttings. nearly to the end. THE magician's OWN BOOK. (the narrow way. a person may pass through it.

14. 295 Al^SWEE TO THE SQUARE AND CHICLE PUZZLE. .ANSWERS TO PRACTICAL PUZZLES.

3. the puzzle handled gently. 21. In order to take the pipe off. Gooseberries and currants. 1. ANSWER TO THE FOUR TENANTS. until there is sufficient of the loop below the pipe to allow ^ . 19. ANSWER TO THE CYLINDER PUZZLE. and great care taken that. . and the pipe slipped off. as they lb would in all probability spoil your puzzle. Shall amply repay The work they may do. and threo squares only will remain. 3) being passed through it.f^^ ^^|^ resented by the woodcut in the margnn would "^-^ then be produced. of the diameter of the hole. And he'll profit most does not labor shirk So let them toil on Till cabbages rise. Takeaway the pieces numbered 8. ANSWER TO THE THREE SQUARE PUZZLE.296 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the card must be doubled (as in Fig. And carrots and turnips To gladden their eyes. 22. Fig. circular and of the height of the square parts. 2). which would fulfill the required Having drawn into two equal ^^ conditions. in doubling the card to put on the pipe no creases are made in it. the slip passed through it. 13. cut a straight line across the end. Who And raspberries too. The card for this puzzle must be cut very neatly. My ground is divided. 3 is then to be taken away. 10. Take a round cylinder hole. by spectator the mode of operation betraying to an acute m 20. ANSWER TO THE CARD PUZZLE.^ ^.^3 one of the square ends of the slip (Fig. dividing it an equal section from either side to the edge of the circular base. a figure like that rep. My tenants at work.

. *• • • ANSWER TO THE NUN'S PUZZLE.ANSWERS TO PRACTICAL PUZZLES. 23. 297 THE PUZZLE WALL 24.

28. THE magician's own book.298 27. THE DOGS PUZZLE ANSWERED SEE DOTTED LINES. PUZZLE OE THE TWO FATHERS. The first father divided the land in this way 1 .

Then the last fold is made lengthwise Take a piece it is as . 1 then fold the other upper corner over the first. 299 AJfSWER TO CUTTING OUT A CUOSS PUZZLE. 3. Fold the upper corner down. of writing paper about three times as long broad.ANSWERS TO PRACTICAL PUZZLES. . and it will appear as in Fig. and it will appear as in Fig. . say six inches long and two wide. 80. as shown in Fig. 2 you next fold the paper in half lengthwise.

2. 6 on on 3. 33. and hav- /^ ^ . and 8 on 5 . or. in each row three ! 34. 85. Good-tempered friends here nine stars see Ten rows there are. THE COUNTER PUZZLE ANSWER. half the diameter of the first. ANSWER TO THE STAR I PUZZLE. t.300 THE magician's OWN BOOK. The cabinet-maker must find the center of the circle. 3 on 1. 5 on 2. ANSWER TO THE JAPAN SQUARE. and trikc another circle. ANSWER TO THE CABINET MAKERS' PUZZLE. &c. 38. 1 Place 4 on 8 on 6. 4 on 1.

become ^-J^^. The four figures are 8888. . 39. draw out easily. pass it over the knot. slipping either ball through it. Take away L in the subjunctive " ANSWER TO THB TREE rUZZI* • . U. and bring it through far enough to pass one of the balls through. The rerest will follow uLHI^^^ H versal of the same process will put them baak w^^rjfii 38. GRAMMAHCAL VJrHLE. and draw it through again. The same process must be repeated with the other ball the loop can then be drawn through the hole in the center." when the changes which noccij&arJly follow will be immediately apparent. ^^^^ ^^ r% ll and the ^^® cross. ARITHMETICAL PUZZLE. Draw ANSWER TO THE DOUBLE-HEADED PUZZLE. 40.ANSWERS 37. T-» PRACTir\L PUZZLES. — 1 1 ^^ again. and so turn it into the imperative " Set. Let " at the beginning of the first line. or nothing. which being divided by a line drawn through the middle. and substitute S. draw the string back. There is another and perhaps a neater way of performing this trick. Having done this. and both balls will be found on the same side. PUZZLE. Push it through the hole at the extremities. and the ball will slide along the cord until it reaches the other side. Arrange them side by side in the short the center piec^. the sum of which is eight Os. having both balls on the same side. Draw the loop through the central hole. The string is then replaced. 301 ANSWER TO THE STRINa AND BAILS the loop well down.

disposition whilst the ambitious are beneath ridicule." . custards. ANSWER TO THE PUZZLE INSCRIPTION E. the following couplet By the use of the single vowel was formed. rais'd. between friends.: 302 42. BACHELLOR. ANSWER TO A CURIOUS LETTEIL "Sir. and tarts. She made her last puff. THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. : And knew every A use of the oven. Beneath in the dust The mouldy old crust Of Nell Bachcllor lately was shoven Who was skilled in the arts Of pies. PERSEVERE YE PERFECT MEN. . she'd liv'd long enough. AN OLD PU WOMAN. To make a In hopes that her crust will be 43. puflf by her husband much prais'd When Now here she doth dirt pie. AXS^^ER TO AN EllTAPH OX ELLINOE. EVER KEEP THESE PRECEPTS TEN. lie. 44. I understand your overbearing a man even with the world is above contempt.

Figs. [303] . Leaving the traced-out oval at first in its dotted form.. combining at tlie same time a considerable amount of instruction. 1.''' given to the tracing. and draw upon it the form an oval in outline. with the pencil you draw a horizontal line us the basis of youi — — : y . may be obtained in the following" manner. 4. or by means of adrycamel'scare should be taken not to let the \ hair pencil / tracing-powder get beyond the edge of the pricked i / card. Having pricked out the oval upon the card. The pierced card will serve. (a little further on we shall speak of other figures. for obviously the best plan to take a little extra pains with that in the first instance. Take a card or piece of pasteboard. or tracing point." An almost endless source of amusement. '. powdered.. which will be found to be transferred to the white paper beneath. dirty appearance is \ ''^*. " Tired at first sight with what the Muse imparti.. to be used singly or in eombination with each other) any one with a very little skill will be able to form an infinite number of objects. The dimensions of the oval of an egg are immaterial. With this traced oval for a basis. and it is if carefully done. The best drawing tool will be found to be an ordinary black lead pencil.. thus ^\ The powder may be applied either with a piece \ of wool or wadding. 3. 2. and placing the card upon apiece of drawing paper any white paper will however do rub it over the pricked-out oval.THE MAGIC OF ART. and the experimenter may suit his own fancy With a stout needle. In fearless youth we tempt the lieight of arts. as in that case a soiled. suggestive also of others. get a little red or black lead. Some of our readers may be unacquainted with the mode of tracing' an outline. — quite through the outline. 5. or even stiff paper. hundreds of tracings. The rules of procedure are the same in all. 6 are very easy results. for the purposes of tracing. and it may be advisable to particularize one method among many. prick in this respect.

opportunity is given to a cultivation of the noble art of do> sign. These will ensure your making the object square and properly balanced. Let this and the other lines. After this you may draw lines parallel to the others but these are not so material. although they serve as guides. wliether as applied to utility or ornament . which serve merely as the scaffolding of your figure. Next. : 1 2 Now the imagination and fancy may step in to produce forms having the oval for a foundation and not only is a very rational source of amusement opened out. be done faintly or in dots.304 THE magician's OWN BOOK. figure. but the . draw a line through the center of the oval and perpendicular to the first.

. 8) represent the traced or sketched square and plan lines the firmer lines suggest In the same way the thin objects formed upon that figure. square outline {Jig. Following the same plan in every particular. 7. we have suggested the above mode as sure to succeed under every circumstance. 9) suggests the inner sketch of a . we subjoin some examples of what may be done with the square. It is obvious to artist will readly . I stated before that the size of the fundamental oval or square made little difference.865 remark that the hand of many an amateur be able to form the oval without having but as this portion of our recourse to the pierced card work is intended for all. The dotted lines (Jigs. church. but I would recommend my .

and the tracings prepared proportionably large (pounded chalk being used instead of the black or red powder in transferring the forms therto). I now proceed to submit some examples of what may be done with other rudimentary forms. and the designs made upon these with a piece of chalk. in place of the square suggested in Figs. schools. or simply . to get these as large as possible. 1. 9. younger readers This may be done with a pair of compasses. Following the instructions previously given. so much However. could be obtained. describe a circle . suit his or her own taste in that respect. this matters little and each one will the better.306 THE Magician's own book. such as is used in most venient. 8. or con* If a large black board.

11. and landscapes generally. 16 is drawn upon two circles in combination with each other. 12. t : . 20. whereb}' they will not fail to notice that nearly all natural objects have the curved line for a basis. 15. if they are not actually distinguishable thereby from those that are artificial. . 807 sketched or traced by means of any round object. — — Fig. And it will be no mean result of my labors. . 19. the circle forming an important part of their figure. 13. The dotted lines of the plan will be readily perceived but lest there should be any difficult) they have been drawn separately in Fig. It. With this uplex figure little skill will be required to present the lord of the farm yard.THE MAGIC OF ART. are given merely as suggestions. are based upon further the square turned diamond-wise. Figs. such as a coin laid flat upon the paper. and will need n remark examples upon this plan may be multiplied easily. 18. 14. Those given will serve as hints in the several directions of flowers. Fig 10. The three outlines. if any number of my younger readers are led thereby to a habit of observation. The mind of the experimenter thousands such will inmiediately revert to other objects having the circle or the are to be met with around us sphere for their basis. foliage.

that from the little nymph cut to the great pyramid. namely. ^^. by a kind of natural law. the triangle. let me introduce another. annexed cut. e.A A moment's in the reflection will show. 19 Before proceeding to show what may easily be done by a simple combination of the figures we have constructed. and which enters. 21. t. circle.90S THE magician's OWN BOOK. although unconsciously. square. how naturally. the oval. the girl seats herself within one.. everything that rests s >lid- . Fig. into almost all forms Observe in the or groups of forms.

but the following directions may not be Draw a straight line for a base of any length. similar manner. ly 309 upon the earth must take the form. differing triangular in their form. * This is needless for some. 23. . more cr less. to proceed to something more complicated. this Now. divide this base line by two. Roofs of houses. Figs. rections. If you wish to form a equilateral triangle. churches.* and trace it according to former diand from the examples. the length of the sides being at the choice of the artist. all trees. 24. of course. e. 22. . and make various exercises upon foundation. look around you for others.THE MAGIC OF ART. will meet at the upright line one the length of the base. Any other triangle may be formed in a top. and the triangle is formed. Suppose you had either in your mind. are angles. or sketched out upon padone easily enough. t. one of which the three sides are equal. and at the point of division set up hu upright line then from each end of the base line slant against the central These. and towers. as are all great from each other only in the width of their Construct a triangle. of this broad-based tapering figure.

shown A These give you the all these lines to the point A. suppose you had the dimensions of a piece of ground. for perspective. The other sides of their figure may be easily enough found. the plan of a — Let your plan be what is in the square portion oi at the top of this plan Fig. width of the beds i7i perspective. Next draw lines from the corner of the beds parallel to the center line until they meet the base line of the triangle. having done the plan and guide-lines in pencil and the tinue . garden that is to say. however alarming it may look in books. in reality. Fig. like an insoluble riddle or a monster cobweb. allotting so much space to this and that bed. and wanted to see how such an arrangement would look in perspective. with its net-work of lines.310 THE MABICIAN'S OWN BOOK . 26 is the perspective view sought. so much to-gravel walks. until it meets the top of the triangle. 25 place your triangle. and is what your experimental drawing would be if. cross and across. is nothing more than the actual representation of things as they meet the eye. From thence con. and intended to lay it out as a garden. per. draw a line through the center of the square upwards. in other words.

but only the general public. if only properly Of course. means nineteen out of every twenty individuals. are not referred to. or submitted to a used. you had erased the former with a piece of india rubber. not only amongst very juvenile experimenters. but I do not know whether my the same light. those regularly educated. whether .THE MAGIC OF ART. readers regard the matter in appears to the present writer that this the triangle little figure is capable of working wonders in the hands of an amateur draughtsman. rest in 311 pen and ink. I ask whether the preceding cut is any exaggeration on the average sort of result attained. — but it — those of maturer age ? Everybody possessed of vision can tell. ordinarily. long course of training as artists. which by the by.

as it were. . We would first draw or trace the parallelogram shown in dotted lines over this. Fig. in the way of depicting them with accuracy. or necessary to its stability. The difference between the two results is as great as pos. b. and applying to it the previously given rules. ovals. To proceed let us take the above misrepresented country residence. 28). circles. or in the position proper By accustoming the hand to it. a person is put imperceptibly. as shown (see Fig. by marking the same at a. make that the base of another and lengthened triangle. and triangles. and these and other figures. and carrying the lines from those points to the apex of the triangle. 29 the triangle placed at the side of the soldier in front gives the perspective of the whole line. Fig.312 THE magician's OWN BOOK a building or other object is upright. 31 exhibits the parallelogram and triangle in combination. we get its true perspective dimensions. and if we knew the proportionate of the side and roofs height of the side window. we place a triangle then drawing an upright line through the center of both. sible. Thus we get the three lines — . Perhaps nothing is more puzzling to the tyro in sketching . In Fig. 30 sist in shows how two parallelograms in combination giving the perspective of a block of stone or bale asof goods. squares. see what we can make of it. and by habituating the mind to form comparisons between objects. to form lines.

In Fig. 813 method than the interior of rooms and halls. 32 a very easy is given.THE MAGIC OF ART. and with- . Trace the outer parallelogram.

34. the oue below suppose that the bottom of the nose. carry out this hint more fully. the line above that the top of the forehead. or comicality.314 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK it is intended to set you quizzing ^r\d caricaFar from it. these lines are placed higher or lower. 35 you will see this worked considered a well proportion! ^d face. You have now the basis for a face. Divide it by transverse lines into about equal portions. and have what is By Fig. how the I shall end is attained by placing a pair of dark spectacles upon a . Draw the oval. Let the central line (across) mark the position of the eyes.. strictly speaking. out. Now oddity of feature or exp':ession is simply the result of a deviatir^n from this regularity. 31 and 38. proper places. oddity. Fig. in reference to the next two figures. or out of their. turing 3'our friends. and if. you have. at preeert merely pointing out. which is founded upon irregularity or incon- gruity in things. as you will perceive by the other Figs. ao a necessary result of such disarrangement. 36.

so far from contributing to humor. a figure for your basis. But not to forget the " Art" in the " Sport. the central line across is for the eye. But take notice that portions are cut off e. .. 315 reg-ularly-featured face. lengthening or shortening the chin. Next make a number of these tracings upon a clean sheet of drawing paper. or the nose slightly on one side. or adding a little flesh to the lowei portion of that at Fig. chin. This will be a sufficient ." let me add. Suffice it that the oval forms essentially the basis of the structure of a well proportioned face. proceed as directed in the case of the front face in the last lesson altering the feature lines.these are all sources of . Indeed. or its being covered by a shade. That is to sa}^. . and the other two for the limit of the hair and the bottom of the nose. True humor is closely allied to kindness. Now let us take the simplest elements of the profile or This is also formed upon the oval. attempt likenesses of your friends and companions. and try the effects of which the above are but indications. is far from being heightened by uglimss.— THE MAGIC OF ART. The omission of one eye. you may. closed while the other stares the mouth a little wider than usual. and hair and some modification takes place about the region of the eye. and remarking whereabout the lines of their features would cut it. that by sketching the plain oval. or trace from Fig. and marking them in very lightly. . g. 41. (41). however. which. 39. little more into the " Art" than at first sight the " Sport " seems to warrant. that great distortion or hideousness. Your imaginations will furnish an endless variety of subjects. it should be borne in mind. And here we must go a variation. in pencil. at the back where the neck is inserted a little has to be added for forehead. with a slight side face. and forehead according to your fancy. Draw for yourself. 41 that the oval used for profile purposes is divided as before into four about equal portions. You will perceive by Fig. Now fill your slates or sketch-books with ovals. such as is shown in the Fig. nose. the humorous. destroys it by raising painful images in the mind. which are appropriated in the same manner. without difficulty.

41. 43. produce the effect of comicality. In Figs. 46. joined to the sinking in of the facial angle. 41. may you summon up our ancient acquaintance Mother Hubbard.. the same end is at- . eyebrows.S16 THE MAGICIAN S OWN v. which may be seen underneath in dotted lines. as of a to their prominence. mustaches. or left redundant. and illustrations ted here. which. 44 and 45. by means you are magi- cians enough to impart. BOOK. 42.) Observe that the peculiarity of these comic physiognomies consists merely in their deviation from the regularly formed bead of Fig. very easily. The last hint only dealt with the depth relatively of the several parts of the face Now. or the modern hero Punch. How few magic touches. the hair cut absurdly short. Tne variety of ways in wliich this exercise may be worked is infinite. this are accordingly om^^ Let us proceed a step further. Subjoined are a few. beards. (See Figs. In Figs. by this time. They are constructed upon that figure. guide for you.

and occasionally upon the margins of school-books. tained tion. 48). 27 give you the annexed (Fig. In desigining the human figure. is iJl? by the simplest means. and with even less exaggera- here I again repeat. that the less deviation there from ihe proper proportions the better. L Every one as is will recognize it as a model drawing —such to be found upon walls. This the artist (!) intends from a comic drawing. there arc three principal rules to be observed : We . And As a pendant to the comical landscape given No.THE MAGIC or ART. will new take up the grandest object of art the Human Figure. Of course it is no such thing.

Whenever the body is at rest upon its legs. say. is more than twice the thickness of the head. a vertical line will be perceived. very young children. to the sole of the foot. First. We so ! They have. The second rule is. as one may : : . any part of the body will follow. : . the standard height of the human body may he reckDividing the oned' as eight times the length of the face. standing at ease. 49). (49). that no part of the body. .318 THE MAuiCIAN'S OWN BOOK. this imaginary line must always pass through its center. as the experience of most people has tested. entire length hj eight. as shown in the annexed diagram (Fig. at present confining ourselves to the consideration of the first two rules These must be considered as only generally true. however. . however. The third rule concerns the center of gravity. the rule is. that where the head will go. shall see more about this hereafter. drawn through the center of the figure. it will be perceived that the face comprises one the third. to be well considered in connection . By reference to the fig. viewed In laterally. to the knee joint the leg and the eighth. the second reaching to the chest of the spaces the fourth cuts the entire length into two to above the hips equal parts the fifth extends to the center of the thigh the seventh to half way down the sixth.

or sketch out any size. or legs otherwise disproportionate to the rest It will be seen of the body. for the purpose of comic drawing. Then. will yield the desired results. by the Figs. a body too large or too small for the legs. Trace out. now come to consider the third principle that of the center of gravity. We — . divide its length into eight parts. 319 with our present subject fur as we said with the face. 53 is given in illustration of the remarks upon ilw The form is correct enouc^h as regards second rule. You will thus test the accuracy of the rule. height. Fig. 49 and or taking any well drawn 50). A face too long or too short. first dropping a central line perpendicular to the ground. and is at the root of caricature drawing. 51 and 52 that their oddity has been arrived : at simply by this rule. or by the deviation from the strict rule of proportion. you will vary these proportions. draw with a black lead pencil upon the print similar lines to those in the figures. and familiarize yourself with the proportions of the figure.THE MAGIC OF ART. any great deviation from them leads to oddity. and deviates in the matter of lateral proportion. . or any others for yourselves figure in a print which may not be too costly to use so. the figures (Fig. that is to say.

and the figure topples so with the next. and we begin either to pity or to laugh poor diagram The two following figures are other cases of the same sort —we feel instinctively for them they are very far gone. This is so plain that argument is not needed to . and after that we will go subject. 59). the balance is disturbed. In the diagrams (Figs. Try this also for yourselves as before. being at rest. that line being out of the vertical. The first is at rest. Nor need we confine our experiments to figures comparatively at rest forms in every variety of action come under it is a law of nature the same rule There is a central line drawn through : — . is in a false posi* tion. the same principle is enforced. The next diagram shows a partial deviation from the center of gravity. In the next figure. commends itself to the reason like a mathematical demonstration. — I — • Try this rule upon your slates or sketching blocks. 68.320 THE MAGICIAN S OWN BOOK. on to the next demonstrate it. Observe in the annexed figures how the first (Fig. because the line passing through the center of the figure is a vertical line.

The second is fast hastening to its The third is much fall. If we turn our attention direction upon natural objects. 65. and twist. r 63 . It will suggest itself to every reader to apply the rule to other objects than Trees the human figure. The first of the following figures is in full action. On the contrary. 321 the whole systeu of the universe. but taking the objects as a whole. or animal bodies. and meander. as shown in Fig. square lines offend the eye wlicn met with under such circumstanin any ''^ . we cannot fail to see that a curved line is always to be made out in their forms. vertical to the horizon. this curved line is distinguishable. a central line. in the positions of Figs. and plant. will be detected. flowers. the sea. just so far as they are graceful and pleasing objects to the eye. trees. the clouds. as its balance is not in any way disturbed. and every upriglit thing. but it may go on for ever.THE MAGIC OF ART. could we but see it. and stone. 65 64 and 65 are never seen unless through some violent accident they may bend. through every tree. the earth. nearer still to that consummation. Indeed.

— 32' r. apart from the which it is the object of these this lesbon . insisting that the very same qualities were essential in the comic and the But this is digressive. such as submitted in Fig. your slate or board the figure (67) until you can do it easiThen. very many of my readers will have no difficulty in copying Practice upon the few natural objects suggested below. things violating the regular order or general rule of nature. of beauty disthe outline of the tant hills. and the like. which is the line of beauty. the student who best understands is — Socrates did not the first will best appreciate the second. mountain precipices. ces. a square flower. the foliage. It is almost impossible indeed to imagine a square cloud. tragic artist. must pervade and we cannot suffiit is the natural law all nature cicntl}^ ddmire the truth that that which is most necessary We . hill tops. In the annexed figure (67) Let us resume 67 you perceive the curved line. 68. Does any one ask what particular reference these observations have to " Art in Sport ?" Let us say that they alone can properly understand what is comic who have learned to appreciate what is not comic. When we see a square may headed man. magician's own book. for the purposes of "sport. graceful lines in the clouds. which had a square or nearly square appearance but such things are almost always presented to our view as phenomena i. . The distance between the sublime and the ridiculous is said to be very small only one step. such as rocks. Let me advise you to practice : — new source of amusement somewhat perse veringly. . or a square Piorse. we are not impressed in his favor. This curved line. You wish to produce a droll "bit" of landscape Take any simple view. In this you will readily discover. e. as I said above. At any rate. the meandering stream." proceed as follows. also most beautiful. the curved. you I must presume that will succeed in drawing gracefully. ly. In proportion as you are able to make this perfectly. have met with representations of natural objects. disdain to write an essay upon this subject.

u^^^^vA3 [i#z£lvi^^^ in other words. than to withdraw one's self from the artificial world. we are able to peruse as it were the book of nature the delight and the advantage Now turn to the example is proportionably increased. TO. the same process is carried out. how it has become so must Fig. or that every square object is un . 70 I hope that I shall not be understood to mean. — — . shown in Fig. What do we see? The lines of L»eauty have given place to others less pleasing to the eye. that in cider to be graceful everything must be round. to ennoble the thoughts. Nothing is more calculated to refine the mind.THE MAGIC OF ART. and the resul' And if. or that everything round is arra^eful. a beautiful lesson could be impressed upon the mind. 69. if we me able to do this intelligently having learned the alphabet. 32: papers to open up. In Fig. 69 is a comic landscape be clearly apparent. and to gaze upon the fresh face of nature. is similar. and (except as a source of merriment) less acceptable to the mind.

We proceed ^o show how comic designs may be made and ap . but the attitude is formed upon This will be perceived clearer by reference a curved line. in which. therefore. the square. without using a single straight line in the parts of the form. 71. or. Doubtless many round things are ungraceful. as many others composed entirely of straight lines at various angles to each other are exceedingly graceful. the oddity is attained by making the whole attitude stiff' and angular. that by making any curved line into a square or straight one the end we propose is to be obtained. and.o2i graceful .\ BOOK. But what is meant is this that natural objects. to the next figure. again. The student for hiuiself : will find no difficulty in multiplying examples must now those given will suffice as hints. conducive in a degree to its general pleasing character. the curved line predominates. THE magician's 0VV.) in which. (t2. left to themselves. are made odd and comic-looking when : drawn upon In Fig. not only the lines of the shepherd's form are curved lines.

. and that all will find some entertainment f. however. as the nature of the varnish with which you work is to dry very rapidly. you see clearly enough through the glass. to which it might be fastened at the corners by means of a little gum or varnish. by some ver}. It is hoped that. available to almost every intelligent reader. must be stippled in. in this subject. It will be necessary to let your first colors dry before and it is desirable not to work in putting on your shades too hot a room. without specks or scratches let this be made perfectly clean. that upon glass you cannot wash in a tint. . as in painting upon ivory. such as skies. at source of amusement and instruction. but siiujdy to point out. Broad surfaces. 325 The proper course of plied to the slides of magic lanterns. Common camel's hair brushes will do those made of sable are. . which should be made the exact size you color it and when intend it to be painted upon the glass quite dry. ordinary purposes. **|irt in Sprt. Now commence to paint upon the glass an exact fac simile of the design." the author did not propose to himself to give a complete treatise. he has not entirely failed. place it beneath your slide of glass.easy processes. . Bear in mind too. Prepare your design.THE MAGIC OF ART. . much better but the first will suffice for : . In originating this paper on " The Magic of Art. which. of course. and are procurable of most artist's color makers.-om. The colors necessary are what are called silica colors. procedure is as follows Procure a piece of clear common window glass. .

is very ancient. to the place of his des This is not. and thus was enabled to read what had been written. bark or papyrus. He wound the bark again round this. The bark was then unrolled and sent to the correspondent. which corresponds better with the nanie. which is intended to be illegible except by the person for whom it is destined. Cryptography properly consists in writing with signs. [32G] No separation is made between . however. Another kind. and then sent him.SECRET WRITING The art of communicating secret information by means of writing. is the following. and wound around it ancients. The most simple method is to choose for every letter of the alphabet some But this sort of cryptography sign. only a concealment of writing. or who has a key or explanation of the signs. and wrote upon the skin with some indelible coloring matter. (chiffre) is also easy to be deciphered without a key. who was furnished with a stick of the same size. which are legible only to him for whom the writing is intended. The ancients sometimes shaved the head of a slave. but tination. upon which they wrote. used by the They took a small stick. properly secret writing. after his liair had been grown again. This mode of concealment is evidently very imperfect. or only another letter. Hence many illusions are used.

until some chemical agent were applied. By this means the deciphering of the writing becomes diflScult for a third person not initiated. but it is also extremely troublesome to the correspondents themselves. the repetition of certain words may lead to a discovery. so as to give to the whole the appearance of an ordinary letter. if a solution of nitrate of iron be the fluid used. and not at all safe. For example. and mark the words out. Various keys are also used according to rules before agreed upon. If we write with a diluted solution of muriate of copper. acids. is also troublesome. which will act upon the iron. which turns it of a beautiful blue. such as light. It was found that if a plain sheet of paper were sent. and become ink.-d the very fact of its being plain rendered it suspicious. till by the action of some chemical agents. Another mode of communicating intelligence secretly. There are many kinds of sympathetic inks. Chemistry was also in great request for secret writing. and various substances were found to afford a fluid which would leave no mark behind the pen. the words will be invisible until the paper is held before the fire. and a slight mistake often makes it illegible even to them. is attended with many disadvantages: the paper may be lost. If we write with the nitro-muriate of gold. and intercep. heat. or signs of uo meaning. or other substances are brought in contact with them. the writing will appear of a beautiful purple. Again. and when dry present it to the fire.SECRRT WRITING. and the difficulty of connecting the important with the unimportant matter. when they appear. and afterwards brush the letters over with dilute muriate of tin. in a long letter which the correspondent is enabled to read by applying a paper to it. They are so called because the writings or drawings made by them are illegible. it will be of a j^ellow color. with holes corresponding to the places of the significant words. 327 the words. A weak sulphate of iron will be invisible in writing till washed over with a weak solution of prussiate of potass. to agree upon some printed book. The method of concealing the words which are to convey the information intended in matter of a very different character. This is caused by the action of the heat. the writing cannot be seen until it is dipped into a solution of galls. viz. if a letter be written with a pen dipped in the juice of lemon.are inserted between those of real meaning. or even into tea. is considerable. and .

or any other signs agreed upon. for is now taken for a key. It consists of a table in which the letters of the alphabet.: 328 THE magician's OWN' BOOK. because the agents employed to render them visible are too Hence. because it is easily applied. But writing with these or other sympathetic inks is unsafe. every means were used to rende-r visible any writing that might be on it. difficult to be deciphered. and the key may be preserved in the memory and easily changed. on indifferent subjects. has come very much into use. it The word Pariz. This is a short word. are arranged as follow '' zabcdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyza bcdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyzab cdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyzabc defghiklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcd e f g h fg h i i k 1 1 m n n ( k 1 in ) gh i hiklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefgh iklmnopqrs tuvwx yz a bcdefghi klmnopqrstuvwxyz a b cdefgliik Imnopqrstuvwxyzab c d efgh ikl mnopqrstuvwxyzabc d e fgh klm nopqrstuvwxyzabcd e fg hiklmn opqrstuvwxyzabcde fg h ikl m no pqrstuvwxyzabcdefg h klm nop qrstuvwxyzabcde fg h k Imnopq i i k m p q p q r r s t s t n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e u V w X y z a b c d e f u vwx y z a b c d e fg i rstuvwxyzabcde fgh k Imnopq r stuvwxyzabcde fgh k mnopqr s tuvwxyzabcdefgh k Imnopqrs t uvwxyzabcdefghi k mnopqr stu vwxyzabcdefghik Im nopq r stuv wxyzabcdefghi klinn opq r s tuvw xyzabcdefgh iklmno pqr s tuvwx yzabcdefghi klmnop q rs tuvwxy zabcdefghik Imno pq r s tuvwxyz i i 1 i 1 Any word example. and between the lines the required information was added in some sympathetic ink. and for the sake of secresy would be well to choose for the key some one or more . called. as it is generally known. the chiffre indechiffrable. A letter was therefore written with ordinary ink.

opposite to which. and any combination of letters will make it. which is m. and they are designated respectively by the cj^phersy and w. The utmost accuracy is necessary. in the left marginal column. and under z. and so on. in the left marginal column. It is easily seen that the same letter is not always designated by the same cypher. Thius the pos. going in the line of a down iof. and a differ- correspondent. which \sf. 329 Suppose we wish to write in this words less striking. you will find w. site e. and under a. thus : Pa We risP a risPar lost a battle. Proceeding thus. Next. and so on." we must write Paris over the phrase. 1. cypher with this key the phrase. at the top of sPa r which is p. " We lost a battle. and look along horizontall}'' till you find m. we should obtain the following series of letters : mf the letters cxli b tkmimw epistle writes the The person who receives the key over Paris Pa He now goes down ri mfcxlibtkmimw in the perpendicular line. writing is almost impos- The key may be changed from time ent key to time. may be used with each — . The key word will thus change every time. he finds. repeating it as often as is necessary. in the top line. the letter which we find in the square opposite w in the left margin column. sibility of finding out the secret sible. thus e and a occur twice in the phrase selected. This will make it impossibla to be 2:uessed. We now take cypher for w. because one character accidentally omitted changes the whole cypher. for example. b and k. for /. until he meets m. the letter opposite c. i begin with p. The best way of determining the key word is to arrange that any word which occurs at a certain distance from the beginning or end shall be the key word the tenth from the beginning. In the same way r gives Or you may reverse the process gives 0. he finds w. and under _p on Instead of e we take the letter oppothe top. over which.SECRET WRITING. e. on the left.

And bade their varied glories shine . The letters are represented by the figures and symbols below them. m A LOCK FOR iffi. The earth. HOBBS TO PICK.)-4r s84002r 91r2 5p4. 3. supposing such a square to be applied so that one side is on the letter p at the top. With this key the lock may be opened.!2t-4t 013t:!2ss t4-.)t:2 stlrrG s. and the otlier on the will be in the angle. . 40 744.) :4w 7!3-929(.: 044!s ?16 . the starry sky.) &c.I4r325 s:3-2(:) 3.)w:4 It 921t: 114-2 T:23r 922p s3.)t:2 s21(.) (.) T:2. T:2 21rt:(.6(. the letter so that the trouble of following the lines with the eye will be avoided.) 7Ct 3-t:2 744.-4rl-82 T4 rl3s2 1 str58t5r2 40 92spl3r(I) T:45. letter w at the left hand.) 92s3. the sea. s t:2r2 !32s 1 . and by applying it to the alphabet the letter is at once seen in the angle.52 19vl-82 3ts s:l!!4w vl5-ts(.t:2 71s2 40 3. Are cyphers writ by hand divine. The easiest method of working this square is to cut a piece of thin wood like a carpenter's square.t:2? 22.-30381-86 4w-(!) HERE IS THE ANSWER. abcdefghijklmnouy 178920. For example. Here is another specimen of secret writing.) 1-9 7192 t:23r vlr329 .5-2 .3v2 t:2 w4r!9s t4 8:l-82(.) T:lt :l-9 w:38: t5-29 t:23r lr?4-6(.20 34 r219 t:23r ?Gst2r32s (.1-9 pr4v392-82 lr2 t:2r2(. (. !?-456 The stops enclosed in brackets..) lr2 86p 2rs wr3t 76 1-9 93v3-2(.S30 TTiE magician's own book.:21t:2-s 262 ?16 s22 : : : S6?U!s 3. That hand which tuned their harmony..rl-9 trSt: 84?75-2(. are used in their capacity of stops: thus..

let Then Its Upon To raise a structure of despair! Though fools may give the world to chance Design and Providence are there: not faithless tongie advance shallow vaunts. But in the book of books there lies A key to read their mysteries. In 8131 them e'en heathen's eye may see Symbols in one grand Truth combine.SECRET WRITING. which circle is to be divided into 27 equal parts. or more easy. in each of which parts must be written om of the capital let- .person. who at death alone Their deep significancy owai! THE CIRCULAR CYPHER. has emplo^^ed tiie ingenuity No method will be found more effectual for this of many. nor scoffer dare the base of ignorance How blinded. than the following. purpose. To carry on a correspondence without the possibility of the meaning of the letter being detected. and draw a circle on it. Provide a piece of square card or pasteboard. in case it should be opened by any othei.

which shows how you have fixed the dial. watched I cannot see you as I promised meet you to-morrow in tlie park. : '' DonH trust Robert : I have found him a villain. and those words which are between crotchets [ ] form the intelligence you wish to communicate." You may place a pasteboard of this kind three other ways the bottom at top— the top at bottom. You lay the pasteboard on a paper. When he receives it. and so of the rest. and must run round a pivot or pin. The person with whom you correspond must have a similar dial. Suppose what you wish to communicate is as follows . which answer to each other when you have fixed your dial. in the spaces cut out write what you would have understood by him only then fill the intermediate spaces with any words that will connect the whole together. and make a different . and end with the letter m. Then. and the &. and at the end the small letter. sense. and the other you give to your correspondent. and made exactly to fit the blank space in the center of the large circle. he lays his pasteboard over the whole. [I have] heard that you have [found] your dog. and. that he may decipher your letter. and how your correspondent must fix his. with the letters. This circle must be cut round. ready when [Robert] calls on you. Sfc.^' I [trust] they will be fail to send my books. / am so . you write h uf. One of these you keep yourself. through which you cut long squares at different distances.\ BOOK. fhkkhp hg m. For example suppose you want to express these words. Take two pieces of card. or by turnings " [Don't] — . and at the beginning of your letter you must put the capital letter. of the small letters of the alphabet. as follows • T h uf Ih pumwayx h pbee h wugghrn lyy rim ul mli h ikhfhlyx vmn fyym rhn tw. I call [him a villain] who stole him. for / am.1AGICIA\'S OVV. may iuhd phma may eymmyld^ Another Way. pasteboard. hut I will You begin with the letter T. or stiff paper.332 THE ?.

. SECRET CORRESPOXDEXCE BY iirSIC. Form of ihe circle is movable. in the manner expressed above.SECRET WRITING. Place in each division a note different in figure or position. 2. You //. and place one of the keys (suppose ge-re-sol) against the time 2-4ths. AVithin the musical lines place the three keys. like that in Fig. with a letter of the alphabet written in each. at the beginning of the paper. 333 but in this case you must previously apprize your it over correspondent. 2. . and on the outer circle the figures to denote time. Then get a ruled paper. and the circumference is to be ruled like music paper. 1. divided into twenty-six parts. or he may not be able to decipher yt)ur meaning. The interior Fig. which will inform your correspondent how to place his circle. 1/ t iLT* e d mt It cL then copy the notes that answer to the letters of the words you intend to write. a circle like Fig.

was celebrated for his feats of strength. The mechanical knowledge of the ancients was princi and though they seem to have executed pally theoretical some minor pieces of mechanism which were sufficient to delude the ignorant. various positions of his body in which men even of common strength could perform ver}'. that he received the name of the second Samson. and manv individuals of ordinary strength cKhibited a number . a native of Seleucia. ^ent. " Not two strong men the enorraous weight could raise Such men as live in these degenerate days. In the course of eight or ten years. either by its ingenuity or its magnitude. but as he actually exhibited his powers in ways which evinced the enormous strength of his own muscles.surprising feats. The properties of the mechanical powers. exhibited such feats of strength in London and other parts of England. Firmus. Vopiscus informs us that he could suffer iron to be forged upon an In doing this." Pope's Homer. as we shall afterward more particularly explain. In his account of the life of Firmus. the exhibition of such feats does not seem About the year 1703. His own personal strength was very great but he had also discovered. who was executed by the Emperor Aurelian for espousing the cause of Zenobia. . he lay upon anvil placed upon his breast. his whole body formed an arch. seem to have been successfully employed in performing feats of strength which were be3'ond the reach even of strong men. He drew against horses. and. and raised enormous weights. all his feats were ascribed to the same cause.— THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. however. without the aid of theory. resting his feet and shoulders against some support. bis back. his methods were discovered. a native of to have been common. Until the end of the sixteenth century. [33i] . of the name of Joyce. yet there is no reason for believing that they have executed any machinery that was capable of exciting much surprise. however. . and which could not fail to excite the greatest wonder when exhibited by persons of ordinary size. who lived in the third century.

were unable to draw the performer out of his place. They placed themselves round the German. 335 man nor greatly Some time afterward. that we shall endeavor to give a popular accouiit of them. and almost all the rest when they had provided the proper apparatus. with his feet abutting against the up. traveled through Europe under the appellation of Samson. in Anhault. His hands at g seemed to pull against the men. that they were abl^ to perform most of the feats the same evening by themselves. with thi< view. though in a inferior to Joyce. and not of strength he was desirous of discovering his methods. Fig. accompanied with the Marquip of Tullibardine. John Charles Van Eckeberg. and as Dr. 2. pulling at the other end of the rope. and their success was so great. Pringle. placed upon a frame c d e. exhibiting very remarkThis. 2. and has given such a distinct explanation of the principles on which they depend. The rope passed between his legs through a hole in board c. or two horses. so as to be able to observe accurately all that he did. Desaguliers exhibited some of the experiments before the Royal Society. is the able examples of his strength.THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. of his principal performances. right board c. ard of Dr. 1. but they were of no advantage to him whatever. and several men. same person whose feats are particularly described by He was a man of the middle size. we believe. Dr. Dr. The performer sat upon an inclined board a b. Desaguliers. and. 1. Alexander Stuart. and his own mechanical operator. he went to see him. a native of Harzgerode. FG. Dr. to the iron ^ . Another of the German's feats is shown in Fig. Round his loins was placed a strong girdle ring of which g was fastened a rope by means of a hook. Desaguliers was convincer ordinary strength that his feats were exhibitions of skill.

2. falling back on a feather bed at c. fixed the rope it Having at A. ring in his girdle. 3. Fio. B. and made above mentioned to a strong post pass through a fixed iron eye at b. He then suddenly stretched out his legs and broke the rope. 3. 3. In imitation of Firmus. as shown in the figure. as shown in Fig. he planted his feet against the post ai. and raised himself from the ground by the rope.336 THE magician's OWN BOOK. spread out to receive him. he laid himself down on the |7round. n man hammered with all his force . to the Fio. and when an anvil a was placed upon his breast.

. having brought his knees perpendiculaily under him. 6.THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. as in Fig. and. The performer then placed his shoulders upon one and his heels upon another. 3. A man being then placed on his knees. and broken with a blow of the great hammer. touched the ground. and. Fio. and legs. he raises his own body up. 4. as in Fig. he rises with him. 5. he lifts up the man gradually. 5. chair. thighs. forming. was laid upon his belly. One or two raeu then stood upon his belly. with a sledge hammer. sions. as in Fig. This feat he sometimes performed with two men in place of one. was then laid upon his belly and broken by a sledge hammer. half of which is shown at c. placing his arms around the man's legs. and sometinaes two smiths cut in two with chisels a great cold bar of iron At other times a stone of huge dimenlaid upon the anvil. and half a foot thick. 4. raising his knees. one and a half feet long. A stone. one foot broad. an operation which may be performed with much less danger than when his back 4. he draws his heels towards his body. as in Fig. an arch springing from its abutments at a and b. and sets him down on some low table or eminence of the same height as his knees. His next feat was to lie down on the ground. rising up and down while the performer breathed. till. 337 the piece of iron b. with his back-bone.

as at b. were I tr . and with his right applied to the other end. placed upon a scale. 7. 7. 5. 6.S"iS THE magician's OWN BOOK. Fig. and the cannon is sustained by the strength of his loins. but when all is ready. performance of the German. the two rollers are knocked from beneath the scale. the cannon and scale rest upon two rollers b c. 8. is shown in Fig. Fio. The German also exhibited his strength in twisting into a screw a flat piece of iron like a. as shown at c. and apparently the most wonderful. Lord TuUibardine succeeded in doing the same thing. Previous to the fixing of the ropes. he held that end in his left hand. and then wrapping his handkerchief about its broad upper end. 6. where he appears to raise a cannon a. the four ropes Fia. twisted about the angular point. He first bent the iron into a right angle. in the manner already described. FlO. It would lead into derails by no means popular. and eren untwisted one of the irons which the German had twisted. The last. of the scale being fixed to a rope or chain attached to his girdle.

or even two or three times heavier than the hammer. for the more matter the anvil has. The difficulty. is struck. its velocity will be so much less than that of the hammer. A few general observations will perhaps be sufficient for ordinary readers. the greater is its inertia. If the anvil were a thin piece of iron. 1. because. and it is the less liable for when it has received by to be struck out of its place the blow the whole momentum of the hammer. really consists in sustaining the anvil for when this is done. Bustaining the weight of a cannon weighing two or three thousand pounds. 2. the performer has no difficulty in resisting the force of two horses. . depend entirely on the natural strength of the bones of the pelvis. as the legs and thighs are capable of sustaining four or five thousand pounds when "they stand quite upright. however. the man feels less of the weight of the anvil than he did before. by any external pressure directed to the center of the arch and. 8. which form a double arch. in the reaction of the stone.THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. When the blow. . 339 give a minute explanation of the mechanical principles upon which these feats depend. indeed. the effect of the hammering is nothing. as its quantity of matter is greater. all the parts . which it would require an immense force to break. The feats No. the performer would be killed by a few blows but the blows are scarcely felt when the anvil is very heavy. or of . The feat: of the anvil is certainly a very surprising one. . Fig. and 7.

He was entirely ignorant of any of the methods for making his strength appear more surprising and he often performed. the bowl of a strong tobacco-pipe placed between his first and third fingers. The stick will in this case be broken without breaking' the glasses. he does it by means of the strong arch formed by If his backbone. or. described. and about thirtyone years of age. as in Fig. A number of feats of real and extraordinary strength were exhibited about a century ago. the glasses will break if the blow be strong. his He broke . and one of his knees was shattered against the stirrups. and striking the stick downwards in the middle with an iron bar. the water will be spilled without breaking the glasses. he was lifted out of his place. Havi'-r laid seven or eight short and strong pieces of tobacco-pipe on the first and third fingers. his middle finger. 4. pewter 2. as if to throw it up in the air. by his own natural powers. and the bones of his legs and thighs. A distressing example of this occurred in his attempt to imitate the feat of the German Samson by pulling against Ignorant of the method which we have already horses. When the performer supports a man upon his belly. Having rubbed his fingers with coal-ashes to keep them from slipping. But if the stick is struck upwards. which Dr. so as to deprive him of most of the strength of one The following are the feats of real strength of his legs. Having thrust such another bowl under his garter. property is illustrated by the well known experiment of lajnng a stick with its ends upon two drinking glasses full of water. in their stead. and by the weight of his body he succeeded in pulling against a single horse but in attempting to pull against two horses. he seated himself on the ground with his feet against two stirrups. by Thomas Topham. he broke them by the force of 3. who was five feet ten inches high. 1.. in London. a great stone to be broken with one blow. and if the blow is not very quick. there were room for them. plate. what he learned had been done by others by artificial means. by pressing his fingers together sideways. or spilling the water. Dcsaguliers saw him perform. he could bear three or four. he rolled up a very strong and large . S40 of THE magician's own BuOK. This it round about the hammer rise towards the blow. 4.

. 341 legs teing bei-"^ he broke it to pieces by the tendons of his hams. He broke a rope about two inches in circumference. Strength of very strong men. he struck upon his bare left arm. Hence Dr. This experiment ^as. first shown in England a few years ago by Major H. as nearly as possible. 400 Strength of Topham. Dr. This last feat was ihe most difficult. and holding the ends of it in his hands. performed it more than once in my presence. Desaguliers gives the following relative view of the strengths of individuals Strength of the weakest men. 5. . I shall describe. 7. the method which he prescribed.. a table six feet long. . 6. are inflated with air. 8. because the muscles which separate the arms horizontally from each other are not so strong as those which bring them together. which we have ourselves seen and admired. is that in which a heavy man is raised with the greatest facility. who saw it performed in a large party at Venice under the direction of an officer of the American navy. 9. and he then pulled it almost straight again. and the middle against the back of his neck. between the elbow and the wrist. which was partly wound about a cylinder four inches diameter. Holding in his right hand an iron kitchen poker three feet long and three inches round. and held in a horizontal position'for a considerable time. when he is lifted up the instant that his own lungs. and those of the persons who raise him. . Desaguliers saw him lift a rolling stone of about 800 pouuds' weight with his hands onh^ standing in a frame above il. without altering the bending of his leg.THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. He lifted with his teeth. his legs being supported by the one and his m : . Taking a similar poker. he brought both ends of it together before him. The heaviest person in the party lies down upon two chairs. 125 pounds. The feet of the table rested against his knees. till he bent the poker nearly to a right angle. 800 The weight of Topham was about 200. I believe. As Major H. with half a hundred weight hanging at the end of it. and taking hold of a frame fastened to it. having fastened the other end of it to straps that went over his shoulder. One of the most remarkable and inexplicable experiments relative to the strength of the human frame.

each of the four persons takes hold of the body as before. from the difficulty they experience in supporting him. the part of the body which he tries to raise is left. . w^e may enumerate that of supporting pyramids of men. When he is replaced in the chairs. the experiment was performed in a much more imposing manner. and have performed the part both of th^ load and of the bearer. as if he were no heavier than a feather. Among the remarkable exhibitions of mechanical strength and dexterity. by making the inhalation out of time. and the strength of the individuals applied to the board. he rises with the greatest facility. not succeed if the person lifted were placed upon a board. The heaviest man in the party was raised and sustained upon the points of the fore fingers of Major H. for raising the person from the chairs. The simplest form of this feat consists in placing a number of men upon each other's shoulders. On several occasions I have observed that when one of the bearers performs his part ill. then try to raise him. we can testif}^ how remarkable the effects appear to all parties. He conceived it necessary that the bearers should communicate directly with the body to be raised.342 THE magician's own book. otlier. or the bearer strengthened by the prescribed proc(^ss. To his owm surprise and that of his bearers. behind. Four persons. periment. and how complete is the conviction. so that each row consists of a man fewer till they form a pyramid terminating in a single person. or the result of known or of new principles. or the lungs filled. At the first signal he himself and the four lifters begin to draw a long and full breath. either that the load has been lightened. declared that the experiment would six persons. upon whose head a boy is sometimes placed with his feet upwards. and they find his dead weight to be very great. one at each leg and one at each shoulder. I have not had an opportunity of making any experiments relative to these but whether the general effect is an illusion. the subject merits a careful investigation. As we have repeatedly seen this exas it were. and when the inhalation is completed. back by the At Venice. This exhibition is a very ancient one. curious facts . the second signal is given. "and the person to be lifted gives two signals by clapping his hands.

The reader must have observed. ie. u. i. represent the first five digits. or cypher. as . Till the soul sighs for sameness." AN ARTIFICIAL MEMORY. a. let the five vowels. that to perform sevora/ of the recreations in this book. — . and takes its place. many methods have been contrived to supply that defect by art the most material of which we shall here describe. An artificial memory respects either figures or words for the former. which at last Becomes variety. " Yoath loves and lives on change. the diphthongs that begin with the first four vowels. in the following table : a . as au. ea. e.MISCELLANEOUS CURIOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. ou. it is necessary to have a good memory but as that is a gift every one hag not from nature. o. representing the remaining four Let the ten first digits. let y stand for an 0. consonants also stand for the nine digits and the cypher.

or b. select the initial letters of those words. another word. and the Battle of New Orleans. if you would remember the dates of the discovery of America by Columbus. . box of wood. which are joined together in one word then of tlie next five initials you make. . the settlement of Virginia by Captain vSmith. as well as similar cases. write t/3/2. 3. 1605. if you wovld remember ber of versep. you then write as follows or n. if it begins with a consonant. the Declaration of Independence. y. In like manner e or c to the second initial letter to the third add to the fourth o or f to the fifth u or g. 1620. 1775. Or.u write as follows the letters : begin any num- Essay AMeliioeg Taocedstflu Ahacodiotu Basewioffu. you write as follows for you are to observe that in this. it is unnecessary to write it after the first time easy to remember — : Afouc hyh hen keag keah lag. of a cubical shape. . and of every two words you make a verse for example. and 1815. so that of i or d the five initials you make five syllables. a b c d. for example. thus. &c. : . instead of repeating you may write y or ?» 2. \ii ho hu E5 me ed ]o cu Vva ]e hi e/ eg EJ Ca ec rz ho hw je wi '^ifgu Ga ge tliat gi go wu Ya. and to the first add a. when the first figure is always the same. : Wo. suppose the twenty first lines of Pope's on Man. Construct a about fifteen tal p. write ehun^. of inches every way. and for 256. Let it be fixed to the pedesIn each side o/ at the usual height of a man's head. THE MAGICIAN'S MIRROR. — .344 THE magician's own book. To remember any number of words. the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. which were in 1492.000.we hi so \m E6 Ye. 1776. . if it begins with a vowel. the Battle of Bunker Hill. for 3400. suppose you would remember the names of all the kings of England since the Norman conquest in the order in which they reigned. When y seTeral cyphers come together. in the same manner.

Let them cross the box in a diagonal line. and 12 in(. instead of his own figure. Decorate the openings in the side of this box with four oval frames and transparent glasses. against each other. must be covered with . will see that of the person next to him. Their confusion will be the greater.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. and in 345 a vertical position. for them The reason ot to discover the mirrors concealed in the box. as it will be very diflficult. ten inclies high.hes mirror. Cover the tdp of the box. and at equal distances from the box. In this box place two jv a d. and cover each with contrived as all to together. fifteen inches high. and seven wide. w_th their backs mirrors. place the concave whose parallel rays is eighteen inches surface. if not impossible. Place four persons in front of the four sides. a curtain so draw up . this phenomenon is evident for though the rays of light may be turned aside by a mirror. sufficiently large to see on I A B the mirror h the object placed at b e f d. in which a c d. At the end a c. and then draw them up that the}^ may see themselves in the mirrors. of an oval form. that the mirror h may be entirely darkened. the focus of from the reflecting blacked. of about two feet long. The otMcr part. i b. but who will appear to him to be placed on the opposite side. a b wide. At i l place a pasteboard. Provide a box. when each of them. from a to i. close. this box let there bo an opening. hole is cut. THE PERSPECTIVE iriRROR. yet they always appear to proceed in right lines.

THE xMagician's own book. paintings of vistas.345 glass. so that the end of a cord may be thrust through. that it has greatly puzzled most of those who have witnessed its strange performances. we are induced to furnish a brief description and explanation of the whole. A small hole is made in the axis of the wheel. this wire being inserted in a heavy metallic base to give it solidity. with a thick lead rim. Although many of our readers may have seen the instrument. as the figure represents. or by wax-lights placed under the inclosed part of the box A I. so that the whole may rest on a pointed upright wire. figures. It consists of a brass wlieel. and also from the fact that we have not yet heard a solution that appears to be the true one. beneath which. placed in one of these cavities. so as to impart to the wheel when revolving rapidly ^^^^ sufficient momentum to cause it to spin for this ill A little instrument some minutes. &c. THE MAGICAL GYROSCOPE. A^eut the inside place in succession. landscapes. to pro from being seen. \^hole of the apparatus. the appearance will be both w^onderful and pleasing. exhibiting such remarkable results in connection with rotary motion. The axis of wheel terminates in pivots. Now. under which is placed a gauze or oiled paper. by placing the wheel and its ring. the cord wound around it. on the inside. which is shown in Fig. Make an aperture at g. and a small cavity is made on the under side of each piece. 1. so that thej^ may be in front of the mirror h. near the top of the side e b. yet from the numberless inquiries that have been made for the rationale of its peculiar feats. By this simple construction. b. four or five inches in diameter. and rapid motion imparted to This constitutes the the wheel like the spinning of a top. has been constructed lately. Two small flat pieces of brass (a and c) are soldered outside to opposite sides of this ring. the objects placed at G D will be thrown into their natural perspective. or circumference. set a circular ring at right angles to the wheel. on the upper end . Let the box be placed that the object may be strongly illuminated by the sun. and if the subjects be properly chosen and well executed.

The combined motion of the forward part of the wheel both upward and to the left. immediately fall by the force of gravity. attempt to alter its position. 1. and it be placed on the point at a. supposing there is something alive in it or. in any direction. Now. " Ah. when the wheel is moving on horizontally around the pivot at a. the forward portion of the rim is continually moving to the left. This self-wgholding property constitutes the wonder and puzzle of the instrument. and almost let it drop. and the back portion downwards. the forward portion of the wheel flies upwards. 2. but will move slowly around on the upright point. ip therefor© . which. — — — . The slowly revolving. to electricity it is the motion which keeps it from falling I understand it the centrifugal force " but why this it is the momentum result is produced by centrifugal force. Some ascribe it to atmospheric influence while others confidently remark. 2. as they sometimes remark " Why " This is owing it feels as if there was a snalie in the wheel to nothing but the strong momentum of i\iQlead rim (already described) tending to keep the wheel in its position for an . it will not fall. yes. horizontal motion on the pivot at a is in a contrary direction to the spinning motion of the top In other words. But if a rapid spinning motion is given to the wheel by means of the cord already described. . the wheel will be found strongly to reso much S'>. This will be found to be always the case. may of course be easily moved about so as to alter the position of its axis. we are not told. it is evident. performing a steadj'. So steady and uniform is this horizontal movement. throws all this swiftly flying matter into a different course. 3. The true explanation is this 1. The wheel when at rest. : . 34'» of the pointed wire. c. and many explanations have been others attempted. of the wheel. as represented in Fig. I ! . only one side being supported. as shown in the figure. — . there being no support at the other side. as the arrows show in Fig.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. revolving horizontal motion. as long as the rapid rotary motion of the wheel continues. and the hinder portion to the right. cannot easily be done. But this is not so when it is made to spin rapidly if the ring is held in the hands. that a sist any side or twisting movement novice will start. that it generally suggests the motion of the planets round the sun. the wheel and ring would of course.

The reason of the forward horizontal movement. but inclined to the left.2 tendency of its momentum is to throw the top of the wheel also to the left. not perpendicular!}^ upward. The momentum of the lead rim.) ward the resultant (or mid-way) motion is therefore between them. or any other dimensions you please. Cover the box with gauze. and maintaining the wheel in its position. constantly tends to raise it. inclining upwards. tends to draw it down(3.. the downward momentum behind throws the bottom to the right. eight inches wide. and the ^ig. of course raises the wheel as it rests on the pivot a. this the spinning force of the wheel tends to throw it to the left. as in cut. . : — . to receiva . 4. as described in (1. . or horzontally. through which the eye can view the objects. and consequently to lift it upwards. Throwing the top to the left and the bottom to the right. the combined motion of the wheel on its axis. if inclined below the horizontal. of about a foot long. supported only at one end. as shown in gravity. 348 THE magician's own book. on the opposite hand. which is to be well fastened in. Procure a box. keeps it also in a uniformly horizontal attitude if placed by the hand. As a proof that gravity thus produces the onward movement when the wheel spins with the greatest rapidity. In other words. scrape the quicksilver off the glass. and six inches high. so they do not greatly vary from these proportions.) tending to keep the wheel in its position. without altering this inclination or the same result takes place. and consequently has the greatest relative force to gravity. the horizontal movement is slowest bnt it continues constantly to increase as the motion of the wheel is retarded. is 5. that shall exactly fit but at that end where the sight hole a is. thus overcoming gravity. and as gravity assumes a greater proportionate force. over which place a piece of transparent glass. on the inside of this box. Let there bo two grooves at each of the places c d e f. and on the pivot a. . In the same way. place a piece of looking-glass. — THE ARTIFICIAL LANDSCAPE. it will move around on the pivot at a. At each of its opposite ends.

to have a good efiect. and cut out all the white parts that there ought to be in one of them some object relative to the subject. well dried a stand being placed under the scale so as to hinder it fulling to low If a line . and a line drawn under it. the box with its transparent top. is a good pair of scales. as follow let there you On two pieces of pasteboard. or of saltpeter. The boards painted on both sides are to slide in the grooves c d e f. that the mirror placed at b may not reflect the hole on the opposite side. placed at a. and on two other boards. gradually losing and be found well worth the pains beitself in obscurity stowed on its construction. . and to sink below when the weather is likely to become fair.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. as woods. be skillfully painted. in one of which let there be a brass weight of a pound. : &c. the same subject on one observe also. : . side only. and in the other a pound of salt. and those painted on one side are to be placed against the opposite mirrors a and b then cover . it will present and unlimited prospect of rural scenery. and a plummet affixed to the end of it. on both sides. houses. and then hung against a wainscot. But the best instrument of all. 849 two printed scenes. Tiiis box should be placed in a strong light. in very moderate weather it will be found to rise above it before rain. When it is viewed through the sight hole. . EASY AND CURIOUS METHODS OF FORETELLING RAINY OR PINE WEATHER be made of good whipcord. exactly where the plummet reaches. any subject think proper. gardens. that is well dried. bowers.

He must pull his hat down upon his forehead till the brim of his hat covers from his view the inaccessible extremity b of the line to be measured a b. To measure then the line a b. which will straighten itself as fine weather approaches. it is When Bcale : when inclined to rain. suppose the breadth of a small river. he who line to . or of any other proportionate dimensions. THE MAGICAL MEASURE. of the same dimensions. then he must turn himself to a level. the salt will swell. Glue them firmly face to face. the brass weight will regain its ascendancy. to take a strip of pine wood. and with the same position of his hat. then measuring with a line or chain the distance a c. would make very sensible errors in the measure of a very long line. or departure from an upright position. It is needless to say that the rods should not be painted or varnished. the pores of the pine will absorb moisture from the atmosphere. observe the point of the ground where his view terminates. he has the length of the line proposed a b. and set them upright in a stand. one wide. especially if the ground was very uneven. Another very simple method is. so as to keep his head steady in one position. about six inches long and twelve high. and a quarter thick. Cover the inside with four flat pieces of looking glass placed perpendicular . and support his chhi with a little stick resting upon one of the buttons of his coat. uniform piece of ground. accessible at the extremity a. and sink the the weather is growing fair. about twent}' inches long. Take a square box. but cut along the grain. and cut across the grain. as c. otherwise it w^ill be difiScult to measure it accurately for the least failure of a just aim.S50 THE magician's own book. and swell until the whole forms a bow. be measured must not be extravagantly long. THE BOrXDIESS PROSPECT. Then take a strip of cedar. Some time before rain falls. The C A pretends to measure must stand very straight at the extremity A.

and yet the inside be invisible. shilling is properly suspended. On the top. your hand must be perfectly steady it difiScult to keep it in an immovable posture. it will for a moment be stationary it will then of its own accord. THE HOUR OF THE DAY OR NIGHT TOLD BT A SUSPENDED SHILLING. vibrating from side to side of the glass. you will observe. that the thread should lie over the pulse of the thumb. as in the figure. that the to attempt the experiment. if the time be twenty-five minutes past if thirty-five minutes past six. as a piece of fortification. place a frame of glass shaped like the bottom of a pyramid. Oband if you find serve. . observing to let it pass across the ball of the thumb. and so formed as you to fit on the box like a cover. 351 Place at the bottom any objects please. strike seven It is necessarj^ to observe. it will strike six and so on of any other hour. will strike the hour nearest to the time of day. Then resting your elbow on a table. and thus suspend the shilling into an empty goblet. a castle. hold the other end of the thread betwixt your fore finger and thumb. . or covered inside with gauze. . amusement. and this may in some measure acbut to what cause its» count for the vibration of the shillinjs: However improbable it pear. the inside will present a pleasing prospect of a boundless exand. and without the least agency from the person holding it.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. however. the following experiment may aphas been proved by repeated trials Sling a shilling or sixpence at the end of a piece of thread by means of a loop. after a few seconds. will afford a deal of tent : . assume the action of a pendulum. : . so that the light may enter. tents. for instance. if managed with care. and. that when it has recovered its equilibrium. : . to the flottom of the box. The four sides of this cover are to be composed of ground glass. it will six. soldiers. except at the top. which must be covered with transparent glass when you look through this glass. &c. it is useless Premising.

slide. striking the precise hour is to be traced. TO A PERSON LYING IN BED. THE ENCHANTED PALACE. it acquires a kind of rotary motion. of at least three inches and a half diameter. place little. . On the six-sided plane a b c d e f of the figure. a box of six sides. and cover the edifice in whatevei In each one of ^^r^^aSJC manner you please. nine inches deep. Decorate the exterior boundary of this piece. must be thin as possible. figures of pasteboard. double convex. lined with brass. by dlestick of an inch diameter.352 THE MAGICIAN S OWN BOOK. is fixed on a small proportionate table. CONTRIVANCE FOR A WATCH LAMP. rep . . in relief. eter. contained between two mirrors. with three claws. its vibration ceases. that at the same time serve to support the mirrors by grooves formed on their inner sides. WITHOUT ANY TROUBLE. and six inches in diamIn the center of one of these sides is fixed a lens. and at last becomes stationary. the figures are magnified nearly to the size of those of an made ordinary clock. tin. The center of the side directly opposite to the lens is perforated so as to receive the dial-plate of the watch. as before. (which is at the extremit}^ of the angles of the hexagon. draw six semi-diameters and on each of these place perpendicularly two plane mirrors. placed back to back. WHICH WILL SHOW THE HOUR OF THE NIGHT. which must join exactl}^ at the center. by means of a hollow When the box is lighted by a common watch-light. the pillar of is which hollow. that when it has struck the proper number. and which. Add to these columns their entablatures. for the purpose of receiving a water canOn the top of the pillar. PERFECTLY SAFE. remains unex plained for it is no less astonishing than true. means of two hinges and a bolt. It consists of a stand.) with six columns. tliese six triangular spaces. the body of which is confined on the outside. or any shining metal.

. 3'ou will see an entire citadel with six bastions or if 3^ou place part of a ball-room. take another piece of good silver of equal balance with it. This illusion will appear very remarkable. . When you TO KNOW WHICH OF TWO DIFFERENT WATERS OUT ANY SCALES. the goodness of which you want to try. beng reflected six times. such as copper. all these objects being here mithltiplied. which. and rest assured that it will sink deeper in the lighter than in the heavier water and so by observing the difference of the sinking. and put it into each of the two waters. as a dollar or a half dollar. If you place between two of these mirrors part of a fortification. the specific gravity of which is less than that of water. there is some othei metal mixed with it that has less specific gravity than silver. most wholesome TO for drinking. the place where the mirrors join. it is . or fir wood. as a curtain. especially if the objects chosen are properly adapted to the effect which the mirrors are intended to produce.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS Ai\D FANCIES. and tie both pieces with thread or horse-hair to the scales of an exact balance (to avoid the wetting of the scales themselves) and dip the two pieces thus tied in water for then. and take particular care to conceal by some object that has no relation to the subject. will seem entirely to fill up the whole of the building. look into any one of the six openings of this palace. and two demi-bastions. will afford a very pleasing prospect. If it is heavier than the other. all meet in the common center. of equal purity. it is certainly false. S53 resenting such subjects. as before observed. the objects there contained. ornamented with chandeliers and figures. . KNOW n? A SUSPICIOUS PIECE OF MONET IS GOOD OR BAD. that is. To these add small figures of enamel. if they are of equal goodness. pine. as when seen in an hexagonal fornij will produce an agreeable effect. that is. IS THE LIGHTEST WITH- Take a solid body. thc^'y will hang in equilibrio in the water as well as in the air but if the piece in question is lighter in the water thaD the other. and consequently the . for instance. you will know which is the lightest water. If it be a piece of silver that is not very thick.

put them into a vessel full of water. and a fine needle at the other. likewise l:ad. as taking up more space. and fasten a small wire hook at one end. take a piece of pure gold of equal weight with the crown proposed. the' solvent pow^r of the latter diminishes. When the solution has is there acting upon the alum. as it wer*'. showing. If the piece proposed is very thick.354 THE magician's own book. THE DANCIXG AUTOMATON Procure a piece of silk thread about six feet long. and falls to the bottom of the glass. which combines first with the alum. and without taking the trouble of weighing them in water. but that. Put a lump of aliiio into a tumbler of water. take a convenient opportunity ana" fasten the hook in the carpet . the water dissolves the alum briefly as follows very fast. in the present instance. Having done this. you will find it covered with geometrical figures. You also procure a small pasteboard figure about four inches long. and that which drives out most water must necessarily be mixed with another metal of less specific gravity than gold. if you closely examine the lump. where it ceases to dissolve any more. cut out. this experiment in some directions than in others. such as lead. as being mixed with a metal of greater spe* cific gravity than silver. eighteen pounds. king of Syracuse.i the water. beautifully illustrates the opposite action of cohesion and solution. The water. of the atoms of the alum resists the power of solution i. PYRAMID OF ALUM. and as the alum dissolves iiwill assume the shape of a pyramid. and pierce a hole through the center of the same just large enough to easily admit the needle. viz. The cause of the alum decreasing in this peculiar form is at first. not only that the cohesion in relief upon the mass . though of equal weight. then make a knot in the thread about ten inches from the end upon which the hook is fastened.. nearly terminated. one after another. such as that crown of gold that Hiero. sent to Archimedes to know if the goldsmith had put into it all the eighteen pounds of gold that he had given him for that end. although the water which it has dis: and placed from the bottom has risen to the top of the glass. but as the alum becomes united with the water. becomes heavier by the union.it resists it moro Indeed.

in length and appearance to those which you have prepared. WITHOUT INJURING THE SHELL. then whistle any air the company may suggest. A PIECE OF ilONEY IN A WALNUT SHELL. you can hand it to the audience for examination. you will find. which will become hard when the burning matter round it is consumed the shell will have sustained very little . precisely alike in length double each of them separately. and desire your company to examine them. and the automaton being free from the thread.MISCELLAM:t. and. Then fill the shell with a mixture made of three parts of very dry pounded niter. that the metal will also be melted at the bottom of the shell. Bend any thin coin. with a bit of fine cotton thready at the part where they double (i. pla- cord. : injury. being careful to retain the needle still in your hand. and appear to beat time with your hands upon your knees. to keep it steady. behind the table stoop to pick . with sufficient force to make it slip on the thread until it reaches the knot. e. 355 and a half feet from the chair upon which you while performing the trick. when the needle will again slide through the hole in the figure. the midThis must all be done beforehand.US TRICKS AND FANCIES. This is an excellent trick for the parlor. If you then set light to the mixture. going to exhibit the trick. to the great astonishment of the spectators After you have continued this for a few minutes. . You then return to your table. TO MELT if well performed. but not tied. When you are dle). so that their ends meet then tie them together very neatly. in form of a button. you must drop the needle and pick up the figure. so that they fall (apparently accidentally) to the ground. and put it into half a walnut shell place the shell on a little sand. You then can inform your audience that you intend to make the figure dance and keep time to any tune they may name You then slip the needle through the hole in the figure and throw it down on the floor. Take two pieces of white cotton cord. one part of flowers of sulphur. THE INVISIBLE SPRINGS. hand round two other pieces ot . when it is melted. exactly similar cing these cords at the edge. This will make the figure about five intend to sit dance. and a little sawdust well sifted. will defy detection. .

the other ring fastened to the watch-barrel near the entrance of your sleeve. with dexterity. are the best for your purpose. and your trick be discovered. and desire each to give you one end of the cord which he holds. which you do. or the thread will break. them up. and which may be had at anj" of the toyshops. . they are to slacken. . during their mistakes you at length desire them. to make all fast. : THE FLIGHT OF THE RING. as they are certain to make many mistakes at first. in order t© prevent communication between them. recommending her at the same time to make a mark on it. Do not let them pull hard. while somebody holds both your arms. and that when you desire them to pull hard. which fasten by a small piece of catgut string to a watch barrel. . that she may know it again. Request the two persons to approach each other. which is likely to create much laughter. but take up the prepared ones instead. and sew it to the left sleeve of your coat Take the ring that is given you in your right hand then putting. and vice versa. You may cause a ring to shift from one hand to another and make it go on any finger required on the other hand. . whilst the strings will remain unbroken let them be again examined. when they will pull hard. You then take round for examination three ivory rings those given to children when teething. which yet had previously placed there. and give the two ends of one cord to one person to hold. Have a gold ring of your own. When the rings have undergone asufiScient scrutiny. to slack. the rings remaining in your hands. During this time you are holding the rings on the fore fingers of each hand. and with the other fingers preventing your assistants from separating the cords prematurely. pass the prepared double cords through them. bringing the knot down so as to touch the rings and returning to each person the end of the cord next to him. and la}'' them on the table.»>66 THE magician's own book. you state that this trick is performed by the rule of contrary. During this : . in a loud voice. you will tie these two ends together. and the two ends of the other to another. leaving to him the choice You then say that. which will break the thread. and desire them to look for the springs in the rings. by attending it these instructions Desire some lady in company to lend you a gold ring. draw it pri vately to the fingers' ends of your left hand.

then to lay it on the table. to the card chosen pack upon the table. : be occupied to prevent your hands from communicating. show the assembly that the ring is come on the other hand. by slip the ring on it opening your fingers. and fasten a hair by it to your thumb. 357 operation. making use of any words you think fit. The spring which is in the watchbarrel. as their attention will . so that the deception may not be suspected. and hidden by your coat. and make them remark that it is the same that had been lent to you. . Tell any one to shuffle the pack. interval. make it jump from the pack about the table. and make the ring slip under the sleeve. held within a few inches of the membrane. in order to at that moment let go the other ring. After that. put the before mentioned finger on the little hook. and as soon as the answer has been given. show your ring. which vary with the sound produced. and afterwards put it into the pack. : THE TELL-TALE CARDS. not even those who hold your arms. will contract. or that the mark is right. and fasten it dexterously on a little hook sewed for the purpose. but take care that you know where to find it This you may do by having forcpd it. with its face downward. TO MAKE A CARD JUMP OUT OF THE PACK. and put so many cards upon it as will make up thir* teen with the number of spots on the noted card. Then at pleasure. put a piece of wax under the thumb-nail of your right hand. having a foot-stalk. Much dexterity is required in this trick. After this operation. on your waistcoat. to take off the upper card. and the other end of the spread tho hair. and. over which scatter a layer of fine sand. Cover the mouth of a wine glass. Let any person draw a card. will cause the sand on its surface to form regular lines and figures with astonishing celerity. without any body perceiving it. MUSICAL FIGURES RESULTING FROM SOUND. and to notice it. The vibrations excited in the air by the sound of a musical instrument. by the same means. hide the ring that has been lent you betweeL the fingers of your right hand. which then ask the company on which hold in your left hand During this finger of the other hand they wish it to pass. with a thin sheet of membrane.MISCELLANEOUfe TRICKS AN") FANCIES. being confined no longer.

queen. and lay the next three on the table. knave. let him lay it down on another part of the table. after which you will propose to one of the company to take . and an eight. you take the cards which "have been left your object being to count. another. THE DOUELE DOZEN. counting the court cards as ten you must recollect that ten is. which will be found to be the case. face uppermost. then turn up one. Having found that fifteen is the number of spots on the cards. and should the uppermost card be an ace. with their faces upward then throw away one. calling it nine. and so on in the same way. until he makes that heap up to thirteen then let him go to the next uppermost card. a five. without its being perceived. but select from those cards which lie on the table. the next two. &c. . twelve and upon that. calling it eight upon the latter ai^ther. he must lay it down. and to get them shuffled by whomsoever he pleases then make several pe:'sons cut them . do not declare it at once. the number to be deducted from the cards remaining. . you throw aside the three top cards. bid him lay that card with its face downward. and so proceed to lay out the third parcel in the same way as the two preceding. how many there are remaining. calling it ten upon that let him lay another. three or four which added together will make fifteen. For instance if the card which the person first looked at was a king. desiring him to shuffle them well. . For instance should there be a deuce. calling it eleven upon that. . calling it . another. . and 80 on in the same way. calling it thirteen then bid him take off the next uppermost card suppose it to be an eight. All this should be done either while you are out of the room. . when the remaining fifteen will be the number of all the spots contained in all the bottom cards of the three heaps. lay them aside for a moment. or your back is turned upon your turning round. : . put them along with those which you previously rejected you now hand the three telltale cards to any person. calling it one. or ten. . . . in all cases.358 : THE magician's own book. and taking the other cards from which you selected the three. assuring him that the number of pips on those cards will be the same as those on the bottom cards of the three heaps. : . until you ascertain how many cards they are we will suppose that you find twenty-five cards left deduct ten. . . Present a pack of cards to one of the company.

and place all the aces together. The mistresses of the houses come home (laying a queen upon each of the heaps). the number you have stated it shall be in the pack being twentyfour you return to the room. and take with them their implements fcft housebreaking (and upon each of the knaves j^ou lay a two. and apply it to your nose. Take a pack first position of th« . 359 the pack and think of a card. he will be compelled to count fourteen. from the bottom of the pack. if you have been blindfolded and. . THE HOTJSEBREAORS of cards. . . four. then passing it behind your back. . &c. requesting him to reckon the cards from the top of the pack. three. and likewise its order in the pack. the twenty-fourth card.. the twos. and that the thirteenth card was the queen of hearts. consequently. This being done. by attending to the following instructions. and that. three. by counting one. two. and so on up to the kings. four. His card being the thirteenth. bringing their money with them (laying a nine upon each queen). You say. " Here are four houses (laying down the four aces separately). and you are to stop him Avhen he comes to twenty-three. six. beginning by the number of the card he thought of. . their husbands also return (laying a king up* Be sure and have ihe number you name greater than that of the card in the pack for instance. will be the card thought of and so it will most certainly be. which he is going to take up. the threes. seven. reminding him that the number 3''ou have mentioned is twenty-four. till he comes. it will prove to be so Suppose the person who thinks of the card stops at thirteen. pack say. for instance the twenty-fourth and. to the one thought of offer to go into another room. as if to smell it. twentj^-tbree cards that is to say. MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. or desire the handkerchief to be removed. exclusively. one less than the number you have stated the card thought of shall be place these twentj^-three cards on the top.* .. while he is doing Now declare in what order the card shall be in the this. five. take. or to be blindfolded. in case you had left it. ask only for the pack. Shortly after. and eight). or under the table. There will then be thirteen different heaps. which four knaves enter for the purpose of robbing (laying a knave upon each ace). . . : — . and remember it. . return tiie pack to the person who had thought of the card. iwenty-fou.is greater than tliirteen. without asking any question of the person who has thought of the card.

THE MAGIC BOOK Provide an octavo book of plain paper. THE TAPE TRICK. which form four distinct heaps. at the same time privately catching hold of the middle of the tape with your fourth and fifth fingers. also bringing money with them" (laying a You have now disposed of all the ten upon each heap). Then direct any person to tie your thumbs together as tight as he pleases. Then lay one heap cards. and set the thumb of your right hand upon the first of the parchment staj^s run the book through. reverse the book.560 THE magician's oWi\ book. . and run it through as before. The mode Lay a piece of tape of performing this trick is as follows across the palms of your hands. you have painted the book full of pictures of various sorts. Request him to place a then blow upon the hat. and paint a group of flowers more leaves. and say. run it through again. "Be hat over your hands . . only a little lower down. as you originally placed them. one by one. and so on. until you have turned the book through to the end. appear full of parrots. of whatever thickness you please. over the other. and then paste strips upon them as you did upon the Proceed in this manner until first. of course. . with the thumb upon the second slips of parchment. will. Then paste a slip of paper or parchment to each of the painted leaves. and lay the cards face downwards. yet it will nevertheless appear to him that he is doing so. letting then bring your palms quickly the ends hang down together. Turn the book over again. and paint upon every sixth leaf a parrot. the twos. placed side by side. and tie them together again. Turn over seven leaves from the beginthen turn over seven ning. and it Afterwards. so as to make thirteen separate heaps. and it will appear composed of blank paper. When you use the book. on each queen). taking care one side of the leaves is left white paper. blowing upon the book. and let as many persons cut them as please. and paint the same again. hold it in your left hand. and it will appear full of flowers then stop and. in reality be tying them. you will find all the aces together. : — . When this is done. but he will not. This trick consists in suff'ering a person to tie your thumbs together tightly. and so on. if you commence at the top of the pacic. and yet that you shall be able to release them in a moment. because you have hold of the tape. .

a cup with water. Fill its surface small fine THE KNOTTED THREAD. is turned once round the top of the middle finger of the right hand. made at the extremity of one of the ends of it. The thread in the needle must have one of its ends drawn up nearly close. so that these two may appear to be the two ends of the thread. Fill FLOATING NEEDLES. and the usual. then request the hat may again be placed over your hands. The operator commences his work by drawing the needle and the thread in it quite through the linen. . not unmixed with wonder. and continues to make several stitches in like manner successively. may be occasioned among a party of ladies. lest it be detected. It is most frequently performed by a female. and by the side of the thread. The end of the piece that is fastened under the thimble is then knotted. notwithstanding the knot. your thumbs will appear tied as at first. a needle is threaded in the presence of the spectators. After performing the trick. and be concealed between the forefinger and thumb the other should hang down nearly as long as." slipping your him thumbs under the tape again and when the hat is removed. : . and show your thumbs free. A piece of calico. . and the thread kept concealed. and blowing upon it.MISCELLANEOUS TRIORS AND FANCIES. or linen. Considerable amusement. it a glass to the brim with water. and you may add to spirit of wine without causing the water to overflow. while a needle is threaded with a bit of thread of a similar length. convey the tape away. about a quarter of a yard long. direct You to remove the hat. This must be done privately. 361 loose. and they will float. which is fastened under the thimble. to keep it secure. is taken in the left hand. by a clever performance of this trick. and the performer begins to sew. by moving his hand quickly after he has taken up the stitch. gently lay on needles. The mode of performing this seeming wonder is as follows A bit of thread. but the effect of it is considerably increased when it is displayed by a youth. you say " Be tied. MORE THAN FULL. or even a double or treble knot. upon which a thimble is then placed. muslin." slipping your thumbs from under the tape .

into the mouth of the Bacchanalian To render the experiment more striking. To ascertain the height of an object a peculiar method of measurement is in use among the Isthmus Indians. and putting the head between the legs. Lay one of these double pieces. in the other hand Let the company take notice in which hand is the quarter Then. on turning the back towards it. This CURIOUS METHOD OF MEASURING THE HEIGHT OF A TREE. that they must be half the common thickness . and covered with a loose silken robe. will be equal to the height. and place the apparatus under the exhausted receiver of an air-pump. figure. so that they may be but and observe. the dime and the quarter eagle will appeal . and in which is the dime.362 THE magician's own book. and grind part of them away. is performed with a pleasing toy. It will appear as though he actually passed the knotted thread through the cloth. experiment. he can just see at the spot where he is able to do this he makes a the top mark on the ground to the base of the tree this distance . as you shut your eagle. is fastened around the figure. In measuring the height of a tree. with tho dime upwards. showing the elasticity of air. then rivet a quarter eagle and a quite thin at the edge dime together. Put into one of them a portion of wine or colored liquid. to have changed their places. a bladder. when the air in the bladder will expand. as if occasioned by the excess of liquor drunk. at the bottom of your three first fingers. when the elastic force of the confined air will cause the liquid to ascend a transparent glass tube (fitted on purpose). and lay the other piece with the quarter eagle upwards in like manner. on one side only. Take two quarter eagles and two dimes. you naturally turn the pieces over. THE TRANSPOSABL':- PIECES. a man proceeds from its base to a point where. with a small quantity of air therein. hands. and produce an apparent increase in the bulk of the figure. . for instance. on the palm of your hand. THE BACCHUS EXPERIMENT. in which are two separate compartments. . and when j^ou open them again. It represents a figure of Bacchus sitting across a cask.

or bi your garden. it is unequaled. chess. comprising as it does all kinds of Books of Information in a single volume.000 at six and of all weights and measures seven per cent . or arrange a plain dinner—^to fold fancy napkins to start business to make money to tie any kind ofaknot to to dress with taste to conduct a courtship to behave wellin get married to give an evening party to your friends company to Iceep house properly to dance to make ornamental vases. cloth.besides innumerable tables on interesting and curious subjects. . as its imports. hair. It gives complete directions how to wa^h. It contains tables Interest Tables from $1 to $10.— INQUIRE WITHIN For Anything You Wish to —OB. or Wax work. This Book. will give you correct information on ! every possible subject that you ever heard or thought of It tells you howto cook a dinner to cure a sick friend. and m£dicine in short.700 FACTS FOR THE PEOPLE. Y. by the new art of Potichomanie. or cut an acquaintance to get up a — — dinnerparty.— Know i OYER 3. of 436 pp. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . and complexion in perfect ordei how to punctuate. or at a private assembly. but the whole are fresh and new. or on your farm. bil- — — all — room to give an idea of a hundredth part of it it contnins so many valuable and useful receipts that an enumeration of them requires SEVENTY-TWO COLUMNS OF It is FINE TYPE FOR THE INDEX. to do every usefid thing that can be thought of or imagined. or at a public meeting. take care of pet measure kinds of mechanics^ work—how to detect all letters. or among your friends. N. or in your business. Price $1. spell. Indeed this is really and truly one of the most wonderful and valuable books ever printed. gilt. 18 Ann Street. starch. Sent free of postage. Besides all this information and we have not all —how to —and —how to compose kinds of from the —how to clean furniture.. whether at home or abroad. or dine abroad to play at cards. and suited to the present times. No. law. Send cash orders to DICK & FITZG-ERALD. As a book to keep in the family for reference. and iron how to keep the eyes. no collection of ancient sayings and receipts. title A large Vol. or any other populur grame. and write corrrctly let-doux to the business letter animals fradulent scales about the properties and uses of different medicines.— whether you wish to establish yourself in life according to the rwZes — ofetiquette to get up a sumptuous entree for the dinner table. and other fancy employments for the ladies to establish acquaintances according to the rules of etiquette to enjoy an hour at curious puzzles and arithmetical questions to do up a neat parcel to relieve the invalid to acquaintyourself with the technical terms in literature. teeth.

AND ISSUED IN RAPID SUCCESSION The Denominational Reason Why. The Chemical Eeason Why. The Housekeeper's ^ . A book of condensed scientific knowledge for the million." " The Biblical Reason Why. Why does silver tarnish when exposed to the light 7 Why is the sky blue 7 This volume answers 1. and of which he seeks a simple and clear explanation. The Biblical Reason Why : A Hand-Book foe Bib- lical students. and assigned by the most eminent Divines and Christian Philosophers. WHY SEfijj^ These useful works will. plan." &c. and the Acts of his Apostles. The Botanical Reason Why. This work gives Reasons. printed on fine paper. and their consequences. THE FOLLOWING BOOKS OF THIS SERIES ARE IN PRESS. when completed. By the au- Why do dogs turn around tiro or three times before they He down 7 Why do birds often roost upon one leg 7 This volume answers about 1.325 similar questions. first patriarchs attain such extreme longevity J Why is the Book of the Prophecies of Isaiah a strong proof of of the whole Bible 7 This volume answers upwards of 1. Giving Reasons for hundreds of interesting facts in connection with Zoology." &c. I The Geological Eeason Why. tliough generally known. founded upon the Bible. gilt side Price Onb Dollar. and executed with the most conscientious care embracing the very essence of demonstrative truth and inductive reasoning must become as widely difiiised as the language in which they are written. By the author of "Inquire Within." It is a handsome 12nK) volume. J The Grammatical Reason Why. This work assigns reasons for the thousands of things thatdailyfall under the eye of the intelligent observer. entirely origfinal in their relig"ious and civil history. By the author of "Inquire Within. Beautifully illustrated. The Gardener's and Farmer's Reason | TfILL BE : -7^' ^. EXAMPLE. in Such a series. are imperfectly understood.bellished with a large number ofwood cuts. 1^ . T^e Astronomical Reason Why. illustrating the various subjects treated of. and a Guide to Fcamily Scripture Readings. and em. cloth. bound in cloth. gilt side and back.! tffE ^-EASON . supply all the " Reasons " which the human iniud has discovered for the varied and interestingphenomena of Natui'e and for events. large 12ra i. Price One Dollab.400 similar questions. Reason Why. EXAMPLE. Why : Natural History. which. cloth.500 similar questions. Each work is complete in itself. Price One Dollar. for the great and all-absorbing events recorded in the History of the Bible. EXAMPLE. gilt. 12mo. — — The Reason Why General : Science. the Irtfe of our Saviour. thor of "Inquire Within. . Why did the. of 356 pages. the authenticitjf The Reason and back. A careful col- lection of some thousands of reasons for things. and throwing a light upon the peculiar habits and instincts of the various Orders of the Animal Kingdom.

the chamber or the boudoir. it may be very appropriately called the Family's Eeady Adviser. Phygiolofn"." <fcc." "THAT'S IT. i Complete Ladi/^s Booh. lie on Why have flatfishes their upper sides dark.' The Reason Why: Natural History. Clotli. enriched with Hundreds of Authentic Illustrations. Embracing Facts about I. curiosities of art." l^Szuo. 'Vhether iu the iF«rlor or the kitchen. Cloth. Facts for Everybody. Gilt Side and Back. and itrike tcilht lieir hind feet ? Why docs the wren build several ncsls. 1 I I i Comprising the Marvellous and Rare. without feeling. Gardener. seize the hand of the person playvriih their fore pates. Cloth. A C mplele Gentleman's Loo A Complete Boy' s Bnoli." "THE BIBLICAL REASON VTSY '* "REASON WHY OF GENERAL SCIENCE. Anatomy. The Corner Cupboard By Large the Attihor . Illustrated ^rltH over One Thousand Engravings. S&vr York. Things worth knowing. j . Odd. as well as from Literature. A Comp'eti Servant's Boo7. and sublime sea pieces. OR. ' &C. but occu- inq vyihthem pies only one? This volume answers about 1500 similar questions. tho Ofcrdea «nd Field. i 12mo. the whole forming a complete Encyclopedia of Useful Knowledge. M. In the present work. i 10.000 ¥OIDERFTJL THINGS. the clothes we -wear.q? Why do titeir being played \ciih. ' EDITED BY EDMUND FILLINGHAM KINO. TT EXAMPLE. in Art. Things not generally known. EY THE AUTHOR OF "INQUIRE -WrrHIN. includiu^ many Wonders of the World. 400 pages. AUTHOR OF 'LTEX OF NEWTON. Things that ought 'is III. PniCE ONE DOLLAR. of " Inquire Within. the honse -we live in." Ac. beautiful landscapes. Vrhj/ Ay has the lion such Why dues the otter. Father's Book. Price One Dollar. and facts frvJL Mb Art« and Sciences. and their vruler sid^s white ? down ? Why do sportivq point?'" dcgsmalie what is termed " a backs. but well instructed. Commerce. rather predominate . in all Ages and Nations. Time of 17'eed. Gilt Side and Back. swim Why do birds often rorst vpon one lerj f do frogs keep their mouths dosed wJdle cats. nnd Ihro-tt'ing a light upon the peculiar habits and instincts of the various Orders cf ha Animal Kingdom. 12mo. PLAIN TEACHINGS. or. at home or abroad. Cook. Price $L I Giving reasons for hundreds of interesting facts in connection "with Zoolo^. tcTien against the stream ? Whj do dogn tarn around tuio or three tim's hreatldn. Curious. costume. "The Treason TFAy. It is impossible to read the volume through. goce period. free of postage. 11. 18 Ann Street. be known. The " Comer Cupboard" is A A A A A A A Complete Complete Comi>lde C'miphte Comp'ete Complete Complete O'nfectinner. A Frifm/J at Everyl>ody\« EU>ow in It tells about the food we consume. stupendous waterfalls. Manufacture. i. Nature and Science. . and customs of a bybut we hare devoted many of its pages to descriptions of remarkabJe occurrences. Mother^s Booli^ Family Book. uot onlv that you ha7e been well entertained.. A Complete GirV s Bool:. i j ' Copies of either of the above books sent to any address in the United States or Canada. ' j 1 j ji : ' from Nature. A. Quaint.\ A Complete Amusement Book. It contains not a and yet. A Complete Master's Book. in every page is amass of material ! lino thatthe nicest judgment could pronounce obnoxious to create both surprise and laughter. before the'/ lie a large maTte ? wJien hunting for fsh. Eccentric and Extraordinary. " . Family Doctor. Send cash orders to }^W I jj DICK & FITZGEEALD. Gilt Side and Back. *cPro*tisely Ulustrated. interesting scenes .

have attentively couned its paces. illustrating the various subjects treated of. . Clotb. and books in eencral. ' Thb Reason Why" is a handsome 12mo volume. and Pronunciation.ICIi: yilF'TY And sent to CENTS.iUion. silver tarnish -when exposed to the r Why does light 7 do some colors fade and others darken when exposed to the sun ? | Why What develops electricity in the clouds 7 This volume answers 1. and can recommonded i t as one of the best works of reference for the young student. Bound. in.. of Reasons A CAREFUL COLLECTION OF Some Thousands ^ooK FOR THINGS WHICH. We S16 JPages. GENERAL %. I is This Work assigns Ebasons. THOUGH GENERALLY KNOWN.. Punctuation.. &c. The work is altogether useful and indispensable. at others white 7 does dew form round drops on the leayes of plants 7 Why is the sky blue 7 at Why Why iy Copies Mailed to any address in the United States or Canada. BY THE ATJTHOB OF "INQUIBE " Wlkst H«ydn'» Dictionary of Dates ' ' WITHIN". of 350 pages. for the thousands of things that daily fall under the eye of the intelligent observer. '• Church of England Monthly Rerlew. together with detailed Instructions for Writing for the Press." ia reipect to scientific facta. gilt. Composition. ISxno. 18 Ann Street. periodicals. ai Canbenstij Smnltfit ^nofelebgt iat i\t ^. ARE IMPERFECTLY UNDERSTOOD. The in regard to Hiatorlcal events. with explanations of Latin and French words and pli rases of frequent occurrence in newspapers. Particularly intended as a book of reference for the solution of difficulties connected with Grammar. bound in cloth. or even the ripe scholar. containing examples of ONE THOUSAND MISTAKES Of daily occurrence in Speaking." "Such a book as this has long It is suitable for all clashes. reviews. Writing. been wanted by those who entertain the wish alluded to in the title. does lightining sometimes appear red. and as deserving to [Tribune. P»I?. and forms of articles in the various departments of Newspaper Literature. be generally consulted. The Reason Why: SCIENCE. printed on fine paper.325 similar questions. N. and embellished with a large number of Wood Cota. free of i>08tage- Live and Learn A GUIDE TO ALL WHO WISH TO SPEAK AND WRITE COERECTLY. others yellow. Send Cash Orders DICK & FITZGERALD. Y. EXAMPLE. and of -which he seeks a simple and clear explanation. to any address Free of Postage. this wonderful book ic plan of the book and its execution leave nothing to be desired.

000 TRICKS WITH CARDS AND OTHER RECREATIONS. ILLUSTRATED 1VITH OVER 300 ENGRAVINGS. NEW YOKK. cloth. Astonishing Sleights and Subtleties. Natural Magic. and back stamp." "Parlor and Back. Celebrated Card Deceptions. And intended as a source of Amusement for gilt side ONE THOUSAND AND ONE EVENINGS. Mechanical. j | DICK & FITZGERALD. that nnvrprsnn can c-'inprehend and perform f hem with ease. 1. Gilt Side Large 12mo. etc.The Secret Out.. Engravings to make each trick tmder- The Magician's Own Book THE WHOLE ART'oF CONJURING. Together with a choice collection of Intricate and Puzzling Questions. OR. containing over One Thousand Optical. Here is a book for the Ions winter evenings. — The whole IllTistrated with over 500 "Wood Cuts. Ingenious Tricks with Numbers. a great many new and interesting ones — the Cloth. sent free of postage. Own Book. anyoneof which will aff)rd ainnseinint enough for a whole evening" Copies sent to any address free of postapre. 400 pages. including the celebrated Science of Second Sight. with engravings to illustrate them. etc. and one that will make all merry and happy. full and easily understood explanations of some T-wo Hundred and Forty of the most Curious. and which are stood with ease. This book contains. whole being described so accurately and carefully.. Amusing Transmutations." etc. Being a Complete Hand-Book of Parlor Magic. ever known or invented. or White Magic. Amusing & Interesting Sleight-of-Hand & Legerdemain Tricks illustrated with Ever invented. of every description and they aro all explained so clear and explicitly. It also contains numerous CURIOUS PUZZLES. Uj the Author of "The Sociable. Price One Dollar. 18 ANN STREET. It contains over a THOUSAND TRICKS. besides. Amusements in Chance. With an endless variety of Entertaining Experiments in Drawing-Room. that anybody can easily learn how to practise thes^ Tricks. with patterns showin<» how they are done. etc. Send Cash Orders to 12mo. Chemical. Price OXE DOLLAR. And containing clear and comprehensive explanations how to perform with ease all the Curious Card Deceptions and Sleight-of-Hand Tricks extant. and Magical Experiments. Magnetical. . A Book which explains ail the Tricks and Deceptions with Playing Cards. in addition to its numerous Card Tricks above described. and gives. ." "The Magician's Theatricals. Curious and Entertaining Puzzles together with all the most Noted Tricks of Modern Performers.

Schools. And as it will be invaluable to Families. Cloth. bound in cloth. Send cash orders to DICK & FITZGESALI). iJ. must meet with the fullest success. and Science in Sport.. the . Games requiring Memory and Attention. PubUshers. so that its name may be familiar as a "Household Word" in all families. TABLEAUX VIVANTS.PROVERBS. stamp. ACTING CHARADES. free of postage. OR. THE WHOLE BEING A FUND OF NEVER-ENDING ENTERTAINMENT. with gilt side and back stamp. By the author of "The Magician's Own Book. $1. south.: A Book of Hever-Ending Entertainment.. Everything in the book is superior of its kind— the greatest care hiving been taken to exclude everthing thnt ^^'as not above the standar-l of mediocrity in interest and ingenuity. there must be a steady and permanent demand for it at all seasons and in all years. Social Clubs. It is to render it a complete and invaluable vade mecum of Domestic Amusements. PARLOR GAMES. The need of such a collection of HOME GAMES has long been felt.. cnst and west. and Parlor Magic. etc. \although few of the so-called "Holiday Books" arc as appropriate for Gifts a's The Sociable. Street. where the value of wholctomg and innocent recreation is Price only One Dollar.'llo\vs Parlor Theatricals. FORFEITS. As its title implies. Which were prepared expressly for THIS WORK. Nearly 400 pages. Many of these Games— the majority of them are extibelt new. — ornament to any and its PARLOR THEATRICALS typographical execution is a specimen of the highest excellence. the Mechanical mentioned. " the 12nio. it is a collection— a complete repertoire— o[ the THE ONLY BOOK OF THIS KIND Ever Published in America. MUSICAL BURLESQUES. CONTAININO ACTING. arranged as f. Acting Charades. sent to any % Llrcss ia the United States. Dramatic Charades and Tableaux Vivants. . THE SOCIABLE. . and other to describe in writing. Games of Action. &. Ne^w "STorlc. DRAMATIC CHARADES. or Catch Games Forfeits Puzzles Fireside Games lorWinter Evenings. and fully Puzzles. bound." Illustrated with nearly 300 Engravings and Diagrams. One Thousand and One Home Amusements. gilt side The Sociable" will be found one of most extensively popular familybooks ever issued from the press. OR DRAWING-ROOM PANTOMIMES. GAMES OF ACTION. and the pubishers believe that this endeavor on their part. including Acting Proverbs. AND A CHOICE COLLECTION OP CURIOUS MENTAL AND MECHANICAL PUZZLES. as are. to supply that want. They have spared neither trouble nor expense TABLEAUX VIVANTS. as a book of reference on all matters of Amusement and Recreation.00. Games requiring Wit and Intelligence Ruses.c. Each department trated with is AMUSEMENTS OF HOME.nbracing a large and comprehensive list of recreative pastime. nnrlh. so as to be an center-table. SCIENCE IN SPORT AND PARLOR MAGIC. 18 Jkxin. . . amply illus- BEAUTIFUL WOOD ENGRAVINGS Which render explain all the Contrivances things difficult It is elegantly the Text clear. also.

Convivial and Comic Songs. Gilt Side and Back. but all it contains minute Instructions j Gentlemen in those necessity in this age of refinement. j A for handsome volame of 335 pages. In short. Embracing Sonss of the B^* Copies of age. ETIQUETTE AND <fcc. G-uide IS and Instructor. Sentimental. also." 6ic. and a complete Etiquette of the Dinner Table. Arranged for the Piano Forte by the most celebrated Professors." "Rory OMore.. and Ten DOLiLAR. By EDWAKD FEKREEO. Affections. Patriotic and Military Songs. and the price is correspondingly low. with directions how to deliver them—Duties of the Chaira Forms of Preambles and Resolutions. EEOCtUEI^CE. would cost ten times the price of the book. Dinners or Popular Gatherings. to any address tn the United States free of post- Send cash orders DICK FITZGERALD. The MUSIC alone. 18 Ann Street. &c. Edited and Annotated by SAMUEL LOVEK. Price $1 26. MornI. modern accomplishments which have become almost a It gives directions how to use Wine at Table. if purchased in separate sheets at any of the music stores. Satirical. Dollars' M^ortli. This work also contains ONE HUNDRED AND FIVE PAGES OF THE CHOICEST MUSIC. tlie Fignres and Steps of all Dances. &c. the above to Books sent St. not only a valuable book of reference. Professor of Dancing at West Point.. Price Si 00. Or. T. at Public Meetings. TO WHICH ADDED Music and Necessary Performance of tlie most Modern and Improved Dances. Embellished with numerous fine Illustrations. this book every possible information he may desire to enable him to appear to good advantage in either public or private life. N. and Miscellaneous Songs. Esq. Hints on Etiquette. . including Dinner Speeches. Historical and Political Songs." "Legends and Stories of Ireland. A Book of Information and Instruction for those wlio desire to become Brilliant or Conspicuous in General Society. 12mo. It has also an American Code of Etiquette and Politeness for all occasions — Model Speeches. Author of " Handy Andy. Toasts and Sentiments. beautifaUy boiuid and This is gilt. will give man man Art of Dancing without a Master Or. Cloth. or at Parties. Thus you can obtain a History of Dancing. It is a choice book that any gentleman willfind a valuable addition to his library. Wit and Conver sation at Table. of the Clxoicest Music ^ FOR ONK SONGS OF IRELAND. We expect to sell at least cue hundred thousand copies of this work. -with rules forjudging the quality thereof —Rules for Carving. Ball Hints on Etiquette Room . tlie Instruction for By the aid of which any "ne can attain a knowledge of the Art of Dancing without a Master. Tlie Figures. The whole forming the most valuable and useful melange for the centre-table of the drawing-room ever published. The Perfect Gentleman. engraved by the celebrated Dalziel.

price $0 25 Es-erybody has heard of "Sam Slick. Pailcs for Punctuation and Spellings «5:c. 18 Ann St. Buy this book if you want many good he-^rty laughs. together Avith numerous examples of Letters and Notes on every suliject of EpistoIr.. the Clockmaker.^out the most difficult to choose ar. It gives the experihero see how easily they can bo swinences of the Yankee Clockmaker. events Judge Haliburton's Works. ^ . .ry intercourse. Containing also a Treatise on the general qualifications necessary for Marriage. and how Love Letters should bo directions ahont pickin' and choosin' of them. plete Fortune Teller to all and Interpreter questions upon the different to Behave or. Green'. to the Eticjuette and Observances of the Marriage Ceremonies containing complete directions for Britlal Receptions. ''. but especially relating to all cir- cumstances connected with Love. Paper $0 50 Cloth. together with his observations on men and things in to "Woo to Win and Containing Rules for the Etiquette containing his opinions general. price 1 00 more and situations of life. that has ever The uninitiated will stare when they been published. The Attache . and the necessary rules for bridesmaids. Sam Slick in England. 12mo.. Paper price 1 00 of women. Snyings and Doings practice upon their unwary dupes. - 13 By Harry Hazen. price 25 . . and an Cloth.. Simplified. . 13 B^~ Anv Book on this List will be sent to any address in tlie United States or Canadfc. Made Easy.. Free of Postage. ." and another "The Cow. &:c. 13 and tlicro ai::t any dcpcndablo Containing conciEo rules for the conduct of Courtship through its entire progress. This book conlnins liis opinion about ''Cour^ tin the Gals!" and his laughable adventures after fhc petticoats. with directions showon 3Iatrimony. . 12mo. Paper." and ho has given his opinion on ahnost cvcrythirp. rules for Sam Slick's Nattiro and Human £0 telling the characters and dispositions Nature. 25 How How Miscellaneous Books. why and "TJio Do^'. &c. &c. and dled by dealing. aphorisms of love. groomsmen. who has been thrice a widower married. .r. DICK & FITZGERALD'S LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. Illustrated cover. how to begin and end a Courtship. The Spirit ci Etiquette : A complete guide to Polite Society... There is a book called ''Tlie Horse. Code of Gallantry. How 13 The Ladies' Love Oracle sellor to the Fair Sex. H. explained. and price the art of conversation. prico Pap. Afiectionato. with several Important Hints on Love Letters. and shuffling the incidents that occurred in his jourcards. Sara Slick's Sayings and Doings. . Courtship and Marriage. . with important hints on introduction. Paper This work contains one hundred Cloth price 1 00 tricks wi'ili cards. N. printed in colors. or. also of Courtship.d to manage of any created critter. and shows This is the most amusing collection the numerous cheats which Gamblers of the Opinions. Large 12ino. but is still young enough to be an especial favorite of the ladies. Bridal Etiquette A Sensible Guido . Y.. Vv-ilh clear and oomplcte instructions hov/ to begin and end Correspondence. CounBeing a com.. in the parlor. . and in the street.. Polite and Busincs Cor. of Iho famous Sam Slick. ncyings over the world. By J.... price Jr. remedies for love. and the proper age and condition for Wedlock.50 . ing hovf to v. - price 13 Courtship the Mysteries of Making Love Fully Explained. Paper 60 Gamblerr. Largo 12mo. or." . written. sendprico ing cards. or. . Send Cash Orders to DICK & FITZGERALD. 12mo. cutting. for Ladies and Gentlemen containing rules for good behavior at the dinner table. respondence. Epistolary Code. price Containing a large collection oftho most valuable information relative to the Art of Letter-Writing. By Madaji Le Marchand. Sain Slick in Search of a Wife. Ij it any wonder then so many fellows pet taken in when they go for to swap hearts with them ? The Lawa A Completo of Love. Reformed Gambler.an the favor of Ladies. ^. Chesterfield's Art of Letter-writing A Guide to Friendly.' Tricks with Cards 'Exprice 1 00 Cloth posed and Explained." and so on shoukhi't there be one on "The Gals?" They are rJ.. With specimen Love Letters.

tor of Eccentric Characters. gilt price 1 00 comprising a collection of over 500 Laughable Stories. containing accounts of nil the noted and famous "Scrapes" and "Sprees. and how they tences. Stories. Terrific Puns. It will be found a and fresh complete antidote to ''hard times..DICK & FITZGERALD'S LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. With numerous laughable illustrations. Funny engravings. etc. astounding. what they did. Fox. Dr. price 25 . A Budget of "Wit and Humor or.. Send Cash Orders to DICK & FITZGERALD. Ac. Noses. Mouths. and " . with Specimens of Eloquence. Queer ConunLaughable Adventures of Messrs. price . drums. Embellished with numerous Illustrated with over one Knife. Valentine's Comic Lectures. By Dr.-. Charles White. sauq^ and spicy cuts ever gathered within the leaves of £^ny one book. of Oscar Shanghai. Illustrated by nearly 200 comic engravings All told in This -work contains in its 320 pages.. 12mo. and Darkey Conversations. Being the second series of Dr. Valentine's Lectures. The Comical Adventurer of David Dufficks. Jokes. quizzihle. The whole being a most went.. By Charles White. as told by the celebrated Ethiopian Comedian. new stories. showing his heart-rendand most wonder- The Comic Wandering Jew. Valentine in his most celebrated characters. showSublime Jokes and Sentimental Sening where they went. — all new. etc. Containing a large collection of Laughable Anecdotes. ingly comic engravings. An Encyclopedia of Wit. Ornamental Paper Cover 50 hundred Comical Engravinjrs. etc. 18mo. hundred of the most risible. Large Octavo. Illustrated with 200 comic engraviogs . Comical'y illustrated with 100 original and laui hable engravings. new type— no comic almanac stuff. Bioicn. Jones and Robinson. portraits. All fond of aliearty laugh. - - - price 1 00 The Extraordinai*y and MirthProvoking Adventures by Sea and Land.-. . A certain cure for the Blues." price 25 Sly- The Courtship of Chevalier ing. ful love adventures with Fanny Elssler and Miss Gambol. 320 pages." of which students at Old Yale have been guilty for the last quarter of a century. tho first and only work of tho Containing a l:ind ever published. Cloth. Animal Jlngnetism. redolent with not only huraor. Illustrated with over 100 25 Yale College Scrapes or How tho Boys Go It at New Haven.price 25 This is a book of 114 pages. Illustrated with twelve portraits of Dr. price 12^ phoscs. "Witticisms. Witty Sayings. Cloth. with characters as given by tlie late Yankco Chips from TJncle Sam's Jack Hill. new designs. price 25 a series of nearly two Dr. Wisdom and Wind. By Sam Slick. 18 Ana St. Full of Fun and containing 100 Humorous engravings - price 25 ^F* Anv Book on Free qf Postage.. on from designs from John Leach. paper cover. the happiest days and most innocent recreations of our youth arc here recalled. tho favorite delineaters. Valentino's Comic Metamor18mo. . Stories. Cloth. Delineations of Eccentric Chirac. Valentine. Laughing' Gas. and all other serious complaints.. . that everything about tho book is new . Transactions of Learned Societies.price $0 25 Dashes of American Humor. $0 50 tinted i)aper.. Witti- cisms. Faces. and other tliinc-s to get fat on and tho best of it is.. some thirty of the most amusing articles -we have ever perused. here is amusement for many a merry hour. full cxposo of all tho most laughablo Jokes.. Comic Poetry.. Morsels of Mirth for the Melancholy. Jr. Comprising Comic Lectures on Heads. peculiar. With nearljr 200 most thrillLargo Octavo price 25 to laugh. gilt -1 00 Ornamented paper cover - price 60 Black "Wit and Darkey ConversatioTis. Being a perfect Casket of Fun.Wikoff. 94 pages price 12>^ Comic Songs. N. Funny Adventures. Y. provoking. this List will be sent to any address in the United States or Canada. gilt.. and how they perfect portfolio for those who love did it. and near 600 side-extending jokes. W. but with wisdom and pathos. Charley White's Ethiopian Joke Book.

WAGGERY PEALS OF LAUGHTER. and bound in and back stamp. Comical Conceits. Illustrated The pictures are all original. to any address in 18 the United States. to And peculiarly prepared 400 Page3 It contains of the produce prolific very quintessence of HUMAN WIT. ENDLESS REPAST OP PUN. designed by some of our best artists (including Darley). Ann Street. In offering this book to the public. QUEER SAYINGS OF MRS. By the author of " Mrs. — Appropriately JUtistrated with 300 Comic Engravings. Conundrums for the Million an inexhaustible store of Nuts to Pastimes for all Seasons forming a Welcome Guest for Crack. Laughable Anecdotes. Bon Mots and Broadgrins. McLennan. and grow fat. etc. DICK & FITZGEKALD. Tenniel. Jovial Jokes. Leach. Amusing Adventures. Illustrated with 200 fine Cloth. Cloth. . from drawings by Darley. more than a Million Laug^liSt and ifvith 800 Comic Cuts. . Stories and a dessert. Hine.The Harp OR. Puns and Pickings. having been several years in preparation. Cheek-extending Poetry. being a perfect Encyclopedia of Wit and Witty Sayings. B3~ Copies of either of the above Books sent free of postage. Partington's Carpet Bag of Fun. Y. Epigrams. Cruikshank. Goder and others and a collection of over 1. Witty Repartees. and the collection of droll conceits and queer stories is unsurpassed. a Pleasant Companion for Winter. Partington's Carpet Bag of Fun.. a Cheerful Friend for Summer. THE BOOK OF One Thousand Comical Or. Mrs. N. Side-splitting Jokes. $1 00. Price One Dollar. It is only intended for those hearty and robust persons who can laugh long and loud. with gilt side Comic Engravings.000 of the most Comical Stories. . Oddities. we must caution all weakly and nervous people against buying it. Doyle. Price 50 Cents? Cloth. Heart-rending Puns. and Sports and Spring. Irresistible Drolleries. Quibbles and QueMerry Songs for ries. PARTINGTON. nearly 400 pag-es. The and WISDOM. Henning. is most Mirth-Provoking Literature ever printed. Funnv Conundrums. Day in the Year. of a Thousand Strings LAUGHTER FOR A LIFETIME.. Crowquill. and a varied Feast of Mirth for Everybody's Enjoyment. PRICE ONE DOLLAR AND TW^ENTY-FIVK CENTS. with several courses A rich Banquet for Every BILL OF FARE : Comprisinsj Tales of Humor. &c. Bound in Paper. Phiz. a Jovial Host for Autumn. To those fond of Fun it will be a treasure. Illustrated with over 150 of the most laughable enj^ravings ever designed." Large 12mo. Large 12mo. Merry Moments. etc. <fcc. Meadows.

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Containg practical advice on improving the complexion. Tricks or Mystification Games in which an opportunity is afforded to display Gallantry. together with a careful concentration of all the practical results of the author's great experience in the structure and management of Aquaria. Euchre. the Directions and Maxims of Mathews." ''The Secret Out. Containing an Explanation of the most Entertaining Games. large collection of Entertaining Paradoxes. Each sketch is a complete narrative In itself. «fec. Smith. cloth. 12mo. and Poker. fitting up. and suffering. By the author of " The Sociable. Wit. in giving us the history of these eminent women. An v Book on Send Cash Orders (his List will to be sent to any address in the DICK & FITZGERALD. are written in plain langurge. Queen Consort of Henr>' II. Loo. the form." "Amy Lawrence. Sc attesGOOD. numbered and printed in red. or. as now generally played with an explanntion of Marked Cards. or some slight knowledge of — The Family Aquarium. Simplified and Explained. This work is a complete adaptation to American peculiarities of every species of useful information upon Marine and Fresh Water Aquariums. gilt side stamp. By J. Price 12 The Chairman and Speaker's Guide or. the teeth. or Checkers. The Game of Draughts. etc. the hair. gilt side and back.. 12mo. Revised and edited by an American Physician and Chemist. Gilt 1 00 This is a beautilul volume of 350 pages. Besides Hoyle's Laws and Rules. and maintenance of the Marino and Fresh Water Aquaria. to be met with in the elaborate volumes of European authority. By D. it gives complete. By the author of ''The Sociable. the celebrated Whist Player. It contains truthful and admirably drawn literary portraits of Elizabeth Woodville. oils. Being a familiar and Complete Instructor upon the subject of the construction. and the various vicissitudes of love." «fcc." " The Secret Out. Author of'' Stanfield Hall. which form the staple of all works of fiction. 12rao. . Price 75 Eomantic Incidents in the Lives of the Queens of England. the hands. &c. also. or Drawing-Room Pantomimes.Y. Queen Consort of William the Conqueror. With Practical Diagrams and Illustrations. fancy paper cover. suited to the Family Circle as a Recreation. POPULAR BOOKS SENT PBEE OF POSTAGE. Musical Burlesques. Bound in cloth." ''Minnie Gray. Compiled from Hoylc and IMatfhews. stocking. Explanati uis and Directions for Old Players. Extra Cldth. The book contains." etc." ''Parlor Games. Tableaux Vivants. Cond. per cover. Actmg Charades. and pointing out the marks by which they distinguish the high cards by a glance at the backs of them." Illustrated with a great variety of engravings. F. Perplexing Deceptions in Numbers and Amusing Tricks in Geometry. Price 12 D^"" Postage. The Directions for the Games of Euchre. sorrow. 25 lic Rules for the Orderly Conduct of PubMeetings." and ''Parlor Theatricals. Also. cloth. Loo. The writer. revised. with the additional value and merit of historical truth. Free of 18 Ann St. fancy pa- taining "Gus Howard. By the Author of ''The Sociable. «&c. together with a Checker board. an Ex. and it is probably the best work on the subject that has ever been printed. By H. so as to be easily understood. Price : certain Sciences Amusing Forfeits Fireside Games for Winter Evening Amusement. D. planation of Marked Cards. Directions and Maxims to be observed in playing itContaining also Primary Rules for Beginnere. with flexible cover -. A new Pleasure for the Domestic Circle. possessing all the charms of a novel." 12mo. so as to insure the highest degree of perfection of which they are susceptible. The Book of 500 Curious Puzzles. such as: Games of Action Games which merely require a'tention Games which require Memory— Catch Games. which have for their object. — Price : 25 The Game of Whist Rules.0 38 ings' Entertainment. and the Laws of the Game. and Poker. A neatly printed book of 64 pages." "The Secret Out.. selected from the various authors. with over 200 of the best va- riations. Containing Acting Proverbs. la of Flanders." " The Magician's Own Book. being a result of a combination of practical and scientific skill. Esq. Queen Consort of Henry I. the features. showing how the cards are marked by gamblers to cheat with. Queen Consort of Edward IV. And also upwards of one hundred recipes for various cosmetics. The book maybe read with equal entertainment and profit. Winter Even- Containing the Eighteen Standard Games. Price — 50 The Ladies' Guide to Beauty A Com- panion for the Toilet. and Matilda Atheling." "The Magician's Ov/n Book. Matil. This is the latest work on Whist Playing. Parlor Theatricals . the feet. Eleanora of Aquaitaine.. or River and Ocean Gardens. pomades. illustrated with descriptive engravings and diagrams. Beautifully illustrated. and it gives minute directions for every phase of the Game. By Sir James Clark.— . Butler. Price : 25 The Book of Fireside Games tory of Social A Reper- Amusements." for no pure romance could excel it in stirring incident. 12mo. the eyes. Dramatic Charades. etc. N." &c. together with many original ones never before published. Private Physician to Queen Victoria. pleasure. has remarkably exemplified the old adage that " truth is stranger than fiction. United States or Canada.

which is not to be found except by reading through interminable volumes." or. — BOOKS SENT PJEIEE OF POSTAGE. price of the newest Tricks of Deception. young or old. the whole forming a remarkable TextBook for all Loves. Translated. Price Lacour on the Manufacture of Liquors. Large r2mo. Rights of Widows. look through the book for a few moments as a matter of curiosity. By a practical Liquor Manufacturer. in part. with several Original Translations from the Greek and Latin. Cloth. VineDistillation.. Being a true account of the most remarkable events connected with the History of Love in all Ages and among all Nations. Price 12 Any Book on Send Cash Orders this List will to be sent to any address in the United States or Canada. Procure a copy of "Lacour on the Manufacture of Liquors. the book is a curiosity as a piece of art. to Cut and Contrive Children's Clothes at a Small Cost. gar and Bitters. and a Companion of Married Life. 12 cal Blunders in Behavior Corrected. Eighty-fifth Edition. 12mo. as well as a Complete Guide to Matrimonv.d^ POPCriiAR The Dictionary of Lovo. itself. such a work is invaluable. cloth. Blacklegs. for the purpose of developing and preserving their charms. With numerous explanatory engravings. price. The Great "Wizard of the North's HandBook of Natural Magic. 12rao. German and Italian. Countess of Landsfclt. With Hints to Gentlemen on the Art of Fascinating. Wines. in detail. It is compiled from the very best and most reliable authorities. Guardians and Wards. and will enable our ladies to supply their toilets. gilt side and back. A Treatise on the Manufac- ture and Adulteration of Liquors.t to the commonest. and Cordials. and be her own Legal Adviser. without the aid of Also the Manufacture of Effervescing Beverages and Syrups. for the most delicate subjects are handled with a skill. . or. and is Chesterfield superseded. $1 00 romantic and surprising anecdotes These really contain all ot the most tragic and comic events connected with the history of the tender passion among all nations and in It is precisely the all ages of the world. Containing a Art of Beauty definition of all tho terms used in the His- tory OP TEE Tender Passion. arfor Amateurs and Lovers of the Art. in whatever situation. and by the aid of which every female may. in the United States. Anderson. the Great Wizard of the North. understand her legal course and redress. and other intereslins matters appertaining to Love. with what cannot be purchased at the perfumers at any cost. are for all the States of the Union. of Every "Woman her own Lawyer. forms and information it contains.. Free of DICK & FITZGEEALD.. and an unexceptionable propriety of language. concise code of Deportment for both sexes. &c price $1 00 This book should be in the hands of every Avoman. Toilet. t^'' Postage. By Madame Lola MosTEZ. of all the arts employed by the fashionable ladies of all the chief cities of Europe. In this work not one article in the smallest degree approximating to a poison is recommended. married or single.Y. Scotch and Irish Whisky. cloth. at a trifling cost. especially. 12mo. By Lola Montez. ranged Being a series Anecdotes of Love. Cordials. Independent of its rare and really useful matter. — How Home Companion. price 1 50 And besides the exciting love histories em- braced in this volume. if you do not wish to purchase. from the choice-. all kinds of Wines.'. when women arc beginning to be so universally recognized as competent to attend to all sorts of business matters which relate to themselves. with rare quotations from the Ancient and Modern Poets of all nations together with spccimens of carious Model Love Letters. containing the Laws of the differerent States relative to Marriage and Divorce. The Bordeaux Wine and Liquor Dealers' Guide. 1 50 cfoth. 18 Ann St . and Gamblers. and yet the book tenches how Cognac Brandy. Spanish. <kc. Countess ofLandsfeldt. By Professor J. Foreign and Domestic Rum.pter. . Now-a-days. can bo imitated to that perfection that the best judges cannot detect the method of manufacture. JcNioR. $1 00 Matters of Law. from the French. Prepared and arranged expressly for the Trade by Piebre Lacour. To which is added an exposure of the practice made use of by Professional Card-plavers. A private Guide in all essential interest to women. Price A Physicians' and Druggists' pharmaceutiknowledge cannot bo complete without a copy of this work. price $0 50 many This book contains and account. Secrets of a Lady's . False Pretenses By George Bishop. it really contains a great deal of valuable historic lore. ''It wi!l polish and refine either sex. Rights in Property of a This work is also full of the curious and useful recipes used by the beauties of Europe. and the legal advice. kind of book Avhich a man will find it impossible to relinquish until he has read it through from the first to the last cha. in Courtship. By Theockatus. H. never before published. gilt side. which is really surprising. Property in Marriage. price Wife. N.

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