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t»r DICK & FITZGERALD. In the year 185T.Entered according to Act of Congress. . In the Clerk's Ofiace of the District Court for the Southern District of New York.

There is a mystery in that piques the understanding as well as provokes the curiosity of the If the trick be executed with address. since the " black art. is not yet as popularly understood in this country as is it abroad. There a charm old." as a pecuniary speculation. or sleight of hand. necromancy. by the performances whose ingenuity of these practhis even of some humble artist in the family mind has enabled him tical puzzles. and in the presence of crowds. They are called forth circle.. To do this is what the publishers propose in the issue of this volume and they flatter themselves. The publishers of this interesting volume do not conceive that it requires an elaborate introduction to the reading public. to gather up the more available of It would seem. whether it young or spectator. therefore. terms of art applicable to the same series of performances. who can relish and instead of leaving it in the hands of " professors. at any desirable his moment. that all. all Sleight of hand." as in lessen lightened ages the practice of is these innocent and interesting feats was termed. PREFACE. cajoled in great saloons. may all not be inappropriate as a preface to The Magician's Own Book. magic. the more it engages our fancy and are mystified in fascinates our attention. however.. [3] . a place of genuine entertainment for himself and for the little time companions. and and thought he may devote to the are acquisition of the necessary skill and dexterity. The parlor student. Some brief remarks.varying phases of novelty and gratification. that these effects are developed. And it is not only when we public. &c. in legerdemain. tion . can readily appreciate. it it excites our admira- and the simpler appears. to enable the domestic group to master and enjoy it in all its ever. a useful thing to place all source of harmless amusement within the reach of its eccentricities. it will prepare the into Toung Conjuror ample repay him to convert the parlor. that if carefully studied.

and so mirth provoking in its results. therefore. The Magician's Own Book nicely It up. Acting Charades are common. am- usement to thousands. will find little difficulty in comprehending at a glance. and ed bamboozlement.IV PREFACE. This will be a new source of ability to turn " Conjuror " on pleasure to him. that the Magician's Own Book con- tains a great variety of curious tricks have never before appeared in Junior. " is but a puzzle repeated to those tacitly who behold each one of whom expected to guess how accomplished. and too often insidiously fills pernicious. notwithstanding all the show of gorgeous paraphernalia and auxiliary machinery employed. John Wyman. upon which these therefore. afford innoxious Enigmas and puzzles. In conclusion in this shape becomes a moral assistant of no unimportant description. the parlor needs some increase in it its means of social amusement. while the ? little practitioner only holds the key to the mystery In truth. always tempting. the modus operandi of every one of them he may witness in public. and for many of which the publishers beg to acknowledge their indebtedness to Mr. The publishers only consider list The Magician's Own Book character . many of which print. as well as the piquant source of good humor- we would say. having kindly the celebrated magician. The number This weariness embraces is extremely limited. stay-at- home inducement. Nor can we well conceive of any rational objection likely to be urged against a kind of knowledge. independent of his his own account its at home. in pantomime and speech. the void in the category of parlor recreations. once familiar with the general principles " experiments " are effected. even among the most fastidious families. to present an may be made ever-changing. so unim- peachable in nature. They soon weary. not always wholesome. . a new addition to the current for of entertainments of that what is a sleight of hand feat but an enigma placed ? before the spectator for solution What it is is a trick in " natural magic it. creates an appetite for outside attractions. and deceptions. that gentleman furnished clear and simple explanations to parlor feats many of his most surprising and fancies.

New Perpetual Rotary Motion. 62 The ^ra2ic Rings. 8 The Hatched Bird. 63 The Hat and Cannon Ball Trick. - ... in a Circle of Ten.. 17 The Magic Book. 80 The Surprise. 24 To guess the Card thought of. and get it off Without Untying the Knot. CVJ . The Infallible Prophet. 46 The Old" Man and his Chair. 44 To tie a Handkerchief round your Leg. a Table. 19 The Knotted Thread. 47 To tie a Knot on the Left Wrist. withA Magician's Box Explained. 55 The Wizard's Wit.. Handkerchief. Houdin's Nut Trick. 60 The Disappearing Dime..INDEX. 6 The Magic Bottle. . 81 The Revolution. 52 To Crack Walnuts in your Elbow. - - - . The FJying Dime.. 856 Conjuring a Ring. The Three Cups. 8 The Apple and Orange Trick. To Cause Water and Wine to Change 21 To Make the Pass. The Hat and Die Trick. . . 20 Tricks and Deceptions fv^ith 20 . 86 4 The Globe Box Trick. Tricks.. (another method. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . To pull a String through your Buttona China Plate.22 The Four Accomplices. .41 The Magic Funnel. 854 The Knotted Handkerchief.44 To change a Dime to a Quarter. 59 26 To tell the number of Cards by Weight.. or Is it Possible. 51 To Conjure Nuts in your Ear. • . • 82 The Slipped Card. 29 The Card found under the Hat. 23 . 62 Tiie Restored Document. 27 Audacity. 14 The Invisible Sprines. 12 Accomplished. 85 8 The Egg Box Trick. The Beads and Strings. 82 The Nailed Card. or Impossibilities The Gordian Knot... 68 The Fish and Ink Trick. The Miraculous Apple. 65 21 The Card named without being seen.. 860 The Obedient Dime. . 21 The Card told by an Opera Glass. . 33 To ascertain the number of Points on The Egg and Bag Trick. and fall into Sleight of Band .21 To Tell a Card by its Back. 37 5 The Handkerchief Trick. To tie a Knot in a Handkerchief which Cannot be drawn Tight... The Three Spoons. .. 10 The Mysterious Coin. To get a Ring out of a Handkerchief.86 The Fire Eater. 84 To tell the numbers on two unseen Cards. 46 The Magic Bond. 855 16 The Flight of the Ring. 58 . 860 The Erratic Egg. . 49 The Cut Stri% Restored. 19 The Transposable Pieces. 13 The Magician's Snow Ball.. The Doll Trick. 14 Wyman's Mode of performing the Egg Bag Trick. . To Take Feathers out of an Empty 52 14 The Dancing Automaton. • 84 The Knaves and the Constable. or How to Make The Magic Handcuffs. The Jugglers Joke. . Places. The Flying Dime. - 11 - the Hand. 12 The Egyptian Fluids. 50 The Knot Loosened. • 80 To call the Cards out of the Pack. 56 22 The Four Kings.. i - I I ' . 47 out letting the right hand approach The Enchanted Coin. 861 The Prisoner Released. 83 . 61 The Vanished Half Dime.. 18 The Magnetized Cane. 42 The Magic Quarter. 27 The Card found at the second guess 61 . ..) 86 5 The Coffee Trick. • 80 Heads and Tails. 61 The Flying Coins. - . 18 The Tape Trick. 41 7 The Bottle Trick. 11 Dollars pass through a Wine Glass. 64 64 The Bell and Shot Trick. 23 To Tell the Card thought of... rAov The Burned Handkerchief Eestored.. . The Impossible Omelet. .. Gl The Penetrative Cents. 63 The Dime in the Ball of Cotton. three unseen Cards. 59 » Philosophy Cheated.. . - - . 863 19 Advantageous Wager The Double Meaning. 48 it. . 20 Cards.. 58 An Omelet Cooked in a Hat.. - .56 The Toper's Stratagem. 8 Wyman's Gun Trick. - - - hole... 64 83 The Dancing Egg.

Evaporation of a Metal.. Chameleon Liquids. 108 The Burning Circle. Veritable " Black " Tea. Two Liquids Make a Solid. - their Weight. 89 The Water Demon.1 13 113 Flame upon Water.. .106 The Visibly Growing Acorn. 113 ' - - . . The Metamorphosis. - 100 100 100 ICO 101 101 101 The Same Agent may Produce and 102 102 102 Two Bitters Make a Sweet.. 105 To Change the Colors of Flowers.... - - - Crystallizations of Metals. The Queens Digging for Diamonds. Incombustible Linen. . The Trick of " Thirty-one. 105 The Protean Light. from Crystallization. Masfie of Heat.. Tin..111 Camphor Sublimated by Flame. tible. Restoration of Color by Water. 90 The Magical Illumination. 112 Brilliant Red Fire. - A . 108 . or Two colorless Transparent Liquids be- The Ingenious Confederacy. Beauties of Crystallization. Inequality of Heat in Fire Irons. or Four Knaves in your Hand. 113 Rose Colored Flame upon Water. - - - - 65 66 67 67 67 67 69 69 • - • • - - 98 -99 99 99 100 Tlie Ma'4c Dyes. 86 86 Mimic Rain. - To Make Paper Apparently Incombusj i Spontaneous Combustion. . 8S The Mimic Explosion. To Change a Card in a Person's Hand. To Cool Flume by Metal. Light changing White into Black. 87 Marine Illumination. . . Beautiful Experiment. - - - 91 92 93 93 - - - 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 97 97 97 | A A and Heat • - . 105 The Chameleon Flowers. . Metals unequally Influenced ' - - by Heat. 110 Ill Magic Vapor. and intense Cold from the Liquefaction. 857 The Tell-Tale Cards.109 Substitute for Fire. . 11^ Water from the Flame of a Candlo.110 Flame from Cold Metals. 112 Purple Fire. Iu6 Changes of the Rose. 'JThe . 109 Warmth of Different Colors. -111 Waves of Fire on Water. Two Solids Make a Liquid. . . 359 The Housebreakers. Opaque Mass. - Splendid Sublimation. 113 Combustion of Three Metals.. 103 Visible and Invisible. The Chemical Chimeleon. 84 65 The Silver Tree. • 88 The Shower of Fire.> Melted bv Air. 89 Magic Lamp. The Triple Deal. 105 Changes of the Poppy. . - Union Destroy Color. Wine Changed into Water. . 103 The Spectral Lamp. a colored - 70 71 73 Change of Color. To hold Four Kings. Hold it - Fast. . 1C7 Instantaneous Flame. Liquid Changed to a Solid. - ." To tell the Names of the Cards by ... 114 To Set a Mixture on Fire by Water. - - - 97 98 98 98 98 i j ' Heat not to be estimated by Touch. - - Tlie Quadruple Deal. Solid. - - . To Crystals in Hard Water. by colorless Fluids. - • j I Heat Passing through Glass. . The Pairs Repaired.103 Proof that Flame is Hollow.VI LMDEX. Makes a Transparent Liquid. 89 Flame produced veith Ice. 109 Laughing Gas. To Crystallize Camphor. 111 Gas from the Union of Metals. 107 lOT Emerald Green Flame.. of two Metals without Heat.. The Cards in the Vase. Make one... 90 The CheTidcal Chimney Sweep. Expansion of Metal by Heat. Solid Changed to a Liquid. .. 78 Hints to Amateurs. The Surprising Experiments with Potas89 sium. - come Black and Opaque. . . The Charmed Twelve. io4 Curious Change of Colors. Varieties of Crystals. do.. - - A . Phosphorus in Chlorine.103 Quintuple Transmutation. "Wonderful Experiments in Combustion. 101 .. 107 Orange colored Flame. 106 . 79 80 Cure for Troublesome Spectators To make a Card jump out of the Pack. 86 Cleopatra's Pearls.. 106 .. and to Change them suddenly into Blank Cards. 111 Green Fire. . A Floating Metal on Fira.. To Hold a Hot Tea Kettle on the Hand. 112 Fiery Fountain.. 112 Cumbustion without Flame. 88 The Magical Heat. lol Two cold Liquids Make a Hot one. . 108 . - Magic Breath. Two colorless Fluids.. The Card Discovered by the Touch Smell. . 357 858 The Double Dozen. Sublimation by Heat.. - 74 76 76 77 The Fifteen Thousand Livres.. Ic. Colored Flames. 108 To Form a Liquid of two So]|iiis. . To Change Blue Liquid to White. The Card in the Egg. and then to Four Aces. - Magic of Chemistry. PAGE PAO« Magic Inks. Sympathetic or Invisible Inks. 112 Silver Fire. .. - • . 108 Water of different Temperatures in the 109 same Vessel.

. Air in the Egg. To Prove Air Elastic.. 152 152 152 154 154 155 156 156 157 157 15T 363 The inagic of Light as an Effect. the Nose. 140 To Show Magnetic Attraction and Re- 118 - 113 118 113 . How to Fill a Balloon. - - - " . Hot Water Lighter than Cold. - - Dancins: Balls and Dolls. . Simple means of Producin? Electricity. To Pas^s Magnetism through a Table.INDEX. Currents in Boiliug Water. The Electrical Cat. Expansion of Water by Cold. . How to Get a Jar full of Electricity.. With Plates in Water. Electrical - Nijrth and South Poles of the Magnet. The Magic Whirlpool. - and of Shock from a Sheet of Pape. Singular Galvanic Shock. The Bacchus Experiment.. To Melt Steel as Easily as Lead.. - - - - - Diving Bell. To Astonish a Large Party. The Electrified Paper. . The Prism. Chemistry an Agent in Secret "Writing.. - . Attraction and Repulsion Exhibited. . Experiments in Electricity.. 142 The Mariners Compass. The Sportsman. Variation of the Needle. Bells. The Eotary Tobacco Pipe. Dip of the Needle. • - rii PAQX - 114 114 114 115 115 115 116 117 118 Experiments iu magnetism. The Air Pump. - Experiments in Galranism. To put an Egg in a Phial. Polarity of the Magnet.. - Magnetism bv Hammering. The Cup of Tantalus. Light under Water. How to Make a Parachute. The Watch Magnetized. The Metamorphosed Knife. The Merry Iron Filings. - The Descendihff Smoke. The Electrical Battery.. - - • The Galvanized Floundsr. The Impromptu Magnet. The Invisible Coin Made Visible. Weight of the Air Proved by a Pair Bellows. A Galvanic Tongue. Artificial Fire Balls. The Attractive Sealing Wax. - - 142 Power of the Electro-Magnet. • - - 139 140 140 Test of Magnetic Power. To J ell a Lady if She is in Love. To Make a Magnet by Galvanism. Exaggerated Magnetism. The Eccentric Feather. 159 159 159 160 160 16C 161 161 .lerostatics. - Ale. The Unneighborly Balls. How to Make an Electrical Machine.. To Make Artificial Magnets without - the Aid of either Natural Load- stone. The Dancing Bran. How to Draw Sparks from the Tip of . Air Balloon. Half Eagle and''Feather. Mysterious Circles. Floating Fish. The Sociable Feather. - -150 - - 148 149 149 lEO 150 - - IM - - ITl PJnging Working Power of Electricity.. Caoutchouc Balloons. " The Magnetic Table. The Lightning Stroke Imitated. The Galvanic Shock. Elasticitv of the Air. Imitation Thunder Clouds. - - - How to Make an Air Balloon. FA6B Porniation of "Water by Fire^ Boiling upon Cold Water. 119 Infinite Divisibility. 354 The Pyramid of Alum. - - 141 141 141 141 142 - by Magnetism.. Magnetic Action and Reaction. Influence of Galvanism on Porter an 1 To Make Fire Balloons. The Erratic Feather. - - - - . - 143 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 146 The - Iflagic of JPnenniatics . To Suspend a Needle in the Air. 135 185 185 136 136 186 137 137 137 13S 138 188 188 I The The The The The Soundless Bell. To Make a Prism.. The Multiplying Glass. The Electrical Kiss. The Prisoner Leech. . - Optics. To Prove that Air has Weight. S27 To Melt a Piece of Money in a Walnut 355 Shell. i Composition of Light. Transparent' Bodies. Magical Test Papers. 140 To Make Artificial Magnets. 143 The Pressnre Glass. • - Refraction. . The Discontented Pith Ball. - pulsion.. Conductor. Interesting Particulars Concerning the - Magnet. - . - - . - . The Magical Cup. The Electrified Wig. • The Flash of Light. The Plate Electrical Machine. without Injuring the Shell. The Mysterious Bottle. or Artificial Magnets. . How to Magnetize a Poker. Effects of Galvanism on a Magnet. Change of Color by Galvanism. of Air Shown by - a - Wine 148 - The Pressure of Air Shown by - a Glass • - Jar.

188 848 Tricks in Hydraulics and Hydrostatics.Vlll INDEX. - Anamorphoses. . Thaumatrope. Fifth Sixth do.. The The The The The Science of Hydraulics. . - To Tiine a Guitar without the Assist ance of the Ear. Syphon. Musical Figures Resulting fVom Sound. The Tuning Fork a Flute Player. To Find a Number Thought .... Ten-pest at Sea. - - - - 182 182 182 183 183 To Make an ^olian Harp... - Experiment of the Law of Motion. Transmited Vibration. To Make a Quarter Dollar Turn on its Edge on the Point of a Needle.6 To Discover two or more Numbers thAt a Person has Thought o^ - . Theory of Whispering. How to praise a Ghost. of Motion. Effei ts of the Magic Lantern.. up Hill. - Champagne and Sound. or - - - the Obliquity of Motion. The Camera Lucida. Difference between Sound and Noise. The Toper's Tripod. which. shall. To Siiow what Pays of Light do not Obstruct each other.. - - - - - - - - Theory of the Voice. Progress of Sound.. 184 184 184 184 185 185 186 186 The Abacus. Keturn to its - -198 a - To Show 183 183 that Sound depends upon Vi19S bration. To Lift a Bott'e with a Straw. • Water Screw. ----. .. •when left to itself. Tl. The Waglc Lantern. - Tricks in Acoustics. . - The Prancing Horse. Eyes Experiment. To Exhilit the Magic Lantern. The Boundless Prospect. - 162 162 ]62 163 164 164 IG.. of Acoustics... The Camera Obscura. The Mysterious Bottle. To Cause a Cylinder to Roll of its own Weight. Another. Optics of a Soap Bubble... . - Napier's Rods.. Third Method. Visible Vibration... - - 193 193 193 194 194 194 195 195 195 195 196 Tricks in ITIcchanics. Hydraulic Dancer. - - - - - 199 200 201 202 208 2C8 204 205 205 206 2. - - - - The Laws Balancing.. Scales. Tl'e SeU-Ealanced l^ail.. Aphorisms of Number. Importance of Mechanics. PAGE Camera Obssura.. Snail. To See through a Philadelphia Brick. - - - 165 165 166 167 Fountain and Pump. The Phantasmagoria. Simple Solar Microscope. The Cup of Tantalus.. Bullock's A Natural PAGI Resistance of Sand. - - The Magician's Mirror. The Arithmetica" Boomerang. 18T 188 Sand in the Hour Gla»». Musical Bottles. 867 - Former Position. Another. 187 The Bridge of Knives.' - - The Magical Gyroscope. - - - - Magic of Acoustics with the Ancients. - 167 168 168 163 169 170 170 171 171 172 172 173 175 175 176 176 177 17S 180 180 181 844 845 348 350 352 ----- 189 189 190 191 191 192 or Archimedean - The Bottle Ejectment. The Picture in the Air. - • - - Painting the Slides. or Curious Tricks in Arithiuctic. The Chinese Mandarin.. To Empty a Glass under Water. To Show how Sound Travels through Solid. . Briliant Water Mirror. . Breathing Light and Darkness. without Falling. - - .. - The Bird - Construction of the Phantasmae^ope. Palpable Arithmetic. in the Cage. Boiling upon Cold Water. Fourth do. . and Inclined in any Position. being Placed on a Curved Surface. 196 196 196 197 198 81 The Secret of Ventriloquism. The Magic Whirlpool.e . . - of. . Tlie Magic Coin. Ocular Spectra. The Enchanted Palace. Expansion of "Water by Cold. The Artificial Landscape. - - - - - Music of the Snail.. - ----- - Second Method.. The Magic of Hydrostatics with the Ancients. Double Vibration. To Make a Carriage Run - in an Inverted Position. The Perspective Mirror.. - - - - - - 198 192 157 114 114 115 115 116 llf 858 861 To Weigh Water without More than Full.. The Cosmorama. The Magical Snake. Dis Giving Views. . The Ka'eidoscope.. Curious Optical Illusion. The Science Distorted Landscapes. . The Stereoscope. To Construct a Figure. do. - The miagic of Numbers. . Hot Water Lighter than Cold. Currents in Boiling Water.. . The Dancing Pea. The Balanced Stick. The Invisible Girl. - .

Goose and Corn. The Square of Gotham. The Difficull Case of Decimation of Fruit. 274 246 The Twenty-Four Nuns. 217 many Different Deals can be made with Thirteen Cards out of Fifty - . The Famous Forty-Five. . arranged as to make 505 in each Column. having an equal each Hand. The Certain Game. 208 The Expunged Figure.the Willow Pattern Plate. The Divided Garden. - Triangle. The Industrious Frog. - - - - - - - To Form Arithmetical Trick. ? - - - - 9 211 212 213 To to rise. A Popular Fallacy. .. 272 245 The Three Square Puzzle. The Three Graces. - The Perplexed Cabinet Maker. The Figures. Jesuitical Teacher. 268 ---4. Magic Squares - Curious Tricks in Creometry. 240 The Cardboard Puzzle. The Endless String.. The Council of Ten. Rubbing out every Time an Odd one. . up to 100. The Astonished Farmer. The Mathematical Fortune Teller The Dice Guessed Unseen... 249 250 217 How many How of Counters.. - The Chinese Cross.. Third Method.. To Discover a Square Number.. Graces and Muses. - . - - The Ten Ten's. 258 258 259 260 260 261 262 The Money Trick. 269 241 The Quarto Puzzle. - • . 244 The Yankee Square. 278 246 The Puzzle Wall.267 267 Chinese Maze. The Three Travelers.INDEX. 266 266 267 .270 248 The Scale and Eing Puzzle. The Basket and Stones. the Greater of which is - Unknown. -269 The Accommodating Square. The Parallelogram. - - - - - - - - - - - - - Txick in SubtractioQ. . Three Jealous Husbands. 243 The H«art Puzzle. The Knowing Shepherd. in Number - Changes can be Given to 217 Seven Notes of a Piano? - many he - The Arithmetical two. 273 • 246 The Four Tenants. The Old Woman and Her Eggs. • 27S - Alexander the Great's Puzzle. The Mysterious Addition. - - 256 256 257 Odd Magic Squares. 273 246 The Cylinder Puzzle. 269 240 The Button Puzzle. The Philosopher's Pupils. - A Person The The The The The The Magic Remainder. The Visitors to the Crystal 214 Palace. Trianjcular Problem. - - - . Wine - The Fox.The Fortunate Ninth. - The Carpenter Puzzled. . The Basket of Nuts. - - - Second Method. - - .. find the Difference 249 between Two Numbers. 271 . 250 251 251 252 252 252 258 253 253 255 255 The Wine and the Tables. to find how has altogether. • 274 * 247 The Horse Shoe Puzzle. The Impossible Triangle Odd or Even. The Unfair Division. 272 245 The Card Puzzle. .272 244 The Cross Puzzle. -274 • 247 The Card Square.269 The Circle Puzzle. False Scales. Multiplying Money by Money. 269 . - a Square. How to Make Five Squares large one Stuff. - - Apple Woman. The Sovereign and the Sage. The Sheep. 270 . To tell at what Hour a Person Intends - 24** 248 Who Second Method Wears the Eing ? is What Probable Variations. has been Thought of out of Sixteen. The Hatter Cheated. The Countrywoman and the Eggs.270 242 The Square and Circle Puzzle. The United Digits. Amusing Combinations. when Counted in Ten Columns Perpen dicularly. - Dividing the Beer. many Coanters have I in IZ PAGB Hofir my 207 Hands? The Mysterious Number Halvings. - The Five Geometrical Solids. Squaring the Circle. The Two Travelers. The Two Drovers. December and May. The Mathematical Blacksmith. Curious Properties of some Figures. To Kub out Twenty Chaiks at Five Times. The Inventor of Geometry.The Three Rabbits. Nine Quaint Questions. - . The Bricklayer Puzzled. The Magical Century. . . - - . 268 The Vertical Line Puzzle. and the Same when Counted in Ten Files Horizontally. to tell a a Person has Thought of. - - What Counter Geometrical Definitions. and the Sheep Fold. - - 277 Curious and Amusing Puzzles. or Pieces of Money. - into a without any Waste of - Deceptive Vision. 269 242 The Puzzle of Fourteen.

arto Puzzle. The Circle Puzzle. Various Modes of Communicating Se 327 cret Intelligence. The Q :. Pnrzle. Variation of the Square and Circle. PA6B The Dog TAQm Grammatical Puzzle. Arithmetical Puzzle. String and Balls Puzzle. - Puzzling Epitaph. The Yankee Square. Double Headed Puzzle. 301 801 801 cribed. 327 828 Ingenious Mode of Secret "Writing. Variations of the Oval. The Centre of Gravity. - 290 Magic of the Parallelogram. The Divided Garden. Ancient and Modern Feats of Strength. How to Construct a Triangle. Another Cross Puzzle. The Secret of Comic Drawing. The Three Square Puzzle. The Horse Shoe Puzzle. - - Trouble. Figure. Parallelograms in Combination. The Two Fathers. - - . The Triangle Works Wonders in Per- may How 803 303 303 304 305 to make - 3u6 307 307 308 809 - - spective. The Counter Puzzle. The Curved Line Pervades all Nature. - Another Method. - " Punch. er Cross Puzzle. Importance of the Triangle. The Twenty-Four Nuns. Puzzling Epitaph. - Puzzle. Comical Drawing of the Human Figure. Rosamond s Bower. The Button Puzzle. The Triangular Puzzle. The Four Tenants. The Heart Puzzle. Caricature Sketching. Chemistry an Agent in Secret "Writing. - 328 830 831 332 333 The ITIagic of Strength. Glass. The Knights Puzzle." Comical Beards. a Circle. - The Tree Puzzle. The Parallelogram. - Puzzle of the Two Fathers. Importance of the Circle in Drawing. The Puzzle of Fourteen. Anoi. The Puzzle Wall. - Two Combination. The Cabinet Maker's Puzzle. - Art. A Central Line through Everything. The ChiflFre IndechiflFrable. The Fountain Puzzle. The Chinese Puzzle. - - 801 801 303 sua The magic of To Trace an Oval. The Endless String. Exaggerated Drawing. Puzzling Kings.Wit. Curring out a Cross. - - - - The Musical Cypher. Cabinet Maker's Puzzle. for - Magic - Lantern - The Magic of Secret Writing. - - - One Man Drawing against Two Horses. The Puzzle of the Stars. The Dog Puzzle. The Vertical Line Puale. Another Method. - - - 335 385 336 . - - Cutting out a Cross. 334 Feats of Eckeberg particularly des- Double Headed Puzzle. The Cut Card Puzzle. The Droll Landscape." and "Mother Hubbard. - Japan Square Puzzle. The Triangular Puzzle. The Cross Puzzle. Japan Square Puzzle. String and Balls Puzzle. The Cylinder Puzzle. - Mechanical Inventions of the Ancients 334 few in Number. The Fountain Puzzle. - An Endless Source cf Amusement. A. Grammatical Puzzle. - - The Human Chinese Maze. Proportions of the Human Figure. The Circular Cvpher. - The Star Puzzle. Comic Profiles. The Three Rabbits The Accommodating Square. The Square and Circle Puzzle^ The Scale and Ring Puzzle. Simple Elements of "the Profile. A Lock for Mr. Breaking the Rope. The Counter Puzzle.rithmetlcal Puzzle. The Card Puzzle. - The Art of Secret "Writing very 326 Ancient.INDEX. Standard Height of the Body. - - - • Another Method. Hobbs to Pick. 275 275 276 276 276 276 277 277 277 277 277 278 273 273 279 279 279 279 279 283 234 287 287 The Tree A A Puzzling Inscription. - Answers to - Puzzles. - The Chinese Cross. The Card Square. - 293 294 2C4 294 294 295 295 295 295 295 296 296 296 296 297 297 297 297 293 298 293 299 299 299 300 . A Puzzling Inscription. Attitude Formed upon the Curved Line. - - 810 311 in The Parallelogram and Triangle The Labyrinth. Curious Letter. Cuiious Letter. - - be done with a Square. - The Magic "What of the Oval. - 312 312 813 318 314 315 316 316 316 817 318 318 319 820 820 321 323 - 824 825 How to Draw upon Slides.

Th« MafiJ. The Magic Book. - - - - - Twisting Iron Bars. 8i0 E<xnarkable Power of Lifting Heavy Persons when the Lungs are In841 flated. . The Magical Gyroscope.. . - 344 345 346 343 Easy and Curious Method of Foretell .. The Oannon Feat. .355 The Flight of the Pving. The Knee Feat.. 353 .857 358 . The Double Dozen. - - - - 850 850 852 Musical Figures resulting from Sound. 357 . Artificial - - - - - Landscape. More than Full.jil Watch Lamp. An Artificial Memory. - The Magical Measure.. 343 - - The Magician's Mirror.. -863 The Transposable Pieces. 851 The Enchanted Palace..861 Floating Needles. 362 Curious Method of Measuring the Height of a Tree.omas Topham.862 . The Bacchus Experiment. 357 of the Pack. 361 The Knotted Thread. . 339 Eeal Feats of Strength Performed by Tl.bove of the Day or Night told by a Suspended Shilling.. .554 The Pyramid of Alum.349 iug Eainy or Fine "Weather. PAQB rhe Anvil Feat. To Melt a Piece of Money - - 354 in a "W&lnut Shell without Injuring the Shell. 353 To Know if a Suspicious Piece of Money is Good or Bad.. Breaking Stones. The Housebreakers.. 842 Pyramids of Men. 355 The Invisible Springs.. . 356 miscellaneous Cnrions Tricks and Fancies. • To Make a Card Jump out The Tell-Tale Cards. The Tape Trick.. 83(j - XI PAOl - - - The Chair Feat. . The Hour The Dancing Automaton.. The Perspective Mirror.. Geneial Explanation on Feats. 353 To Know which of Two DiflPerent "Waters is the Lightest. without any Scales. The Boundless Prospect..359 360 360 861 . . .INDEX. - -----all 837 337 333 338 339 the A.


Sleight of hand. 1 to be. from the earliest timrs. INCLUDING SLEIGHT OF HAND. more or less. possessed. m . were the means by which the priests of Egypt. the pages of history abundantly prove. Greece. and various miraculous deceptions. and were. The ancient religions of the heathen were mixed up with an extensive system of legerdemain. tissues of trickery.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. WITH OBJECTS OR CARDS. That there has been "Jugglery" in all ages of the world. WITH AND WITHOUT APPARATUS. and Rome used to subjugate mankind. Happy ought we of every kind beams of truth. tricks of the tongue by which the word was kept to the ear. but broken to the hope. in living in an age when humbug is sure to meet exposure by the daylight The Eastern nations.

thieves. " There I sawe playenge jogelours. he seems to have become more entirely a performer of tricks and feats. says. phetonysses. trageteours. and witches. who no doubt had frequently an opportunity of seeing the tricks exhibited by the tregetours of his time. a table of eycamour. bearing white and red grapes. the performers were ranked by the moral writers of that time. and vagabonds. . Under a walnot shale. " Sometimes they will bring on the similitude of a grim lion. heretics. The learned monarch. or make flowers spring up as in a meadow sometimes they cause a vine to flourish. and produced such illusions as were usually supposed to be the effect of enchantment. and sorceresses . and at the close of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. and by the assistance of machinery of various kinds. could only be performed by the agency The of the " old gentleman. to a pick-pocket» or a common cheat. and performing various tricks and feats by which the judgement was bewildered and the reason bamboozled and even now the performers of the East infinitely exceed those of the West. profession had already fallen very low. magicians. but also with Jews. or joculator. In the fourteenth century. old witches. . besides these religious jugglers. charmeresses. In the Norman times the juggler was termed jongleur. . deceived the eyes of the spectators. and united in one the minstrel. The tregetours were adepts at every kind of sleight of hand. others who made a liyeli hood by going from place to place. he says . blasphemers. they cause the whole to disappear :" and in another part of his work. or show a castle built with stone. pagans. book Upon iii. by way of derision. and when they please. the juggler was called a mocuspocus. was perfectly convinced that these and other inferior feats exhibited by the tregetours of his day. astrologer. and merry-andrew. a term applicab^. Turks. Play an uncouthe thynge to tell I sawe hym eary a wyndemell." House of Fame." and the old poet goes on to say to them. magyciens. not only with ruffians.^ Chaucer. and bore the name of Tregetour. for which reason they were frequ(jntly ranked with sorcerers. 2 S OWN BOOK.— THE MAGICIAN . and sorcerers and in more modern times." whom it is not polite to name. or hocus-pocus. James I. : " There saw I Coll Tregetour.

and other gimcracks which are generally seen on a conjuror's table and I have never been so pleased with any performer as with one who did not even require a table. in the following pages. and who is the father of it. than upon those for which special apparatus. SLEIGHT OF HAND. straightforwardness. but only show two. or the assistance It is is required. . bottles. and have three dimes in your hand. keeping tlio otlior one firmly fixed against the first joint of the . With this sage advice. name. : L THE FLYING DIME. Borrow two colored silk handkerchiefs from the company. candor. I despise all the numerous boxes. when every one knows he is deceived. . to lay more stress upon those tricks which require no apparatus. intention. ! ! . per haps. For my own part. and we would caution our young master not to obtain by these amusements a love of deception. and truth . But we would advise him strongly to cultivate in his own mind the virtues of sincerity. and have caused me some reputation in the magic art. so utterly contemptible in every-day life. The spectators should never be able to say. Some are my own invention my of a confederate. openness. to shun subterfuge and deception as he would a venomous reptile and to hate a lie as he would hate that same old gentleman whom we were too polite to . variegated covers. No one is nearly so well pleased by a trick whose essence evidently lies in the machinery. " Ah the trick lies in the box he dares not show it to us The following tricks have almost all been successfully performed by myself. 3 The following pages are not intended to make the young reader either a cheat or a trickster there is nothing. and which is in no way culpable. which is only allowable in such feats of amusement. as he stood before them. or walked among them. but pressed into his service articles borrowed from his audience. we shall present a collection of amusing conjuring tricks. while every one feels pleasure at seeing a sleight of hand trick neatly executed. it is This trick must be frequently practiced before pro- duced in public. as trickery and deception." THE YOUNG CONJIROK.

dropping the marked dime into the palm of your hand. you pass a few stitches under the dime. Then tell him to knock three times on the saucer. take up the saucer. while you twist up the handkerchief. and cover it w^ith a basin or saucer. or demand to mark the dime. with both hands concealed under the handkerciiief. and ask one of the company to lay the second handkerchief over it. and every one is persuaded that you have conjured one of the dimes out of a person's hand. and sent it into the hat.4 THE magician's OWN BOOK. when the dime appears to have vanished. of the handkerchiefs. Becond and third fingers. and tliread stuck inside the You must cufif also have a fine needle of your coat. Hand him the tumbler. While doing so. but pretend that only one is in the handkerchief then put the handkerchief into a hat. You then tell the astonished individual to draw the other handkerchief out of the hat by the corner that is hanging out. Twist it up as before. In this case. leaving one corner hanging out. Direct him to place it on a table. and while he is examining the dime to see if it is the same one that he marked. and shake out the handkerchief that is lying under it. taking hold of another corner. ANOTHER METHOD. At the word "three. and put in both dimes. and then leave it entirely in his hands. This being done. and. Then take one . The two dimes are heard to fall into the hat." he lets go the dime. beneath the place where the saucer is. Now hold up the third. You then ask him to hold the dime tight between his finger and thumb. and give him the dime to hold that is already enclosed in it. and you whisk the handkerchief into the air. draw out the thread thai . vary it as follows. tell him to drop the dime when you have counted three. dime (which the spectators imagine is the second). Take the same handkerchief. 2. as in the last trick. and while you pretend to b<' searching for the marks. but is really held in the handkerchief. and at the third knock let the marked dime fall into the tumbler. Ask some one (always choose the most incredulous of the party) to mark a dime of his own. as in the last trick. Ask him to give you a cup or tumbler. and give it you. You must then return the handkerchief. and replace the needle. spread one corner of the handkerchief over the hand of the person who is still holding the dime. and hold it under the table. Perhaps the spectators may ask to see it again.

which they will do. then bring the ends of the string 1 and 2 together. Ask some lady have by you to to lend you the beads off her bracelet. 3. under cover of the left hand. and twist them about your fingers. slip the center bead to one side. by twisting them together with apparent carelessness. The beads will then easily come off into your right hand. Remember to rub out the marks in the strings caused by the loops. You need not fear that the beads will come off. 4. particularly if you keep the point of junction hidden either by a finger. Then grasp the beads with both hands. thread them all. You must remember to keep talking the whole time. taking care You to pass the center bead over the point of juncture. but in reality placing them as in the figure. Then get some one cut two pieces of thin string of equal length. . moment remove your hands. or by throwing the shade of your hand upon it. showing the empty strings. directing them to hold them tight. or otherwise to distract the attention of the audience. even if they pull hard. doing the same with 3 and 4. You have a real ring Bend . You then. THE EEADS AND STEINGS. taking care to rub between your finger and thumb the spot where the threads had been. in order to eradicate the marks. Then hand round the beads and strings as before. and tie them so. TO GET A EIXG OUT OF A HANDKERCHIEP. which you may hand round for examination. Now give the tied ends to two persons. Tell the holders to pull hard. and always try to make a joke. before you remove your hands. the manner in which they are arranged will not be seen. and the sairx. directing the holders to slacken the strings. having previously sharpened both ends. and then. a piece of gold wire into the form of a ring.» held the dime.TPP YOUNG CONJUROR. When the beads are returned. appearing to lay them side by side. This variation seldom fails to confuse the company. and drop the coin into the palm of your hand. or five or six beads. while you are executing the necessary changes. which is placed above the beads. and all the beads in your right hand. and draw out the two loops which have been hidden in it.

While he is doing this. drawn in the be pulled out quite straight. a rod of some hard wood. which has lain concealed there. as you have stuck the false ring Take away the upper handkerchief. step forward. take up your conjuring wand. slip your left thumb under the handkerchief. and hung upon the rod. let a third person come to examine. made of 5. and spected. and give a piece of string to a second spectator. and when the knot is tied. which you exhibit empty. Just as he pulls. Let the handkerchief fall over it. offer the real one to be inWhen it is returned. taking care to slip over it the real ring. and take away your hands. Throw the handkerchief over the ring. about two inches below the ring. and handkerchief. and inside your cuff.one at its point of junction. the same piece of wire. as cut. and draw it through the handkerchiefs by one of its points. While they are so doing. TO TIE A KNOT IN A HANDKERCHIEF WHICH CANNOT BE DRAWN TIGHT. Slip your left hand to the center of the rod. to lay them on your left hand. slip the real ring into yonr left hand. and tell him to pull hard and sharp when you count three. which you Then tell them to immediately cover with your right. while taking it from the lender. and direct each of the two persons to hold one end Then tell the one who has the ring of it in his right hand.6 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. and tell him to do so as tightly as he can. spread another handkerchief over your hands. Cast an ordinary knot on a handkerchief. unbend the false ring. about eighteen inches long. and give it to some one to hold between his finger and thumb. passing the rod into your left hand. over the ring which is on the rod. so as to enclose it in a bag. and to say after you any nonsense that you like to invent. carefully rubbing between the thumb and finger the place Hang the empty handkerchief where it came through. borrow a handkerchief. and give the end out of your right hand to some spectator. directing him to tie it round the handkerchief. and take the false. without any knot and it will . and concealing' the false ring in the palm of your hand. when he will find the ring gone out of the handkerchief.

taking care to slip the fourth ball under cup No. 1. 3. He replaces cup No. and grasp the handkerchief between the thumb and fore finger. They should have two or three ridges running round them at the mouth. THE THEEE CUPS. He does the same with the three cups. 3. 3 over both balls. but hides it as before. to his pretended astonishment. 3. He then takes up cup No. V You must let go the end that hangs over the left at all. and goes through the same process. 1. if he chooses. or. but requires very careful management. all three balls are found together under It. 6. and. Four balls should now be made of cork. He then lifts up cup No. together with the cups. in order to give a better hold. and at the same time slips the fourth ball under it. but in reality he slips it into the place which the fourth ball had occupied. 1. He then takes up cup No. with its mouth uDwards- . and pretends to throw it away. and carefully blackThis is ened. and pretends to throw the ball into No. hand. 3. and then commences a sham search after the lost ball. As there are already two balls in No. while the • • • other three are handed round for examination. shown in the cut. asking one of the spectators to do so for him. He then knocks over both the other cups. ball No 2 can be quickly got rid of. A rather startling termination to this trick can be managed by taking uq ">ne of the cups. and on knocking ovei cup No. and should be practiced repeatedly before it You get three tin cups.THE YWJNG CONJUROR. replaces it on the table a few inches from its first position. and finds in them the two missing balls. He again places the balls under the cups. and while the spectators are being astonished. When they are returned. 2. the spectators imagine that he really has thrown the ball into it. he slips the fourth ball to the tips of the second and third fingers. One of the balls is held concealed between the roots of the third and fourth fingers. of the shape is exhibited publicly. finds a ball under it. in which he accidentally (1) knocks over one of the cups. an admirable delusion. He takes up ball No. While this is being done. the young conjuror begins by placing each ball under a cup. 1. and slips among them ball No.

7. hold hand with the palm uppermost. appearing to cross them. THE OLD MAN AND HIS CHAIR. as that holds the best. and the whole affair will 9. letting go the first and catching the second. but in reality hitching them within each other. and by giving it a sharp pull.8 THE iMAGICIA^'S OWN BOOK. after showing the spectators how firmly it is tied. Then by throwing another cup into it. as represented in the engraving. you appear to have thrown the second cup through the first. Take a piece of and tie the two ends together with a weaver^s knot. Draw this loop tight. and bring back the ends to the same side on which they were originally. In fact. let the long loop hang loose. which shows the manner in which this is managed. or it will be seen. as it should be almost concealed under the fold of the handkerchief. come off. Then. lay the center of the handkerchief on your knee. by passing them between the second and Then pull the part of the string third fingers. AND GET IT GPP WITHOUT UNTYING THE KNOT. holding the finger and thumb close to its month. and pass the two ends below. put your hand under the knot. 8. Having done so. as represented in the engraving. it ought not to be a loop at all. Take vour the left same piece of string as in the last trick. Hold the handkerchief by both ends. it will stand a good pull. The engraving represents the manner in which the loop ia made. but it must be made considerably smaller than it is shown. TO TIE A HANDKERCHIEF ROUND YOUR LEG. it will come off. string. and hang the string . and then put them behind the hand. Do not show this in public until you can tie it with rapidity and precision. that lies across the roots of the fingers. If the loop is properly made. and tie them above. and arrange it over the fingers. THE MAGIC BOND. lift both loops off the thumb. draw them forward until the string is quite tight.

Spread all the fingers. The thumb must be raised perpendicularly. Then begin your story " There was once upon a time. Rieht fore hn. and with the right hand bring forward the loops that hang behind. and your preliminaries are completed. it began to become dark. " The old man being tired hung (See Fig. which you see here.3 as much as possible into the center of the hand. over the palit. " When the old man was rested.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. raise them perpendicularly. and pull it forwards. an old man." You then hitch the right foro finger and middle finger under the two loopfj that will be found hanging behind the left hand. Tuck both loops under the crossstrings at the back. in came a policeman. the reversal of the movement that brought it forwards. who stole a pound of candles.) up his candles.'' You thr a hold youi left hand as at the commencement. and : it downward until it is long enough to be passed over the second and third fingers to Pass it over." While you are saying this.'cr Move the blades and handles of the scissors. Loose the loop. or the chair will be all aside. and he took a pair of scissors to cut down a candle for himself. by passing it over the second and third fingers. 1. Ri^lu middlf " Just as as if cutting something with them. 4. bring them to the front. take hold of the part of the string that crosses the hand. insert the fore-finger and little finger of the right hand under the string that encircles the left fore-finger and little finger. 3. Fig. he had lighted it. and you get Fig. pass it to the back of the hand. you slip the loop ofi*the thumb. Loose the loop. finger. and draw it slowly the front. when the similitude of a pound of candles hanging by tlieir strings will be seen. When tight. 2. and pass the two loops to the back of the hand. as shown in the cut. hook the right for^^ finger under the cross-piece at the back." you then hang the long loop over your thumb. Here they are. " and sat down in his highbacked chair. and the chair will be seen as in Fig. Here are the scissors. and brought draw Gy. upwards. and produced his I* .

2. as in Fig. Take a piece of thick pliant string by each end. Right fore finger. of left haind. 1. Fore finger of hand. 5. little THE MAGICIAN S OWN BOOK with the Queen's crown at the top. ^ string towards the right hand. The moment that the forward jerk is given t'ue right hand should be drawn back. producing Fig. Left band. and with a quick jerk of the right hand cast a loop on it as in Fig. 2. Right middle finger. and they tied a cord round the old 1. man's arms in a tight knot. and carried him off to prison. 6 middle — "and TO TIE A OOr ON THE LEFT WRIST. sc? that the loop is drawn tight directly it has . The jerk must be given upwards and towards the left hand. la r and its impetus will cause the loop to run up the string until it falls over the left wrist. "The old man in vain tried to resist. 1. WITHOUT LETTIM THE KIGHT HAND APPROACH IT. 4. __ 2. Little finger left * Fore finger of right hand. for the policeman called a comrade to his assistance. like this " — slip the right finger out of its loop. Middle finger of right hand. you will obtain Fig." 10.10 staff." finger of the left Now let go the hand and the loop will run up the 3.

as represented in the The object is. slip it over a's hand. THE HA!a)CUITS. 12. so that the strings cross. It is an improvement of the trick. hitch one thumb at each end. is soon acquired. the string may be replaced. Let two persons. settled on the wrist. This is U. knot is firm. and the string will look very complicated.THE YOUxXG CONJUROR. and separate the hands smartly. a and b. To get out the string. : It is executed in the following manner Let B gather up the string that joins his hands. you change the string from the right little fing^^ on to the thumb. have their hands tied together with string. although rather difficult to learn. and. immediately on loosing the hold of the right thumb. as in the engraving. hook the little fingers into the upper strings of the opoosite hand. loose the hold of the right thumb and left little finger. and both will be free. Then Take a piece draw the hands well outward. TO JPULL A STRING THROUGH TOUR BUTTON-HOLE. . of string about two feet in length. li Both ends should be let fall when the a very nice little sleight of hand trick to practice in the intervals between more showy ones. to free themselves from each engraving other without untying the knot. and tie the ends together. pass the loop under the string that binds either of a's wrists. By a reversal of the same process. Pass it thiou^^li a button-hole of your coat . when the string will appear to have been pulled out through the substance of your coat. if.

as is represented in the engraving. Take a silk handkerchief. Do the same with the new corners. 2 No ends will be then perceptible. the sp*ictators will not notice the absence of so small a portion of its length. as seen in the engraving. 1. 13. and with the right finger and thumb take hold of the outer layer of silk. and lay it on a table. When you take the string out of your mouth. and lay them across each other in the mid die of the handkerchief. The manner of holdi"^ it. taking care to grasp all the four corners that lie there. Put all four ends into 1. and repeat the operation until it is all screwed up into a tight ball. twist it once round. Fig. and put both ends into the left hand. THE GORDIAN KNOT. and pull it towards you Then turn it a little as far as it will come. which will then be 14. The twisted string. pass one hand through each end.12 THE magician's OWN BOOK. *' Bon who 5- square. Tie together the ends of a piece of string. and tell some one to cut the string between them. and remove with your tongue the little loop that has been cut off. and go on until the handkerchief is reduced to the size of your hand. as in the cut. Fig. Take each of the corners. THE CUT STRING KESTOEED. You show that the string has been divided into two pieces. and say that you will join them with your teeth.and a perunacquainted with the mode will never be ablp . on your left hand. your mouth. Then with your left finger and thumb take hold of the center. Draw the right hand rapidly along the double strings until you come to the place where the strings have crossed each other. 2. hold the strings in a similar manner with the left hand. Conceal the junction with the thumb and finger of the right hand. and will fancy that you really ha^^e joined them.

while you exhibit the second as the one that you put into your mouth. This second one you carry to your ear.sert it there. and the knot will apparently remain : firm. 16. you draw out a with the finger and thumb of the left hand. and the handkerchief will look as in the cut. Keep a always in the right hand. Of course you must prepare it previously. and on the stretch horizont?ally. and lake out one of them between 3'our right finger and thumb. or pull the ends as tight as he pleases.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. and the other -end loose. Take three nuts in the left hand. him if the knot is still there. Do this when you tie it the second time. two. You then throw the center of the handkerchief over the knot. When 15. TO PUT NUTS INTO YOUE EAR. three. and tie the ends firmly together in a double knot. allowing him to feel it. you reverse the method by which it was tied. to drop the handkerchief at the word "three. to untie 13 it. chief over the knot. and there is no vestige left of the knot. and draw b tight. keeping We will call the tight one end tight. and on replacing it in your left . which will then form a double tie roimd When you throw the handkerA. silk. as if you meant to ii. but will not hold it firm. hold of any part of the handkerchief. unknown to the spectators." at which word he looses his hold of the handkerchief. to You then take which he will answer in the affirmative. Take The method of managing this trick is as follows the handkerchief and tie the ends in a simple knot. This latter is not seen by the company. although in reality it is nothing but a double twiMt of which of course falls loose when the handkerchief is dropped. and holding it behind your back. show them." " one. This is a very amusing deception. and another between the first and third finger. and the loose one b. and when it is loose a good shake will release it. and direct the holder You count. THE KNOT LOOSENED. You then put one of them in your mouth and retain it there. You ask any one for a handkerchief. end A. you take the ball in your hand. the person to whom you give it has failed to untie it. ask the person to hold it tight between You ask his finger and thumb.

and the feathers will lie quite smoothly and unsuspected. Place one of them on the joint of your arm. the. Close your left arm. Take off your coat. stem being toward your hand Now put on your coat again. then letting any person hold the knots. and the spectators hearing the crash will be sure to fancy that it is caused by the demolition of the walnut in your arm. and make it appear much Wave too large to have been concealed about the person. You can carry enough plumes under the sleeve to cover a table with. which will smash the second walnut in it. and. 18. THE KNOTTED HANDKERCHIEF. 19. right draw out one of the plumes from up the coat-sleeve. the handkerchief again. This feat consists in tying a number of hard knots in a pocket-handkerchief borrowed from one of the company. you substitute for it the broken one from your right hand. all the knots become . Conceal a very strong walnut in your right hand. the third of which appears to have gone into 3'our ear. and with the it is empty. when pretending to take out the walnut which jou had placed there. hand. You will now have one walnut in your arm and two in your right hand. 17. TO CRACK WALNUTS IN YOUR ELBOW. and if you prepare a board or an ornamental vase full of holes. and say that you are going to break it by the power of 3'our muscles. and by the operator merely shaking the handkerchief.14 THE magician's 0W\ ROOK. such as are worn by officers. Procure at the military clothier's four or five large plumes. and take two other walnuts out of the dish. you must say). and strike it an apparently violent blow with the right hand. only two nnts will be left instead of three. at the same time clenching the right hand violently. Then open your arm very gently (for fear of dropping any of the fragments. at the same time giving it a flourish in the air. and lay the plumes along your arms. you can place the plumes upright as you take them out. which will loosen all the fibers of the feather. Borrow a handkerchief from one of the spectators. and wave it about to show that Throw it over your left hand. and repeat the operation until all the plumes are gone. TO TAKE FEATHERS OUT OF AN EMPTY HANDKERCHIEF.

while your left hand holds the handkerchief just behind the knot. and with the fingers and palm of the same hand. you to pull the knots tighter press the thumb of the right hand against the knot. always taking care to let the person to whom you gave one end pull first so that. Again throw the right-hand end over the left. and with the left hand turn the loose part of the center of the handkerchief over them. by giving the handkerchief a smart shake. three then tell him to let go. desiring some person to hold them. he is only pulling against your left hand. and which you may easily do. To prevent this from being noticed. in fact. Press the thumb of your left hand against the knot to prevent its slipping. . and give the lefthand end to some person to pull. throw the right hand over the left. You now tie another knot exactly in the same way as the first. taking care always to throw the right-hand end over As you go on tying the knots. you are merely' tying the rightas at first hand end round the left. is 15 its original restored to To perform this excellent trick. When you have tied as many knots as the handkerchief will admit of. hand them round for the company to feel that : . and desire him to repeat after you. and the krots being still held together by the loose part of the handkerchief. just below the knots. keeping it at each knot as nearly the length of the right-hand end as possible. and pretend while. you at the same time pulling the right-hand end with your right hand. get as soft a handkerchief as possible. as if you were going to tie a knot in the usual way. the whole of the knots wiL becoriK' unloosed. they are firm knots then hold the handkerchief in your right hand. one. so as to make the left-hand end shorter. and the handkerchief Btate. two. you should stoop down a little after each knot. draw the handkerchief. unloosened. . . and taking the opposite ends. while the left-hand one remains nearly as long because. M'hen. which you have in the right hand. in fact. at the same time.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. Before they take the handkerchief in hand. one in each hand. you draw out the right-hand end of the handkerchief. and draw it through. you will find the the left. right-hand end of the handkerchief decreasing considerably i in length. the person who holds the handkerchief will declare he feels them you then take hold of one of the ends of the handkerchief which hangs down. : .

16 THE magician's OWN BOOK. HOUDIN'S NUT TEICK. by desiring those who pull the knots along with you. Having finished tying the knots. turn this mistake to the best advantage. producing an effect that would have astonished the magi of old. by asking any one of the company to see how long it will take him to untie one knot. 20. exactly a small selvage to the pattern of a nightcap. your other knots will remain right as they were before. . The nut trick is exhibited thus The professor hands the audience a dessert plate and a cambric handkerchief for examination these being returned. which will cause a laugh against him. that if the handkerchief is to be torn. . and bend them quite flat. you counting the seconds. You must. : . and comfits pour into the dessert plate the instant the kerchief is lifted up. . If you cannot sing. wrong end . by accident. or dance a hornif neither of these be " your forte. : ." a good trick or pipe two will give equal pleasure to the " bright blue eyes" peering at you. The way in which it is done is this Make a calico bag large enough to hold the nuts and sweetmeats you intend to distribute. or the letter A procure two pieces is turned up at the bottom of the bag of vvatch spring. give the to be pulled. You may excite some laughter during the performance ol this trick. therefore. When he has untied the knot. each spiing to . Should you. sugared almonds. a clever trick with dexterity before a " small party" is at once to become the hero of the evening. saying. and desire him to assist you in pulling a knot. whilst tying the knots. you must solve conundrums. he ought to allow you fourteen minutes to untie the seven but as you do not wish to take any advantage. as tl\e handkerchief is not yours you may likewise go to the owner of the handkerchief. To perform . and not to be afraid. you will be satisfied with fourteen seconds. he places the plate upon a table near to him the handkerchief is then spread out quite flat over the plate. let the same person hold them. nuts. to pull as hard as they please. At command. it is only right that he should have a share of it you may likewise say that he does not pull very hard. . and you will know when this has happened the instant you try to draw the left-hand end of the handkerchief shorter. as he took two minutes to untie one knot. a hard knot will be the consequence. and tell him that.

politely inquiring. is passed through the top of the bag and bent round hookshape. &c. If the bag be now filled with nuts. and sewn up jBrm.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. "Will you take a few nuts or sweetmeats ?" . These tricks are so good that they are always shown by the professors of magic at evening parties. and let the ring hang from it. . it may be suspended by the hook. the springs keep it shut. such. without any danger of the nuts or anything else falling out. because. corners. . 21. and crumpled up in the hands. we will attempt it. the prepared bag is hung on the side of the table that is away from the audience. This causes sufficient diversion for the merest tyro of a conjuror to drop the bag behind the table unseen. suspended by the end of the silk. so as to make it appear " all fair. The plate is and when the handkerchief is laid also placed on that side over the plate a portion is left to fall over the side of the table. folded. the suspended ring must always hang on the side facing the magician the handkerchief can then be shakcm. When this trick is to be shown. although the mouth of the bag is downwards. . as passing it through the table. Procure a soft now a neeclean silk handkerchief and a sham gold ring sew the silk to the middle of the dleful of black silk. through a basin. double handkerchief. COKJURING A RING. The left hand is now used to draw over the handkerchief and to press the bag this causes the springs to open. These are put into the selvage. to pass a ring through a drinkingglass and plate. 17 be exactly half the diameter of the bag". say at about three or four inches from When the handkerchief is held up by two the kerchief. an ale-glass or a plate.. and out fall the "good things" upon the plate. and with it the bag of nuts the folds of the cambric hide the bag. it A long pin will close itself in consequence of the springs. while he advances to the audience. When the bag is opened. and other feats of legerdemain of a similar kind. but are never explained however. and through the table on which it is placed. then into a box or nest of boxes. . " If any lady or gentleman will kindly lend me a ring. ." Now. Now the kerchief is picked up with the right hand in the center (just as a lady does when she wishes to exhibit the lace edge). I shall be happy to exhibit the electric and magnetic action . . Several very marvelous tricks can be shown with an ordinary finger ring.

I particularly draw your attention to the fact that you will hear the ring fall into the glass when I request it to be released. I I . for you put it there out of your left hand when you placed the box under the table. miss (or sir) be good enough to let Silence Ting You heard the ring fall into the glass." says Aunt Caroline. all that you have to do. but you could. Now. " I will place it in the handkerchief. and request the ladj^ (or gent) to place the ring and the handkerchief over the glass. The audience are now left to themselves. by showing their imperviousness. and repeal it will hop into the next glass this and it will hop back again. . but determine to do the trick well. however. smooth It is now in the box. of metallic substances on diaphonous bodies and ceramic manufactures. To perform this trick. . Take the borrowed ring in the left hand. and back again to its original position. without touching the egg or glasses. THE ERRATIC EGG. " what an extraordinary youth " Do not. except the deaf Presto it fall ? " You lift tjie handkerchief." all must reply. that the glass and the plate are now quite empty. and deserve praise. down your brow with it. You will then be but at my command it shall certain that it is in the glass pass into this box (show the box round). behold it is as sound as ever how it got there Aunt Carry could never tell. I shall now place the glass in the plate on to the center of the table. and put it into your pocket. you will secure the most bashful lady or gentleman in the company to hold the (your) ring in the handkerchief '* You will perceive. " Yes. 1 : 22." IS THE magician's OWN BOOK. Who will kindly hold it for me while I put the glass on the plate in the cenWhile you thus freely ask who will ter of the table ? " hold the kerchief. They rush to the plate and glass. or allowing any person or any thing to touch them. . and the po" Hem rosity of ligneous products of the Honduras. and say. it is not there now the box. ! ! I . ladies and gentlemen. and keep it there pretend to pass it to the right hand. which I shall place under the table. Transfer the egg from one wine-glass to the other. is to blow smartly on one side of the egg. allow yourself to be carried away by any flattery of this kind.

as Remove the dime within the diagram. : " Little dime. and it will answer immediately. will not fail to reply. Lay a dime between two half-dollars. A CAPITAL TRICK AT THE DINNER TABLE. THE YOUNG CONJUROR. ADVANTAGEOUS WAGER. THE PRISONER RELEASED.'' Show her the watch. 23. " My watch. capital trick you must blow with considerable force down one side of the gla«s upon the edge of the quarter. The amusement will be heightened by reciting the following words prior to moving the finger . Request a lady to lend you a watch. A little practice will render the performance of this feat very easy. 25. as in the diagram.. After having placed the glass and coins as indicated. To do this or touching or upsetting the glass. The dime will be expelled by the force of the air." Next . and place upon the larger coins a glass. The puzzle is to remove the small coin from beneath the larger one. of course. without touching either of the coins. that she will not answer to three questions which you will put to her consecutively. do not stay In a place so out-of-the-way But when my finger moved to shall bei. out displacing either of the half-dollars or the glass. considerably below the real value of the watch. 19 THE OBEDIENT DOTE. and give a guess as to its value then offer to lay the owner a wager." 24. Place a dime in the bottom of a glass. Like a good fellow come • me. The table cloth is necessary for this reason the trick is best suited to the breakfast or dinner table. Examine it. and over the latter put a quarter. " My watch. "What is this which I hold in my hand?" . and say. she. and will fall either upon the upper surface of the quarter or upon the table. simply scratch the tablecloth with the nail of the fore finger in the direction you would have the dime to move.

and putting his finger to his lips may signify the lowest but the precise actions are immaterial. " I will engage to drink the liquor under that You then get under hat. but it requires a confedPlace three silver spoons crosswise on a table. 28. eager to see if you drank the iiquor. touching a button of his jacket for the top spoon. Place a glass of any liquor upon the table. You are all witnesses that / I have fulfilled my promise. and you. win . and even if he touches it so gently as not to disarrange the order in which and they are once put in the slightest degree. repeating the same If she name the object you present. to give you notice which is the identical spoon the actions may be. and stretch your hands as . walk up to the table and inspect the spoons. and yet I'll not touch the hat. " You are certain to win the stake. . gentlemen. confident of success.20 THE magician's OWN riOOK. you say. present to her notice some other object. You retire when he gives you notice to enter. did not touch the hat. when you instantly take the glass. Then getting from under the table." Some one. as if trying to ascertain whether there are any finger-marks upon them. and assure him you will although find out the one he touches by a single inspection you will leave the room while he does so. and tien decide. Your confederate. . should observe to her. THE JUGGLER'S JOKE. so that the spoon they indicate be understood. . she loses question. request any person to touch one. she replies for the third time. of course. saying. THE DOUBLE MEANING. and drink the contents. but supposing 1 lose. makes some sign. but if she be on her guard. . This is . previously agreed upon. erate's aid. of course. 26. and say. " Now. will raise up the hat." 27. be pleased to look. THE THREE SPOONS. and after giving three knocks. to divert her attention. she says. you make a noise with your mouth as if you were swallowing the liquor. therefore. " My watch." the table. " Gentlemen." she must. and remembering the wager her stake. put a hat over it. what will you give me 1 " and if. a most capital trick." then take it and leave her the wager agreed on. touching his chin for the second. " My watch. Take a little ball in each hand.

and take it up with your other hand. left. far apart as 21 the into you possibly can. one from the company that you will make both the other balls . a small narrow-necked bulb with port wine. Fill : 30. and strike it evenly and repeatedly. By removing the right hand piece to the side of the you thus take away the center without touching it. THE TOPER'S STRATAGEM. TO CAUSE WINE AND WATER TO CHANGE PLACES. THE niPOSSIBLE OMELET. against a wall. 29. together with a frying-pan. Produce some butter. turn yourself round. and put the bulb into a tall. eggs. without the latter approaching the other. IS IT POSSIBLE ? Side by side place three pieces of anything. agreeably to your promise. but not too hard. must remove the cork from the bottle without touching the cork with anything. By close inspection. without bringing the hands contact with each other. 31. The whole of the colored fluid will shortly have ascended. narrow glass jar. and after some time the cork will be driven out of the bottle. post. and without injuring the bottle. Both the balls will thus be in one of your hands. and other ingredients for making an omelet. (money is most convenient. 32. then tell come into whichever hand they please. all you have to do is to lay one of the balls down upon a table.) then take away the middle piece without touching it. and the bulb will be entirely filled with clear water. If any of the lookers-on challenge your ability of achieving this feat. while colorless water will be seen accumulating at the bottom of the bulb. and the colored and the colorless liquids be seen to pass each other in the narrow neck of the bulb without mixing. Get a bottle full of water. with the cork driven tightly You in. or with water and colored spirit of wine. and accumulate on the surface of the water in the jar. in a room where . the colored fluid will issue from the bulb. or tree.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. which is then to be filled up with cold water immediately. and the top of it level with the neck of the bottle. the descending current of the water may also be observed. Wrap a towel round the bottom of the bottle.

22 there THE magician's own B0|>K. that the cleverest cook will not be able to make an omelet with them. &c. into several parts. harlequins. perfectly clean. and offer to bet a wager. a variety of paper figures. — . in consequence of the support being removed from the center of gravity. a rotary motion commences. and so passing on till you To divide an apple . is a fire. according to the movements of the crystal to heighten the pleasing efi'ect of which. and give the plane a slight inclination. without breaking Pass a needle and thread under the rind of the the rind. thus explains the phenomenon "The crystal has six sides. The impetus once given. Professor Leslie. when. as grease or a particle of dust would impede its motion. or any smooth surface. and without any apparent impetus. which may be kept up for an indefinite period of time. no motion will take place. The firist trial of the experiment had better be made by giving a slight rotatory motion to the crystal. the centrifugal force increases the rotary motion to such a degree. because the center of gravity of each face is balanced and supported in this position of the plane surface but if a slight inclination is given to the plane. and being cut accurately from the faces to a perfect convex surface. if placed upon a wetted smooth surface. The curiosity of this philosophical toy having excited general interest in the scientific world. 33. 34. which is easily done by putting the needle in again at the same hole it came out of.. and held parallel. an extraordinary rotary motion. waltzers. apple. upon an inclined plane. a rotatory motion will commence. NEW PERPETUAL ROTARY MOTION. accidental occurrence. it has recently been dis covered that a piece of rock-crystal. produces. cut in & peculiar form. or quartz. Wet the surface. a china or glazed plate. " To produce the effed. as for an observer to be unable to distinguish the form of the crystal. in his lecture. may be attached. Place the crystal on a piece of plate or common window glass." : By an . if properly managed. The wager is won by having previously caused the eggs to be \>oiled very hard. which may be kept up for any length of time by giving alternate inclinations to the plane surface. THE MIRACULOUS APPLE.

twice as many . This being done. placed it too high for the spectators to observe the contents. second and third. Present the apple to any one to peel. 3'ou may divide it into as many parts as you please. THE INFALLIBLE PROPHET. Then taking twenty-four counters or cards. OVER THE ELAME OE A CANDLE . by being sucked through a small aperture but to prevent the company from suspecting this. can be easily recollected) and he must also mentally distinguish the persons as first. the per. term the ring a. that you are about to cook an omelet then you break four eggs in a hat. he gives one to the first person. he turns his back or leaves the loom. In the same manner. We will suppose the articles to be a ring. induces a belief that the others are also full. In this trick one of three articles being taken by each of three persons.f the thread in your hands and draw it out. and according to their number and the underneath line. 86. and reckons the remaining counters. THE YOUNG CONJUROR 23 have gone round the apple. dime or shilling. when breaking the eggs. . completely cooked. but could not be seen. and shortly after produce an omelet. and quite hot. that the omelet had been previously cooked and placed in the hat. place the hat for a short time ovei the flame of a candle.. The performer must in his own mind. and yet the rind will remain entire. and that whoever takes the ring is to take also as many counters as he already has he who takes the shilling. the shilling or dime e. Some persons will be credulous enough to believe that by the help of certain ingredients you have been enabled to cook the omelet without fire but the secret of the trick is. and he who takes the key. Then take both ends r. and key i : (this being the alphabetical order of the vowels. telling the persons each to take an article. . four times as many. you propose to tell the article each person has taken. Sta-te . and it will immediately fall to pieces. by which means the apple will be divided into two parts. as if by accident. which breaking. because the operator. former advances. two to the second and three to the third and placing the remainder of the counters on the table. let a full egg fall on the table. AN OICELET COOKED IN A HAT. which . and a key. The eggs were empty ones. the contents having bwcn previously extracted. 35. the operator should.

he each of the different articles. consequently. . 5.24 THE magician's own book. the third person must have taken the shilling. the position of the vowels in the corresponding word vita. 6. which can only be placed in six different positions. the ring and. It must be observed. and the corresponding numerical arrangement of the counters. This ingenious feat is founded on the permutation of the three articles. 2. thus . 3. that in no instance can there be a remainder of four counters and that the first syllable of each word represents the first person. if there had been a remainder of six counters. Salve certa animae semita vita quies. who has taken 7. the key and the second person took a. 1. shows that the first person took i. Thus. or their representative vowels. and the second syllable the second person. . : 1. tells fae must have previously acquired. .

they will imagine the others are beneath the cuff. of giving the hand more steadiness. . and. It is two to one but the spectators will suppose it to be produced by the action of the air. remove your forefinger. . take your left wrist in your right hand. Now. and as soon as the wood comes undermost. which keep wide open. . Observe that. unless you have performed the feat so awkwardly as to be discovered. You may now shake the hand. they must. as you state. Begin by stating that you are about perfoiming what you have no doubt will be regarded as a very extraordinary maneuver. and suffer the stick tlie . When you have turned your hand over. 2 . If you have no objection to reveal the secret. to fall. if the spectators only see two or even 'ne. and as your wrist moves in your right hand. stretch out the forefinger of your right hand. do not keep the stick too long upheld. *and try to do it themselves but. some of the fingers being naturally supposed to be under the coat so that. suffer the wood to drop. fail in its performance. This will. doubtless. lest the spectators should take hold of your hands. of course. for the purpose. support it with such forefinger. and while they are gravely philosophizing up(m it. and you will leave the company to decide upon what principle of natural philosophy it is accomplished. si. after a moment or two. j^ou may rest satisfied that its absence from round the wrist of the left hand will not be discovered. Zt} it. and expose the trick. . The mode of performance is as follows Lay the piece of wood across the palm of your left hand. you can do it again. Next. with the thumb and all : fingers far apart. create much amusement. and discover the trick before their surprise is over. suddenly turn the back of your left hand uppermost.d denly lift up your hand {vide Cut). in doing this feat. that its action may not be detected and if it be not. you must keep your fingers so low that no one can see the palm of your left hand and move 3'our finger so carefully. and grasp it tightly. lest you be suspected of supporting the wood with them.THE YOUNG CONJUROR.

much to the astonishment of the person wlm thinks he is about to receive it. THE DISAPPEARING DlJki. as I think they are unworthy of notic^. cannot be inspected by the audience. or a handkerchief.. and for that reason it is better to mix them with •"hose tricks that have been already mentioned. TRICKS REQUIRING SPECIAL APPARATUS. You must then select one of the audience to whom you proffer the dime. and after having done this. Having done this. and just as he is about to receive it you must let it slip from between your fingers. and a dime with a hole on the edge attach the dime to the cord with a piece of white sewing silk. showing it to the company. by which means he will produce more astonishing results than if he restricted himself He should also into the methods mentioned in this work. It is better to have the dime in the left arm sleeve. bring down the dime with the right hand. Therefore. sew the cord to your coat sleeve lining. discover This is one of the most surprising feats of legthe trick. This feat can be varied by pretending to wrap the coin in a piece of paper. and the contraction of the elastic cord will make the coin disappear up your sleeve. and its chief beauty consists in its extreme simplicit3\ The writer has frequently astonished a whole room fall of company by the performance of this trick. I admit no tricks that are wholly managed by the apparatus. The apparatus. Tlie young conjuror should always varj^ the mode of performance in the non-essentials. but be very careful and ascertain that the end upon which the dime is attached does not extend lower than within two inches of the extreme end of the sleeve when the coat is on. and. of course. '3^' THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. Great care should be taken not to let any part of the cord be seen. 38. every trick mentioned in the following pages must be carefully practiced in private before it is produced in public. Provide yourself with a piece of India rubber cord aboat twelve inches long. tell them that you will give the coin to any one present who will not let it slip away. of course. and should study combinations of one trick with another. and place it between the thumb and index finger of the left hand. in order that Buspicious persons may be quieted by an occasional permission to inspect the objects used in the performances. erdemain. . as this would.

" I shall then cover the die thus. or to demand inspection of any of his apparatus. acknowledging that he is only deceiving the eye and not the mind. the ^ ^ |w hollow die being in the bottom hat. Place both hats on the table. put the die on the upper hat (of course. I shall take it off. Then knock off the upper hat with a blow of the wand. and while you turn your back upon the audience as you go to your table. and push the lower one off the table. and give them a good rattle. like this. thus. THE PENETRATIVE CENTS. with the open side downward.'You then take out the false die. onl^ . and bring it down on the cover.) and place the cover over it. when both cover and false die will come up together put the end of your wand into them. and send round the real die and cover for inspection. but without one of the sides (2). and replacing the upper hat. and a hollow tin die exactly the size of the wooden one. and should therefore request the company not to ask any questions.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. but I will soon convince you. Grasp the cover tightly near the bottom. Borrow two hats." which you do. When they are returned. give it a few flourishes. so that the die tumbles out of it Always use plenty of gesture about your tricks. slip into one of them the false die. Jj^ . "but inside the hat. THE DIE TRICK Get a wooden die about two inches and a half square (1). Get a brazier to cut oiit all the interior of five cents. " Now. ** and after I have knocked on the cover. Then paint them both exactly alike. say. as it is now. " You do not believe me." taking it off. as in the engraving. Pick up your conjuring wand. it is my intention to place these hats one above another. ladies and gentlemen. It will be better to let an accidental flaw appear on the same side of each." You then place the two hats as in No. 27 vaiiably make a little speech. 40. ladies and gentlemen. 3. Now for the trick itself. 39. Then get a tin cover (4) that exactly fits the dice. and you will find that the die is not under the cover.' You then put the real die into the hat.

and no one will imagine that they are only shams. and fastened below. 2. as in No. No. To the under surface of the table you fasten a little shelf. 2. showing the spectators that the six cents have been replaced by a silver sixpence. 2. He must then bore out nearly all the interior of a sixth cent. and put them down as in Fig. Fig. 1. when it is held firmly. for the picker-up is sure to ex- A amine it very closely. long rivet must then be let into the rim. They can then be placed as shown in Fig. No. is then made. which will cause all the six real cents to tumble down with a great crash. so that all the rings can play easily upon it. 2. is a section of the entire apparatus. and knock the cover with your wand. 1. While you are picking up the cents. as you do the ball in trick 6. I have only given mere outlines of this really excellent trick. Take the cover. 3. 2. Keep a sixpence in the palm of your hand. Take them up and rattle them. as you can rattle them or move them about upon each other. make a short speech. pick up the sham cents. merely leaving a shell of copper at the top. slip the sham ones out of the cover into 3^our left hand. place six real cents on the little shelf. which moves on a hinge. No. This maneuver generally disarms all suspicion. No. and have the sham cents on the table. but being pliable. which draws the catch. which may be varied in a hundred ways. 4. put the end of your wand into them and hold them up triumphantly. 3. and put it over the sham cents. as shown in Fig. 1. and is let fall by placing the foot on the pedal. Fig. 1. and as you put them down. Fig. Take up the cover and false cents together. 2. The rivet is to be passed through the holes in the rings. slip the sixpence under them. leaving" the rims. 1. No. No. and take some opportunity of letting the empt}' cover roll towards the audience. leathern cover. To perform the trick. 2. A No. at the same time pressing the pedal with your foot. Fig. the dotted lines representing the rivet. and a hole must be drilled in each of the five rings.2« THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. is capable of picking up the hollow cents with it. one of whom you ask to pick it up and bring it to you. and is capa- . which passes easily over the heap of cents.

Observe the development of his forehead. the pedal may be substituted a lever running immediately under the surface of the table. is. into which the peg fits. " Now. here is a very learned man. See Trick 67.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. ! . and then say. " O dear Saythe doctor is dead. There should be always two cloths on the table the lower one thick and soft. as in the Paint his body and head carecut. THE DOLL THICK Get a comical looking doll. taking with it the body. the sagacity of ladies his nose. you grasp the gown by the place where the head If you like." So saying. trick. 59 For ble of combination with other tricks to a large extent. and here is his gown of office. and if you put a gold chain or two round his neck. The head is now supported by your left hand. which you hold open for it with your left thumb and little finger. and put the body into your pocket. page 48. ! ! ! . and shake it about to show that it is empty. you take your right hand from under the gown. Pretend to give him some money. and gentlemen. See how handsome he looks in it. as it displays everything better than a colored oae. to prevent jing* ling of objects. while you jingle some silver. do you ? I beg your pardon here it a quarter for you. Drive a peg into the neck. if the performer prefers to have a short cloth on it. silk. the dignity of his spectacles. his journey. " What! you won't go unless Get along " Hit the head a hard rap you have more with your right hand. He is professor of astronomy at Timbuctoo. professor. fully. it will conceal the Make also a coat of line of junction. Take up the doll. 41. which drives it into the pocket. and say. and bore a hole in the body. Oh you want funds. and cannot be found. we are waiting to see you go. and the upper one white. and cut off his head diagonally. The ingenuity of the young conjuror will easily find methods of varying this . taking care to do it very neatly." ing this. and sow a pocket inside the edge of the skirt. He has the honor to wish you all farewell before starting on Now. He is going to Amsterdam to see the eclipse of the last new comet. and the philosophy of his pigtail. the eloquence of his lips.

you can make another oration and hold a dialogue. and be quite concealed behind the finger when you hola your hand up. 44. rapidly open it. THE YANISHED HALF-DIME. THE PLYING COINS. put the memorandum book in your pocket. making the doctor resuscitate himself. and grind them down until they are reduced to half their thickness. The pencil with which you furnish him is very hard. on opening them again. You then give the man bis document. so that you will have two coins. memorandum book. Then. at the same time offering him the book to write upon. or rather brass imitations. and go out of the room to fetch your box. which is of course done by taking the head out of the pocket with the left hand. Then hand. the nail of the middle finger of the right hand. and put it into one side of 43. The paper must be loosely affixed. and a leaf from the memorandum book placed under it. You now take a leaf out of the memorandum book. Put a little wax on . and line the cover with paper Make a which has been previously rubbed with a mixture of lampblack and oil. the black is transferred by the pressure of the pencil from the blackened paper to the white leaf that has been placed under it. so that it can be raised up. Take two eagles. and working it about by the peg. You must also make a flat box. Shut your hands and the coins will turn over. which you have While you are out of the room. 42. pressing the wax on the coin. and one brass face. each having one silver face. Do the same with two quarter dollars. In so doing. and offer to change them without moving your arms. leaf from under the black paper. and the silver piece will adhere to the wax. having a double opening. and ask some one to write a sentence. and he is forced to press upon the paper in order to mark. and take a half-dime into the palm of the same Close the hand. and of course makes an exact copy of the writing. they will appear to have changed from one hand into the other. and fasten them accurately together.30 THE magician's OWN BOOK. you take out the forgotten. Take one ef them in each hand. THE RESTORED DOCUMENT. showing the silver side of one and the brass side of another.

When returned. 45. and they will all appear to be separate and distinct d d should be the uppermost rings. about six or seven inches in diameter. on one another. then a. then B. Hand them round. complicated movements. and bring out c. and d d are two simple rings. open at the other side. Lay the ring-. you produce the duplicate leaf. his own hand-writing. and then c. strike it with your wand. you can account for it by observing that it is very difficult to get rid of all traces of the burning. hand round the other n. THE MAGIC RINGS. Then add d and you have five. apologising for your absence. You must always conceal the joint ill A with your thumb. 31 the flat box. So you go on weaving them into all kinds of fantastic shapes. as in the cut. and after going through them some b. returns it to you. Tell him to burn his writing in a candle. c is a set of three rings formed in the same manner. You bring in the box. you have four rings together. which the writer acknowledges to be ii. and contrive as often as you can to have one at least of the rinffs d at libertv ecQ . and to place the ashes in the box. and then. b is a set of two rings forged permanently within each other. Hand round d for inspection : and if any more are desired. and passing one of the outer rings of c through the opening. into the writer's hands. wave it in the air. You clash together. hang them over your left arm. and shut down the cover that hides it. Take off d and substitute b which will give you six. and give the box. The rings should be about the thickness of a rather large black-lead pencil. Get a blacksmith to make a number of rings. If the lamp-black should have come off and smeared the paper. You then flourish about a little with the box. Then take a in your band. or grasp them in your hand. When they are returned mix them all up.THE YOUNO CONJUROR. opening it as at first. and tell the company that you are going to weave all the rings together. A is made with a spring opening on one side. bring it down with a bang on the table. bring out which the spectators will think you have just fastened together. He does so. and closing the box.

.. and pour out some of the ink upon a plate. This apparent impossibility is performed as follows. a thirty-two pounder cannon ball rolls out. you slip your fore or middle finger into the ball just as you would into a thimble.„. and let a hole be bored in each which will admit the middle finger. You dip a ladle into it. in order to convince the audience that the substance in the vase You then throw a handkerchief over the is really ink. j /" "\ J— m ^^y^'"^'^ /fjj^i^ w^-^^^=^i^^ dience. having a hole cut in the stall . full of ink. each the size of a thirty-two pounder cannon ball. The method of performing this delusion is as follows. When you take a hat off the table. any is a capital trick. so that the balls are nearly level with the top of the table. To the interior of the vessel is fitted a black silk lining. This is 47. 46.. and which is withdrawn inside the handkerchief during the performance of the trick. The balls are arranged hole upwards on a shelf on your table on the side opposite to your au^ l~ „. Get a turner to make a number of wooden balls. In the handle is a spoonful or so of ink. You bring before the spectators a glass vase. which runs into the bowl when it is held downward. which adheres closely to the sides when pressed by the water. finger. especially if the number of rings is increased. vase and instantly withdraw it. during the act of dipping it into the vase. in which a couple of gold fish are swimming. and by bending the ball into the hat. and on turning it over. and may be diversified to extent. when the vase is found to be filled with pure water. really a first-rate delusion. for instance. bring the Any object may be brought into a hat in thie manner. The performer of this trick borrows a number of hats. The ladle has a hollow handle with an opening into the bowl. person his hat. THE CANNON BALLS.32 Tliis THE magician's own book.. THE PISH AND INK TRICK. He then returns each and places them on the table. a great cabbage.

" then turn the bag upsid > down. egg in a saucer with your right hand. and make a clucking like a hen. in the bag. and have an opening into the bag. Place the ball in a tumbler. " and if any one doubts their Yuu reality. much wiser For it. and show that there is nothing in it. and give it to some one to unwind. tlie edges together. so that actually there will be A tliird b-iar het«-. You repeated until all the eggs but one are gone. say that some people think the eggs are not real. Take down the ball from the place where it is lying. take the end of the worsted. THE EGG AND BAG TRICK. tinman to make a flat tin tube. leaving the dime in the ball. Fill the pockets with eggs. taking care to pretend to grope in one of the corners for it. a allow a Get 49. drop the dime into the tube. so as to make it into a ball. turn it inside out. make two bags and sew tho tuo. or hang it on a hook out of sight. Then tell the spectators. shake it. you break the them by ocular inspection. you drop the bag behind your table. perform any trick that will get a dime out of Right. with the end of the worsted wrapped tightly round it. Wind a quantity of worsted round it. * That is. and withdraw the tube. you I was right. and you are ready for the performance." you then say. he can do so without beinji. Hold the bag by the place where the eggs are. and take up another exactly like it. they cannot doubt that this is a real hen. Get a chintz or cloth bag made double. and while the people are occupied with it.'pn . You then say " I knew So saying. marked dime into the middle of a ball of worsted. after taking out the last egg. THE DliTE IN THE BALL OF COTTON." put your hand into the bag and take out one of the eggs. This being done. which will just dime to pass through it. " These are real eggs. If any one wishes to inspect that bag. and she has laid an egg. but you will convince Saying this. each of which will hold an egg. This is then. A good squeeze or two will hold it tight. such as number Then tell the spectators that you will bring the 1 or 2. that you are sure there is a hen Put your head near the mouth of the bag. and obliterate every mark of the tube.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. 33 48. into which you have put a hen. These preliminaries having been accomplished.*and between the two bags make six or seven pockets. the dime will be found in the very center of the ball. and shake out the hen.

passing it over the stick. so thick that there is a considerable space between the outer and inner surfaces. and closes the aperture. that wheo it is at rest. The man went out of the shop. a slight and imperceptible depression or elevation of the stick will cause the egg to twist and roll about upon it as if it had life. 51. and directly it begins to sound. which is of precisely the same capacity as the cavity in the bell.) but was so long haggling over three shots. and by pressing on the handle.ci THR MA 50. to cent for his trouble. and rang furiously. especially on the upper part of the bell. it is forced upwards by a spring. and the handle so made. and as you go behind your table contrive to hook the bent pin into your coat. and ringing the bell (You then ring jouv wooden bell. Get a wooden bell made. Into this you privately put a cent. heaping it compensate for the cent. (here you again pour the shot into the bell. and just wide enough to hold a cent. and take care to place among tnem one which has been emptied of its contents. but soon came in again. allow them all to run into the hollow. at the other end of which is tied a crooked pin. Send for some eggs. up the measure with shot.) and kept the and then fill a little.) of the gunmakcr's shop. (you pour the shot into the bell and back again two or three times. A hollow must be cut in this. Borrow a small stick from one of the spectators. Then place the egg on an inverted hat. and to which is fastened a long hair. (Here you again ring the bell which is now aoparently empty. and draws up the round piece of wood to which the clapper chain is attached. You must be careful to turn gently round now and then. so as apparently to vary the distance of the egg from the body. THE DANCING EGG. You make up a tale about a man going out shooting. as shown in the engraving. How the man bought a measure full of shot for a cent. and invert . and ask for some music. BELL AND SHOT. You have a cardboard measure. that the gunraaker took away the shot. ICIAN'S OWx\ BOOK.

when you put the bell aside. 35 The cent not being held the measure on the table. put the ashes into b. When you have finished. 53. I shall burn this handkerchief to ashes. is desirous of appearing in the very easily managed. that either end can be Get a tinman concealed within it alternately. as seen in the engraving." (so saying you put it into a. for here are his shots in his measure. and when it has burned entirely to ashes. with an opening at each end. and on pressing the handle. it will be restored perfectly whole. " ladies and gentlemen. is it If the young conjuror character of a fire-eater. Borrow a cambric handkerchief. and rapidly reverse it as you turn round to your audience. This must so slide within a tin tube. and say. the shots will refill it. it 52. invert the bell over the empty measure.) Then finish the story with an account of the manner in which the man got back his cent.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. ring it again. you open B. take out the cambric. Then utter any nonsense you like. such as is shown in the cut. Do not touch until you have done another trick or two. so that A is uppermost again. and push up the canister until the shoulder of b is on a level with the top of the tube. shut it up. THE BURNED HAJs^DKERCHTEF RESTORED. He . open a. and then. and b looks like concealed. to look like a handkerchief. is where the end a In this position is shown. place them in this canister.) " and Now when I have uttered a spell. and remark that the purchaser was a silly fellow ofter ail. THE EIRE EATER. it an ordinary canister. Will the owner say what mark it has?" While the audience are looking towards the owner. will now fall on the tablecloth. it rather adds to the trick if you drop a little eau de cologne into A before commencing. and take out the handkerchief uninjured. You then put it into a candle flame. When the mark has been declared. and pretend to verify the mark. by the finger and thumb. to make a double canister. you turn the canister over. The interior is divided into two Into b put a piece of cambric made parts.

the upper shell c. say. and breathing it out through the mouth. and a the ball as hip. with ^ F-^m/^""^^ your fore finger and thumb. and with it the piece in which is the string. b. When the mouth is shut. he takes out the piece which he has already chewed. . taken into the mouth. and the tow pressed together. and put it in my pocket in your sight . smoke begins to issue forth. likewise say. and treated in the same manner. take off the upper part." which it appears to the spectators to be. He takes a handful of tow in his right hand. so clapping that in again. must prepare a piece of thick string. and taking the lid of c in your fiuger and thumb. call for an egg. By taking breath through the nostrils.36 THE magician's OWN BOOK." close your hand about the middle of your box. and appears to swallow it. He then takes another handful. then bid all the look at it." 65. the fire goes More tow is then out. " There it is gone again. . the egg-box . and wraps it up in a piece of tow which he holds in his left hand. To do the trick. " There is nothing. " You shall see me take it out. A. lights one end. It is done with a box made of four pieces. by soaking it in a solution of niter. to deceive the This trick is . set the box on the table. and see that it is a real egg. puts it into his mouth. and the whole interior of the mouth is soon lighted up with a glow. The trifling smoke will be concealed by a huge bundle of loose tow also carried in the left hand. the inner shell. then Aby-standers ^^ ^F^ placing the egg in the box. 64. covered over with the shell of an egg d. . and then drying it. As he puts this into his mouth. say. He cuts off a piece about an inch in length. THE GLOBE-BOX. chews it up. " There is the egg again. the lower part of the box. THE EGG-BOX." open your box again :ind say. except the piece of prepared string. say. not inferior to the best that is shown with boxes. " You see it fairly in. and taking b by the bottom. as may be conveniently contained therein ball serves as the egg does in the egg-box." and uncovering it again.

. one to see that . the top of which represents the ball p. when he was expected to throw out the wet handkerchiefs. taken off the figure m. a third shell s. yd'ow. according to the desire of the practitionei . few cabalistic words. which : One he opened. This ball. THE YOUNG CONJUROR. by more than one popular performer. and there will appear another of a different color. . and they were washed for a few minutes. as you may perceive by the cuts.' another N is an inner shell o. q. the cover of the same inner shell r. and shoved and uttprinsr o it to be empty then shutting it. the cover of the same that which covers it. all that fell was a number of flowers. blue. . 37 nand and eyes of spectators. red. 56. is thrown out of the box upon the table. . . l is the outer sliell of the globe. ingeniously turned and fitted to the box.. though. They were then placed in a ves sel like the figure (*) on the next page. . were placed in a small washing tub. He now brought out a box. . of the greatest means of wonder-working is that of ingenious contrivance. into which water was poured. These globes may be made with more or less varieties." and taking off the top. in fact. which close up with all the pieces one within another remove the upper shell with your fore finger and thumb. for every it is substantial then put the ball into the box. We will illustrate this by two popular K number of handkerchiefs taken from the audience feats. and immediately afterwards the performer said to the persons in front " I will give you these . THE COPFEE AND HANDKERCHIEF TRICKS. made of wood or ivory. lie opened it again. . or any other color you may fancy this will seem . to be another ball. it is no more tlian a shell of wood.

whicii he distributed to their respective claimants. These feats are the result of considerable ingenuity. you will not like to wait so long .3P THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. but. while they would utterly escape those whose object is merely amusement. warm tained lump-sugar from rape-seed and pouring out the coffee into milk from horse-beans cups. and who. he said. to the unraveling of the mystery. then. Another experiment of a popular performer was called million. " There. and placing it under a cover b. and scented. and there were the handkerchiefs. that. . the vessel appeared liquid coffee. amidst their loud and approving shouts at so great a transformation. folded. Let it be observed. would be likely to describe the result as supernatural. th3 performed filled it with unground coffee. all dry. We . proceed." done full of hot In another vessel of the same kind he oband in a third. It is probable that the devices employed would not readily occur to spectators in general. sent them round to regale his auditory. . here then it is ." *' coffee for the Producing a vo'^sel like the diagram A. in reference to the first experiment. that a number of handkerchiefs are collected in the early part of the evening for various and on removing the cover. when you have . if they thought at all. let it simmer for three quarters of an hour perhaps.

which the figure illustrates. are washed and placed in the vase already described and the so called change into flowers is nothing more than the retention of the handkerchiefs in the lower part of the ap. as the curtain falls. Meanwhile. 65. which disengages the inner box. . but as it is double. from the handsome silk handkerchief to one trimmed with lace. milk. Provided with a collection of these articles. See Trick No. which. . The preparation of coffee. while the upper part holds the flowers till they are scattered among the spectators. At B. It is not absolutely necessary that they should be washed for folding. no diflBculty. would complete the preparation but granting that they are washed. His own handkerchiefs. there is . according to the arrangements of the evening. used by a fashionable lady. . . and a little eau-de-Cologne. who have the idea that drying is a long affair for it may be effected in a minute or two by a machine that is readily obtained. 39 illusions. all that is required is done to their handkerchiefs. In the diagram a. one interior is first shown. and sugar. between the collection of the handkerchiefs and the subsequent processes. and presents the handkerchiefs to the audience. he draws it out with the outer one. he could easily substitute his own of the same kind for those of his auditory. though this mystifies the spectators. paratus. . The box brought out has them deposited in it. we have a representation of the box containing the liandkerchiefs. defies detection. of course. may be easily explained for if the vessels containing respectively thp still . contains nothing.THE YOU\G CONJUROR. therefore. and the professor touches a secret spring behind. and that many of them appear for a time on the performer's table. pressing. for the inner drawer holding the handkerchiefs remains in the case but when a few sounds are uttered. the box is shown as empty. It is only necessary to add that the box is very nicely made the part within the other drawn out to the end.

always placed under a cover. and the horse-beans. the rape-seed. unground coffee.40 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. be put on a part of the table having a circular trap-door and for this there is full provision in a confederate the cover of the table extending to the floor may readily substitute one for the other. — — .

2 A diluted solution of the above one part of the solution to four of water. as every time the finger is withdrawn from the hole n the pressure of the air is admitted. thus 1 A saturated solution of the sulphocyanate of potash. so that the inner space may be filled whilst this is being eftected the conjuror must fill up the time with a philosophical disquisition on funnels. N. that is to say. if well managed. s s. which is covered with the finger. &c. and label the bottles with numbers. A saturated solution of perchloride of iron. port wine. milk.. hole in a vessel the water will flow out. eyes. 57. The person performing the trick offers to pour from a common wine bottle. space for The funnel is always prepared before the audience by pouring in water. THE MAGIC EOTTLE. you must make solutions of the following chemicals. sherry. 3. 5. A saturated solution of nitrate of lead. one funnel soldered into the other so as to leave a space between them for water. however. in the fact. When the funnel is prepared for use. ears. is one of the most wonderful that can be performed in a drawing-room without apparatus but it requires dexterity at the conclusion. which is by etopping end cf tube i with the finger: the water flows in and out at K.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. and the water flows out 58. A saturated solution of bicarbonate of potash. and in any order. Our drawing will assist the explanation. To accomplish the : trick. • This trick. — . and you proceed to draw water from his hair. and communicating with the hollow of the funnel by a liole in the tube. 4. every time the finger is withdrawn water flows out from tube T. that if there is a . filled water between the funnels. in succession. 7 A clear scl-iti^u of gum-arabic. One of the audience is now requested to step up to the table. a pin-hole at the top. occasionally stopping the end of the pipe t with the finger. and champagne . 41 THE MAGIC FUNNEL This favorite and siraple trick is carried out by the assistance of a double funuel. 6 Sulphuric acid. all ending.

As the quantity is very small. 59. " change to champagne. Pour some of the contents of the bottle into an unprepared glass. and is not diflScult to comprehend. . you must desire some person to hand j'ou the water bottle or jug. remembering the solutions that were poured into each pattern. and if into No. 3 and 5. not to hold it high above the glasses. Everything being ready. they must not be left about in the way of children. 5 glass rinsed with No. . and into one pattern pour the solution marked No. and holding it up to show the company that it is clear and empty. Procure a champagn3 bottle. The chemical method of performing this delusion has been already explained. otherwise persons will observe that it undergoes change of color after it is poured into the wine glasses. 1. and wash it out well. 2." It is usually carried out with a bottle. and on this account the glasses should be held rather high. the body of which is constructed . and arrange the glasses on a small tray. Be careful in pouring the fluid from the bottle." and pour the liquid from the bottle then pour into a into one of the glasses rinsed with No. 2. it will change to milk. . and add a tablespoonful of No. 1. and of course the fluid in the wine glasses must not even be tasted but if smy of the company wish to drink the wines you have made. . especially if you are quick in your movements. *^* As the solutions used in the above trick are deleterious. . in order to show that it is water then say. 7 to it then set it aside ready for use. it will produce sherry. Return the solutions to their respective bottles. take the champagne bottle that you have prepared. 3. Provide some wine glasses of four different patterns.42 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. but to keep the mouth of it close to the edges of the glasses. into another that marked No. and then fill up the bottle with the water. 4 into it. from two or three others. the mechanical one will be easily understood from the " Magic Funnel Trick. it will not be observed. and so on for Nos. then pour three teaspoonfuls of No. Pour some distilled or rain water into a common water-bottle or jug. then the tray must be adroitly exchanged for another with the proper wines placed on it. THE BOTTLE TRICK. This is an excellent parlor trick if well managed. and it will change to port wine but if poured into No.

. brandy. He may now ask the company to call for port. very small quantity of fluid. 2. so that when the fingers are placed ove? them (as on the holes of a flute) the liquid cannot run out on inverting the bottle. still keeping his fingers over the holes. he may pour the rest into a jug. in the bottom of which some milk has been already placed. the one. 3. after scratch. as a number of wine-glasses can be prepared with drops of burnt sugar for brandy. syrup and juniper for gin. the neck of glass compartments. gin.THE YOUNG CONJUROR of . from <). 43 the body is divided into sundry tin. &c.compartment8holding and alcohol. for ordinary use arrangement will be understood as shown beneath. A magic cofi'ee-pot may be arranged in a similar manner. commanding the bottle to change its temperance habits. On showing the trick. at the top. . /i JLf_\ I 1. holding a liquors. the center compartment). sherry." The performer. the center being tilled and emptied in the ordinary manner after pouring out and handing round a few glasses of milk. and punch the middle compartment may hold the tea and coffee berries. and they are filled with their respective liquids by the pear-shaped vessel already exEach compartment is perforated with a little hole plained. sherry. three of which are sufficient. into which the assistant may pour by mistake the contents of the bottle labeled " Ink. the performer alludes to his wonderful bottle full of the milk of human kindness. with three compartments to hold hot tea. It must be understood that little tubes from each compartment terminate in the neck. with a center by cutting the bottle in two. the spirit supplies the others. Vg) l port. center of which milk may be poured. which he pours out carefully from the center compartment. A small drop of oil of almonds or other flavoring materials may be used for the different A thick wine-glass must be employed. : bottle. and for the sake of a little mystification put the bottle upright under a hat. keeping the three holes tight with his fingers. coffee. The sherry and port are poured from their compartments. noyeau. so that the company may believe the bottle was originally filled with it he may now wash out the bottle (that is to say. .

Then. but when performed with dexterity is calculated to produce much astonishment In fact. or a pair of the prepared coin can be slippers. you dexterously place on one side. 61 TO CHANGE A DDIE TO A QUARTER. and having put the marble backs of the paper together. and paste some of it on one side of the coin. ting : — . this . cut them the shape of diagram . if the holes from the compartments terminate in the handle and the pipes in the spout. as if in deep thought. cent is concealed in the hand. and Wyman. nothing Will be found. and before performing the trick. — . which can be fastened up with a cork or proper lid. Bottle Trick. and substitute the prepared one and putit gravely into the box. This trick may be repeated two or three times with the greatest success.U THE magician's OWN BOOK ing his head. 60. and shake laterally from side to side as the quarter is made to fit accurately. however large your audience. whilst you direct the audience to look into a book. Procure two pieces of marbled paper its very simplicity. will take a lump of whiting and powder up. Having borrowed a coin. . shake up and down the noise betrays the metal now command it to disappear. no noise is apparent the coin seems in proof of which you open the box. for instance). to which line the box with any dark fit accurately a quarter or cent paper (crimson. as in the This mode of showing the trick is good. of course. so that when it lies in the lower part of This quarter or the box it shall appear like the real box. . when the fingers are removed the three liquids pour out separately. and disto be gone play the interior the paper on the coin conceals it. This is quite a simple parlor trick. : Procure a small round box. you can provide everybody with something to drink. and it is displayed with great efi'ect by Signer Blitz. and is so simple that nobody guesses the manner of performance. ask all to be sure they have seen it enter when the lid is on. it will heighten the effect if a number of single quarters or cents are hidden about the room. and the box handed round for examination. in which. about one inch deep. . placing it in the center compartment. because. in places known to yourself. it surprises on account of at an evening party. about seven inches square. for the missing quarter slipped out. THE MAGIC QUAETER.

you will discover that you have formed a small parcel the same shape as Fig. When you have done this. DESCRIPTION OF THE MAGICUN'S TABLE. gum the two parcels together at the in the back of the ends marked f. and also again at the side marked c. instead of a dime they wil behold a genuine quarter. 1. as the success of the trick depends in a great measure upon the regularity of the paper. Having done this. You can then open the side of the paper containing the dime and show it to your audience. with a curtain ~ound it. 45 Fig. to the astonishment of the company. 2. You must then place a quarter of a dollar -%i center of the other piece of paper. and upon opening the paper. with a dime in the center. 62. a secret confederate is required. 2. Be very careful to have them exactly the same size. mutter some cabalistic words and dexterously turn over the side containing the quarter. and fold it up exactly the same size and shape as the first piece. When you have done this turn down the end marked d upon the center a. in Fig. I have seen much merriment created by this excellent feat. two feet eight inches high. place a dime in the center of one of the pieces at the place marked a. at the same time informing them that you are going to open a mint on a small plan. and coin a quarter from a dime. and the sides will be so even that both parcels will appear as one.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. have a table four and a half feet long. After cutting the paper in the manner described. two feet nine inches wide. twenty-two inches When . When this is accomplished. then fold it carefully over at the crease on the side marked b. and again fold over on e.

by the curtain and in this box is placed the secret agent who assists the performer .46 deep. and for this purpose be sure to select a lady naturally chooses the nearest to her. so that they may be let down lying flat. which contains the bird. . and at the side which is farthest from the spectaThis box is about twenty inches deep. open at the top. " You see that this egg is fair and fresh madam . . but instead of which you must provide yourself with an artificial one made of black lead. these naving covers which exactly fit. which may be easily concealed between your fingers. which prevent surface. it will instantly be acknowledged. permit retaining for yourself the privilege of putting in the ball. and concealed tors. THE HATCHED BIRD. you do not fail in the trick. as the artificial ball is easily reduced to a powder on the application of the ramrod besides the smallness of the balls preclude all discovery of the deception. Separate an egg in the middle as nearly as possible empty it. if the wrong one be taken. Having provided yourself with a to load it. the top of the table appears to present a perfect Under this surface are buttons. egg. of different sizes. or drawer. because. . with a fine piece of paper and a little glue. fowling-piece. having first put a live canary bird inside it. . for you break the egg^ and say. and then. from three to five inches across . which will continue unhurt in it for some time. those lids from falling down when not made use of. simple. WTMAN'S GUN TRICK. to the evident satisfaction of the company. 63. . a whole egg in readisupply the bird with air put the Present the two eggs for one to be chosen ness. THE magician's own book. In the top of this table are several secret square holes. any person . there is no apparent reason to take the further one at any rate. . . provided you make a small pinhole in the shell to have. and hung upon con- but when cealed hinges. join the two halves together. 64. Under the top of the table is fastened a box. having no idea of the trick to be performed. also. next to the person who is to she choose. and retain the real ball in your possession. . producing it after the gun has been and a mark having been previously put upon discharged This trick is quite it.

will be in favour of the bird you would have found the Now. THE APPLE AND ORANGE TRICK. or a canary bird ?" She naturally declares for the bird nevertheless. if she ask for the mouse. and gather the majority of votes. which slides into the box A. marked A. which.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. which you then produce. 2. 80 that when it is in the drawer B. . it cannot be discovered without minute examination then push them both into the . in all pA'obability. made of rather thin wood. marked C. Have a box made with a drawer fitted to it as in the figure No. do you choose . . 80 47 other. if you had chosen it. that will fit the drawer B rather easy. there are means to escape you ask the same question of several ladies. open at the top. with their end and sides sloping towards the sides of the drawer B. when put into it the sides and ends of the drawer 0. . 65. The back part of the drawer B. has no end piece then have another drawer made. to find in it a mouse.

. and you put the pin D in its place. when not necessary to be . with the secret drawer C. It is now ready to perform experiments with. that the drawer C will not slip from the bottom of the drawer B. privately. to the great astonishment of the company take the fruit out and present it to the spectators. so as to prevent the same from slipping out of its place. the end of the drawer C will then appear as if it was the end of the drawer B as represented in the plate. When you have satisfied them on that point. To do this trick you must have in your left hand a plate. A — . and the outside of the box A. box A. in the bottom of the drawer C. ENCHANTED COIN. close the drawer B. AS PERFORMED BY PROFESSOR WTMAN. the drawer C out alone. as marked D in the plate this pin is so long that it will just catch drawer C. You can then show it to the company. and the drawer B has been drawn out. exposed. that the drawer B is open at the inner end. .48 THE magician's own book. and you may also measure the inside of the drawer B. To Perform the Experiment. and convince them that. withouu interruption the pin out of the box. as represented in the plate. but if you remove or pushed back. and have a small hole bored through the top of the box A. Put fifteen pieces of money into a hat. This concludes the performance. in which yon put a small pin with a flat top. C will come out inside of the drawer B without the trick being discovered it being understood that the false drawer C is invariably concealed from the spectator. apparCare must be taken in pulling ently. and take it out then with the right hand pull out the drawer B. consequently. the drawer C with fruit. . are aware. inside of the box A. which is full of fruit. When the drawer C is in the box A. alone. figure 2. as has already been described. and exhibit it then pull the drawer B out. 66. the drawer B may be pulled out. nothing is concealed. when that with the loose drawer C is pushed into the box A. You . to prevent it from coming out with the drawer B. take out five and mysteriously pass them back into the hat and it covered. which otherwise would prevent little catch may be affixed it from being pushed back. which will convince the spectators that it is empty. and under the plate and in your left hand have previously . Fill. slide back the drawer B. then place the left hand on the secret pin D.

and take the empty leathern case and hold it before the audience. in a careless manner. Facillo. you then open the drawer. MYSTERIOUS COIX.) you may address the company again. Place a small ball on the bottom of the glass. over the riveted money. and at the same time let fall the five pieces you have secreted in your hand under the plate you then ask him to draw out five pieces. fifteen. . and they may discover the whole process. I will do it deliberately. Now tell the company to keep a sharp look out. and place them over the ball. and lay is done. which will still leave fifteen." Now you take a plate and place it on the table. you take the five that is drawn out and place them in a drawer (see the orange and apple trick). (after placing your finger on the spring to hold the inside drawer in which the five pieces were placed. Presto. . Place it. to count the money out of the hat into the plate. so that you may have every opportunity of detecting the deception. A TABLE. (p. to see that there is no mistake. you may see the money go through this glass and fall upon the plate. then take the case with the concealed coins therein. and to the surprise of all. if it you will show you the nature of only look sharp enough to see how : " I will Therefore. and from that through the table into my hand. place upon that a wine glass upside down. 27. 67. then you go through the magic words. and if you have very penetrating eyes. which will be secreted therein.) and show the audience that the five pieces are gone. WINE HOW TO JTAXE DOLLARS PASS TFROUGH A A CHINA PLATE. which you had before put a little aside from the view of the spo^tators. Take the loose coins and throw them on the table bring them again under the table. 3 . OE GLASS. the original number. watch closely. to convince them that nothing is inside. after which you turn the money out of the plate into the hat. AND PALL INTO THE HAND. he counts the hat . and say this trick. Pass.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. After performing trick 40. 49 placed five pieces of coin such as you will have placed in after you have counted the fifteeo pieces into the hat. . you then tell him to get the hat and see how many pieces are in it he gets the hat. and exchange them for a ball previouslv deposited on the shelf. you then ask the person whom you have selected from the audience to assist you in performing the tricks. which will make you as wise as myself.

: .60 THE Rl. ladies. the other with wine. as you have. and leave me in an empty house with empty pockets. if you do. "Now. Our performer makes the following concluding speech " Now. then put about the same quantity of wine in the other tumbler. as at first. I hope. in the center make a hole about the same in diameter. and the ball will appear on the top of the glass. terminating at about one inch and a half on top. of course. have this hole closed with a long peg from the under side. and bring the ball which you previously exposed to the spectator under the table. which. (thi? partition must be water tight. say about a quarter of an irch in thickness. will leave the money exposed on the top of the glass. place the cover over that. then take two sound tumblers and put about as much water in one as thero is water in one of the covers. attract all the company. discovered the whole mystery. To perform this trick. upon the top of twc of these covers is soldered a piece of thick brass." ." Cover the money with the case. and exchange it for the money on the shelf. as there is in the other cover^ and place that cover over it now have a tumbler with a hole through the center of the bottom (made with a drillj. I will give you another opportunity. and on the inside will be a partition or floor. and. or lead. about twe inches from the top. I suppose. which you again toss upon the table. aad will return the money whence it^ came. then cork them well which excludes the air.you must have three covers (tin) made. then separate them by mean? of a red and white tape. yo« will very seriously injure my pockets. the tumbler that has the water. of an obeliatic form." says th-T performer. " I presume that you have discovered the whole uystery but if not. Remove the case alone. will not set up an opposition line aga'nst me since. CH IMPOSSIBILITIES ACCOMPLISHED Mix wine and water together. of course. . then through your trick table have a small auger hole made t« . consequently keeps the liquid from coming out at the* small hole made iq the center of the partition. that yoii.) Previous to performing tht» trick fill the two covers (the tops of them) one with water. PEOEESSOR WYMAICS GREAT THICK OF THE EGYPTIAN FLUITQ. Remove the case with the coins concealed therein. copper. 68.i»GlCIAiN'S 0W\ BOOK the same upon the taMe. through the center of which make a small a hole.

and in presence of the audience mix the two liquids. . let the rims be turned square down all round. after which bring it out in presence of the audience. this tumbler i^ust also be covered with a you then take the covsimilar cover in external appearance ers ojQf the tumblers containing water and wine. by the performance of this wonderful experiment. drop the end of the wire into the whole . which has a small wire to it. ONE OP THE FAKER OF AVA'S FEATS. cover it over.THE YOUNG CONJUROK. the air is then let into the wine. That accomplished magician. place the cover over it. and the one you poured it out of contains it again. place the tumblers back and cover them over. has astonished applauding and delighted thousands in every city in the United States and Canada. do likewise with the white tape. (keeping your hand in front of the peg. Past. after which repeat the mystic words Presto.) place it back with peg through the hole. then remove the cover and the inside cup will fit one within the other. then change it into a handTo do this trick you have two cups (tin) made kerchief. 51 admit tbe peg. which lets it run down into the tumblers underneath. then fill the inside cup (which to the audience appears to be the only cup) with rice. Previous to performing this trick you must place in the bottom of the deep cup a white pocket handkerchief. then place the other cup in it. PacMo. 69. but two inches deeper than . now lift the tumbler up containing the mixture that the audience msLj see it. so that when the tin cover (which you must also have) is put over them it will fit sufiQciently tight to lift out the inside cup when it is taken off. which will greatly astonish them. to let the outside cup be about the inside one. . then take a red and white tape string that has previously been fastened to a small stick. then take the end of the red tape. but let that of the inside cup be a trifle larger than the outside one. and place it in the top of the cover that is over the false tumbler. then reach your hand under the table and draw the peg ont of the tumbler and let the mixture run down into a tumbler or cup secreted there for that purpose now remove the covers and show the audience that the tumbler you poured the mixture into is empty. THE MAGICIAN'S SNOW BALL. then pour both into the tumbler that has the hole through the bottom. and after removing the cork from the cover over the wine. Take a cup and fill it with rice. Professor Wyman.

PROFESSOR "^fTMAN'S MODE OP PERPORMING THE EGG BAG TRICK. and perform a great variety of fantastic movements. have you a bag about a half yard wide. To perform this trick. turn the bag inside out. and fasten to each end of the same bent hooks of a similar color. THE MAGNETIZED CANE. and apparently the cane will have no support whatever. To perform this trick. made of black cambric. about two feet long. and about five eighths deep. 71. have stuck it. At night your audience cannot perceive the thread. and is calculated to create much astonishment in the parlor or Mrawing room. after which take several eggs out of it. as represented in the engraving. now take out it the handkerchief. so that the mouth of the cells will be . fasten the hooks in the back part of your pantaloon-legs. within the inner part of the thread. The performer should inform the company before commencing this trick. and by a simple movement of the legs. and will greatly astonish those who see 70. then back again. that he intends to magnetize the cane.52 THE MAGICIAN to it S OWN BOOK. about two inches below the bend of the knees. . the motion of the legs will not be noticed. these are called cells. Then place the cane (it should be a dark one and not too heavy). you can make the cane dance about. and by moving his hands as professors of magnetism do. and be concealed from view. Take a bag and exhibit it to the audience. take a piece of black silk thread or horse hair. little Is a very surprising fancy. it is in these that the eggs are placed let the end of the cells be closed at the mouth of the large bag. then take strips of the same cloth about three inches wide and sew them on each side of the strip lengthwise of the bag. When unobserved.

which you take out first. It has also been my especial care to introduce only such experiments as are adapted for performance at the parlor or drawing-room table or fireside. I have purposely avoided such tricks as require expensive apparatus. which to the audience is a great mystery.THE YOUNG CONJUROR. and give it a few wraps across the other hand. or at all events he ought not to be encouraged in the notion of spending much money on objects of no real use. by aiding him to acquire dexterity of prac. to convince the audience that there is nothing in it. above all. after which he turns the bag again and takes out several eggs. to . or at least he can do the painting and polishing of his machinery. the eggs are in the bottom of the cells at the mouth of the large bag. and not that. these . When you turn the bag you keep these cells next to you. smoothe the road to the development of prmciples and. and as the large bag is turned upside down. with the exception of one or two natural eggs. to enable him to escape an imputation which every boy of spirit would consider the depth of disgracethat of being 1(0 CDfnj«r0r! . A boy of any ingenuity will make the greater part of the apparatus himself. I have mentioned no machinery that need cost more than a dollar at the outside. In this account of conjuring. to convince the audience that they are genuine. Such apparatus is either entirely beyond a boy's reach. if a boy is acquainted with the use of tools. and break. to stimulate the young experimentalist to inquire into the laws that regulate them tice. The performer will then catch the bag just above the eggs.53 are filled with eggs made of wood. the reverse of that of the large bag. and by imparting interesting facts.

king of Castile. in our most pernicious accomplishment for youth. as instead of clubs. I shall lay the principal stress on card tricks that require no apparatus. leaves. acorns. so that in fact we retain their names. cards then used. but rather a source of much harmless amusement and. and may be performed with ordinary cards. sleight-of-hand tricks. in an edict which is anterior to any similar The figures legislative measure in other parts of Europe. and hearts. [54] . difiered materially in their figures from those now in vogue. and the monopoly of selling them is vested in the hands of the sovereign. and the flowers ca^ed columbines. Although proficiency in games with cards. forbade card-playing in his dominions. diamonds. for the suits answering to those of spades and clubs have not the same inverted heart and trefoil shape which ours of the present day display. they had rabbits. deer. upon them as also bells. roses. card-playing was . The a very fashionable court amusement in England. A. Let us now turn to the tricks that can be played with cards. and hastos. we do not hesitate to insert the following series of excellent deceptions and opinion. . spades. a . add to the strength of the supposition. Playing cards are believed to have been invented in Spain as early as the fourteenth century for. is. hearts. or clubs. and one which cannot be too severely reprobated. in 1378. too. though we have altered the figures. pinks. John the First. In accordance with my rule. cards are a favorite diversion of the Spaniards.t the present time. we do not consider sleight-of-hand tricks with a pack of cards. under this impression. but espadasy or swords. or cudgels. upon the cards themselves. &c.TRIC-KS WITH CARDS. In the reign of Henry the Seventh. at all objectionable.

which is raised for the moment to allow of passage. TO TELL A CARD BY ITS BACK. under shadow of the left hand. and bring it to the top. beginning at tho . and divide it into seven heaps. By a quick movement of the right hand. and lay upon it by degrees as many cards as you like. a friend is not always to be found who can perform the pass. the little finger is seen be- tween that card and those above it. It is it I will cndeav^or to describe it.TRICK? I. This is a necessary beginning for card tricks. right hand underneath and left above. and is placed upon the top card. Continue to ehuBle. As. This movement must be assiduously practiced before it is exhibited in public." is the technical term for shifting either the top or the bottom card to any place in the pack that you like. 55 TO 3IAKE THE PASS. in which case two or three cards generally tumble on the floor. cast a glance at the bottom card. where. " Making the pass. and I can only say will be learned better in five minutes from a friend. shuffling the pack. than in as many hours from a book. as the bottom card is to be raised to the top. as nothing looks more awkward than to see it clumsily performed. While sa^ six. face downwards. the bottom card is slipped away towards the left. as in the engraving. <ITH CARDS. Thea lay the pack on the table. that almost impossible to describe it. its 2. make the pass. The cards are held in both hands. however.

you will lay out six heaps. and the figures will be better visible than if it it Make in were opaque. and on asking a spectator to take it up. . say Lay out the pack in as many heaps as the ace of spades. thus leaving your slipped card at the top of the seventh heap.by chance. As in the last trick. look at it. For convenience. you like. through it. so that the figures will be visible when you look through it. such as is given in Fig. You then announce that by the aid of the six cards you will name the seventh. face upwards. Do so with five more cards. and can be picked out with seeming care. 3. the card that immediately follows the ace of spades is the card chosen. be seen that Fig. I have made mine as seen in Fig. When you have done this. 2. take one card from the top of the seventh heap.56 THE magician's own book. and on counting them over. but you take care to put the heap containing the bottom card upon the card which has been chosen. 2 contains as much matter as and that two thirds of the figures are saved by it. and if eight cards. and leave the seventh heap larger than any the others. so as to make The light will then easily pierce it semi-transparent. and lay it. You then gather up the heaps apparentl}'. on one of the other heaps. 4. Ask any one to take up the top card of any heap. The best plan is to write the numbers. 3 in each series being understood. it will be seen that you are right. and place an opera-glass. noting where that one is laid which contains that bottom card. You then give any one the cards to cut. out a table. the numbers 1. If you place five cards above the slipped card. after carefully studying the other cards. appear to calculate. and paste them on a circular piece of cardboard. THE CARD NAMED WITHOUT BEING SEEN. or cut them out of a book. THE CARD TOLD BY THE OPERA GLASS. of bottom. You name it accordingly. cast a glance at the bottom card. there will of course be nine heaps. If by any accident the two cards should be separated when cut. which must then be soaked in oil. 2. and replace it. 1. the upper card of the pack is the chosen one. It will Fig 1.

and what number from the toy he would in which heap 13i 1. an<i to ihink of any Deal them into three heaps. . it is. M* '^v one to take any twenty-seven cards out of a pack. an<5> ask hmi one of them.TRICKS WITH CARDS 57 These preliminaries being arranged.

the chosen card will bo found to be the twenty-sixth. being number one.. It is better to use court cards to place between the third and fourth kings. When he returns you the four cards. Take oflf the bottom card. Take the four kings out of a pack of cards. and to examine them. dexterously place two of them under the pack. of course one of the kings show it as if by Take the next card. Then. Take the third card.) and place that also near the middle of the pack. you ask if that be not his card. the heap in which it wa8 found must be for the first time placed second. (i. and the last time third. 6. Ask any one to cut the cards. taking care to keep that heap number two. and bid him draw his card from the to think of .58 THE magician's own book. (which is one of the court cards. If he again say no. THE FOUR ACCOMPLICES. and this time you place the heap in which is the chosen card at the top. e. If he say no. and on gathering up the heaps. when he will find all four kings together in the middle of the pack. they would not be so readily distinguished as common cards. which are not to be shown. and drawing off the lowest of them. and tell him one of them. you spread them on the table. Under those at the bottom you place four cards of any sort. but conceal the two court cards between the third and fourth kings. and also two other court cards. So you pick up the cards. which is. the second time first. card is to be the twenty-sixth. and place it on the top. you are sure it is one of the two cards on the top. Spread out the kings before the spectators.) and place that in the middle of the pack. accident. Lay the cards face downwards on the table. taking eight or ten from the bottom cards. . THE FOUR KINGS. the second court card. and two on the top. There will then be one king at the top and three at the bottom. 6. You then pass two cards to the bottom. on counting from the top. Deal them a third time. because if the cards should slip aside. place it at the bottom. You again deal them in three heaps. Let a person draw four cards from the pack. you take that card up. and ask the person if the card he fixed on be among them. and then.

as the annexed figure the ace being counted as one. Request a person to think of a number or card. TO TELL THE CARD THOUGHT OF IN first A CIRCLE OF TEN. 59 bottom of the pack. and to touch also any other number or card desire mu . which draw in the manner before described. let the other two be the bottom cards of the pack. Place the u ten cards of any suit in a circular form.TRICKS WITH CARDS. you must dexterously take up the four cards that you put under them. and placing those on the top. . If the person say his card is among those you first drew from the bottom. 7.

nothing is necessary but to remember. in reality. : . "There are but eleven b^^re . cards while you are arranging the heap for the third time. such as fifteen. 60 THE magician's OWN BOOK. so that it may be easily tlistinguished without counting the . when it occurs. for example. without troubling them any more ing them over for form's sake. place that heap in the middle then turning up the packet. and privately insert among them two cards rather larger than the others from the and the other the twenty-sixth. and when he tells you. and again form three heaps. and cut them at poise those you have taken off in your the first long card band. . "And here arc fourteen cards. . are completed. When this is known. &c. Suppose. Take a pack of cards. and divisible by three. twenty-seven. say forty. the card which is the middle one of each. "There must be fifteen cards here . and say. will find yi)ur calculations correct . place it as before.. and ask which of them contains the card.. if there be twenty-four. form three heaps. asking the same question. that the middle card of the first heap be the ace of spades and that the third that the second be the king of hearts be the knave of hearts if you are told that the heap containing the required card is the third. that card must be the knave of hearts. turn up the cards till you count half the number of those contained in the packet twelve. ." On counting them. may name the knave of hearts . and again inquire in which heap the card thought form the three heaps afresh. You may therefore have the cards and then." and poising the remainder. ask the person in which heap the card he thoug-ht of is. TO TELL 9. and place the packet on the table with the faces downward. place the heap containof is ing the card thought of again in the center. THE NUMBER OP CARDS BY THE WEIGHT. exclaim. lookshuffled. . the cards be at the same time odd. for the card thought of will always be that in the middle of the heap in which it is found the third time. to shuffle the cards." then out them at the second long card. the trick will be much easier. put that containing the card thought of in the middle. for example. twenty-one. Seem . the spectator^ let the first be the fifteenth. and say. top. in which case the twelfth card If the number of will be the one the person thought of. Then take up the heaps for the last time. as before. between the other two.

a hole nearly through the top left-hsmd corner. He of course denies it. his. Have 12. towards the spectator. TO CALL THE CARDS OUT OF THE PACK. as ously. when you get the cards back again. you let him shuffle as much as he likes. I will give one or two tricks that depend on audacity for success. Several t icks may be successfully played by sheer audacI once astonished a whole party by holding a pack The fact was. Tell the spectators that yru will call six cards out of tho . THE CAID FOUND AT THE SECOND GUESS. cards. and you begin shuffling again furi" Let me do that. that I was standing exactly opposite a large mirror. THE CAED FOUND UNDER THE HAT. shuffle until his card is at the bottom. then hold the cards behind your back. that it is the chosen card.. and prick to put the card on the top. of cards over my head. and when you are about taking out another card. and tell him to place Pretend to make a great shuffling. 10. but his card on the top. make a ruffling noise with them. and ask him if the bottom card is While doing so. still keeping Then hold up the cards with their faces it at the top. and the marked card will be known by a little raised knob on the rigMhand top corner. you inspect his card at your leisure. Hand the a needle stuck just inside your sleeve. U.TRICKS WITH CARDS. 61 AUDACITY. which you throw on the table carelessly. Then pass them behind your back. while the spectators. You Offer the cards to any one. shuffle the cards. having their backs to the mirror. saying whether it is that car^ or not. in which the cards were reflected. the pack on the table. or let any one shuffle them. and tell the taker Take out the needle. cover them with a hat. . &c. suspected nothing. by some magic process. Replace the Place needle. just as in the preceding trick. and let him draw one." he will probably say so. and show him his own card at the bottom. ity. and preteL-d to find. stop suddenly. and then. until you come to the marked one. Draw out card by card. only turn that card with its back to the others. you are perfectly acquainted with his card. and naming each.

while the eyes of the spectators are fixed upon them. in order that every one may see that there has been no mistake. While he is looking at it. While you are quietly all jecting all seven. which you will take up. to calculate. to the bottom of the pack. Put it into your left hand. in the palm of your hand. HEADS AND TAILS. THE SURPRISE. and offer them to him. give one of the spectators your conjuring wand. or as many as possible. call for the queen of clubs. say the eight of diamonds. This card may be. say the ace of spades. Secure a card. which you take up without showing the face of it. He touches a card. Then call for the eight of diamonds. and.62 THE magician's own book. contrive to ai range their heads one way. and conceal it in the palm Then strew the others on the table. and on looking them over. knav((. and tell one of the spectators to Give hold the cards by one corner as tightly as he can. and tell him. not with your hand. get rid of the card in your left hand. and place it upon the ace of spades. them a sharp rap with your finger. after pretending clubs. and passing them to the bottom. spread out the cards. Throw the pack on the table. and the table. the chosen card will be standing with its head one way. while the others are reversed. shuffling the cards. so that the two look like one card. Then substitute the last card drawn (which is of course a wrong one) for the ace of spades. Shuffle the cards. It is a good plan to ask some one to write down the names of the cards as they are called. and offer them for some one to choose a card from. Another card is touched. face downwards. First name the ace of spades. which is already there. rethe diamonds except the king. turn the cards round. and all the cards will be struck out of his hold. and fall When . when you name a card to touch one. you have discovered a card. in order that he may replace it. Put the pack upon take off a number of the upper cards. and of your hand. Proceed in this manner until six cards have been drawn. 14. pack. queen. 13. say the queen of This you put with the others. the following plan Get the card will make a striking termination to the trick. and then to have the list called over.

. and with your right fore finger slide them slowly over each other. Hold up the cards. Put the pierced card at the bottom of the pack. The nail should be about half an inch long. way of finishing a trick is as follows. open the pack at that card. make the pass. or even shorter if anything. Take another pack of cards. when the whole pack will fly about the room. THE NAILED CARD.TRICKS WITH CARDS. and ask the chooser to be sure of his card hand all the cards to him. and the chosen card ^\ill be seen Hailed to the door The nail should be put through the facp . only leaving the top card in the person's grasp. Get and taking care that all the card to the top of the pack the cards are even. It has a rather more dash ing effect. by putting his finger upon it. Pass the nail through the center of any card. THE REYOLUnON. shuffle them about. drop the pack on the floor. Place your right hand upon them. and the head quite flat. and strike them upwards. The following is a good plan. In falling. get the ace of spades to the bottom. and it will rest with its face upwards on the top of the pack. with their faces downwards. and let him shuffle as much as he chooses. . Ascertain the bottom card of the pack hold the cards in your left hand. like a flock of butterflies. When the cards are returned. When he has done so. 63 except the bottom card. 17. and exchange the pierced card for the other. and file it down until its point is as sharp as a needle. which will remain and thumb. and conceal it in your left hand. and bring the bottom card under the one touched. Take a flat-headed nail. 16. between his finger 15. THE SLIPPED CARD. Another neat . asking some one to stop any card he chooses. the resistance of the air will turn the card over. Afterwards discover the card in any manner that you prefer. if you put the chosen card at the top. to slip the top card a little off the rest of the pack. say the ace of spades. when the nail will be driven in by the pressure of the other cards against its head. but while opening it. and perform the preceding trick. and throw the cards violently against a door. or the floor. taking care just as you let go.

you will have the number of points on the three cards. one of the knaves at the bottom of the pack. In this amusement the ace counts eleven. so that when the others mains facing* the spectators. leave twenty-one. and lay the other three. On the four he places eleven cards. 19. eleven and ten. There will then be twenty-six cards left. the king counting ten. and the vourt cards ten each. on the floor. Ask any one to choose any three cards. e. and lay them on the table. e. with the constable. it re« TO ASCERTAIN THE NUMBER OF POINTS ON THREE UNSEEN CARDS. you count them over on the pretence of shuffling them. and the others according to the number of their spots. the ace counts eleven. : : 20. For example. 18. and the result will be twenty-two. an eight. fall of the card. Deduct from this twenty-six four. the court cards ten each. and sixteen in the other these added together make thirty-one cards these subtracted from the number of cards in the pack. THE KNAYES AND THE CONSTABLE. On each of these he must place as many as with the number of the card will make fifteen. and a king. TO TELL THE NUMBERS ON TWO UNSEEN CARDS. i. i. fifteen cards in one heap. Procoed with u tale to the effect that three knaves once wer i . on the eight seven.64 THE magician's own book. On the ace you must put fourThere will be then teen cards. in the preceding trick. take an ace and a queen. down upon the table. and when you have them in your hand. and lay them on the table. the joint number of the ace and queen. and place on each as many as will make their number twentyfive. Let the person who chooses the two cards lay them on the table with their faces downward. and on the king fiv^. with their faces downwards. and by deducting four. For example. As Take the remaining cards and count them. which is the number of points on the three cards. and one of Secretly place the kings to perform the oflBce of constable. Select the four knaves from a pack of cards. when they will be fouud to be just as many as the points in the two cards. fifty-two. the spectator chooses a four. added to the eight and the four. and on the queen fifteen. He gives you the remaining cards.

taking care not to lift the pack so high that the one already at the bottom caa be seen) one effected his entrance at the first floor window (putting another knave in the midd\e of the pack) and the other. which forms a memoria technica. "Mutus gave a name to the Coci. . A very little practice only is required to enable you to convey a knave or any other card secretly to the bottom of the pack. and ask ten people to take a pair each. Then request as many of the company to cut the cards as and tell them that you have no doubt the constable please has succeeded in his object. and closely followed the last knave (putting the king likewise upon the top of the pack)." (a people -who have yet to be discovered. contrived to scramble in at the garret window (placing the third knave at the top of the pack) the constable vowed he would capture them. and remember them. .EI). . be found together. according to the accompanj'ing table. to 65 rob a house . and lay them on the table in order. Tell out twenty cards in pairs. . and may be construed. THE PAIRS RE-PAIP. one got in at the parlor window (putting a knave at the bottom of the pack. if the trick is neatly performed. Take up the pairs in their order.TRICKS WITH CARDS. which will be quite evident.) u . . when you spread out the pack in your hands as the king and three knaves will. by getting on the parapet from a neighboring house. 21.

sent four soldiers to keep guard. kings. " Here are four queens going to dig for diamonds. became uneasy and set off themselves. and knaves.) along. goes on T in Mutus. place the heaps upon each other and Have them cut four or five direct some one to cut them. and the second on t in Dedit and so on until all the cards are laid in their places. times.66 THE magician's own book. had overpowered the gucTtds and driven them off. Evening came. It will be seen that the whole table consists of ten letters. and say. fearing that they might have come to harm. which will he a diamond) in one hand. thinking that they might be attacked by (Lay an ace on robbers. for as they came each ace. the pairs may be placed on the table back upwards. Select from a pack the aces. Any number of bystanders may choose pairs. if he says the second and third row.) spade on each diamond) and dug until they were nearly tired. and the queens had not returned. which will always point out the positions of the pairs if they are put in the places of those letters. each repeated. soon vanquished the villains. First the queen. although only armed with clubs (place a common club on each knave). together with four common cards of each suit. because they both represent the letter e. 23. For example. and continue to do so until a conmion heart appears at the bottom. and bound them. (lay down the top card) with the diamonds which she had found (lay down the second card. &c . THE QUEENS DIGGING POR DIAMONDS. you point out the last cards in each. Ask each person in succession in which rows his cards are. queens. who. and her spade (the third card will be a spade) in the other. and to make the trick more mysterious. Their four kings. But the four kings. and you can immediately point them out. being possessed of bold hearts (lay a common heart over each king). because the cards represent s in Mutus and s in Cocis. Lay down the four queens in a row. Then continue the tale. (Place a king on They were only just in time.) so the kings. each spade. they met their queens being carried off by four villains (lay a knave on each king)." Gather up the cards. (Lay a common diamond over cmA They each took a spade with them (place a common queen. "The party then returned home in the following order. . and say. If another says the first and last rows. you point out the second and fourth cards in those rows.

This is a variation of the preceding. which is thus The cards are supposed to be divided into you likewise agree to class everyfour classes. putting the heap in which is the chosen card second. You may turn your back while he searches. four cards in each. 24. Offer the long card. will name any one card which may have been touched in your absence. on one of the company (your confederate) pointing out a passage from any author to be read to you. in four divisions. 26. The tenth card will be the one thought of. and lay them in four heaps. and. Do this twice more. Then take the pack. . and ask some person to choose one from them. on your return." ^57 continue dealing out the cards in that manner. You will and it 24. THE CARD DISCOVERED BY THE TOUCH OR SMELL. D : Lay . or any other that you thoroughly well know and. the cards should be placed in the order in which they appear in the cut inserted on the next page. Lay them out in three heaps. and ask the person who took the card in which heap it is. . 27. and then sagaciously declare what card it is. If it be the long card. THE INGENIOUS CONFEDERACY. C. and without looking at it. on your return. Ac. sixteen cards on the table. or smell it. Take twenty-four cards. with their faces upwards. pretend to feel the pips or figures on the under side with your fore finger. To perform this trick.: TRICKS WITH CARDS. "You then state that you will leave the room. Act as in No. B. and allow him either to replace it or not. 25. as A. Take any twenty-one THE QUADRUPLE DEAL. Gather them up and put that heap between the other two. and feel whether it be there or not shuffle the cards in a careless manner. by any person present. you previously making your confederate acquainted with your mode of proceeding. you may give the pack to the person who drew it. and the chosen card will always be the eleventh from the top. cards. THE TRIPLE DEAI. as the person who has drawn it holds it in his hand. decide accordingly. be found that they will be in precisely the same order as when they were taken up.

68 THE magician's OWN BOOK. Each class must now be subdivided in the same manner in class 7 13 A. 3 the vegetable. D . thing in the world under the four denominations of biped. C for vegetables. vegetable. B fur quadrupeds. and D for minerals. and that a volume of 1^2 S^c : : . your confederate must take care to select an appropriate pass^D*' For example. No. quadruped. 1 is the biped. 4 to have been touched. and mineral class A stands for bipeds. When performing the trick. 2 the quadruped. and 4 the mineral and so with the other classes. we will suppose the age.

pany whether he nervous . queen knave. till you obtain an answer in the aflSrmati^ e. the knave of hearts tell it is him he has made a mistake. or ten. and ask him what he will. take off the upper card. you ask him if he recollects his card if he says. and when he has drawn the card away. and lay over the upper part of it. of course. with its face downward. for if he look at his card. under pretence of holding the pack very tight. the most athletic . . If he answers. lay it on the table. give that there is no danger of detection. . THE CHAEMED TWELVE. hold jouv hand so that the faces of the cards will be turned towards the floor. telling him that if he looks over it. and request him to proclaim what card it is say it is the knave of hearts you then tell him to hold the card tightly at the bottom. he will find the knave of hearts in Yon commence by asking is . You procure an extra knave of hearts. of course. is very sim pie.TRICKS WITH CARDS. You then desire the party to stand in the middle of the room. and put so many cards upon it as will make up twelve with the number of spots on the noted card. bid him lay that card. get the knave of spades to the bottom of the pack. unperceived. No. . with its face downward. having noticed it. he will find it to be the knave of spades. . keeping the upper part. shuffle. For instance if the card which the person drew was king. calling it ten upon that card let him lay another. Yes. and. . and throwing away the 1-ower When commencing your feat." < rson in com} he will most projably answer in the negative you then ask whether he thinks he can hold a card tightly. so that the joining may not be perceived. quite a different situation. you show him the bottom he will card. desire him to draw it away. While he is looking up. . though it excites much admiration. answer. and look to the ceiling. and take an opportunity of removing the half-knave you may var^ the feat by having a half-knave of spades. which will be the case. 29. and cut it in half. 69 "HOLD IT FAST. for the legs of tliose two knaves are so much alike You. : 30. : . throw your thumb across the middle of the knave. and holding up the pack of cards. This feat.your half knave of hearts and. You then give him the remainder of the pack. him the legs of the knave of spades to hold. ask the question of eome one else. Let any one take a pack of cards.

which he gave you but if there were but four heaps. it eleven. calling . another. then. . if there be not enough to make up the last noted card. or so near it that the other cannot turn down one without overrunning it. most probably. — . him lay another. he will surely beat ^ou. : . let him lay it down on another part of tho . another." for the purpose It is called " thirtyof deceiving and making money by it. You need not see the cards laid out. : table. or as near to it as and the man who turns possible. to the product. This trick is very deceiving. calling it ten. calling card. . calling it nine. multiply the remainder by thirteen. if he does not propose bet:roduces it ting on it at first. the threes in another The object now the Jh'^irs. if there be any. add the number of remaining cards. it being sufficient to know the number of heaps. then those remaining cards alone will show the number of spots on the four bottom cards. the spots of which make him thirty-one. and therefore you may perform this feat as well standing in another room. the deuces in another. A trick often introduced by " sporting men. it twelve and so proceed to lay out in heaps. will be to turn down cards alternately. calling it twelve then bid him take off the next uppermost card sup pose it to be nine. : . upon it upon the most latter another." for. and upon thai then let him go to the next upper* let . and endeavor to make thirty-one points by so turning. and the number of remaining cards. until he has gone through with the whole pack. and. I caution all not to play or bet with a man who inone. If there be any cards at the last.70 THE magician's OWN BOOK. . as all other tricks are. It is played with the first six of each suit the aces then in one row. and upon that card. nor know the number of cards in each heap. do thus from the number of heaps subtract four. wins. that is. the number twelve. without overrunning it down a card. 31. calling it eleven. Jives and sixes— all laid in rows. so that you can and perhaps he will let you beat him if play it with him you should play in fun but if you bet. and requires much practice to be well understood. as if you were present. in order to tell all the numbid him give them to you ber of spots contained in all the bottom cards of the heaps. he will after he gets you interested. as before. and oretend to teach you all the secrets of it. THE TPJCK OF THIRTY-ONE.

and make 24. then he to add 6. You well shuffled. viz. was the first and that it was a favorite amusement of to introduce it The chief point of this celebrated trick is to cuunt so his. in your pocket. . we will suppose it your privilege to commence the you would commence with 3. TO TELL THE NAMES OP THE CARD BY THE WEIGHT. make trick. which would make 9 it would then be your then. no matter what numpolicy to add 1. 1 7 or 24. which take an opportunity of exchanging. which you commit to memory. You must have two packs of cards exactly alike one pack to be constantly in use during the evening in performing your other tricks the second. and. and your adversary would add 6. t)ie circumstances of the initial letter of the words in the line and the names of the cards being identical. which number gives you the command of the trick. then he cannot possibly add any number to count 31 : as the highest number he can add is 6. not only to tell the color. as to end with the following numbers. For example. so that it may be believed that the pack of cards of which you tell the names is the same as that you have been using with your other tricks. if a court-card. he cannot prevent you counting 17. and say that Mr.TRICKS WITH CARDS. . you add 1. and make 16 then. or prepared pack. The manner of preparing your pack (which must be done previously) is by the following line. which would only count 30. you add 1. the words in italics forming the key : Eight Eight Kings threa-tened to save nine nine fair Ladies for one sick Knave. many variations to the 32. however. and count : . as You formed by . We will suppose he add 6. by weighing each card for a moment on your finger. queen. Fox. Queen four ace six King will three ten two seven five Knave^ perceive that this is a kind of artificial memory. 71 The persons using it I have known to attach great import' ancG to it. desire any person to cut a pack of cards as often as he pleases. so that you can easily add the remaining 1. of England. and make 10 ber he adds. or ace. but the suit and number of spots. or knave. 3. 10. and make 23. and undertake. and make 17. 31. and which they must know have been : . .. There are. whether it be king.

placing it in the left hand with its back to the palm then the king of spades. you go on until you come to the knave of clubs. You now want to know the first card. or 3^ou will be very likely to forget the ten word altog'3ther. should now separate the different suits. next the three of diamonds. hand it round to be cut. and lay theiQ on the table. you have time to recollect what is the next word in your key. you. and go on in the sanie way till you come to the knave of spades. as a clue to the rest and therefore takeolBf the top card. and brought forward youv prepared pack. and clubs last. you see what the card is. and go on until you come to the knave of diamonds. when you begin again with the eight of diamonds. . some of the words. : come. to te'nJd. which is to you consequently know that this card is a two. which you lay over it. then the viz. . until you finish your line. ^2 THE magician's OWN BOOK. according to your key take up the eight of hearts. that the old way of performing the trick was by doing so. declare the card you are now weighing on your finger to be the two of dubs the next will of course be the seven of hearts. well as the near resemblance of The " threatened " is divided into two words. you then take the next card on your finger. which will terminate with the knave of hearts.. which is chibs. spades uiiiX. — — — Yoa : . and so on. begin to sort (to yourself). hearts spades diamonds dubs. two of hearts. in order that it may answer for the three and ten you should pay attention to this. and so on as long as you please will which we — .gain with the eight of clubs. diamonds next. Having done so. but that this was very easily detected. likewise commit to which would set you entirely wrong you should memory the order in which the suits . and which is now ready for use when . face upwards. placing heart first. and holding it up between you and the light. you have made your exchange. and while pretending to weigh it. suppose to be the ten of diamonds. next the ten of clubs. saying at the same time. therefore. you must then recollect what suit comes after diamonds. which finishes the pack. You then take up the eight of spades. and beginning A. the next to that the nine of spades. Having thus obtained a knowledge of the first card.



I shall only give one or two of these tricks, because, in general, the apparatus required for cards is exceedingly expensive. Those that I shall give require but little apparatus, and any bo;y with the use of his hands can make it.


a vase with five divisions, two of which hold an pack of cards, and the remaining three are only large enough just to admit one card each, as in the figure. A


strong silk thread is fastened at a, passes over the three compartments, through the bottom of the vase, and running over two pulleys, terminates in the weight at b.

Take three cards, say the ace of spades, the ten of diamonds, and the king of hearts, out of a pack of cards, and put one into each of the little divisions pressing the thread down into the bottom of each division. If the cards are left, the weight will descend, and the string being tightened, So a kind of trigger shelf is will push the cards upwards. The remainder of the made, on which the weight rests. pack ^^-Du put into division 2. When you show the trick, you take another pack of cards exactly like that which is already in the vase, and handing it to three persons successively, compel them to choose the ace of spades, the ten of diamonds, and the king of hearts.* Let some one shuffle the cards, and wlien this is done, put
the pack into division


Tell the spectators that
the pass.

when you


may be done by making






have struck toree times on the table, the cards will come out At the third stroke, loosen the catch on which of the vase. the weig'ht stands, by means of the string that communicates with your table, and the three cards will rise slowly In order to show that the cards have really vanup. ished from the pack, take the pack out of division 2 and let any one examine it. If you prefer, you can draw the thread yourself, by having a kind of a pedal under your table, to which the other end of the string is attached, instead of being fastened to the weight B. If you prefer the weight, you must have a small shelf for the weight to rest upon, when it has descended sufficiently low, or the cards will be forced entirely out by the thread, c is a representation of one of the divisions, showing the semi-circular cut that is made in them for the convinience of taking out the cards.


In this most excellent trick you choose from the pack the four eights and the two of diamonds you put the four eights in your left hand and the two on the table you take in the two, placing an eight on the table, and they are all You exchange the two for the eight, and they all twos. become black cards you again exchange the eight for the two, and they all turn red and after again exchanging, you have, as before, the four eights and the two of dia; ; ; ;


The method of accomplishing this trick is as follows Get three plain white cards, exactly like playing cards, and paint them as in the engraving. Mix them with an or'.

%^ %' s*
dinary pack, and when you are searching for the four eights, with which you say you are going to perform a trick, take them from the pack, and with them an ordinary eight of clubs and a two of diamonds.



Show the cards as in fig-. 2, making the spectators observe that there are the four eights. Put the two of diamonds behind the eight of clubs, and lay the eight on the table. The two must be inserted before the eight is removed, or the mystery of the marking will be apparent Close the cards, turn them over, and spread them out, when they will appear as in Fig. 3. Take in the eight and lay the two on the table close the cards, and while shuflOiing them, turn card No. 2 the other way upwards. The cards will




appear black, as in Fig. 4. Take in the two and rethe eight, turn them over, and spread them out, when they will appear all red, as in Fig. 5. Finally, take the

eight, replacing the two on the table, reverse No. 2, and you will have the four eights and the two of diamonds, just as they were at first. You must invent plenty of talk during your changes. If the spectators say that the cards are

double, spread them out, and hold them up to the light, (for the light cannot penetrate through the places where the cards are placed over each other,) and if the}'^ are still skeptical, hand them the two of diamonds to look at, and in a moment or two hand them the eight of clubs, asking them


THE magician's own book.

whether they wouhl like to examine a black card also. This will effectually disarm supicion.

It is

necessary to have cards made on purpose for this trick half cards, as they may be properly termed, that is, one half kings or knaves, and the other half aces. When you lay the aces one over the other, of course nothing but the kings or knaves can be seen and on turning the kings or knaves downward, the four aces will make their appearance. You must have two perfect cards, one a king or knave, to put over one of the aces, else it will be seen and the other an ace, to lay over the kings or knaves. When you wish to make them all appear blank, lay the cards a little lower, and by hiding the aces, they will appear white on both sides you may then ask which they wish to have, and may show kings, aces, or knaves, as they are called for.






Cut very neatly the spots from a three of spades. Lay the pierced card on an ace of diamonds, and rub pomatum on the ace of diamonds through the places which the spades Remove the pierced card, and sprinkle the ace occupied. of diamonds with jet powder, which adhering to the pomatum, will transform the card into a three of spades. Place the transformed card at the bottom of the pack, and show a person what card it is. Make him declare it that every one may hear, then place it on the table, face downwards, and pnsh it over the cloth to the spectator, which Tell him to place his action will rub off all the jet powder. hand on the card. Let a three of spades be at the top of the pack, and an ace of diamonds the second from the bottom. Show another person the ace of diamonds, and ask him to tell the name of the card openly. Put the pack down, face downwards, and in so doing make the pass, and biing the three of spades to the bottom. Tap the hand of the person who is guarding the card, and then tell him to take up the card and show it to the spectaSimtors, when it will be seen to be the ace of diamonds. ultaneously, you take up the pack, and show the three of spades at the bottom.





To perform this feat, provide a round hollow giick, about ten inches long and three quarters of an inch in diameter, the hollow being three eighths of an inch in diameter. Also, have another round stick to fit this hollow, and slide in it easily, with a knob to prevent its coming through. Our young readers will clearly understand our meaning, when we say, that in all respects it must resemble a pop-gun, with the single exception that the stick which fits the tube, must be of the full length of the tube exclusively of the knob Next steep a card in water for a quarter of an hour, peel off the face of it, and double it twice across, tiii it becomes one fourth of the length of a card, then roll it up tightly, and thrust it up the tube till it becomes even with the bottom. You then thrust in the stick at the other end of the tube till it just touches the card. Having thus provided your magic wand, let it lie on thf> table until you have occasion to make use of it, but be careful not to allow any person handle it. Now take a pack of cards, and let any person draw one but be sure to let it be a similar card to the one which you have in the hollow stick. This must be done by forcing. The person who has chosen it will put it into the pack again, and, while you are shuffling, you let it fall into your Then, calling for some eggs, desire the person who lap. drew the card, or any other person in the company, to choose any one of the eggs. When he has done so, ask if there be anything in it ? He will answer there is not. Place the egg in a saucer break it with the wand, and pressing the knob with the palm of your right hand, tho card will be driven into the egg. Then show it to the spec;


A great improvement may be made in this feat, by presenting the person who draws the card with a saucer and a pair of forceps, and instead of his returning the card to the pack, desire him to take it by the corner with the forceps and burn it, but to take care and preserve the ashes for this purpose you present him with a piece of paper (prepared as hereafter described), which he lights at the candle but a few seconds after, and before he can set the card on fire, it will suddenly divide in the middle and spring back, burning his fingers if he do not drop it quickly. Have an;



THE magician's own book.

other paper ready and desire him to try that when he will most likely bog to be excused, and will prefer lighting it with the candle. When the card is consumed, say that you do not wish to fix upon any particular person in company to choose an egg, therefore, lest it might be suspected he was a confederate request any two ladies in company to choose each an egg, and having done so, to decide between themselves which when this is done, take a second shall contain the card saucer, and in it receive the rejected egg, break it with your wand, and show the egg round to the company at the same time drawing their attention to the fact of those two eggs having been chosen from among a number of others, and of its not being possible for you to have told which of
; ; ;

them would be the chosen


egg in the saucer containing the ashes, and having rolled it about until you have blacked it a little, blow the ashes from around it into the grate you then break the egg with the same wand, when, on touching the spring, the card will be found in the egg. The method of preparing the paper mentioned in the Take a piece of letter paper, above feat is as follows about six inches in length and three quarters of an inch in breadth, fold it longitudinally, and with a knife cut it in the then take one of the sides crease about five inches down which are still connected at the bottom, and with the back of the knife under it, and the thumb of the right hand over it, curl it outwards as a boy would the tassels of his kite repeat the same process with the other side, and lay them by for use. When about using them, (but not till then, as the papers will soon lose their curl if stretched,) draw them up so as to make them their original length, and turn the ends over a little, in order that they may remain so when set on fire, they will burn for a minute or two, until the turn-over is burnt out, when the lighted ends will turn over quickly, burning the lingers of the holder this part of the trick never fails to excite the greatest merriment.
the chosen
: ;

You now receive







For this trick, prepare two cards like the accompanying engraving and have a common ace and five of diamonds. Hold down th5 five of diamonds and the two prepared cards.



in the next engraving and certain Frenchman left fifteen thousand livres, which are represented by these three cards, to his three sons ; the two youngest agreed to leave their five thousand, each of them, in the hands of the elder, that he might improve it." While you are telling this story lay the five on the table, and put the ace in its place at the same time artfully change the position of the other two cards, so that the three cards appear as in this engraving. Then, resuming the tale, relate that " The eldest brother, instead of improving the money, lost it all by gaming, except three thousand livres, as you here see (laying the ace on the table, and taking \ip the five). Sorry for having lost the money, he went to the East Indies with these three thousand, and brought back fifteen thousand." Then show the cards in the same position as at first. To render this deception agreeable, it must be performed with dexterity, and should not be repeated, but the cards immediately put in the packet and








you should have



cards ready to show,



one desire to see them.

The following hints are of considerable importance to the amateur exhibitor. 1. Never acquaint the company beforehand with the particulars of the feat you are about to perform, as it will give them time to discover your mode of operation.

Endeavor, as much as possible, to acquire various
feat, in
likel}" to fail in

methods of performing the same
should be
one, or

have reason

order that if you to believe

that your operations are suspected, you may be prepared with another. 3. Never yield to the request of any one to repeat the same feat, as you thereby hazard the detection of your mode of operation but do not absolutely refuse, as that would appear ungracious. Promise to perform it in a different

particularly impressing on him the necessity of blowing hard. the magic whistles may be produced. from which it is. . dust or soot. and truly. may state.) who will persist in crying out. it. As diverting the attention of the company from too closely inspecting your maneuvers is a most important object. as to acquire the necessary expertness. of course. Never venture on a feat requiring manual dexterity. that everything he exhibits can be accounted for on rational principles. There are few persons at the present day credulous enough to believe such trash. (generally a naughty boy. ! — .80 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the business of the Should this be the conjurer to keep his youthful admirers. you should manage to talk to them during the whole course of your proceedings. " I know how it is done " at the same time continually advancing to the table. and attribute their feats to some extraordinary and mysterious influence. way. . till you have previously practiced it so often. there can be no objection (particularly when the party comprises many younger than himself) to occasionally show by what simple means the most apparently marvelous feats are accomplished. and the remark made. as the youth of maturer years might inadvertently be tempted to pursue this method. It will sometimes happen at an early stage of the performance. even among the rustic and most ignorant but. proceed to give a few directions. it may not be deemed suHe perfluous to caution him against such a procedure. that now the troublesome boy shall show the company a trick. and then exhibit another which somewhat resembles This maneuver seldom fails to answer the purpose. and is only in obediand although we ence to the unerring laws of Nature have just cautioned him against enabling the company themselves to detect his operations. because the whistle y:>u place in his hand is perforated with a number The would-be magician is. Having taken up one of the whistles. It is the plan of vulgar operators to gabble unintelligible jargon. case. which has previouslj'' been filled with flour or magnesia. that the ultimate success of the whole is likely to be endangered by a troublesome person. 4. CUEE FOR TROUBLESOME SPECTATORS. excessively of holes. while exhibiting his skill before his younger companions. 5. therefore.

in order to enable the ventriloquist to utter sounds from the larynx without moving the muscles of his face. on applying his mouth and blowing hard. . deep inspiration. that this speaking distinctly. can. MM. by which a con- first siderable quantity of air is introduced into the lungs. from venlcr. Gille and Louis Brabant. 6 . he speaks by means of his stomach although the throat is the real source from whence the sound proceeds. without any movement of the lips at all. It should. oi windpipe thus prepared. THE SECRET OF VENTRILOQUISM. to receive the powder in his face. he strengthens them by a powerful action of the abdominal muscles. It has lately been shown. 81 mortified. Although the voice does not actually come from that region. to speak. that some ventriloquists have acquired by practice the power of exercising the veil of . the stomach. and no chango in their countenances could be discovered. and the trachea. : . and has but rarely been obtained. therefore. and hquor. . obtain more or less expertness in this exercise in which. Hence. But the distinctive character of ventriloquism consists in its imitations being performed by the voice seeming to come from the st(jmach hence its name. Thus. is the highest perfection of ventriloquism. that much of the perfection of ventriloquism lies. St.VENTRILOQUISM. The main secret of this surprising art simply consists in making a strong. be added. Any person. however. appeared to be absolutely mute while exercising their art. by practice. it being nothing more than the usual shaped toy perforated at the top with a number of holes. two celebrated French ventriloquists. Any turner will make such a whistle. the expiration should be slow and gradual. the voice is still modified by the mouth and tongue and it is in the concealment of this aid. to be afterwards acted upon by the flexible powers of the larynx. though not apparently. or cavity situated behind the tongue.

Vocal imitations are much less striking and ingenious than the feats of ventriloquism. Another of the secrets of ventriloquism. that. the sound produced is weak. Thus. . if we place a man and a child in the same angle of uncertainty. were to expect sounds to issue. we should still be deceived. each of these artists has succeeded in carrying on a dialogue and each. on the contrary. and refer the sounds to the lifeless stone or marble.S2 THE magician's OWN BOOK. as the source from which we . has represented a scene apparently with several actors. without moving those of the face. by speaking with a more acute or grave pitch than usual. by raising or depressing it. we shall necessarily believe that the voice comes from the child. and apparently close to us. without any corresponding motion in his mouth or face. is the uncertainty with respect to the direction of sounds. Thus may be imitated the grinding of cutlery on a wheel. . we see how easy is the the sounds are required to proceed from given objects. and other causes. the uncorking of a bottle. Thus. These ventriloquists have likewise possessed such power over their faces and jQgures that. the belief is strengthened by the imagination for if we were directed to a statue. The ventriloquists of our time have carried their art it whom de- ception when any still They have not only spoken by the muscles of the throat and the abdomen. and the gurgling noise in emntving its contents. and seems to be more or less distant if. so as to imitate them with the greatest further. and the man speaks with the accent of a child. Extraordinary varieties of voice ma}' be produced. the sawing of wood. aided by rapid changes of dress. obstruction. Thus. in his own single person and with his own single voice. and by diff'erent contractions of the mouth. dull. accuracy. This illusion will be greatly assisted by the voice being totally different in tone and character from that of the man from really comes. and are such as they actually yield. In this case. If they are closely contracted. the voice become loud. as to become acquainted with modifications of distance. the frying of a pancake. the palate in such a manner. the sound will be strengthened. they dilate or contract the inner nostrils. but have so far overcome the uncertainty of sound. . their personal identity has scarcely been recognized among the range of personations. these cavities are widely dilated.

and then the water is evaporated.'- that we produce the curious experiments [83] with . This phenomenon is the result of one of the first principles of the science. each salt will be re-formed as before. and each particle will unite with its own kind. the student is surprised and delighted with the developments of the exact discrimination. and then by evaporation. Chemistry is one of tlie most attractive sciences. to the entire exclusion of all others. cause them to reassume a solid form. " chemical . Dissolve two substances in the same fluid. and as such is passed over without thought but it is a wonderful phenomenon. as well as the power and capacity. or otherwise. It is by the action of this same principle. if sulphate of copper and carbonate of soda are dissolved in boiling water. From the beginning to the end. aflSnity. and made of no account only by the fact that it is so common and so familiar. which are displayed in various forms of chemical action.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. Thus.

the letters assume a beautiful blue. so as to prevent its destroying the paper. but when warmed they will appear a bluish green. the manuscript will be invisible except when held to the fire. you rub over the sheet a feather or sponge. as oxygen and hydrogen. We are almost sure that our secrets thus written will not be brought to the knowledge of a stranger. On the receipt of our letter. and are permanent. Muriatic acid and ammonia are examples. becomes visible only when moistened with a particular Thus. when combined. or the efi"(!Ct of choice. the writing the secret. . if you pour . as it does on exposure to the sun or fire. On the other hand. when the letters will appear black. phate of iron. two invisible gases. 3. Chemical affinity is sometimes called elective. the whole becomes . If we write with a weak solution of sulphate of copper. If you write with oil of vitriol very much diluted. SYMPATHETIC INKS. which unite and form water. 6. we may carry on a correspondence which is beyond the discovery of all not ia With one class of these inks. because he does not know tlie solution which was used in writing. the writing disappears. if a solution of sulphate of soda be mixed with a solution of muriate of lime. but may be revived again as before. If we write with a solution of sugar of lead. sometimes a visible solid. and chose to be united to it rather than to that with wliicli it was previously combined thus. the letters will appear with metallic brilliancy. and you moisten with a sponge or pencil dipped in water impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen. and you apply ammonia.rs. When tlie ammonia evaporates. Some gases when united form liquids. when combined. wet with a solution of nut-galls. By means of these. Write with cobalt dissolved in diluted muriatic acid the letters will be invisible when cold. Other forms of elective affinity produce equally novel Thus. also ammonia and carbonic acid. form results.84 THE magician's own book. if we write to you with a solution of sulsolution. as if one substance exerted a kind of 'preference for another. Some solids. 4. and therefore knows not what to apply to bring out the lett(. solid. the letters are invisible. and the letters burst forth into sensible being at once. 2. form liquids.

. (a combination of the same acid with soda. if some sulphuricacid be poured on this new compound. as the case may be. or the whole of the silver or lead deposited. brilliant plates of silver or lead. Again.) the bright blade of a knife be introduced.) or some carbonate of soda. united with oxygen and hydrogen in the proportion which forms water. (a combination of potassa and carbonic acid. as they are termed. the knife will speedily be covered with a coat of copper. It is on the same principle that a very beautiful preparation. (a combination of sulphuric acid with oxide of copper. may be formed. This is a case of elective affinity the acid with which the silver or lead was united prefers the zinc to either of those metals. . and in consequence discards them and in order to attach the zinc to itself this process will continue until the whole of the zinc is taken up. some vinegar. for the sulphuric acid. displaced in consequence of the potaiih or soda preferring the acetic acid. if into a solution of blue vitriol. Then. . capable of holding from half a thus pint to a pint. or a lead-tree. . (lunar caustic. . Again. that it will abstract it from almrst any body in which it exists if you then pour : . occasioned by the escape of the carbonic acid. or so great a thirst for water. which 86 is a weak acetic acid. in pure distilled water then attach a small piece of zinc by a string to the cork or stopper of the bottle. and forming a compound called an acetate. so that the zinc shall hang about the middle of the bottle.) or acetate of lead. and set it by where it maybe quite undisturbed in a short time.) a violent effervescence will take place. the acetic acid will in its turn be displaced by the greater attachment of either of the bases. called a silver-tree. upon some pearlash.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. with a tolerably strong solution of nitrate of silver. Now oil of vitriol (strong sulphuric acid) has so powerful an aflBnity. dep'>sited in consequence of the acid 'preferring t\\Q iron of which the knife is made. Fill a wide bottle. assuming more or less of the crystalline form. will be seen to collect around the piece of zinc. many animal and vegetable substances consist for the most part of carbon or charcoal. a quantity of it being dissolved in exact proportion to the quantity of copper deposited.

the result of their combination is carbonic acid and water. in consequence of the oxygen and hydrogen being removed by the sulphuric acid. then apply a lighted taper to the end of the tube. and pour on them a mixture of sulphuric acid and water. in whicii a piece of glass tube is inserted wait some minutes that the atmospheric air in the bottle may be expelled by the hydrogen gas set free by the decomposition of the water. If a piece of charcoal. or charcoal. If you hold a glass tumbler inverted over the flame. then close the bottle with a cork having a hole bored through the middle. when the gas will inflame. giving out so little light as to be barely visible by daylight. As most combustible bodies contain both carbon and hydrogen. . which is pure carbon or nearly so. and introduced into a jar. affinity the pearl being simply carbonate of lime. Into an ordinary wine bottle put some pieces of granulated zinc. in the proportion of about one part of acid to fou of water. left.) than for the carbonic acid. AVhen Cleopatra dissolved pearls of wondrous value in wood vinegar. chemical elective . the product will be carbonic acid gas only. but producing so intense a heat that a piece of platinum wire instantly becomes white hot when held in the flame. This is the case with the gas used for illumination and in order to prevent the water so produced from spoiling goods in shops. containing oxygen or common atmospheric air. and in this case water is the only product. with which it had been united all its life an example of inconstancy in strong contrast with the conduct of its owner.86 THE magician's own book. or be charred^ as it is called. EXPERIMENTS ON COiTBtJSTION. various plans have been devised for carrying off the water when in the state of This is generally accomplished by suspending over Rteam • . aud only the carbon. the result of the union of the hydrogen with the oxygen of the air. Borae of this acid on a lump of sugar. it becomes covered with minute drops of water. be ignited. (the acetic acid of the vinegar. which was decomposed by the greater affinity or fondness of lime for its new acquaintance. she was exhibiting unwittingly an instance of . who chose death rather than become the mistress of her lover's conqueror. the sugar or wood will speedily oecome quite black. . or place a chip of in it.

with some carbonic acid the presence of the latter may be proved by decanting some of the remaining air into a bottle. or some equivalent. is necessary for the support of combustion. filling the glass with ght dashing through the water. or introduce it by means of a dropping bottle. the oxygen has been converted partly into water. W M^^ .shes of Into an >ther gla ^ put some cold water introduce carefully some of the salt called chlorate of potassa. upon that drop a piece of phosphorus then let some strong ^^^^^r sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) trickle ^K^^r slowly down the side of the glass. As soon as it touches the salt J it decomposes it. : . and invert over them a as they burn. when you will find that a considerable portion of the air has disappeared. 87 the burners glass bells. drop one or two pieces of phosphorus about the size of peas. Into the half of a broken phial put some chlorate of potassa. or passing outside the house. two thirds full of water at about 140''. Then take a bladder containing oxygen gas. brilliant il . The phial will soon be filled with a heavy gas of a deep yellow color. and what remains will no longer support flame that is. fix two or three pieces of taper on flat pieces of cork. To show that oxygen. and press the bladder gently . and partly into carbonic acid gas. ^^ ^A^ .THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. which will absorb the carbonic acid and form chalk. and then shaking some lime-water with it. and pour in some oil of vitriol. as the gas reaches the phosphorus it will take fire. and continue to do so until the tapers expire. and they will remain unaltered. and burn under the water with a brilliant flame. producing much the same appearance as in the last experiment. light them. communicating with tubes opening into the chimney. and the remaining air is principally nitrogen. by uniting with the carbon and hydrogen of which the taper consists. to which is attached a stop-cock and a pass the end of the tube to the bottom of long fine tube the water. the heat produced may perhaps glass jar at first expand the air so as to force a small quantity out cf the jar. but the water will soon rise in the jar. . turn the stop-cock. and set them floating on in a soup-plate. Tie a small ff^st tube at right angles to the end of a stick not less wax water . and liberates a gaa A which ignites the phosphorus. Into an ale-glass. i .

it This experiment should be performed in a place where there are no articles of furniture to be damaged. as rapidly as possible. by making a coil of platinum wire bv twisting it round the stem of a tobacco pipe. to moderate the intense heat. Combustion without flame may be shown in a very elegant and agreeable manner. for which. formed by the union of the gas with the iron and they are so intensely hot. and pour gentl}^ into the phial of gas. . with a long handle of thick wire passing through a hole in a cork that fits the and jar. ignite the charcoal. spread them over a piece of then fold up the tin foil. that some . and most brilliant light. as well as for the oxygen. throwing out bright scintillations. as* the ingredients are often scattered by the explosion. the tin apparently burning away This heat is produced by the energetic action of the tin on the nitrate of copper. the tin has a much greater affinity than the copper has. It is well to dilute the oxygen with about one fourth part of common air. when an instantaneous explosion will take place. may be produced by introducing a piece of phosphorus into a jar of oxygen. which is nearly certain to break the jar. if pare oxygen is used. The phosphorus may be placed in a small copper cup. sprinkle them with a little water foil tightly. long". But by far the most intense heat. The iron will take fire and burn with a brilliant light. The phosphorus must first be ignited as soon as it is introduced into the oxygen. suspended to a cork that fits the neck of the jar. and having attached a small piece of charcoal to the lower part of the wire.88 than a yard THE magician's own book. put a little ether into the tube. Into a jar containing oxygen gas. or any of will . and the oil of vitriol destroys all animal and vegetable substances. The following experiment shows the production of heat by chemical action alone. taking away its oxygen in order to unite with the nitric acid. probably melt their way into the sides of the jar. it gives out a light so brilliant that no eye can bear it. and in a minute or two it will become red hot. introduce a coil of soft iron wire. and the whole jar appears filled with an intensely luminous atmosphere. Bruise some fresh prepared crystals of nitrate of copper. and the ether will be set on fire. them . if not through them. which are oxide of iron.

such as lavender water. which will be found to contain a solution of potash. while acting upon potash with the enormous galvanic batter}^ of the Royal Institution. 89 cylindrical body. but are now nearly out of fashion. if you t©uch potassium with wet fingers. consisting of two thousand pairs of four inch plates.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. which takes fire as it escapes. in the beginning of the present century. In consequence of its great affinity for oxygen. such as naphtha : ! . almost to any amount. taking fire as it runs. POTASSIUM. for a dozen times or so. answers rather better than wire. and so light as to swim upon water. it will instantly take fire. on one of the lines. and has been employed in the formation of fumigators for the drawing-room. is used by its combustion an agreeable odor is diffused through the apartment. EXPERIMENT. Experiments on combustion might be multiplied. in which. and place a piece of potassium about the size of a pea. which should be inserted into the wick of a lig-ht the lamp. on which it acts with great energy. you will burn them If a small piece of the metal be placed on a piece of ice. but the above will be sufficient for our purpose. It is a brilliant white metal. Spongy platinum. the course of the potassium will be marked with a deep brown color. and it will f(jllow the course of the pencil. potassium must be kept in s )me fluid destitute of it. Potassium was discovered by Sir H. . and liberating the hydrogen. dipped in water. Trace some continuous lines on paper with a camePs-hair brush. instead of pure spirit. . leaviiig alout an inch straight. extinguish the flame quickly the wire will soon become red hot. Davy. . and form a deep hole. Corollary hence. The paper will be found covered with a solution of ordinary potash. will continue to burn until all the spirit is consumed. and burning with a purplish light. and. so soft as to be easily cut with a penknife. These little lamps were much in vogue a few years ago. as it is called. uniting with the oxygen. some perfume. If turmeric paper be used. and after it has burned for a spirit lamp minute or two. if kept from draughts of air.

showing some of their properties. is the chlorate of potash. was colorless. in making this experiment. . 3. and it will inThis experiment also requires stantly burst into a flame. and the action will be much more violent. brimstone and heat . which 1. The hand should be defended by a thick glove. in distilled water. place a small quantity of the mixture in an iron it over the fire. Rub niter. will soon begin to assume a greenish tint. also powdered. with a little lump sugar. when it will speedily melt. and the piece of copper will be covered with a coating of a light gray color. Saltpeter. Into a solution of nitrate of silver. immerse a clean plate or slip of copper. in even a greater degree. 2. will save the expense of a chimney sweep : but avoid cooking time. Mix very carefully a little of this salt. ladle. and one of flour of . or niter. like the crack of a whip.. 1 Triturate together in a dry mortar a few grains of flowers of sulphur. is a compound of this metal (or rather oxide) with nitric acid. three parts of powdered two of dry carbonate of potash. Substitute half a grain of phosphorus for the sulphur. Want of space precludes us from considering the individual metals and their compounds in detail it must suffice to describe some experiments. The solution. which is the silver formerly united to the nitric . its EXPERIMENT. The different affinities of the metals for oxygen. Another salt of potash remarkable for the same property. will be produced. caution. EXPERIMENTS. . 90 THE magician's OWN BOOK. with a small quantit}^ of the chlorate of potash. It is one of the ingredients of gunpowder. together in a warm mortar. and has the property of quickening the combustion of all combustible bodies. and drop on the mixture a little strong sulphuric acid. and a succession of sharp explosions. reduced to powder. may be exhibited in various waysThe silver or zinc tree has already been described. and then explode with a very loud noise and if held under a foul chimney. EXPERIMENTS. and the eyes carefully guarded.

Solutions of most of the metallic salts give precipitates with solutions of alkalies and their salts. and the color will become a bluish- . hydro-sulphuret of ammonia. are produced . acid. When the copper is no longer coated. by metals and their combinations indeed. of quite a different tint. Into a solution of sulphate of iron. but remains clean and bright when immersed in the fluid. may be produced by letting a few drops of a solution of ammonia fall into one of sulphate of copper. when a precipitate of a light blue falls down. All the various tints of green. 4. Place a piece of clean iron in the solution. Nearly all the colors used in the arts. yellow. To produced. one is named chromium. and its place filled by an equivalent quantity of iron. and the color will be a rich brown. and this will continue until the whole of tliat metal is removed. The oxygen and nitric acid remain unaltered in quantity or quality during these changes. orange. a solution of sulphate of iron. such as what are usually called prussiate of potash. being merely transferred from one metal to another. and the colors differ according to the metal employed and so small a quantity is required to produce the color. so that nitrate of iron is found in the liquid. Another blue. and a blue color will be 1. and red. EXPERIMENTS. and forms a transparent solution of the most splendid rich blue color. and it will almost instantly be coated with a film of copper. from a Greek word signif3^ing color. 3. that the solutions before mixing may be nearly colorless. and the glass now contains a solution oi cojpper. 2. &c. leav- ing a solution of nitrate of zinc. A piece of zinc will displace the iron in like mauner. drop a few drops of a strong infusion of galls.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. which liking of the 91 affinity or has been displaced by the greater oxygen and acid for the copper. . on account of the beautiful tints obtained from its various combinations with oxygen and the other metals. Substitute sulphate of copper for iron. as well as with many other substances. 2. . add a drop or two of a solution of prussiate of potash. which is dissolved by an additional quantity of the ammonia. are obtained from this metal. all the silver has been deposited.

sufficient to inflame the hydrogen of course this experiment must be made in the presence of atmospheric air or oxygen. If a small piece of the metal in the state above named be intioduced into a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen. Sulphur may be crystallized in the same manner. a drop of tea accidentally spilled. and pour out the still fluid metal from the interior what remains will ex. 5. If a few drops of this solution be added to an equally colorless solution of corrosive sublimate (a salt of mercury). when in a state of minute division. A very small quantity of gas should be employed. the heaviest. until the zinc is nearly all dissolved. if possible. brighter. that few would encounter them. and placed in a jar lightly covered with a card. Bismuth shows this property more readily than most others. produced all the effect of a drop of ink. fumes. when wish to — — : . . which will at first acquire a dark purple color. buff. than vermilion. One of the most remarkable facts in chemistry a science abounding in wonders is the circumstance that the mere contact of hydrogen. . Some EXPERIMENT. Melt a pound or two of bismuth in an iron ladle over the remove it as soon as the whole is fluid and when the fire surface has become solid break a hole in it. are so very unpleasant. from time to time. as it was called. . fill it about one third full of water. two or three small pieces of granulated zinc. black in fact.92 THE magician's owx\ book. CRTSTALLIZATIOX OF ilETALS. Put into a largish test tube. put in a few grains of iodine. ink. with the metal platinum. hibit beautifully-formed crystals of a cubic shape. of the metals assume certain definite forms in return from the fluid to the solid state. the lightest body known. a precipitate will take place of a splendid scarlet color. and boil the water. called spongy platinum. which is also a preparation of mercury. produces an intense heat. gradually fading as the Add a little more iodine iodine combines with the zinc. A little tea will answer as well as the This is the reason why certain stuffs formerly in general use for dressing gowns for gentlemen were so objectionable for as they were indebted to a salt of iron for their color. but its heated. — infusion of galls. it will cause them to explode. or the explosion would be dangerous.

placed across a hot solution of alum it will float but. and then placed in the alum and water.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. the crystals cling to the rough surface of the stick. If crystals be formed on wire. . Bore a hole through a piece of coke. . . 93 Dissolve alum in hot water until no more can be dissolved it place in it a smooth glass rod and a stick of the same size next day. . the crystals will adhere to the rough surfaces. Dissolve camphor in spirit of wiae. place them under a glass shade with a saucer of water this will preserve the atmosphere moist. such as we see in the show-glasses of camphor in druggists' windows. any more pour some of the solution into a cold glass. until the spirit will not dissolve . black and the more muddy the solution. But if the rod be roughened with a file at certain intervals. but have no hold upon the smooth surface of the glass rod. Gas-coke has mostly a smooth. but the glass rod will be free from them in this case. they will be liable to break off. it will sink in the solution according to the length of the string. and prevent the crystals getting too dry. . from the expansion and contraction of the wire by changes of temperature. and suspend it by a string from a stick. the crystals will be of a bright yellow litmus will cause them to be of a bright red logwood will yield purple and common writing ink. . strong as above. shining. and leave the smooth bright in . which the crystals will avoid. . and the camphor will instantly crj'stallize in beautiful tree-like forms. the finer will be the crystals. . . To keep colored alum crystals from breaking or losing their color. the stick will be found covered with crystals. while they will cling only to the most irregular and porous parts. TO CRYSTALLIZE CAMPHOR. : and clear. and the threads will be covered with beautiful blue crystals. and almost metallic surface. while the glass rod will be bare. . If powdered turmeric be added to the hot solution of alum. as it becomes loaded with crystals. Tie some threads of lamp-cotton irregularly around a copper wire or glass rod place it in a hot solution of blue vitriol. moderately heated. BEAUTIES OE CRTSTALLEATION.

the niter six-sided crystals . e. CRYSTALS IN HARD WATER. . is made into ornamental boxes. oxalate of lime. but not all of the same figure the common salt will yield crystals with six square and equal faces. in the mixture it will bear a beautiful crystalline surface. Mix half an ounce of nitric acid. Glauber's salt to on removing the corls tie a crysa bit of wire. &c. i. : Make . and after washing it . niter. AND HEAT FROM CRYSTALLEATION. VARIETIES OF CRYSTALS. when varnished. in feathery forms. If the liquid . at the same time the whole at last becoming nearly solid becomes warm. The particles of the salts in each sacerwill begin to attract each other. and. remove the cork. shooting out the most beautiful crystals. touch the surface of . : by the change of the liquid will not crystallize quickly tal of to the solid state. CRYSTALLIZED TIN. A LIQUID CHANGED TO A SOLID. Hold in a wine-glass of hard water a crystal of oxalic acid. and the alum.94 THE magician's OWi\ BOOK. in consequence of the latent heat generated . set them in three saucers in any warm place. will instantly descend through the liquid suspended from the crystal. and white threads. . and two ounces of water pour the mixture upon a piece of tin plate previously made hot. distinct solutions of common salt. of water) bottle and cork quickly also tie over the neck a piece of wet bladder. and the salt will immediately crystallize. eight-sided crystals and if these crystals be dissolved over and over again. For this purpose make a solution of Glauber's salt (sulphate of soda) in boiling water (3 lbs. and let part of the water dry away or evaporate then remove them to a warm room. A strong saline solution excluded from the air will frequently crystallize the instant that air is admitted. and alum . or even a few days afterwards. they will always appear in the same forms. This is the celebrated moiree metallique. or sides . The figures will vary according to the degree of heat previously given to the metal. six drams of muriatic acid. When perfectly cold. and form crystals. of the salt to 2 lbs.

A SOLID CHANGED TO A HQIHD. be surrounded with a suflBcient quantity of . when the liquid . but may easily be it in tepid water. the freezing mixture. commonly termed sal ammoniac. the liquid. it ignites. Thus heat and cold are afforded by the same medium.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. An amusing combination of two experiments may be made by putting some fresh-burned lime into one tea-pot and this freezing mixture into another. water. 95 then generally and the crystallization will ANOTHER EXPERIMENT. Remove the spoon from the flame. MAGIC OP HEAT. five parts of niter in powder. ahd proves that a sudden reduction of a solid to the liquid condition always afifords cold. LIQUB- Mix five parts by weight of powdered muriate of ammonia. it gives out steam from the spout while the addition of water to the other produces so much cold. steam is produced then laid on the sulphate of copper. and sixteen parts of water. A temperature of twenty-two and degrees below the freezing point of water is produced if a phial of water. The addition of the water restores the blue color. and lay the if this be moistened with dried blue vitriol on a plate and if a slice of phosphorus is water. . demonstrating again that the condensation of a liquid produces heat. The ice clings to the removed by dipping This experiment is the reverse of the last. When water is poured on the one containing lime. and the color changes to a gray. AND INTENSE COLD FROM THE PACTION. vitriol. ice is obtained. thus proving that water was necessary to the composition of blue Heat some blue till vitriol iron ladle all the water . . occur (sulphate of copper) in an contained in the crystals is driven off. or any convenient metallic cylinder containing water. Melt a small quantity of the sulphate of potassa and copper in a spoon over a spirit lamp it will be fused at a heat just below redness. interior of the tube. . that it can hardly be kept in the hand. and produce a liquid of a dark green color. Take the lumps out without breaking them.

become a solid of a brilliant emerald green color. and having opened a window. Provide two small pieces of glass sprinkle a minute portion of sulphur upon one piece. and forms in its focus the image of a distant light. so remain till its . to be a satisfactory argument in favor of the repulsive power . : of heat. Being very transparent. as if animated. that the globules are found adhering to the upper glass only the reason of which is. each of them acts the part of a little lens.R. F. until it vanishes from minuteness. . If they are examined again after a certain number of hours. By observing the largest particles. But the most remarkable circumstance attending this experiment is. England. and each atom. which can be perceived even in the smaller globules. Each cluster consists of thousands of transparent globules. beginning from the surface. and place upon it the other piece of glass. and heat sinks nearly to that of boiling water when suddenly a commotion will take place throughout the mass. till. and the sulphur will become sublimed. the smaller globules will generally be found to have retained their transparency. and . H. HEAT PASSING THROUGH GLASS. The flattened form of the particles is owing to the force with which they endeavor to recede from the lower glass..06 will THE magician's OWN BOOK. imitating in miniature the nebulae which we see figured in treatises on astronomy. Mr. Move them slowly over the flame of a lamp or candle. in consequence of the sulphur having undergone some internal spontaneous change. and their consequent pressure against the surface of the upper one.Talbot. F. which are very curious microscopic objects. apply the poker quickly very near to the outside of a pane. will start up and separate itself from the rest. and form gray nebulous patches. : The following experiment is also by Mr. This experiment is considered by its originator.S. SrELDTATION BY HEAT. Talbot Heat a poker bright red hot. in a few moments. lay thin slips of wood around it. while the larger ones will have become opaque. that the upper glass is somewhat cooler than the lower one by which means we see that the vapor of sulphur is very powerfully repelled by heated glass. the whole will become a heap of powder. we shall find them to be flattened on one side.

and it will no longer enter the ring. or thrown off. it with wax. a strong heat will be felt at the instant. but heat which has come through the glass. . and place it upon a heated plate. become speedily hot. in a free or radiant state. it will retain some part of that heat for a minute but in this experiment the heat will vanish in a or more moment. the polish of fire-irons is not merely ornamental. • Place before a brisk fire a set of polished fire-irons. by the polished surThe rough face of the irons. when the silver wire will become too hot to hold. as may be proved by holding in the flame of a candle at the same time. and made to cease as quickly as before. Hence. instead of a bright poker. but useful. and none of it is absorbed. (as a fireshovel.) when the wax will melt at different periods. be the heated pane of glass that we shall feel. and may be again renewed. poker will. 7 . Now. It will not. ITETALS UNEQUALLY DfFLUEXCED BY HEAT. INEQUALITY OP HEAT IN FTRE-IRONS. EXPANSION OP JLETAL BY HEAT Provide an iron rod. when it will shut with difficulty whereas it will shut loosely and easily on a cold day. and beside them a rough unpolished poker. so as not to be used without inconvenience. . much Or. it is well known that if a piece of glass be so much warmed as to convey the impression of heat to the hand.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. tip sooi. 97 th } hand to the inside . and an orange vapor will arise and burst into flame with a loud Mix . which will cease as soon as the poker is withdrawn. SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION. because the heat radiated from the fire is all reflected. such as is used in a The polished irons kitchen. . and fit it exactly into a metal ring heat the rod red hot.er than the platina. crackling sound. a piece of silver wire and a piece of platina wire. a small quantity of chlorate of potassa with spirit of wine in a strong saucer add a little sulphuric acid. will remain for a long time without becoming warmer than the temperature of the room. Observe an iron gate on a warm day. All metals do not conduct heat at the same rate. cut a cone of each wire. therefore. however.

in cooling. will resume violet-colored transparent gas . Care must be taken to avoid the fumes of mercury. MAGIC INKS. and it will of ammonia in water give a yellow color when heated. and from the state of bluishblack crystals. into a basin of water. which will disappear . If two pieces of ice SPLENDID SUBLfflATION. . its crystalline form. by blowing on it with a pair of bellows. and the two metals will combine with a white appearance heat the spoon carefully in the flame of a spirit lamp. in water. EYAPOMTION OP A METAL. one of them may be made to melt much sooner than the other. Dissolve nitrate of bismuth in water write with the solu tion. . of iodine hold the flask over the flame of a spirit-lamp. potassium takes violet. potassium. will become a but. appear on cooling. the solid texture of the silver will be destroyed throughout. a small piece of that marvelous substance. however. and the characters will be invisible when dry. fire. of a red color mixed with When moderately heated in the air. to which add a write with this solution hold the writing to little niter the fire. a globule of mercury upon a silver spoon. Dissolve. bul will become legible on immersion in water. and tlien the silver can only be recovered by heating it in a ladle. which is of a . ICE Throw MELTED BY AIR be placed in a warm room. : Rub A FLOATI^^G METAL OX FIEE. the iodine. and it will be of pale rose color. on being heated. when cold. and it will swim upon the surface and burn with a beautiful light. which are very poisonous. and burns with a red light. Put into a flask a small portion . Dissolve oxide of cobalt in acetic acid. the mercury be left for some time on the spoon. and the spoon may then be polished until it recovers its usual luster if.98 THE magician's OWN BOOK. Dissolve equal parts of sulphate of copper and muriate write with the solution. when the mercury will volatilize and disappear. which will dis: . muriate of cobalt.

little . Make a colorless solution of sulphate of copper add to it a little ammonia. * See also page 84. . . If a piece of white cloth be dipped in the mixture. : . Dissolve indigo in diluted sulphuric acid.V^th will become red. they will appear in brilliant green. Thus may the liquor be changed at pleasure. is of . THE MAGIC DYES. solution of subacetate of lead with port wine filter the mixture through blotting-paper. . biii'^^li-greeii . dry it rapidly. and the mixture will be of an intense blue color add to it a little sulphuric acid. . when a spirit will arise. made by dissolving a nail in a little aqua fortis a blue and legible writing is with it. and the blue color will disappear pour in a little solution of caustic ammonia.THK MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. Dissolve in water a few grains of prussiate of potash write with this liquid. . it will be changed to blue yellow cloth. and the contents of each glass will exhibit a different shade of color. . . immediately apparent. Put a small portion of the compound called mineral chameleon into several glasses. . and add to it an equal quantity of solution of carbonate of potassa.* CHAMELEON LIQUIDS. Nearly fill a wine-glass with the juice of beet-root. and the solution will be pink write and the characters will be scarcely visible but. Mix a . which may be inflamed. . . which will disappear as the paper cools. which a deep red color add a little lime-water. if gentl}' heated. 99 colour. A very hot solution will be of a beautiful green color a cold one. and a colorlesa liquid will pass through to this add a small quantity of dry salt of tartar distil in a retort. in the same mixture. and the blue color will be restored. may be changed to green red to purple and blue litmus paper . and in a few hours the (. a deep purple. WIXE CHANGED INTO WATER. to red. . pour upon each water at different temperatures. which is invisible when dry wash over with a dilute solution of iron. and the mixture will be colorless dip into it a piece of white cloth. equally colorless.

Put into a wine-glass of water a few drops of prussiate of potash.me colorless and transparent black and opaque. and into a second glass of water a little weak solution of sulphate of iron in water pour the colorless mixtures together into a tumbler. and they will be immediately changed to a bright deep blue. third a rich crimson. The liquor secon 1 in the first glass will assume a purple color. TWO COLORLESS FLUIDS MAKE A COLORED ONE. in water : . . and the blue will be bleached with almost magical . aid ()!' color Dissolve a small lump of indigo in sulphuric acid by the you will obtain an intense blue 111. add a small quantity of solution three wine-glasses to the second. and a yellow will be the product. merely by the addition of three colorless fluids. Or. brown color. and the mixture will be of a reddish. (derate heat. Tel(>city. a little solution of potash of alum in water and to the third. and its color will be black. mix the solution of prussiate of potash with that of sulphate of copper. which divide into to one. VEPJTABLE " BLACK " TEA.100 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. and in another a solution of acetate of lead they are both mix them. mix the solution of prussiate of potash with that of nitrate of bismuth. LIQUIDS BECOilE BLACK TWO COLORLESS TRANSPARENT AND OPAQIJB. and the. and they will beci. Or. Three different colors may be produced from the same infusion. and add a drop of this to half a pint of water. so as to then pour some of it into strong chloride dilute the blue of lime. TO CHANGE A BLUE LIQUID TO WHITE. Make a cup of strong green tea dissolve a little green copperas in water. in . . pour boiling water upon it. a few drops of muriatic acid. and when cold decant the clear infusion. . Slice a little red cabbage. the a bright green. Have . CHANGE OE COLOR BY COLORLESS FLUIDS. . one vessel some dilute hydrosulphate of ammonia. which add to the tea.

Pour a little water upon this. ~-. but reappear on being dropped into water. ^ All expevhnents marked thus. RESTORATION OF COLOR BY WATER. as will be plainly evinced by the following simple experiment. If a crystal of prussiate of potash be similarly heated. Take the solutions of muriate of lime upon it a very little nitric will be changed to a transONE. . A SOLID OPAQUE MASS MAKES solid mixture of the and carbonate of potash. in a cup. owes its vivid blueness. suddenly. ought. it is to water only that blue vitriol. 101 Water 1-eing a colorless fluid. to permit the fumes to escape up the chimney. should be performed on the hob af the grate. or sulphate of copper. with the evolution of smoke or fumes of muriatic acid. and the two salts will slowly become a liquid. . produce a colorless compound. Nevertheless. its yellow color will vanish. and the powder will be of a dull and dirty white appearence. and the solid opaque mass A TRANSPAREiYT LIQUID.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. TWO SOLIDS MAKE A LIQUID. pulverize them. one would imagine. muriate of lime in water until it will dissolve no more measure out an equal quantity of oil of vitriol both will be transparent fluids but if equal quantities of each be slowly mixed and stirred together. Heat a few crystals of the vitriol in a fire-shovel. they will become a solid mass. when a slight hissing noise will be heard. and at the same to moment the blue color will instantly reappear. TWO COLD LIQULDS MAKE A HOT Mix four drams of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) with one dram of cold water. pour acid. Dissolve . parent liquid. this Under the microscope the beauty of be increased. for the instant experiment will that a drop of water is placed in contact with the vitriol. the powder may be seen to shoot into blue prisms. • TWO LIQUIDS MAKE A SOLID. equal quantities of the crystals of Glauber salts and nitrate of ammonia. . Rub together in a mortar. and the mixture will be nearly half as hot again as boiling water. when mixed with other substances of no decided color.

and the mercury its liquid form. The following changes occur. quickly changing No. 4. becomes clear and to a scarlet No. : . . and both vessels. black. . 2. poured into No. No. into No. which combines with the starch. and arrange two tall cylinfill one half full with a dilute solution of drical glasses iodide of potassium and starch. 3. afford a magnificent purple in the iodide of potassium and starch. place into the first a solution of ale-glasses into the second. 2 produces a yellow. a clear and colorless liquid is changed to scarlet the colorless liquid. changes a milky transparent again white No. sufficiently strong to yield a scarlet precipitate with the iodide in the first glass. producing a purple compound. 3. QUINTUPLE TRANSMTATTON. . invert it slowly over one cylindrical vessel. . at the same time stirruig it with a piece of fill . so as to pour out half the gas. called " dentists' gold. laid on the top carefully open the bottle of chlorine. without redissolving. . MAGIC BREATH. . into the fifth. and shake up The chlorine will bleach the indigo. . and the other with a very provide each vessel dilute solution of sulphate of indigo with a plate glass or cardboard valve. about the size of a small pea. 4. as the effect of the experiment depends on the adjustment of into the third. because it sets free iodine. 102 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the scarlet again becomes colorless milky white and the white. Half it breathe into a glass tumbler with lime-water frequently. Cut a circular piece of gold leaf. making a soft mass of the color of mercury. a solution of corrosive iodide of potassium sublimate. tate. the gold will lose its solidity and yellow color. 5. produces a black precipifive : Take . .. . UNION OF TWO METALS WITHOUT HEAT. a solution of a solution of muriate of lime hydrosulphate of ammonia. . and if they be left for a short time. wliich is very heavy add the remainder to the other. . a strong solution of iodide this beforehand of potassium with some oxalate of ammonia into the fourth." about half an inch in diameter drop upon it a globule of mercury. Thus. 1 added to No. Procure a bottle of chlorine. THE SAAIE AGENT MAY PRODUCE AND DESTROY COLOR. . poured into No.

TO FORM A LIQUID FROM TWO SOLIDS. the solution is allowed to evaporate slowly. become liquid. or become crystallized. when they form ver^'. . : — . Make a strong solution of alum. previously reduced to powder separately. Write with French chalk on a looking-glass wipe it with a handkerchief. which is nothing but sugar in a crystallized form. The threads found in the center of some of the crystals are merely placed for the purpose of hastening the formation of the crystals. which before was perfectly tr&. They should then be taken out of the solutions. both of which are remarkably bitter. glass. . and as they mix they Rub will become liquid. and place in them rough and irregular pieces of clinker from stoves. that a mixture of nitrate of silver with hyposulphate of soda. or blue vitriol. and set them by in a cool place. and after the lapse of a considerable period. 1. and if allowed to remain at rest. will produce the sweetest known substance. and as it cools it forms into those beautiful crystals termed rockcandy. together in a Wedgewood mortar a small quantity of sulphate of soda and acetate of lead. and dried in an oven not tr)o h(>t. and they will reappear. 103 The fluid. . real chalk will be deposited. Carbonate of ammonia and sulphate of copper. and acquire a most splendid blue color. &c. where they will be free from dust.nsparent. will presently become quite white. as it is called while to make rock-candy.pretty ornaments for a room. VISIBLE Ai\D INVISIBLE. when mixed. has been discovered. This alternation will take place for a great number of times.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. when passing from the fluid to the solid state and the size and regularity of the crystals depends in a great measure on the slow or rapid escape of the fluid in which they were dissolved. Sugar is a capital example of this property the ordinary loaf-sugar being rapidly boiled down. TWO BITTERS It MAO A SWEET. and the lines will will disappear breathe on it. and in a few days crystals of the several salts will deposit themselves on the baskets. The greater number of salts have a tendency to assume regular forms. or wire baskets. will also. Experiment No. or of sulphate of copper.

mottled with white. it will burn with a strong yellow flame ever. howignited. boil it. the choicest lilac. whether old or young. as the brightest crimson. and the spirit dark-lantern Mix some common . and set it by in a place where it cannot be disturbed. : the spectral company. of which we have spoken before. all other lights : should be extinguished. and the percussion of the air will cause the whole mass instantly to crystallize. the yellow of jaundice. it should not be perfectly yellow. when an appalling change will be exhibited all the objects in the room but of one color. and the flask will become quite warm from the latent caloric. and restoring the usual when one side of each person's or white light at the other dress will resume its original color. The lamp being thus prepared. Fill a Florence flask up to the nock with a strong solution of sulphate of soda. death-like yellow whilst the gayest dresses. or Glauber salt. Their astonishment may be heightened by removing the yellow light to one end of the room. if. . . Red light may be produced by mixing with the spirit i» . knife. . himself insensible of being one of . when the yellow light only is burning. which should be inclosed on each side. throw more salt into the cup. fair or brunette. for the least shake will often cause the crystallization to take place before the proper time. and the yellow lamp introduced. or in a when the cup becomes heated. and the other. Experiment No. the company and the objects in th*» apartment will appear yellow. to provide against accidents. while the other will remain yellow one cheek may bear the bloom of health.104 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the most vivid blue or green— all will be changed into one monotonous yellow each person will be inclined to laugh at his neighbor. or metallic cup : — salt with spirit of wine in a platinum set the cup upon a wire frame over a spirit-lamp. THE SPECTEAL LAMP. and the complexions of the several persons. 2. will be metamorphosed to a ghastly. After twenty-four hours it will probably Pierce the bladder covering with a penstill remain fluid. the same time. the white light be introduced within a wire sieve. Or if. and tie the mouth over with a piece of moistened bladder while boiling. given out by the salt in passing from the fluid to the It is better to prepare two or three flasks at solid state.

black. and having closed one eye. the eye will be unable to distinguish anything for a second or . and when lit it wnll give a bright yellow liglit for a long time. dry it. Soak a cotton wick in a strong solution of salt and water. and then to black. the purple tint will instantly disappear and the from a heart's-ease. be as follows . TO CHANGE THE COLORS OF FLOWERS. salt of strontian instead of common and the effect of the white or yellow lights. THE CHAiTELEON FLOWERS. Hold over a lighted match a purple columbine. 105 the cup over the lamp. and it will change first to pink. salt . it will loose all its yellow If. or maroon dahlia be tried. but the yellow will remain yellow of a wall-flower will continue the same. will continue unchanged. if introduced through a sieve upon the red light. will. THE PROTEAJT nGHT. Thus. held as above. Trim a spirit lamp. Let there be no other light than a taper in the room then put on a pair of dark green spectacles. . red. fore the blue glass. view the taper with the other. The order of colors green. and light Set near it a scarlet geranium. or a blue larkspur. . It. belight. therefore. the lamp will be absolutely invisible. two. though a candle may be distinctly seen through the same glasses. Suddenly remove the spectacles. CUEIOUS CHA2iGE OF COLORS. the color will change to yellow a fact known to gardeners. will be even more striking than the white upon the yellow light. add a little salt to the wick. appear blue. who by this mode variegate their . in the same light. .THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. If a scarlet. you place a pale yellow glass. crimson. though the I rown streak will be discharged. If you look through a piece of blue glass at the flame. The yellow of other flowers. and the flower will appear yellow. and the taper will assume a bright red appearance but if the spectacles be instantly replaced. and you will only perceive feeble violet raj'S. growing dahlias. place it in a spirit lamp. Purple colors. green.

To the other end of and having the thread attach an acorn half filled the glass with water. Hold a red rose over the blue flame of a common match. so as to render it beautifully variegated. prevents its being irawn through.106 THE MAGICIANS OWN BOOK. which may be made green by wasliing it over with a strong Put poppy p. red. and the infusion will be of a florid red Some flowers. . or entirely white. If it be then dipped into water. and scarcely visible but expose them to a strong light. resting transversely on the card. . CHANGES OF THE POPPY. and the color will be discharged wherever the fume touches the leaves of the flower. . become blue by merely bruising them. Pierce a hole through the center of the card. . The glass must be kept in a warm room and.-':als into very solution of potash in water. THE YISIBLT GROWING ACORN. . TO CHANGE THE COLOR OF A ROSE. . dilute muriatic acid. will be restored. which. which are by adding a little chalk. the steam which has generated in the gla?3 will hang from tlie acorn in a large drop. and exclude the air. Cut a circular piece of card to fit the top of a hyacinthglass. Write upon linen with permanent ink (which is a strong solution of nitrate of silver). they will stain it purple. in a few days. may of port wine be changed to green or yellow. the redness. and pass through it a strong thread. after a time. Thus. by the addition of potash. having a small piece of wood tied to one end. if the petals of the common cornpopp3^ bo rubbed upon white paper. suspend the acorn at a short distance from the . surface. and the characters will be remove the linen into a dark room. they will not change and they will be of an indelible black. Shortly afterw irds the acorn will burst. so as to rest upon the ledge. it will become of the color color and this tint. LIGHT CHANGING WHITE INTO BLACK.




and the root will protrude and thrust itself into the water in a few days more a stem will shoot out at the other end, and rising upwards, will press against the card, in which

an orifice must be made to allow it to pass through. From this stem, small leaves will soon be observed to sprout and in the course of a few weeks you will have a handsome
oak plant, several inches in height.

variety of rays of light are exhibited by colored flames, which are not to be seen in white light. Thus, pure hydrogen gas will burn with a blue flame, in which many of the rays of light are wanting. The flame of an oil lamp contains most of the rays which are wanting in the sunlight. Alcohol, mixed with water, when heated or burned, afThe followfords a flame with no other rays but yellow. ing salts, if finely powdered, and introduced into the exterior flame of a candle, or into the wick of a spirit lamp, will communicate to the flame their peculiar colors


Muriate Muriate Muriate Muriate Muriate Muriate Muriate

of of of of of of of

Soda (common
. '





Strontia Lithia








Baryta Copper






Yellow. Pale violet. Brick red, Bright crimson. Red, Pale apple-green. Bluish green. Green.

Or, either of the above salts


be mixed with spirit of

wine, as directed for





spirit of

wine on chloride of calcium, a substance

obtained by evaporating muriate of lime to dryness.


spirit of

wine on a



nitrate of copper


Heat together potassium and sulphur, and they will instantly burn very vividly. Heat a little niter on a fire-shovel, sprinkle on it flour of sulphur, and it will instantly burn. If iron filings be thrown upon red-hot n^^<^v. they will detonate and burn.


THE magician's OWN BOOK.

Pound, separately, equal parts of chlorate of potash and mix them, and put upon a plate a small quandip a glass rod into sulphuric acid, touch the powder tity "with it, and it will burst into a brilliant flame. Or, put a few grains of chlorate of potash into a tablespoonful of spirit of wine add one or two drops of sulphuric acid, and the whole will burst into a beautiful flame.

lump sugar





Encircle the very small flame of a floating night light, with a cold iron wire, which will instantly cause its




Pour some spirit of wine into a watch-glass, and inflame place a straw across this flame, and it will only be igniit ted and charred at the outer edge the middle of the straw will be uninjured, for there is no ignited matter in the cen;

ter of the flame.


of the kettle is well covered the water in it boils, remove it from the fire, and place it upon the palm of the hand no inconvenience will be felt, as the soot will prevent the heat being transmitted from the water within and the heated metal, to the hand.

Be sure that the bottom

with soot




linen, muslin, or

a strong solution of borax in water, and steep in it any article of clothing when dry, they cannot easily be inflamed. A solution of phosphate of


ammonia with


ammoniac answers much


and whirl it round with a rapid motion, when its burning end will produce a complete circle of light, although that end can only be in one part of the cirThis is caused by the duration of cle at the same instant. Another example the impression of light upon the retina. is, that during the winking of the eye we never lose sigrh*
Light a

of the objc^ct


are viewing.

WATER OF Dn'FEREXT Of heat and cold, as


of wit and madness, it may be said that " thin partitions do their bounds divide." Thus, paint one half of the surface of a tin pot x^ith a mixture of lamp black and size, and leave the other half, or side, bright Gil the vessel with boiling water, and by dipping a thermometer, or even the finger, into it shortly after, it will be found to cool much more rapidly upon the blackened than upon the bright side of the pot.



Place upon the surface of snow, as upon the window sill, in bright daylight or sunshine, pieces of cloth of the 8ame size and quality, but of different colors, black, blue, green, yellow, and white the black cloth will soon melt the '^now beneath it, and sink downwards next the blue, and then the green the yellow but slightly but the snow benoath the white cloth will be as firm as at first.





Put into a cup a lump of quicklime, fresh from the kiln, pour water upon it, and the heat will be verj^ great. A pailful of quicklime, if dipped in water, and shut clonely
into a box constructed f(n- the purpose, will give out suflBcient heat to warm a room, even in very cold weather. This is the source of steam vapor in theatrical representations.



fanciful appellation has been given to nitrous oxide, from the very agreeable sensations excited by inhaling it. In its pure state it destroys animal life, but loses this noxious quality when inhaled, because it becomes

The above

blended with the atmospheric air which it meets in the This gas is made by putting three or four drams lungs. of nitrate of ammonia, in crystals, into a small glass retort, which being held over a spirit lamp, the crystals will melt, and the gas be evolved. Having thus produced the gas, it is to be passed into a large bladder, having a stop-cock and when you are desirous of exhibiting its eifects, you cause the person who wishes to experience them, to first exhale the atmospheric air from the lungs, and then quickly placing tiio cock in his month, j'^ou turn it, and id him inhale the gas. Iramedi



THE magician's OWN BOOK.

ately, a sense of extraordinary cheerfulness, fanciful flights of imagination, an uncontrollable propensity to laughter, and a consciousness of being capable of great muscular exertion, supervene, it does not operate in exactly the •same manner on all persons but in most cases the sensations are agreeable, and have this important difference from those produced by wine or spirituous liquors, that they are not succeeded by any depression of mind.

Provide a bottle of the gas chlorine, vs^hich chased of any operative chemist, and with

may be


you may

some brilliant experiments. For example, reduce a small piece of the metal antimony place some of this on to a very fine powder in a mortar

a bent card, then loosen the stopper of the bottle of chlorine, and throw in the antimony it will take fire spontaneously, and burn with much splendor, thus exlii biting a cold metal spontaneously bursting into flame. If, however, a lump of antimony be dropped into the chlorine, there will be no spontaneous combustion, nor immediate change but, in the course of time, the antimony will become incrusted with a white powder, and no chlorine will be found in the bottle. Or, provide copper in fine leaves, known as "Dutch metal ;" slightly breathe on one end of a glass rod, about ten inches long, and cause one or two leaves of the metal then open a bottle of chlorine, to adhere to the damp end quickly plunge in the leaves, when they will instantly take fire, and burn with a fine red light, leaving in the bottle a
; ;


greenish-yellow solid substance. A small lum'p of copper, or " Dutch metal," will not burn as above, but will be slowly acted upon, like the antimony. Immerse gold leaf in ajar of chlorine gas, and combustion with a beautiful green flame will take place.

Put into a deflagrating spoon about four grains of phosphorus, and let it down into a bottle of chlorine, when the phosphorus will ignite instantaneously. Or, fold a slip of blotting-paper into a match five inches long dip it into oil of t'lrpeutine, drain it an instant, drop


into another bottle of chlorine, flame, and deposit much carbon.





will burst into a


Provide a glass tube, about three feet long and half an inch in diameter nearly fill it with water, upon the surface of which pour a little colored ether then close the open end of the tube carefully with the palm of the hand, invert it in a basin of water, and rest the tube against the wall the ether will rise through the water to the upper end of the tube pour a little hot water over the tube, and it will soon cause the ether to boil within, and its vapor may thus be made to drive nearly all the water out of the tube into the basin if, however, you then cool the tube by pouring cold water over it, the vaporized ether will again become a








upon the water as


a wine-glass with diluted sulphuric acid, and place in it a wire of silver and another of zinc, taking care that they do not touch each other when the zinc will be changed by the acid, but the silver will remain inert. But cause the upper ends of the wires to touch each other, and a stream of gas will issue from them.


Set a metallic plate over the flame of a spirit lamp; place upon it a small portion of camphor under a glass funnel and the camphor will be beautifully sublimed by the heat of the lamp, in an efflorescent crust on the sides of the funnel



beautiful green fire may be thus made. Take of flour of sulphur thirteen parts, nitrate of baryta seventy-seven, oxymuriate of potassa five, metallic arsenic two, and Let the nitrate of baryta be well dried and charcoal three. powdered; then add to it the other ingredients, all finely pulverized, and exceedingly well mixed and rubbed together. Place a portion of the composition in a small tin pan, having a polished reflector fitted to one side, and set light to it when a splendid green illumination will be the result. Bv adding a little calamine, it will burn more slowly.









BRILLIANT RED FIRE. ounces of dry nitrate of strontia, one ounce

and a half of finely powdered sulphur, five drams of chlorate of potash, and four drams of sulphuret of antimony. Powder the chlorate of potash and the sulphuret of antimony separately in a mortar, and mix them on paper after which add them to the other ingredients, previously powdered and mixed. No other kind of mixture than rubbing together on paper is required. For use, mix with a portion of the powder a small quantity of spirits of wine, in a tin pan resembling a cheese toaster, light the mixture, and it will shed a rich crimson hue. When the fire burns dim and badly, a very small quantity of finely powdered charcoal or lamp

black will revive


Dissolve chloride of lithium in spirit of wine, and lighted, it will burn with a purplish flame,


Place upon a piece of burning charcoal a morsel of the dried crystals of nitrate of silver (not the lunar caustic), and it will immediately throw out the most beautiful sparks that can be imagined, whilst the surface of the charcoal will be coated with silver.


Put into a glass tumbler fifteen grains of finely granulated zinc, and six grains of phosphorus, cut into very small pieces beneath water. Mix in another glass, gradually, a dram of sulphuric acid, with two drams of water. Remove both glasses into a dark room, and there pour the diluted acid over the zinc and phosphorus in the glass in a short time

beautiful jets of bluish flame will dart from all parts of the surface of the mixture it will become quite luminous, and beautiful luminous smoke will rise in a column from the glass, thus representing a fountain of fire.



Light a small green wax taper; in a minute or two, blow out the flame, and the wick will continue red hot for many hours and if the taper were regularly and carefully uncoiled, and the room kept free from the current of air, the wick would burn on in this manner until the whole wap



consumed. The same effect is not produced when the coloi of the wax is red, on which account red wax tapers are safer than green, for the latter, if left imperfectly extinguished, may set fire to any object w^ith which they are in contact. COilBrSTION OF THKEE iTETALS.

Mix a grain or two of potassium witli an equal quantity add a globule of quicksilver, and the three of sodium metals, when shaken, will take fire, and burn vividly.



Take a smooth cylindrical piece of metal, about one inch and a half in diameter, and eight inches long wrap very

closely round it a piece of clean writing paper, then hold the paper in the flame of a spirit lamp, and it ^vill not take but it may be held there for a considerable time, withfire out being in the least affected by the flame. If the paper be strained over a C3dinder of wood, it is quickly scorched.



water which causes the thermometer to rise to ninety degrees, and when the liquid has become still, you will be insensible to the heat, and that the hand is touching anything. Then remove one hand to water that causes the thermometer to rise to two hundred degrees, and the other in water at thirty-two degrees. After holding the hands thus for some time, remove them, and again immerse them in the water at ninety degrees when you will find warmth in one hand and cold in the other. To the hand which had been immersed in the water at thirty-two degrees, the water at ninety degrees will feel hot; and to the hand which had been immersed in the water at two hundred degrees, the water at ninety degrees will feel cool. If, therefore, the touch in this case be trusted, the same water will be judged to be hot and cold at the same time

Hold both hands



a wine glass with cold water, pour lightly upon its light it by a slip of paper, and it will surface a little ether burn for some time.



Drop a globule of potassium, about the
into u small cup,

size of a large pea, early full of water, containing a drop or

and In a short time. and throw into it a particles of bruised amber.lU THE magician's OWN BOOK. which will nearly reach the surface. and place in it an air thermometer. and in waves. while the thermometer will show that the water beneath is scarcely warmer than it was at : first. which will float and remain uninflamed. . upon the surface place a small copper basin. two of strong uitric acid the moment that the metal touches the liquid. then clase the mouth of the glass with a card or plate. if gently blown with the breath. filled with cold water. and watery vapor will bo directly condensed on the cold surface. FORMATION OF WATER BY FIRE. On WATER FROM THE FLAME OF A CANDLE. upon meeting with the contents of the glass. a perfectly clear liquid. and place upon it a chip of sodium. and turn the mouth uppermost remove the card. set it on fire. Provide a tall glass jar. and put the sugar into a glass of warm water. CURRENTS IN BOILING WATER. which. BOILING UrON COLD WATER. just as lime-water changes when dropped into a glass full of water. enveloped with a beautiful rose-colored flame. TO SET A MIXTURE ON FIEE WITH WATER. Hold a cold and dry bell glass over a lighted candle. and entirely dissolve. which Put may be collected by a dry sponge. Pour into a saucer a little sulphuric acid. watery vapor will be seen upon the inside of the bell. then hold the tube by a . . This experiment should be exhibited in the dark. but the addition of a drop of water will set it on fire. a thick Invert a large bell-glass over it. it will float upon its surface. and it will instantly become turbid and milky. Fill few a large glass tube with water. into a tea cup a little spirit of wine. WAVES OF FIRE OX WATER. a lump of refined sugar let fall a few drops of phosphuretted ether. will instantly appear on fire at the surface. into which put a little live charcoal the surface of the water will soon be made to boil. quickly pour in a little lime-water.

instead of continuing to contract till it freezes. and the colored water will ascend and be difi'used throughout the whole. until it congeals. This rises in one leg of the figure to reach the chin. say of the temperature of eighty degrees. or any other freezing mixture the water will go on shrinking in the tube till it has attained the temperature of about forty degrees and then. 115 handle for the purpose.) it will be seen slowly to expand. the expansion below forty degrees. and then plunge the bulb into pounded ice and salt. carrying with them the pieces of amber. it will rise reservoir beneath. and consequently to rise in the tube. and above so that the water will be forty degrees. (as in the case with all other liquids. HOT WATEE LIGHTER THAN COLD. upright in the flame of a lamp. and continue till the water boils. It consists of a cup. . by heating water in a tube similar to the foregoing. a little water colored with pink or other dye then fill it up gradually and carefully with colorless water. substance not soluble in water. : . and to descend towards the circumference of the tube. This pretty toy may be purchased at any optician's for two or three shillings. at eight degrees above or below forty degrees. fill a large thermometer tube with water. diminish in bulk till they freeze. Pour into a glass tube. about ten inches long.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. . so as not to mix them apply heat at the bottom of the tube. it will be seen that currents. . and as the water becomes warm. or bent tube with one end longer than the other. and one inch in diameter. These currents will soon become rapid in their motions. In this case. and descends through the other leg. through the bottom of the cup to a If you pour water in the cup. that is. except water. seem to be equal of the same bulk at thirty-two degrees as at forty-eight degrees. in which is placed a standing human figure. Thus. will begin to ascend in the center. THE CUP OF TANTALUS. The circulation of warm water may be very pleasingly shown. the water having diffused in it some particles of any light . All fluids. EXPANSION OP WATER BY COLD. concealing a syphon.

too. and become soaked with water. . and acquire a motion both progressive and rotary. which will continue for a consideraDuring these rotations.116 THE magician's OWN BOOK. who is represented by the poets as punished in Erebus with an insatiable thirst.) the pressure of the water will force it over into the longer leg of the syphon. white. be instantly deprived of their motion and vivacity. while the rotation of the camphor in about half the hot water will last only nineteen minutes the camphor will pass off". which at first will be very rapid. will be vitreous and transThe gyrations. If the water be made hot. tliey will rotate for several minutes. In like manner. (that is. by its in the shorter leg air before it upward pressure. throw upon its surface a few fragments or thin shavings of camphor. Thus. parent. the motion of the cam. will gradually decline in velocity. toe through the longer leg and when the cup is filled above the bend of the syphon. one containing water at flfty-eight degrees. . instead of being dull. and as if by a stroke of magic. the floating particles will quickly dart back. which. if the water be touched ble time. and placed up to the chin in a pool of water. like the camphor until the slices of cork having discharged all their ether. flowed away as soon as he attempted to taste it.phor will be more rapid than in cold w^ater. however. if thin slices of cork be steeped in sulphuric ether in a closed bottle for two or three days. The stilling influence of oil upon weaves has become prothe extraordinary manner in which a small quanverbial tity of oil instantly spreads over a very large surface ol Fill a glass . provide two glasses. they will keep at rest. : : . and they will instantly begin to move. and the remaining pieces. until all but a ver}^ minute portion has evaporated. THE MAGIC WHIRLPOOL. but it will cease in proportionately less time. tumbler with water. and then placed upon the water. by any substance which is at all greasy. and the other at two hundred and ten degrees place raspings of camphor upon each at the same time the campl>or in the first glass will rotate for about five hours. and opaque. level with the chin of the figure. driving out . until they become quite sluggish. and evidently soaked with water. and the cup will be emptied: the toy thus imitating Tantalus of mythology.

raised a tew inches. AEnPICIAL FIEE BALLS. may be employed. the camphor will instantly dart to the opposite point of the liquid surface. and allow a single drop thereof to trickle down the inner side of the glass to the surface of the water. and while they are rotating. and it will be seen that they cause the rotations.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. On observing the shadow. If a few drops of sulphuric or muriatic acid be let fall into the water. camphor. and the stealthy manner in which even a rough wind glides over it. Then put the camphor and water in the watch-glass. and bearing it round with irregular force. jetting out. : . with a particle of camphor floating upon it. and supported on a wire ring. and somewhat on one side of the watch glass. and then stop. kept steady by thrusting one end into an upright piece of wood. the motion of the camphor will be more slowly stopped than by oil or fluid grease. If a piece of hard tallow or lard be employed. both in slices and in small particles. placed above. By the same principle a drop of oil may be made to stop Throw some camthe motion of the camphor. so that it may receive the shadow of the glass. as given out by the camphor. they will gradually stop the motion of the camphor. upon the surface of water. chiefly from the corners of the camphor. called a lunar. Put thirty grains of phosphorus into a bottle. as the latter spreads over the surface of the water with greater rapidity. The currents. like a retort stand. Or a flat watch-glass. Place the vessel over . must have excited the admiration of all who have witnessed it. ma}^ also be seen by means of the microscope a drop or two of pure water being placed upon a slip of glass. it will rotate rapidly for a few seconds. &c.. and place under the frame a sheet of white paper. to be cast by a steady light. dip a glass rod into oil of turpentine. but if camphor be dropped into nitric acid diluted with its own bulk of water. and cease to rotate. If a piece of the rotating camphor be attentively examined with a lens. By this means the current may be detected. which con tains three or four ounces of water. 117 troubled water. the currents of the water can be well distinguished. as follows phor. which may be considered a magnified representation of the object itself. the rotations and currents can be distinguished.

will d'slodge the powder. after the manner of an artificial fire-work. and melts and boils at twenty degrees. AN EGG PUT INTO A PHIAL. adheres to the hand. after the feat is over. the In a few minutes the substance solid mass will dissolve. Balls of fire will soon be seen to issue from the water. will become fluid. powder . . attended with the most beautiful coruscations. Make a liquid. and by pouring cold water upon it. and give it a boiling heat. and prevents its contact with the water. Immediately after their contact. the surface of a large or small vessel of water you may then challenge any one to drop a piece of money into the water. you will see the steel melt and drop like . which must then be filled with cold water. add one teaspoonful of strong acetic acid This will render to every two tablespoonfuls of vinegar. and touch the piece of steel with it. a piece of steel red in the fire. so that it may be extended lengthways without breaking then insert it into the neck of a small bottle. TO TELL A LADY IE SHE Put into a phial some sulphuric IS IN LOVE. it will reassume This is really a complete its former figure and hardness. TO MELT STEEL AS EASILY AS LEAD. then hold it with a pair of pincers or tongs take in the other hand a stick of brimstone. A little shake of the hand. and tell her that if Irv love. a lamp. Place the phial which contains it in a lady's hand. requires the You must take an egg and soak it following preparation and in process of time its shell will in strong vinegar become quite soft. ether. To accomplish TO ASTONISH A LAEGE PARTY. If the vinegar used to saturate the egg is not sufficiently strong to produce the required softness of shell.118 THE magician's OWN BoOK. the egg perfectly flexible. this : . This preparation is solid ten degrees above freezing point. and baffles those who are not in the secret to find out how it is accomplished. color it red with orchanet. then saturate the tincture with spermaceti. curiosity. and that you will get The lycopodium it with the hand without wetting your skin. . and of easy insertion into the bottle. seemingly incredible act. With some lycopodium.

. When dry. until then color paper as before. to ascertain if test papers. It is instructive to learn how very small a portion of any acid in water will be indicated by With the second portion of the reddening of the litmus. Being a litmus. grows the archil weed or lichen. pour one portion into a saucer. paper. 119 the otherwise barren rocks which fringe the shore of a famous seathe Cape de Verd Islands. As it is so frequently desirable to know whether a fluid be acid or alkaline. that it becomes. and soak strips of white writing paper in it until If not colored enough it has acquired a distinct blue color. By a particular process of manufacture. line violet-blue. Dissolve a single grain of copper in about one dram of nitric acid. it is changed to red by so minute a portion of any acid. known in the chemical laboratory by the name of Few colors are more fugitive than litmus. labeled " Blue litmus These serve to test any fluid. Put the ashes of a cigar into w^ater. it will become covered with a coat of copper thus showing that the copper can be infinitely divided without any alteration in its properties . let them remain together in a warm place for a few hours. is acid. this archil yields a beautiful blue pigment. when "tested. If your blue paper becomes red. this "red it is red litmus test paper" serves to indicate the presence of alkaEed litmus test lies. if the blade of a knife be dipped into it. cautiously. one of the first practical lessons to a student in Put into chemistry. a few drops of lemon juice. preserve these strips in a box. divide the solution obtained into two parts. thus a flask half an ounce of litraus." will indicate the presence of an alkali. when it will be evident that a single drop of the mixture must contain an almost immeasurably small portion of copper. the milk is sour it On — : . When dry. when properly applied. mix. a class of bodies opposed to acids. Test some stale milk. by once dipping and drying. INFINITE DIYISIBILITY OP MATTER. is immediately restored to its original blue color. is to prepare litmus test paper. the liquid." it has an acid reaction. renowned among dyers. then filter the dark blue liquid from its impurities. Yet. . repeat the operation.THE MAGIC OF CHEMISTRY. such as lime-water. and three ounces of water . and dilute the solution with about one ounce of water. a test of the presence of the latter substance. the fluid. TEST PAPERS. on being put into any fluid that is alkaline.

feathers. dry paper. . which glides over the surface with the velocity of light while others. wax. .AMUSEMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. iron.. are called ^ood conductors. charcoal. Some substances. is friction but the bodies rubbed together must consist of different substances for. one of the most active principles in nature. leather. water.. because they transfer with great facility to other bodies the electric fluid. such as silk. &c. and the most generally employed. wool. [120] . electricity will not be evolved. GALVANISM AND MAGNETISM THE ORIGIN OF GALVANISM. and other metals. &c. gold. if they are alike. Electricity is . silver. and is exhibited by various means. one of which. copper. glass. hair. because they resist the progress of the fluid. are called non-conductors. such as soot. It exists in all bodies.

an Italian philosopher of great merit. bodies with each other. are amongst a few of its effects. It was first discovered at Bologna. which lay close to the conductor of the machine. when the point of a knife was unintentionally brought into contact with the nerves of one of the frog's legs. latest posterity. and its' phenomena are so various and extraordinary. water is made inflammable. It from these media that are obtained the usual phenomena of electricity. and passionately loving him. The next branch of the science of Electricity is Galvanism. and motion is given to lifeless bodies. the terrific rising and rolling of the sand in the desert wilds of Africa. the awful lightning is the exhibition of the elec- which accumulates in the clouds. Through means of a galvanic battery. Its effects are felt in almost every part is of nature tric fluid. indeed. where also stood an electrical machine. happened to be lying on the table of Galvani's laboratory. 121 which accumulates all the time the friction continues. she was in a declining state of health. . and professor of anatomy from whom. Some of these animals. and the beautiful yet evanescent Aurora Borealis of the northern climes. substances are decomposed. as exhibited in the experiments which we shall hereafter describe. in the year 1791. as it is sometimes called. Madame Galvani having observed the phenomenon. took a lively interest in the science which so much occupied his attention. At the time the incident we are about to narrate took place. skinned for the purpose. His wife being possessed of a penetrating understanding. by the lady of Louis Galvani. and immediately the muscles of the limb were violently agitated.ELECTRICITY AND GALVANiSM. colors changed. as to render the study of this science exceedingly interesting. and taking soup made of frogs. The uses of Galvanic Electricity for scientific purposes are incalculable. the science received its name. and this incident led to the experiments and interesting discoveries which will transmit his name to the . instantly informed her husband of it. and which is discharged when the heavy lurid masses come in contact with each other the mysterious sweeping whirlwind. Voltaic Electricity it is obtained through the simple contact of different conducting . The experiments we give on Galvanism show the effect of the combination which forms what is called a simple . . or. by way of restorative.

or and water. or to be attracted by it. zinc and siWer. and magnetism. which have a different action upon the zinc and copper. Magnetism is sufficient is a modification of electricity: at least. and two diJBferent fluids. : . proceed to give the youthful amateur the opportunity of exemplifying the principles of electricity. whilst all others are subject to its Still.122 galvanic circle. so little difference influence. and those which do not possess the property. there nected. Galvanic action is always accompanied by chemical action. The metals thus prepared. A galvanic circle may also be formed of one metal. is there between the magnetic ore. difterently to what it does upon the other. evidence that these causes are intimately conbut philosophers are as yet ignonot identical tains the principle. and subject them to tho action of a fluid. tation of magnetism. This singular property of the loadstone is imparted to other metallic substances. by means of two metals. by rubbing and keeping them if a metal be of a close together for some length of time hard texture like steel. and all that is necessary to disturb the galvanic fhiid is to unite two metals together. is brought within the sphere of attraction. by several simple experimeu's. and are employed for purposes of the utmost importance. without knowing in which resides the power. galvanism. until another ore. THE magician's own book. The property designated b}^ the word magnetism is found in an iron ore of a certain composition. when it will adhere only to that which con. which will act chemically upon one of them. acquire the same directive and attractive power as the loadstone or natural magnet. metal. and of a dark gray This ore alone is the local habicolor and peculiar luster. it loses the power as soon as seperated from* the magnet. it retains the magnetic principle permanently but if soft. non-magnetic. or loadstone. that only practiced minand an experieralogists can discern on@ from the other enced e^^e may see two ores join each other by the principle of attraction. . if rant of its nature. We .

however. rub it 1. but soon after will fly rapidly from it. and you may drive it about the room by holding* the glass between it and the surrounding objects should it. and then bring a downy feather near it. Next take a wine-glass. and the latter. watch down upon and on its face balance a tobacco-pipe very carefully. rub it with a warm flannel. On the first moment of contact. [128] . the feather will adhere to the glass. and hold it for half a minute before the fire then apply it near to the end of the pipe. attracted by the electricity evolved by the friction and warmth in the former. quickly with a silk handkerchief. Warm a glass tube. — .EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. fly back to t!ie glass. it will instantly . will immediately follow it and by carrying the glass around. — Lay a a tal)le. always in front of the pipe. come in contact with anything not under the influence of electricity. . the latter will continue its rotatory motion the watch-glass being the center or pivot on which it acts. 2. .

and if a needle be pointed towards it. Take a piece of common brown paper. in the same way as the paper is attracted to the 6. press slightly the Dones of the animal's shoulders then. . 4. about the the ball will immediately run across the size of a pea paper. one at each end. — If the paper be again warmed. such as small pieces of paper. obtained by touching the tips of the ears after rubbing the 8. and excite the paper as before. 10. perceptible shocks of elecShocks may also be tricity will be felt in the left hand. if. lint. that when at rest they may hang in contact with each other on applying a piece of sealing wax. wall. hold it before the fire till quite dry and hot. upon two books. it will remain there — . it will again run to another part.-— -A stick of sealing-wax rubbed against a warm piece of flannel or cloth. should these fall off* from different sides at the same time. —And falling. and with the middle finger and the thumb. it will be attracted to the paper.—-Support a pane of glass. 7. if instantly applied at the distance of about an inch. and the bran will dance up and down under it with much rapidity. excited as in the former experiment. acquires the property of attracting light substances. a light fleecy feather be placed against it. and place some bran underneath then rub the upper side of the glass with a black silk handkerchief. about the size of an octavo book. and drawn under the before. if the right hand be gently passed along the back. and so on for a considerable time 9. . table. Place your left hand upon the throat of a cat. then draw it briskly under the arm several times. . very singular manner. previously warmed. and hung up by a thread attached to one corner of it. The paper will be found so powerfully electrical. that if placed against a wainscoted or papered wall of a room. Suspend two small pith balls.. they will repel each other.124 THE MAGICIAN^S OWN BOOK. and if after a minthey will cling together very strongly ute they be all shaken off. by fine silken threads of about six inches in length. — for some minutes without while the paper adheres to the wall. so as to rub it on both sides at once by the coat. &c. or a piece of flannel. 3. in such a manner. —Warm — . they will fly to one another in a arm as . lay it on a and place upon it a ball made of elder pith. it will hold up several feathers on each side . 5.

It is. by touching then: with a piece of ice. a person may stand on them insulated if he then holds the tray vertically. so as to extend the claws. the electric sparks may be very Very distinct charges of electricity may also plainly seen. but not so as to scorch it Hold one end down on a of the finest electrics we have. the experimenter must be on good terms with the cat. a sensible shock will be felt. and a star sign of the negative electricity will be return the paper. IN ELECTRICITY. perhaps. and the experiment be made in a dark room. . it forms a very extemporaneous electrophorus. and strong enough 1o set fire to some combustible bodies. be obtained by touching the tips of the ears after applying friction to the back. the finger slightly pressing on it. you may feel distinctly successive shocks. that. Now take it up by two of the corners and bring it over the tray. where it joins the paw when. and the positive brush will appear. and by this means. beaker glass then take a sheet of foolscap writing paper. the tray with its point projecting outwards. or he may draw sparks from any other person. Placing the cat on your knees. and hold it close to the fire until all its hj^grometric moisture is in this state it is one dissipated. apply the thumb to the upper side of the paw. Place an iron japanned tea tray on a dry. clean. . and the same may be obtained from the foot. and a book laid on them. ELECTRICAL SHOCK FROM A SHEET OF PAPER. from the knob or end of this bone. . remove the paper. the paper will adhere strongly to it. and to exhibit all the If four electric phenomena not requiring coated surfaces. . seen In fact. 125 If Ihe color of the cat be black. and it will fall down on it like a stone if one finger be now brought under the Now lay a needle on tray. bring your fore finger into contact with one of the bones of the leg. unnecessary to add. and sparks may be drawn from any part of his body . similar to those obtained from the ears. beginning at the top. . beaker glasses are placed on the floor. apply the right hand to the back the left fore paw resting on the palm of your left hand. as the case may be or he may set fire to some inflammable bodies. in order to this experiment being conveniently performed. : . table with the finger and thumb. .EXPERIMENTS back. and give it about a dozen strokes with a large piece of India rubber from the left to the right. which will give a spark an inch long. .

. and he i« said to be jiositivdy eUctrijied because he has . and other fluids. LIGHT UNDER WATER. To show the nature cf electrical action.126 THE magician's OWN BOOK. some metal and metallic ores bodies. in the dark. snow. these phenomena will not occur. Thus the human body but if a is a conductor of electricity person standing on a glass stool (as represented in the drawing) be charged with electricity. the fluids of animal metals.per. The same effect. rub a piece of sealing-wax or amber upon the coat sleeve. but have the power of transmitting the These bodies comprise all the electric fluid through them. pieceis of fine Eub two lump sugar together \^ill and a bright electric light SIMPLE MEANS OE PRODUCING ELECTRICITY. body a stick of glass or sealing wax be substituted. earthy substances. it is said to be insulated. and it will be found that while warm. there is another which we call conductors. such as straws or small pieces of pa. be produced. steam. so that the electric fluid cannot pass from the conductor along conductors to the earth. the white quartz being best The same effect may also be witnessed for this purpose. . When any electrified conductor is wholly surroi:nded by non-conductors. smoke. by the friction. but in a more intense degree. periments we have shown that if a clean glass tube be rubbed several times through a silken or leather cloth. except oil. by rubbing the pieces of quartz together. water. under water. and even a vacuum. the electric fluid cannot pass from liini to the earth. . and presented to any substance. By this it will be perceived that besides the class of bodies called electrics. which shows that the electrical But if for a metallic fluid passes through the metal. . it attracts light In our exbodies. These bodies cannot be excited themselves. it will immediately attract or and if a poker suspended by a dry silk repel them string be presented to its upper end. ice. which proves that the electrical fluid does not pass through these substances. may be produced with two pieces of silex or quartz. then the lower end of the poker will exhibit the same phenomena as the tube itself.

and will adhere to it. . whicli is an instrument contrived for the purpose of rubbing together the surfaces of electrics and non-electrics. which is suspended from the hook by a dry silken thread. sparks will be exhibited at the point of contact. Before the young reader can perform any very important experiments with electricity. if MAKE AX ELECTRICAL iTACHINE. In order to illustrate certain remarkable facts in this science of an amusing character. where also the person touching will feel a pricking sensation. and a piece of silk for it to rub against. and thickishg-lass . the method of preparing which we shall hereafter describe. he must become possessed of an ELECTRICAL MACHLVE. On the first application the ball will be . which is a metal stand c is a small piece of cork or pith. 127 lis natural share he is also insulated. ATTRACTION AXD REPIILSIO:?^ EXHIBITED. and again presented to the ball. and if he be touched by another person standing on the ground. the maker cannot afford to buy one. the latter will be repelled instead of attracted. or plate of glass. the ball will be instantaneously attracted to the glass. after this has been done. After they remain in contact for a few seconds. attracted. and presented it to c. the very same phenomena will take place. First procure TO to HOW a common ^ine bottle of good dimensions. It is very easy form. as in the first instance. and on the second repelled. By being touched with the finger. and if. as a dry rod of glass. the ball can be deprived of its electricity. attention must be directed to the figure a b. if the glass be withdrawn without being touched by the fingers. Having rubbed an electron. covered with an amalgam. They generally consist of a cylinder.EXPERIMENTS more than IS ELECTRICITY. make a glass machine of the cylindrica. we present a piece of sealing-wax in place of the glass formerly employed.

formed by melting together in CUSHION. and then reduced to a fine powder in a mortar. At right angles to one end of in the following manner (cylinder of wood. The electricity being generated by the friction produced between the rubber and the bottle from the motion imparted This liy the handle. an amalgam. and three inches long. — . The end of the spindle c passes through lowing manner and the other end at c has the handle for turna hole at b : . the machine is complete. stuffed with wool. by igniting a piece of worstdipped in turpentine. and fastened to the top of a frame of the following figure. about two inches and a half in diameter. bottom. and the spindle should be fixed firmly in the The bottle is then to be fixed in a frame. which will do Through this hole and the mouth pass a spindle. as this. ing the machine. CONDUCTOR. ij^g bowl of a tobacco pipe. and mixed with a sufficient quantity of lard to form a thickish paste. These should be stirred about till quite cold. its it. This frame is to be of such a height that the cushion shall press against the sides of the bottle. and mount i^ to be rounded. The end of b should be squared to through ed tied round round Gx a handle on. in the folbottle. it is necessary to draw it off for use. and six inches long. while fluid. This is made is performed by what is called a conductor. one part of tin with two of zinc. When all is done. round: . and a piece of black silk is sewn on to the top of the cushion. represented in the cut. and hangs over tlie The cushion should be smeared with bottle D.128 Drill a hole THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. to which. should be added six parts of mercury. fix a small wooden cylinder about throe quarters of an inch in diameter.i ed at both ends the other end of the larger cylinder is also Cover the whole with tinfoil. Next make a cushion of wash-leather.

here represented. it is to be placed with the even piece in a line even with. Formerly the electrical machine was made in the form of a cylinder. It is employed for the pur pose of obtaining a quantity of electricity. which diffuses the excitement over the glass. When used. and about half an inch from the bottle. any person on touching him can draw the electricit}' from him. so as to carry off the fluid collected from the plate. which may bo applied to any substance It consists of a glass jar. the electricity will pass from the conductor to him. but now it consists of a plate a. piece of electrical apparatus is called the Leyden jar. When it is wished to charge a Leyden jar it is to be placed at the round end of the conductor. and connected with the conductor by means of a glass rod. 129 on a stand on a glasi rod. as seen in the engraving. and it should be of such a height as to come just below the silk apron. . and as it cannot get away. By \hese simple means a great variety of pleasing experiments ma}^ be performed but to show the various phenomena connected with this interesting stud}^. The points or balls at each side of the plate carry off a constant stream of positive electricity to the prime conductor c. we shall now describe an electrical machine of the newest construction. sparks of fire will issue from it. HOW stool TO If the person DRAW SPARKS FROM THE TIP OF THE XOSE. through the rubber b b. If touched on the nose. coated A most useful . Negative electricity is generated by insulating the conductor to which the cushion is attached. who works the machine be supported on a having glass legs. HOW TO GET A JAR FULL OP ELECTRICITY. The plate is turned by the handle F. THE PLATE ELECTRICAL MACHINE. and perform our experiments with it. and continuing the prime conductor with the ground.EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. owing to the glass on which he stands being a non-conductor. which will exhibit itself in small sparks as it passes to the person who touches him.

When thus arranged. the whole series may be charged as if they formed but one jar. For the purpose of making a direct conmiunication between the inner or outer coatings of a jar or battery. when a discharge is effected . communicatin^^ with the inside of the jar. by some good conductor of electricity. It consists of two bent metallic rods. allows of the balls being ^^ ^^^^^^s*'**^^ ^^^ ^^ \ ^B^ igHHijI ^^il| ^^^_^HM| '"^^"^'^^ ^ ~ ' When opened to the separated at certain distances. an . while the glass handle secures the person holding it from ihe effects of the shock. and a similar union must be effected among the exterior coatings. between the knob and the outside tinfoil. all of electricity can be collected the interior coatings must be made to communicate by metallic rods. and which. botb inside and without. four fifths of the A knob rises through up.130 THE magician's OWN BOOK. . a wooden top. with tinfoil. degree. and connect it with the interior of the ja THE ELECTRICAL BATTERY. If several of these jars be united. by which a discharge is effected. one of the balls is made to touch the exterior proper coating. way When it is wished to charge the jar. terminating at one end by brass balls. and a quantity of electricity being given off. acting like a pair of compasses. aid the other ball is then brought into contact with the knob of the jar. enormous quantity but in arranging them. and connected at another by a joint which is fixed to the end of a glass handle. this knob is applied to the prime conductor of the electrical machine when in action. an instrument called a discharging rod is employed. A piece of brass chain must hang from the stem that carries the knob. the jar will remain charged with it till a connection is made.

and bi'ing it under the other. This amusing experiment is performed by means of the electrical stool. the machine. and supported by a glass pillar a. The lady thereupon mounts the glass stool. when they will jump about to the no small astonishment of the spectators. while the machine is in action. a b. a spark will fly in his face. to favor her with a salute. which generally deters him from his rash and wicked in tontion. and takes hold of a chain connected with the prime conductor. the gentleman approaches the lady. they will also dance and leap about in the most grotesque mxanner. or two pieces of metal plate attach one of them to the prime conductor by a chain. be made to ring by electricity in the following manner. THE ELECTRICAL KISS. and let it hang' about two or three inches from the knob. and from one to the other with great rapidity. The electrical apparatus being attached to the knob r the electricity paesee down the wires d d may . The same maybe made to dance by merely holding the inside of a dry glass tumbler to the prime conductor for a few minutes. The machine being then put in motion. as the cause of their motion is not quite so appureut. passing through bell B to the bell e. RmamG Bells BELLS. and then whelming it over them. Let any lady challenge a gentleman not acquainted with the experiment. and immediately he attempts to imprint the seal of soft affection upon her coral lips. 131 DAXCING BALLS AOT) DOLLS. and the upper piece is charged by electricity from . If some of the pith be formed into little figures. and coat them with tin foil. Get two round pieces of wood.EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. the pith balls will jump up and down. Place some pith balls U})ou the bottom piece of wood b. Immediately this is done. Let three small bells be suspended from a brass wire D D.

and a handsome face to correspond. The subjoined upon which many ingeniIn the pillars a be made by the 3'oung philosopher. and attract the clappers c c. On these rest the rotatory wire or wheel f. stretched above. which causes it to be turned round on an inclined plane till it reaches Q P having .132 THE magician's OWN BOOK. that are negatively so. quills hair will stand on end. the electricity passes over the pillar b. to astonish even "Whigs. but a wooden head. While a person with is on the electrical Each Like stool. the hair will rise up as in figure 2. wooden board or stand. in consequence of being insulated by the silken strings. therefore attract the clappers till they are charged. when they strike against the center bell to dis- charge themselves. . may be made in the folreal lowing form. WORHNG POWER This may be shown may is in a variety of machine ous toys figure A will exhibit the principle ways. not your own. and off at the points. 7\a the top. off. and fixed in the conductor of an electrical machine. and to the instrument at B. four fine wires. with a wig of streaming hair. which are then positively electrified. and thus a peal is rung on the bells until the electricity is driven OF ELECTRICITT. When this is put in motion. which The bells are not conductors. up the wire c into the wheel. THE ELECTRHTED WIG." A wooden head. ^ iB © k to the bells. or deterred from anything. with a wire in the neck to support it by. having its points 'fi^ turned By the reverse way. c c. upon the fretful porcupine. if he be charged much electricity." who are seldom astonish* ed by. b b b b. means of a chain attached to the conductor.

strongly resembling lightning in miniature. line E. THE LIGHTNING-STROKE IMITATED. are to be fixed hori. on which are erected two uprights.EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. F and G. restoring electrical equilibrium. a a is a wooden stand. . be put behind the stand. one with the inside. the cloud 1 will be brought near the cloud 2 continue this slowly until the clouds (which are furnished with two small brass balls) are within an inch of each other. d. zontally. To show the manner in which thunderclouds perform their operations in the air. and but slightly joined together. . . b b c c are two small pulleys. may he swum in water under the reIf the jar d maining cloud the mast being made of separate pieces. when a beautiful flash. pieces. and the cloud 2 removed. covered with tin foil. over which a silken cord can pull easily. a vessel communicating by means of a wire with the outside of the jar. the mast will be struck and shattered to . and made to communicate by means of thin wires. 133 IMITATION THUNDERCLOUDS. When the cloud is passed over the vessel. e is another silken line stretched across from one upright to another on these silken cords two pieces of thin cardboard. by pulling the loop of the silk of a charged jar. and the other with the outsjde Now. will pass from one cloud to the other. and cut so as to represent clouds.



THE magician's own book.

This apparatus is capable of affording much amusement A is a stand of wood, b is a common Leyden jar, out of which proceed the wires h h, one terminating in ball f, the other in the ball d, to which are attached a number of pith e is a shelf for the birds to rest birds, by silken strings upon c is the sportsman g his gun. To put this operation in motion, the Leyden jar is to be charged with electricity, by affixing a chain to the bottom part of it, and connecting it with an electrical machine in the usual manner, or by applying it to a prime conductor, when the birds will fly off the knob to which they are fixed, If the sportsman in consequence of their being repelled. and gun be then turned, so that the end of his gun shall touch the knob f, an electric spark will pass from one to


other, a report will be heard, and the birds will fall as if shot, in consequence of the electricit}^ having been taken from the Leyden jar. There should be a com".he


munication between the sportsman and the



some metal, as shown by the dotted


formed of on the


Such are a few of many experiments which may be mado by the young experimenter, who is fond of science and baa any ingenuity; but should he possess little love of research, no ingenuity, and would like to amuse himself with an electrifying machine of little cost, he may sit himself down
to a

BLACK TOM CAT, and be a Katterfelto at once.

1. Place a thin plate of zinc upon the upper surface of the tongue, and a half dollar or a piece of silver on the under Burface. Allow the metals to remain for a little time in contact with the tongue before they are made to touch each other, that the taste of the metals themselves may not be confounded with the sensation produced by their contact. When the edges of the metals, which project beyond the tongue, are then suffered to touch, a galvanic sensation is produced, which it is difficult accurately to describe. 2. Place a silver teaspoon as high as possible between the gums and the upper lip, and a piece of zinc between the gums and the under lip. On bringing the extremities of the metals into contact, a very vivid sensation, and an effect like a flash of light across the eyes, will be perceived. It is singular that this light is equally vivid in the dark and in the strongest light, and whether the eyes be shut or open. 3. Put a silver cup or mug, filled with water, upon a plate of zinc on a table, and just touch the water with the tip of the tongue it will be tasteless so long as the zinc plate is not handled, for the body does not form a voltaic circle with



THE magician's OWN BOOK.

the metals. Moisten your hand well, take hold of the plate of zinc, and touch the water with your tongue, when a very peculiar sensation, and an acid taste, will be experienced 4. Take a piece of copper of about six inches in width, and put upon it a piece of zinc of rather smaller dimensions, inserting- a piece of cloth, of the same size as the zinc, between them; place a leech upon the piece of zinc, and though there a|)pear nothing to hinder it from crawling away, yet it will not pass from th^^ zinc to the copper, because its damp body acting as a conductor to the fluid disturbed, as soon as it touches the copper it receives a galvanic shock, and of course retires to its resting-place. 5. Plunge an iron knife into a solution of sulphate of copper (blue-stone); by chemical action, only, it will become covered with metallic copper. Immerse in the same solution a piece of platinum, taking care not to let it touch the iron, and no deposition of copper will take place upon it but if the upper ends of the metals be brought into contact with each other, a copious deposition of copper will soon settle upon the platinum likewise.



If we take two plates of different kinds of metal, platinum or copper, and zinc, for example, and immerse them in pure water, having wires attached to them ^->. ^...^^ above, then if the wire of each is brought iiito contact in another vessel of water, / pIB^-^d \ ^ galvanic circle will be formed, the jittSf jIS 1 I w^ter will be slowly decomposed, its HrfSlI V I 'i oxygen will be fixed on the zinc wire, / ill i'^Sl ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ same time a current of elecJ='!^^^^teL I^^M^^^^^B^^Ii tricity will be transmitted through the '^^^^^^^^^^^^y^' liquid to the platinum or copper wire, on =Tf^^^^:r?= i\^Q gnd Qf which the other element of water, namely, the hydrogen, will make its appearance in the form of minute gas bubbles. The electrical current passes back again into the zinc at the points of its contact with the platinum, and thus a continued current is kept up, and hence it is called a galvanic circle. The moment the circuit is broken by separating the wires, the current ceases, but is again renewed by making them touch either in or out of the water. If a small quantity of sulphuric acid be added tr








the water, the phenomenon will be more apparent. The end of the wire attached to the piece of platinum or copper is called the positive pole of the battery, and that of the wire attached to the zinc is the negative pole.

of electricity here generated will be extremely can be easily increased by multiplying the glasses and the number of the pieces of metal. If we take six such glasses instead of one, partially fill them with dilute sulphuric acid, and put a piece of zinc and copper into each, connecting them by means of copper wire from glass to glass through the whole series, a stronger current of electricity will be the result. The experimenter must be careful not to let the wire and zinc touch each other at the bottom of the tumblers, and must also remember that the copper of glass 1 is connected with the zinc of glass 2, and so on.
feeble, but this

The current

MAKE A MAGNET BY GALVANISM. a connection between the poles of the above or any excited battery with the two ends of a wire formed into a spiral coil, by bending common bonnet wire closely round a cj'linder, or tube, of about an inch in diameter into this coil introduce a needle, or piece of steel wire, laying it lengthways down the circles of the coil. In a few minutes after the electric fluid has passed through the spiral wire, and consequently round the needle or wire, the latter will be found to be strongly magnetized, and to possess all the properties of a magnet.


effect this,



If a galvanic current, or any electric current, be made to pass along a wire, under which and in a line with it a compass is placed, it will be found that the needle vrill no longer

point north and south, but will take a direction nearly across the current, and point almost east and west.

CHANGE OF COLOR BY GALVANISM. Put a teaspoonful of sulphate of soda into a cup, and dissolve it in hot water pour a little cabbage blue into tho


THE magician's own book.

solution, and put a portion into two glasses, connecting them by a piece of linen or cotton cloth previously moistened On putting one of the wires of the in the same solution.

galvanic pole into each glass, the acid accumulates in the one, turning the blue to a red, and the alkali in the other, If the wires be now reversed, the acid rejidering it green. accumulates eventually in the glass where the alkali appeared, while the alkali passes to the glass where the acid was.

THE GALVANIC SHOCK. ends of the wires of a galvanic battery be placed in separate basins of water, then, on dipping the fingers of each hand in the basin, a smart shock will be felt, with a With a particular aching accompanied with trembling. strong battery this effect is felt as high as the shoulders. The shock will also be felt by simply holding the galvanic wires, one in each hand, provided the hands be moistened with salt and water. Several persons may receive the shock
If the

together by joining hands.

Coat the point of your tongue with





part with gold or silver leaf, so that the two metal's touch, when a sourish taste will be produced. This simple effect is

termed "A Galvanic Tongue." Ale and porter drink better out of a pewter or tin pot, than from glass or earthenware because of the galvanic influence of the green copper as used to give the beer a

frothy head.

Galvanic experiments

may be made

with the legs of a

answer nearly the same purpose. Lay the fish in a plate, upon a slip of zinc, to which is attached a piece of wire, and put a quarter dollar upon the flounder's back then touch the quarter dollar with the wire, and at each contact strong muscular contractions will be
live flounder will



1. We have said that the agency of the mag-net can be imparted to hard metallic bodies this may be done in a very easy way. If you pass a magnet (which may be either natural or artificial) over a sewing- needle several times from the eye to the point, the needle will acquire the prin


and attract iron

filings in the

same manner

as a natu-

But the part of the magnet which you apply to the needle must be the north pole and you Diust not pass it over the needle backward and forward, but Kft it always from the point and again begin from the eye. r^uppose you wish to impart the principle to a small bar of tempered steel, tie the piece to be magnetized to a poker with a piece of silk, and hold the part of the poker to which it is attached in the left hand take hold of the tongs, a little below the middle, with the right hand, and rub the Bteel bar with them, moving the tongs from the bottom to the top, and keeping them steadily in a vertical pc^sition ill the time. About a dozen strokes on each side will •'laral

magnet would






part sufficient magnetic power to the bar to enable the operator to lift up small pieces of iron and steel with it The lower end of the bar should be marked before it is fastened to the poker, so that the poles may be readily distin guished from each other when it is taken off the upper end being the south pole, and the lower the Qorth. 2. Scatter some iron filings upon a piece of paper, and hold a magThe instant net underneath it. the contact takes place, the filings

themselves upright, and as soon as the magnet is withdrawn. The effect is singular, and indeed very amusing the diminutive iron particles rising and falling, as if b^^ supernatural agency.
will raise




ascertain whether a piece of metal, or mineral, is magone of the poles of a poised magnet. If it be attracted at both poles, you may then conclude that the substance so tested is not magnetic. Dip a magnet into boiling water, and it will lose half of its magnetism but as the magnet cools, its full power will
netic, present it to




This may be done by stroking a piece of hard steel with a natural or artificial magnet. Take a common sewing-needle, and pass the north pole of a magnet from the eye to the point, pressing it gently in so doing. After reaching the end of the needle, the magnet must not bo passed back aj-^-ain towards the eye, but must be lifted up and applied again to
that end, the friction being always in the same direction. After repeating this for a few times, the needle will become magnetized, and attract iron filings, &c.




Hold it in the left hand in a position slightly inclined from the perpendicular, the lower end pointing to the north, and then strike it smartly several times with a large iron ham mer, and it will be found to possess the powers of a magnet, although but slightly.

EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM. the needle will always be balanced. and so will the north poles N N. still exhibiting their mutual repulsion. . by the shifting of which either nearer to or further from the center. n s. its TO SUSPEND A NEEDLE IN THE AER BY IIAGNETISM. 141 TO SHOW MAGNUnC REPULSION AND ATTRACTION. The ends s s being made south poles by induction from the north pole n. they will recede from each other as in figure 1. a small weight or moveable piece of brass is placed on one end of the needle. and in southern regions of its south pole. n s. and at different times of the day. Suspend two short pieces of iron wire. within a little distance of the magnet. This separation of the wires will increase as the magnet approaches them. but there will be a particular distance at which the attractive force of n overcomes the repulsive force of the poles s s. DIP OP THE NEEDLE. It is constantly changing. . but the north pole of the needle takes a direction considerably to the west of the true north. The causes of the dipping of the needle are yet unexplained. and varies at different parts of the earth. The magnetic needle does not point exactly north and south. so that they will hang in contact in a vertical If the north pole of a magnet N be now brought to a moderate distance between the wires. VARIATION OF THE NEEDLE. keeping hold of the thread to prevent the needle from attaching itsf If to the mag. will repel each other. In balancing the needle on the crd. aon account of this dipping. Another remarkable and evident manifestation of the influence of the magnetism of the earth upon the needle is the inclination or dip of the latter. which is a deviation from horizontal place in a downward direction in northern regions of its north. Place a magnet on a stand to raise it a little above the tabic then bring a small sewing-needle containing a thread. and causes the wires to converge as in figure 2 the north poles n n position.

and then if a current of voltaic electricity be sent through the wire. surrounded by several coils of wire. from this and preceding experiments. Percussion and friction in the required position would seem. the card or fly and 3. The box is suspended in a square wooden case. the bar becomes a powerful ^ magnet. originally derived from the earth. MAGNETISil BY HAiDIERING. and will continue so as long as the connection with the battery is preserved. It is. or a copper wire prevented from touching the iron by a winding of cotton or thread. THE MARINER'S COMPASS. that if you strike a magnet its magnetizing force will be either very much impaired. POWER OF THE ELECTRO MAGNET. the box 2. The needle in endeavoring to fly to flae magnet. . however. or to develop that which already resides in it. . bent as in the drawing. the magnetism disappears. by meane of two concentric brass circles called gimbals. be surrounded with a common bonnet wire. waken up the inert particles of the metal to admit nrw magnetism. when it will hence it happens. so fixed by brazen axes to the two — . On breaking the contact. This experiment may be easily made by the young reader with a horse-shoe magnet. THE magician's own book. like pended Mahommed's coffin. Place a bar of iron in a vertical position. The mariner's compass is an artificial magnet fitted in a proper box. acquire a feeble degree of magnetism thst the anvils and other tools employed in smithies are endowed with magnetism. and consists of three parts 1. and give it a scries of slight blows with a hammer or poker.142 net. . as it were. aff'ects the magnetic needle already described. will also communicate magnetism to "soft iron. a remarkable circumstance. If a bar of that metal. p is the positive and n the negative The same influence which ^ pole. These operations. the needle. to be the chief means of magnetizing iron and steel. will remain curiously susin the air. or altogether destroyed. and being prevented by the thread.

and fixing the poker upright. one fourth of an inch broad. will turn to the north. and one twentieth thick mark one end. The needle is a slender bar of hardened steel. the bar marked end . and is called its north pole. of iron. Take an iron poker and tongs. 143 boxes. By this means the bar b will receive as much magnetism as will enable it to lift a small key at the and this end. retains a horizoD- motions of the ship. the unmarked end being . or two bars being suspended by its middle or made to rest on a joint. . about ten times on each side of it. that the inner one. having a hollow agate cup in the center. or compass-box. a bar of soft steel about three inches long. called points of the compass. from the marked end of the bar to its u])per end.EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM. Then grasping the tongs T with the right hand a little below the middle. which moves upon the point of a pivot made of brass. The card is a circular piece of paper which is fastened upon the needle. let the bar b be rubbed with the lower end l of the tongs. The outer edge of the card is divided into thirty-two points. as shown in the engraving. and moves with it. the larger and the older the better. hold to it with the left hand near the top p by a silk thread. and let this end be downwards. tal position in all TO MAKE AUTIFICIAL MAGxVETS WITHOUT THE AID EITHER OF NATURAL LOADSTONES OR ARTIEICIAL MAGNETS. and keeping them nearly in a vertical line.

and they are in a parallel position with the same poles together. and south to but if the consouth. and to place it on a piece If the of cork by laying it in a groove cut to receive it. they %vill be immediately Supposing this to be attracted to one end. and cause it to stop. and the magnet will attract the balance-wheel of the watch. in his process. and inquire if it will go when laid on the table. not in contact with the magnet. magnet. thev will The best method of proving . and the filings will stand on the magnet . cork be placed in the center of a basin of water. that is. the north pole. If you fix two magnets in two pieces of cork. . north and south. and of which a more detailed account will be found in his interesting volume. Each magnet has its poles. so that it is not attracted by the sides of the basin. repel If a the north and south pole of another. be attracted. POLARITY OF THE MAGNET. the same as the mariner's compass. Both will have a tendency to repel each other. as in the following figure. they will mutually repel each other trary poles point to one another. CaX' ton. as in the figure. each of the ends of the filings. will become north poles. and place them also in a basin of water. north to north. Borrow a watch from the company.144 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. while the ends in contact will by induction become south poles. this is to take a magnet or a piece of steel rendered magnetic. Then place it just over the point at which a magnet is fixed underneath the top of the table. as north to south. the north or south poles of one magnet. and allowed to swim freely on its surface. which he regarded superior to those in former use. be dipped in some iron filings. it will be found to turn its north pole to the north. and its south pole to the south. This is the method recommended by Mr. NORTH AND SOUTH POLES OF THE MAGNET. the south pole. THE WATCH MAGNETIZED.

Place a common sewing-needle on a smooth horizontal board. they would approach and meet. place a magnet that turns on a pivot. Iron bars standing erect. or a key. but the little one would perform more of the journey in proportion to its A magnet littleness. If either be balanced in a scale. at the same time placing the table. such as the gratings of a prison cell. magnet. by means of the pin. Under the top of a common table. whatever disproportion there is between their sizes. The uppermost of the iron tires round a carriage wheel Fire-irons 10 . on the pin at the end of the you alter the position of the magnet and giving the key 10 any persoi. Strew some steel filings. . THE MAGNETIC TABLE.. which you pull out. or the iron railings before houses. you desire him to make the experiment. as pendulums. and the other be brought within a certain distance beneath it. when the needle will revolve along the board. Then placing your . There may also be a drawer under the table. the very same counterpoise will be required to prevent their approach. and fix a board under it that nothing may appear.EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM. when which have rested in one position in a room daring the summer months are often highly magnetic. which he will then not be able to perform. and move a strong magnet underneath the board. which will is. in the first position. and by which it may be placed in different positions this pin must be so placed as not to be visible to the spectators. and a piece of iron attract each other equally. then attract part of the nails or filings. or very small nails. You then give the key to another person. At one end of the table there must be a pin that communicates with a magnet. TO PASS MAGNETISM THROUGfl A BOARD. that person will immediately perform the experiment. INTERESTING^ PARTICULARS CONCERNDfG THE MAGNET. whichever be in the scale. according to the peculiar motion given to the magnet. If the two were hanging near each other. to show that there is nothing concealed. hand. are often magnetic. over that part of the table where the magnet Then ask any one to lend a knife. 145 MAGNETIC ACTION AND REACTION. in a careless manner.

and. the faithhis heroic knights. alas he had scarcely approached within view of the chivalric troop. had scarcely approached within sight of it. will. In a German collection of fairy tales. without some consideration. raise them far above the means of most boys. yet really appear. pohu'it}'. at a swift pace. and has hen. to reconnoitre the position of this gigantic enchanter's castle. magnet. has north polarity. by its attractive powers on his steel armor. turned his gallant steed's head towards his companions in arms. Other accounts of its virtues. when the mighty hand of the giant magician was stretched forth. forthwith. EXAGGERATED MAGNETISM. in Electricity. for whose instruction and . to be fictitious. recollect several stories. we remember s " The knight. the knight. 1 of loadstone. we have selected for the simple yet clear expoBitions which they offer of the fundamental principles of those branches of philosophy more elaborate experiments we have refrained from inserting. who volunpassage to the effect following teered to adventure forward from the body of cavalry that were bent on this exploit. and struck his spurs into his good steed's flank but. the costly and cumbrous apparatus which they require. came pricking o'er the plain.e south while the lower end attracting the south end of the same. and the giants and magicians who "worked theii earthly woe. He now heard the giant in pursuit. as although. the dwarfs who were theii iriends. doubtless. Galvanism." are the principal characters. though true in fact. when he beheld the enormous bulk of the giant himself leaning against the outward wall. his grieved associates had the mortification of seeing the knight unhorsed. The preceding experiments amusement we Our readers cater. and. and Magnetism. which was made >n distress ful squires who attended on whom : . the damsels they relieved. in which the powers of the magnet are greatly exaggerated.146 THE magician's OWN BOOK. in which the ancient chivalry of the court of the famous Charlemagne." . Pursuant to the instructions he had received. perhaps. lUtracts the north end of a CONCLUSION. armed only with one of his horse's shoes. more astonishing and impressive in their effects.

earnestly impressing upon him to lose no opportunity of making ph^'sical science his study. By it we find that the air has weight and pressure. elasticity. " There is a tricksey spirit in the air That plays sad gambols. color. The leather is made quite wet and pliable." Ben Jonso* air The branch of the physical sciences which ^-elates to the and its various phenomena is called Pneumatics. To show that the air has weight and pressure. soft but firm leather. density. By it learn many curious particulars. and some other properties with which we shall endeavor to make the young reader acquainted by many pleasing experiments. not we . the common leather sucker by which boys raise stones will show It consists of a piece of the pressure of the atmosphere.— THE MAGIC OF PNEUMATICS AND AEROSTATICS. compressibility. [147] . and by pulling the string a vacuum is left underneath its center consequently the weight of the air about the edges of the leather. and then its under partis placed on the stone and stamped down by the foot. having a piece of string drawn through its center. This pressing of the leather excludes the aii from between the leather and the stone.

THE PRESSURE OF THE AIR SHOWN BY A WINE-GLASS. The air within this being rarefied and expanded. the operator holds the flame of a lamp under a bell-shaped glass. WEIGHT OF THE AIR PROVED BY A PAIR OF BELLOWS. Shut the nozzle and valve-hole of a pair of bellows. ANOTHER. . Invert a tall glass jar in a dish of water. In this state the glass is placed upon the . They are kept together by the weight of the heavy air which surrounds them in the same manner as if they were surrounded by water.148 THE MAGTCIAi\*S OWN BOOK. is necessary for separating the boards. a considerable portion is given off. then invert the glass. we shall find that a very great force. and after having squeezed the air out of them. and the stcne. Place a card on a wine-glass filled with water. the water from the pressure without rises up to supply the place of the air removed by the combustion. even some hundreds of pounds. it being counterbalanced by any air between enables the boy to lift it. the pressure of the atmosphere on the outside of the card being sufficient to support the water. the w^ater will not escape. and place a lighted taper under it as the taper consumes the air in the jar. if they are perfectly air-tight. In the operation of cupping.

supendless amusement to him posing that he takes our advice. here represented. as seen in the figure." a small air-pump may be obtained for about five or six dollars. and that not very long ago. and adjust them by the quantity of water admitted to them. The reason of fore heavy enough to sink.PWElIviATlCS AND AEROSTATICS. when the pump was only obtainable by the philosophical professor. But now. may REASON FOR THIS. or standing still. air . as it will be a source of and. THE Am-PUiTP. 140 flesh. This can be shown by a beautiful philosophical toy which Procure a glass jar. . it contracts. so that The in specific gravity they differ a little from each other. and then. rising and falling. and having each a minute opening at the heel. ELASTICITY OP THE AIR. if the hand be pressed upon the top or mouth of the jar. by which water may pass in and out. the figures will be seen to rise or descend as the pressure is gentle or heavy. and make them hollow within. and we would strongly advise our young friend to procure one. Then mould three or four little figures in wax. and therethis is. and the glass adheres to the flesh by the difference of the pressure of the internal and external air. that the pressure on the top of the jar condenses the air between the cover and the water surface this condensation then presses on the water below. The time was. we give him the following experiments. according to the pressure made. forcing as much more water into them as to render them heavier than water. and influences it through its whole extent. owing to our " cheap way of doing things. Place them in the jar. and as the air within it cools. . c(»mpressing also the air in the figures. such as is easily be constructed. or by persoDS of enlarged means. mouth of the jar should now be covered with a piece of skin or India-rubber.

called the receiver. under the receiver. Place a bladder. exhaust the air.150 THE magician's OWN BOOK. when the air has been thoroughly exhausted. The hole in this plate is connected with two pistons. florence flask. a stop-cock is turned. and waters and other fluids turn to vapor. and it will be seen that the small quantity of air left within the bladder will so expand itself as to lift the weight. upon it lay a weight. exhaust the air. magnets are powerless. Then let in the air. and then the experiments may be performed. and it will be found to have increased by several grains. light and heavy bodies fall with the same swiftness. upon which is a perforated plate b. exhaust the air. The air-pump A. and again weigh the whole. Put a corked bottle into the receiver. and thus pump the air out of the receiver. Animals quickly die for want of air. out of which all the air has apparently been squeezed. fitted up with a screw and fine oiled Bilk valve. AIR m THE EGG. When the air is taken out. and the cork will fly out. TO PROVE THAT AIR HAS WEIGHT. fresh egg and cut off a little of the shell and film from its smaller end. take it off the plate and weigh it. Take a TO PROYE AIR ELASTIC. Under the receiver of an air-pump. Screw the flask on the plate of the air-pump. consists of a bell glass. and a stand. gunpowder will not explode. combustion ceases. then put the egg under a receiver and Take a . the rods of which are moved by a wheel handle backwards and forwards. a bell sounds faint.

because the would have supported it has been withdrawn. THE SOUNDLESS BELL. instead of rising. so that they may fall. will descend in dense clouds towards the bottom of the glass. and having done so. AIR IN THE EGG. Set a lighted candle on a plate. air which Place a nicely-adjusted pair of forceps at the top of the receiver. so that they may be opened by the fingers. Then place on each of the little plates a half-eagle and a feather. In the open air the half-eagle will fall long before the feather. will go out. communicating with the top at the outside through a hole. having a contrivance so as to r^'ng it at pleasure. upon which all the contents of the egg will be forced out by the expansion of the small bubble of air contained in the great end between the shell and the film. but in vacuo.PNEUMATICS AND yEROSTATICS. they will fill both together. theD . HALF EAGLE AXD FEATHER. as in the receiver now exhausted of its air. Exhaust the air from the receiver. 151 pump out the air. DESCENDING SMOKE THE DESCENDING SMOKE. detach the objects. but when exhausted. and reach the bottom of the glass at same instant. remains. and the smoke from the wick. and cover it with a receiver. and cover it with a tall The candle will continue to burn while the air receiver. Set a bell on the pump-plate.

of the water. with the concave side of the card downwards. heard to sound very well now exhaust the receiver of air. the upper card will move.152 THE magician's own book. They will consequently rise fish are and float. one end being even with the surface of the card. . and U will be found impossible. when the clapper strikes against the sides of the bell. owing to the expansion of the air within their bodies. contained in the air bladder. . If. THE MYSTERIOUS Cut from a card two discs or circular pieces. and then. on two sides. the edges of the two cards be made to fit each other very accurately. however. containing water. into which put the tube of a common quill. and — sometimes but when the edges of the it will be thrown off cards are. sufficiently far apart to permit the . belly upwards. FLOATING FISH. upon the surface CIECLES. in which a couple of put be placed under the receiver. the center of the upper card being from one eighth to one fourth attempt to blow off of an inch above the end of the quill iiie upper card by blowing through the quill. the sound can be scarcely heard. the clapper sound against the bell. THE ELOATING HSH. upon exhausting the air. and it make will be SOUNDLESS BELL. Make the other piece a little convex. the fish will be unable to keep at the bottom of the glass. about two inches in diameter. In the center of one of them make a hole. If a glass vessel. and lay its center over the end of the quill.

Another fact to be shown with this simple apparatus appears equally inexplicable with the former. the discs must be separated with a velocity as much less than that of the blast. unless a deficit of pressure be created between the discs. Robert Hare. when within three eighths of an inch. a column of air must. Of course . that.PNEUMATICS AND ^ROSTATICS. When the quill fits the card rather loosely. a gold . the upper surface of the perforated card has a little expanded. some years since. if all the air necessary to preserve the balance be supplied from the tube. by the Royal Society. Lay the loose card upon the hand with the concave side up blow forcibly through the tube. and is as follows Supposing the diameters of the discs of card to be to that : of the hole as 8 to 1.If the card through which the quill passes has several holes made in it. if the discs were to be separated (their surfaces remaining parallel) with a velocity as great as that of the air blast. and the two opposite sides are somewhat depressed. and adhere to the perforated card. late of the University of Pennsylvania. then. from the humidity of the breath. if the current of air be strong. . 153 when air to escape. the loose card will suddenly rise. the area of the former to the latter must be as 64 to 1. For the explanation of the above phenomenon. the loose card may be instantly thrown off with the least puff of air. a comparatively light puff will throw both cards three or four feet in height. meantime. whether the current of air be made from the mouth or from a pair of bellows. at the same time. even the current of air sent against it be strong*. the discs cannot be made to move asunder with a velocity t^-reater than one sijtv-fourtli of that of the blast. and. . those depressed sides maj^ be seen distinctly to rise and approach the upper card. as the column required between them is greater than that yielded by the tube and yet the air cannot be supplied from any other source. Such explanation has been given by Dr. medal and one hundred guineas were offered. directly in proportion to the force of the current of air. Hence. the loose card will retain its position. unfavorable to their separation. It follows. bring the two cards towards each other . be interposed. The ex- periment will succeed equall}' well. . When. under the circumstances in question. 64 times greater than that which would escape from the tube during the interim consequently.

the ring of air in the interstice must experience nearly all the force of the jet. This may be made very evident if a piece of cork be suffered to float inside of the glass on the surface of the water. the blast following it. which pump the air in and draw it out of the bell. in various currents radiair ing from the common center of the tube and discs. The air within the tumbler does not entirely exclude the water. so as to hold three or four persons. and hence the air in the tumbler is what The diving-bell is is called condensed. risen so high in the air that the sun melted his wings. the circulation of which is kept up by pumps. of very large dimensions. Its principle may be well illustrated by the following experiment. the force of the current of air through the tube will bo expended on the moveable disc. because air is elastic. and it will be found that the water will not rise much more than half way in tlie tumbler. and recover from it valuable portions of wrecks and other matters. formed upon the above principle. it is a wooden or metal vessel. having a corresponding tube to let off the breathed air. and there i» . and was drowned . Take a glass tumbler. and must be driven . who are supplied with air from above by means of a tube. Icarus is said to have called aeronautics. but instead of being of glass. THE DIYING BELL. and plunge it into the water with the diving-bell is The mouth downwards. The art of sailing or navigating a body through the air is In remote ages. and the thin ring of air. and he fell into the ^gein sea. a pneumatic engine. THE AIR BALLOON. and consequently compressible. by means of which persons can descend to great depths in the sea. which exists round the orifice between the discs and since the moveable discs can only move with one sixty-fourth the velocity of the blast. outwards.154 all THE MA«^IClA\y OWN BOOK.

is a bag of silk of large dimensions. Over the whole of the upper part should be a net-work. a vessel filled with a fluid which will float on another fluid lighter than itself. that the ancients possessed means of rising in the air with which we are not now acquainted. To the upper part of the balloon there should be a valve opening inv/ards. so that the young aeronaut may be perfectly familiar with the construction of a balloon. and hold the silk firmer in its place during the stitchiu. The air-balloon. and is. which should come down to the middle. in fact. or rather a gas-balloon. Take care not to have the varnish too thick. as follows Get some close texture silk. The threads must be placed very regularly. . proceeding circumference of a circle about two feet . usually cut in gores. Fourteen of these pieces will be found to be the best number and. to which a string should be fastened. 155 reason to believe. or the balloun will be drawn out of shape. from some figures that have recently been discovered on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments. The gores are to be covered with a varnish of India rubber dissolved in a mixture of turpentine and naphtha.u. an air-balloon. so that the aeronaut may open the valve when he wishes to descend and this should be imitated on a small scale.-. with various cords. as this will save much trouble afterwards. passing through a hole made in a small piece of wood fixed in the lower for . of a pear shape. when expanded by gas. It is.PNEUMATICS AND iEROSTATICS. and cut it into a form resembling a narrow pear with a very thin stalk. When sewing them together. It ascends in the atmosphere because its whole bulk is much lighter than the air would be in the space it occupies. and it will be found useful if the gores are covered with an interior coating of varnish before they are finally sewn together. as now constructed. HOW The best shape : TO MAKE AN AIR-BALLOON. it will be of advantage to coat the parts that overlap with a layer of varnish. of course. And in preparing the gores proceed is that of a peg-top. part of the balloon. the breadths of each piece must be measured accordingly.

The meshes should be small at the top. or of several pieces of slender cane bound together. as the weight of the material is too great for the air to buoy it up. into this put a pound of iron filings. or granulated zinc. against which part of the balloon the inflammable air exerts the greatest force. and the gas will rise into the body of When quite full withdraw the tube. and will rise beautifully. They may be made smaller of thin slips of bladder. and is well varnished or painted. place it under the balloon and set fire to it. Balloons of this kind cannot be made smaller than six feet in diameter. and introduce one end of it through a cork. The car is made of wicker work it is usually covered with leather. which is now . of the balloon with strong cord very tightly. of oiled silk. either of glass or metal. according well woven . over which paste a piece of paper. below the balloon. and tie the neck it. When all is prepared let some one hold the balloon from its top by means of a stick. and let it dry. while you dip the cotton in spirits of wine till it is thoroughly saturated. It is suspended by ropes proceeding from the net which goes over the balloon. and have two cross pieces at its diameter a little bent. may be HOW TO FILL A BALLOON. TO MAKE FIRE-BALLOONS. . and increase in size as they recede from the top. or of thin gutta-percha cloth. The circle may be made of wood.156 THE magician's own book. with two quarts of water. Pass a wire round the neck of the balloon. extensively used for this purpose with this they made a foot in diameter. but b« Cut the gores. from tissue paper. and add to this by degrees one pint of sulphuric acid. which place in the bottle. and look well over the surface of the paper ii||j for any small hole or slit. Then take a tube. to the form already given. so that a piece of soft cotton dipped in spirits of wine may be laid on them. then put the other end into the neck of the balloon. paste the gores nicely together. or other membrane glued together. Procure a large stone bottle which will hold a gallon of water. If freed it will now rise in the air.

and was found one hurdred and thirty miles from that city little . These globes may be made so thin as to be transparent. soak it in hot water. . Then. the balloon will indicate a desire to rise. notwithstanding the holes in the bottom. the water will begin to run out of the bottom of the bottle. Pierce a few holes with a glazier's diamond in a common black bottle place it in a vase or jug of water.PNEUMATICS AND . and at night present a very beauti- When ful appearance.EROSTATICb. escaoed from Philadelphia. and while it is in the jug or vase. ether into a bottle of caoutchouc. let it go. and it will ascend to a great height in the air. thus made. and give it to some person to uncork. 3 157 ou do not set fire 10 the balthe air is sufficiently heated within. not leak The moment the cork is drawn. fill the bottle and cork it well. CAOUTCHOUC BALLOONS. These are easily made by cutting a piece of paper in a circular form. at which a cork may be placed as a balance. with a funnel. very careful loon. the size of a walnut. has thus been extended to a ball fifteen inches in diameter and a few years since a caoutchouc balloon. They ascend by the air getting under them. and when it pulls very hard. to the party's astonishment. it will wipe it dry. so that the neck only is above the surface. PAEACHUTES. and it will become inflated to a considerable size. which may be made to converge to a point. close it tightly. and placing threads round the edges. A piece of caoutchouc. Take it out. THE MYSTERIOUS BOHLE. . Put a . and are frequently blown to a great distance.

Martin. very soon you all will be agreeing. two theories are at present very ably maintained by their respective advocates. io prove this false. I pray. Concerning the uature of light. and the other the Huygenean. •' ' Sct'ing is believing.THE MAGrc OP OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. hear lue. And — Optics is the science of light and vision.' so the sages say. That nought is so deceptive as our seeing. The Newtonian theory considers light to consist of inconceivably small bodies emanating from the sun. my friends. One is termed the Newtonian theory. or any other luminous [168] .

placed in a basin. The HuygeDean conceives it to consist in the undulations of a highly elastic and subtle fluid. there is no refraction. and its intensity or degree decreases as the square of the distance from tht luminous body increases. propagated round luminous centers in spherical waves. so that on standing at a certain distance it be just hid from the eye of an observe^ . but are said to be refracted. such as water or glass. The ray of light proceeding from B through tb^ glass l g is bent from the point c. instead of passing direction of the dotted line. THE INVISIBLE If a coin be COrN" MADE VISIBLE. Light follows the same laws as gravity. at the distance of two yards from a candle we shall have four times less light than wc should have. are called refracting media. they do not proceed in straight lines. the ray f c falls perpendicularly on the glass. or bent out of their course. were we only one yard from it. Thus. as seen in the drawing. REFRACTION.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. Bodies which suffer the rays of light to pass through them. and so on in the same proportion. and it proceeds in a direct line to k hence refraction only takes place wheji rays fall obliquely or aslant on the media. 159 body. in the But if . like those arising in a placid lake when a stone is dropped irto the water. LIGHT AS AN EFFECT. When rays of light enter these.

point to meet in any other given ^ ^ ^ point beyond them. and by young optician may decompose a ray of light into its it the primitive and supplementary colors. and have different names according to their form. plano-concave double convex 4. The multiplying glass into . indigo. and if let fall upon a sheet of white paper. . an eye at E will see as many flies as there are surfaces or facets on the glass. a meniscus. for if a small object. and will appear to have moved from the side to the middle of the basin. may be made of such form as to cause all the rays which "^ P^^'^ through them from any given M . red. . the first keeping his position as the water rises the coin will become visible.M Ml. and orange. Transparent bodies. in . . or which will disperse them from the given point. or . These are are called lenses. 2. ( . 1 is called the plano-convex lens 3. and then water be poured by a second person. be placed at d.^fi^^^^^^^^^^*^i> fraction. THE MULTIPLTrNG GLASS. so called from its resembling the crescent moon. The best way to perform this experiment is tu cut a small slit in a window-shutter. double concave 5. for a ray of light is of a compound nature. and yellow and their four supplementary )nes.^ m W W ^ . TRANSPARENT BODIES. By the prism the ray A is divided into its three primitive colors. THE PRISM. green. . such as a fly. violet. on which the sun shines at some period of the day. is a semicircular piece of glass cut facets or distinct surfaces and in looking through it we have an illustration of the laws of re. such as glass. and directly opposite the hole place a prism p a beam of light ir passing through it will then l)e decomposed. D.160 THE MAGICIAN S OWX BOOK. blue. The prism is a triangular solid of glass. by the rim or edge of the basin.

and will see the colors very bright and distinct. By means of this simple contrivance white light may be analyzed. 6 . make a small hole. or a narrow horizontal slit. stick the two pieces of glass upon it. and the spaces occupied by the colors are lowing proportions : is decomgreen. and in the middle yellowish green. To use the instrument thus made. with even edges. and several of its properties be beautifully illustrated. . 4 . Then hold the prism in j^our hand. you will soon become accustomed to look in the right direction. so that they meet. which the pieces of glass meet into which angle put a drop of water. h the hole in the shutter or pasteboard. yellow. The annexed figure 3 will better explain the direction in which we look here. Provide two small pieces of window-glass and a lump of wax soften and mould the wax. and proved to consist of colored rays. g and g the glasses stuck to it (Fig. e is the eye of the spectator. so that yon can see the sky through it. . the seven colors of the rainbow will be observed TO MAXE A PRISM. red. where w is The end the wax. and look through the drop of water. s the spectrum. a. the window-sash. will serve the purpose of the hole in the shutter. view (Fig. . ^3 : COMPOSITION OF LIGHT. called a spectrum at one end red. The beam of light passing through the prism posed. when you will see a beautiful train of colors. 2) will show the angle. p is the prism. at i'ig. as in the cut. place it close to your eye. when you stand at some distance from it in the room or a piece of pasteboard placed in the upper part of . and an inch or two long. at the other violet. in the fol. with a slit cut in it. The slit should be about one tenth of an inch wide.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. By a little practice. 1). 161 against a white wall. orange. 2. 7 .


THE magician's OWN BOOK.

8; blue, 8; indigo, 6; violet, 11. Now, if jou paste a sheet of white paper on a circular piece of board about six inches in diameter, and divide it with a pencil into fifty parts, and paint colors in them in the proportions given above, painting them dark in the center parts, and gradually fainter at the edges, till they blend with the one adjoining; and if the board be then fixed to an axle, and made to revolve quickly, the colors will no longer appear separate and distinct, but becoming gradually less visible, they will ultimately appear white, giving this appearance to the whole surface of the paper.

is a camera obscura, for on the back of on the retina, every object in a landscape is beautifully depicted in miniature. This may be proved by the

The human eye


Procure a fresh bullock's eye from the butcher, and caretake care not to cut fully thin the outer coat of it behind it, for if this should be done the vitreous humor will escape, and the experiment cannot be performed. Having so prepared the eye, if the pupil of it be directed to any bright objects, they will appear distinctly delineated on the back part precisely as objects appear in the instrument we are about to describe. The effect will be heightened if the eye is viewed in a dark room with a small hole in the shutter, but in every case the appearance will be very striking.


and mav

a very pleasing and instructive optical apparatus purchased for four or five shillings. Bui it may be easily made by the young optician. Procure an oblong box, alx)ut two feet long, twelve inches wide, and eight high. In one end of this a tube must be fitted containing a lens, and

be made to slide





and forwards so as to



Within the

should be a plane mirror, reclining backwards from the tube At the top of the box at an angle of forty-five degrees. is a square of unpolished glass, upon which from beneath the picture will be thrown, and may be seen by raising the To use the camera, place the tube with the lens on it lid A. opposite to the object, and having adjusted the focus, the image will be thrown upon the ground-glass as above stated, where it may be easily copied by a pencil or in colors. The form of a camera obscura used in a public exhibition d d is a large wooden box stained black is as follows in the inside, and capable of containing from one to eight persons, a b is a sliding piece, having a sloping mirror c, and a double convex lens f, which may, with the mirror c, be slid up or down so as to accommodate the lens to near

and distant objects. When the rays proceeding from an object without fall upon the mirror, they are reflected upon the lens f, and brought to fall on the bottom of the box, or upon a table placed horizontally to receive them, which may be seen whose eye is at e.


the spectator

one of the most pleasing of all optical instruments, and it is used to produce enlarged pictures of objects, which being painted on a glass in various colors are thrown


a screen or white sheet placed against the wall of a largo room. It consists of a sort of tin box, within which


THE magician's OWM BOOK.

is a lamp, the light of which (strongly reflected by the reflector!,) passes through a great plano-convex lens e fixed in the front. This strongly illuminates the objects which are painted on the slides or slips of glass, and placed before the lens in an inverted position, and the rays passing

through them and the lens f, fall on a sheet, or other white surface, placed to receive the image. The glasses on which the figures are drawn are inverted, in order that the images of them may be erect.


This instrument consists of a glass

having four sides coverc. d, being exposed to the object to be delineated, rays pass through the glass and fall on the sloping side D, E from this they are reflected to the top, and finally pass out of the prism to the eye * now from the direction at which the rays enter the eye, it receives them as if coming from an image at a, b, and if a sheet of paper be placed below the instrument, a perprism,
c, d, d, e,

The sides



delineation of the object may be traced with a pencil. This is a very useful instrument to young draughtsfect


The slides containing the objects usually shown in a magic lantern, are to be bought of opticians with the lantern, and can be procured cheaper and better in this way than by any attempt at manufacturing them. Should, however, the young optician wish to make a few slides of
objects of particular interest to himself, he may proceed as follows Draw first on paper the figures you wish to paint, lay it


The eye


to be applied to the little circular hole seen on the





on the table, and cover it over with a pi»ece of glass of now draw the outlines with a fine earners this shape

hair pencil in black paint mixed with varnish, and when fill up the other parts with the proper colors, shading with bistre also mixed with varnish. The transparent colors are alone to be used in this kind of painting.
this is dry,



ought to be large, and of an it suspend a large sheet so as to cover the whole of the wall. The company being all seated, darken the room, and placing the lantern with its tube in the direction of the sheet, introduce one of the slides into the slit, taking care to invert the figures then adjust the focus of the glasses in the tube by drawing it in or out as required, and a perfect representation of the
for the exhibition

The room

oblong shape.

At one end of


object will appear.

Most extraordinary effects may be produced by means of the magic lantern one of the most effective of which is a


This is effected by having two slides painted, one with the tempest as approaching on one side, and continuing in




reaches the other.

Another slide has ships


THE magician's OWN POOR.

painted on it, and while the lantern is in use, that containing the ships is dexterously drawn before the other, and represents ships in the storm. The effects of sunrise, moonlight, starlight, &c., may be imitated, also by means of double sliders ; and figures may be introduced sometimes
of fearful proportions.

Heads may be made


nod, faces to

may be made to roll, teeth crocodiles may be made to to gnash swallow tigers combats may be repreeyes
; ;

sented but one of the most instructive uses of the slides is to make them illustrative of astronom}^ and to show the rotation of the seasons, the cause of eclipses, the mountains in the moon, spots on the sun, and the various motions of the planetary bodies, and their satellites.


Between the phantasmagoria and the magic lantern there in common magic lanterns the figures this difference are painted on transparent glass, consequently the image

on the screen is a circle of light having figures upon it but in the phantasmagoria all the glass is made opaque, except the figures, which, being painted in transparent colors, the light shines through them, and no liglit can come upon the screen except that which passes through the figure, as is

here represented.

no sheet to receive the picture, but the representhrown on a thin screen of silk or muslin placed between the spectators and the lantern. The images are made to appear approaching and receding by removing the lantern





further from the screen, or bringing it nearer to it. This is a great advantage over the arrangements of the magic lantern, and by it the iriost astonishing effects are often pro*




or scene appears to pass into the other while tlie scene is changing, are produced by using two magic lanterns placed side by bide, and that can be a little inclined towards each other when necessary, so as to mix the rays of light proceeding from the lenses of each together, which produces that confusion of images, in which one view melts as it were into the other, which gradually becomes clear and distinct.

The dissolving views, by which one landscape




The magic lantern or phantasmagoria, may be used in a number of marvelous ways, but in none more striking than
in raising an apparent specter. Let an open box, a b, about three feet long, a foot and half broad, and two feet high, be prepared. At one end of this place a small swing dressing glass, and at the other let a magic lantern be fixed with its lenses in a direction towards the glass. A glass should now be made to slide up and down in the groove c d, to which a cord and pulley should be attached, the end of the cord coming to the part of the box marked a. On this glass the most hideous specter that can be imagined may be painted, but in a squat or contracted position, and when all is done, the lid of the box must be prepared by raising a kind of gable at the end of the box b, and in its lower part at e, an oval hole should be cut sujQficiently large to suffer the rays

reflected from the glass to pass through them. On the top of tlie box F place a chafing dish, upon which put some burning charcoal. Now light the lamp g in the lantern, sprinke some powdered camphor or white incense on the charcoal, adjust the slide on which the specter is painted, and the image will be thrown upon the smoke. In performing this feat



room must be darkened, and the box should be placed on a high table, that the hole through which the light comes may not be noticed.
derived from two Greek words, one of which It is a very pretty signifies wonder, and the other to turn. philosophical toy, and is founded upon the principle in optics, that an impression made upon the retina of the eye la.sts for a short interval after the object which produced it has been withdrawn. The impression which the mind receives lasts for about the eighth part of a second, as may be easily shown by whirling round a lighted stick, which if made to complete the circle within that period, will exhibit not a fiery point, but a fiery circle in the air.
This word


Cut a piece of cardboard of the size of a penny piece, and fasten paint on one side a bird, and on the other a cage two pieces of thread, one on each side, at opposite points of the card, so that the card can be made to revolve hy twirling the threads with the finger and thumb while the toy is A in its revolution, the bird will be seen within the cage. bat may in the same manner be painted on one side of the


and a cricketer upon the other, which will exhibit the same phenomenon, arising from the same principle.
figure is a Thaumatrope, as much as the one we are about to describe, although the term Phantasmascope is generally applied to the latter instrument which consists of a disc of darkened tin-plate, with a slit or narrow opening in it, about two inches in length. It is fixed upon a stand, and the slit placed upwards, so that it may easily be looked through. Another disc of pasteboard, about a foot in diameter, is now prepared and fixed on a similar stand, but with this difierence, that it is made to revolve

The above-named


and look with the left.. faces laughing and crying. all of which. This remarkable phenomenon may be experimentally proved in the following manner Place on a sheet of writing-paper.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. When we look with the right eye. round an axis in the center. revolve at a foot distance behind the first. of the most curious facts relating to the science of vision is the absolute insensibility of a certain portion of the retina to the impression of light. the whole of the figures. crRioiJS OPTICAL mrsiON. &c. two colored wafers then. or the point of most distinct vision. increasing in agility as the velocity of the motion is increased. and the eye is placed near the slit. to stand before a lookingglass. 169 disc_. A little ingenuity displayed in the construction and painting of the figures upon the pasteboard disc will afford a great fund of amuse- — ment. by the peculiar arrangement above detailed. on looking at the left-hand wafer with the right eye. keeping the eye straight above the wafer. . will seem to be in motion. this point will be about fifteen degrees to the right of the object observed. and to present the painted face of the machine to- wards the glass. Mariotte. It is necessary. at the distance of about a foot. and when this second disc is made to . will all appear in the attitudes of leaping up and down. the left. the left eye being closed. the point will be as far to The point in question is the basis of the optic nerve. and both eyes parallel with the line w^hich forms the wafers. On this pasteboard paint in colors a number of frogs in relative and progressive posiitions of leaping make between each figure a slit of about a quarter of an inch deep . the right-hand wafer will become invisible and a similar effect will take place if we close the right eye. : . One . when trying the effect of this instrument. When looking with the left eye. so that the image of any object falling on that point would be invisible. and its insensibilit}^ to light was first observed by the French philosopher. A very great number of figures may be prepared to preduce similar effects horses with riders in various attitudes of leaping. snakes twisting and writhing. toads crawling. men dancing. or to the right of the axis of the eye. jugglers throwing up balls. at the distance of about three inches apart. instead of appearing to revolve with the disc.

" that this fact of the absolute invisibility of rbjects in a certain point of the field of view of each eye sh( aid be one of which not one person in ten thousand is apprized. at twelve inches from it. and to the left. look with the right eye. fix another of about three inches in diameter now place yourself opposite the first sheet of paper. But if it be removed ever so little from its place.170 THE magician's OWN BOOK. above or below. Fix a similar disc of paper. so that when the right eye is open it shall conceal the mark on your left. but a little lower. either to the right or left. that when looking down on it. suppose the first and second alter your position a second time. fix three pieces of paper against the wall of a room. and when the left eye is open the mark on your right. and start. . the second piece of paper will be . at the distance of two feet on the right hand. having their centers three inches distant. at the height of the eye. . two inches in diameter. and look full with the right perpendicularly at the wafer below it. Cut a circular piece of white paper. and look at them with your left. make two marks then place yourself directly opposite the paper. Invisible. place two white wafers. Vertically above the paper. and so. into existence. Or. lar. as it " It will cease to be thought singuwere. when this wafer only will be seen. and hold the end of your finger before your face. and. On a sheet of black paper. ANOTHER. when we learn that it is not extremely . when you will see only two of them. the line joining the two eyes shall be parallel to that joining the center of the wafers. At the distance of two feet on each side. but never the whole three pieces together. In this situation close the left eye. Place yourself directly before them. at the height of your eye on a dark wall a little lower than this." says Sir John Herschel. or other dark ground. it will become immediately visible. shutting the left eye. the paper disc will be invisible. close your right eye. the other being completely invisible. at equal distances. and when at the distance of about ten feet. keep the right eye still fixed on the first object. ANOTHER. at a few yards distance. . about two inches in diameter. and you will see the second and third. If you then look with both eyes at the end of your finger. wliich affix to a dark wall.

where it will appear to the spectator. or made nearly 53° 11'. will little . Care should be taken to place the image in an inverted position. the image that had dispractice. and looking at the same time on the two plates. allowing the plate Change the position of d till its inc to remain where it is. b d. This illusion is produced as follows Let a screen be constructed in which is an arched aperture. from time to time. so that the spectator at e. in the view of the spectator. The following experiment. THE PICTURE IN THE AIE. One — : . and an object in relief. placed and let the reflected rays. : BREATHING LIGHT AND DARKNESS. of the candle s may be made to disappear almost wholly. is exceedingly striking. An object is now placed behind the screen. upon looking into the two mirrors. Let s be a candle. c d. c and D. c d. whose light falls at an angle of 56^^ 45' upon two plate glasses.OPTICS AND OPTICAL aMUBEMENTS. and the light should be so placed that none of it may reach the opening the light must also be very powerful. . The distance may be easily found by a . will see very faint images which by a slight adjustment of the plates. clination to the ray b d is diminished about 3^. and is received by the mirror and reflected to the center of the arched cavity in the screen. is that of making an image or picture appear in the air. 171 ancoiumon tally blind to find persons who have for some time been towith one eye without being aware of the fact. if performed with care. will be restored. but so placed that the plane of reflection from the latter is at right angles to the plane of reflection from the former. upon which a strong light is thrown the mirror being set at such an angle as to throw up the reflection of the image to a certain point. a b. the center of which may be five feet from the floor behind the screen is placed a large mirror of an elliptical form. fall close to each other at the same angle upon two similar plates. An eye placed at e. When this is done. appeared on looking into d. been evolved by scientific minds. upon which the light of a strong lamp is thrown from a point above the mirror. This is produced by means of a mirror. a c. of the numerous optical illusions which have.

you look through the opening e. are four small pieces of looking-glass. the light will be reflected from the latter. while the candle is distinctly seen in d. the candle from which they proceed would not be visible. so that if the polarized rays a c. although all cross in passin< through the hole HOW TO SEE THROUGH A PHTLABELPHIA BRICK. with respect to those sides of the box on which they are fixed at e and g. Make it a small hole in a sheet of pasteboard a. b d. . b c. One side is purposely removed in the engraving. two flat pieces of glass Supposing are inserted. either he or anothei person breathes upon them gently and quickly. Fce no light in c. the act of breathing upon the glass plates will restore the invisible. at an angle of 53° 1 1'. laid on the table to receive them. all placed at an ang'le of 45°. and the candle visible. a. This proves that the rays of light do not obstruct each other in their progress. Explanation. to enable you to see the arrangement of the interior. placed closely together. or they would not suffer reflection from the plates c d. d is polarized by reflection from the plates a b. and c at an angle of 56° 45'. If. The light a. and placing upright before three candles b. Now the plate d is placed at an angle of 53° 11'. in the direction of an .172 THE magician's OWN BOOK. as in the eye-glass of a telescope. and will extinguish the visible image in d. so that when a film of water is — breathed upon them. c. because it is incident at the polarizing angle 56° 45' for glass. TO SHOW WHAT RAYS OP LIGHT DO NOT OBSTRUCT EACH OTHER. fall upon the plates c d. because the candle has nearly disappeared. while the spectator is looking into these two mirrors. b. At all the other angles the light would be reflected. the breath will revive the extinguished image in c. Construct a hollow box or case. whose polarizing angle is 53° 11'. When we breathe upon the plates c D. like the figure in the margin. and D. and extinguish the visible image. and none from the former that is. . we form upon their surface a thin film of water. it will be found that the images of all the candle flames will be formed separately on a piece of paper c.

. like many other instruments. or any other opaque object. and you place it in the hands of a companion. and afterwards to d. at any object placed beyond. This is one of the newest and most interesting optical surprises invented. you are willing to satisfy his doubts at once. but as a single brick will be more convenient. You maj^ then safely lay a wager that your instrument is of so magical a nature that it will enable you to see through a brick wall. pictures of columns. object placed at o. and equally wonderful. plained. which means. Of course. having a rounded appearance. and they are now sold like the kaleidoscope at all optical instrument makers. you would see it in the same manner as if there was an uninterrupted view between e and g. toyshops." and keeping. which induce the spectator to believe he is gazing at the natural figure. by which it is reflected to b. in the same direction as if in reality he was looking at the real object itself.. figures. the hand or the hat. The image of the object at o is received on the looking-glass A. &c. will answer the same purpose. in the direction of the dotted line from o to e. THE STEREOSCOPE. and this last image in d is seen by the eye of the spectator placed at e. flowers. which The cause of this is readily exis evidently not the case." For mere amusement. " breadth. cannot prevent Of course all this arrangement the object at o being seen.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. Our limits j reclude a lengthened description of the . &c. but. of the instrument is concealed. as it is again from B to c. From this it is evident that the placing an opaque body at f. it is indulged with a very hard name. the instrument supplied with the necessary pictures may suflSce. The effect consists in obtaining the perfect solidity of a geometric object from two ordinary drawings. it matters not which. statuary. &c. " Solids I see. that he may look through e or o.

In order to do this. as seen by each eye. however. The stereoscope is. and he would then draw the statue as seen through the holes by each eye. he would fix at the height of his eyes a metallic plate. breadth. are exactly similar to each other corresponding points of the two pictures falling on corresponding points of the two retince. that an object presents an entirely difSir D. and thickness ? Now the stereoscope assists us in understanding these difand. however. . giving solidity and a perfect relievo appearance to any two pictures which might be drawn separately from the two lenses in the camera obscura menThat is to say. in Brewster's Treatise on Optics. the fact is. and draw the two pictures of any object seen by our eyes. if we cut open a portion of the eye of a recently killed animal." Now. quoting Professor Wheatstone. that is. "That were a painter called upon to take drawings of a statue." With the utmost care. This theory supposes that the pictures projected on the retinae. and look in upon the retina. ferent appearance to each eye. with two small holes in it. we ficult questions find he states "that the theory which has obtained the greatest currency is that which assumes that an object is seen single because its pictures fall on corresponding points of the two retinae. in which we can appreciate the geometric niceties of length. an imitation of the powers of the eyes. and is considered the "mind of the eye. philosophy of this instrument." we shall behold all images inverted. Now. : . We ma}''. Brewster remarks. on points which are similarly situated with respect to the two centers. do we see them upright ? Again. the images formed on the two retinae cannot be precisely alike how is it that confusion is not the result. must be constructed and used. the invention of Professor Wheatstone. those pictures put into the stereoscope. which may be thoroughly impressed on the mind by dissecting" carefully the eye of a sheep or bullock. consequently. he could not reproduce the statue by their union. a camera with two lenses of the same aperture and focal length.174 THE magician's own book. How then. if it were possible to be behind the tioned. both in distance and position. as we have two eyes at a distance from each other. which is a delicate network of nerves. first recommend our readers to study the structure of the eye. instead of perfect images. retina of each eye. placed at the same distance as the two eyes.

By using differently-colored wafers. Violet. Bluish Green. Orange Red. almost at any optician's. Orange. If we place a red wafer on a sheet of white paper. Indigo. Red. the two pictures. instruments are sold. Blue.. or accidental colors. the color of which will continue to grow fainter and fainter. and. White. closing one eye. the quarter of a circle. Black. . it.. Black. Blue. then. with a little Red. as we continue to look at it. koep the other directed for some time to the center of the wafer. e. the two mirrors. we shall see a green wafer. Green. Yellow. b b. White. would reproduce the Two : Tiyn THE REFLECTING STEREOSCOPE. OCULAR SPECTRA. BRILLIANT Nf^arly fill WATER ICOIROR. Violet. if we turn the same eye to another part of the paper.. i. and may be obtained with the photographic pictures. a glass tumbler with water. Orange Yellow. the reflecting and the refracting stereoscope. a a. . Indigo. so adjusted that their backs form an angle of ninety degrees with each other. and hold witk . Bluish Green. of which we give drawings. viz. . REFRACTING STERESCOPE. SPECIMEN. 175 solidity from which they were drawn. we obtain the folio wirg results : WAFER.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. One of the most curious affections of the eye is that in virtue of which it sees what are called ocular spectra.

At length. will have its immersed part. therefore. or the sun. The kaleidoscope may be bought at any toy-shop. reflection . by any means whatever. inclined towards each other at an angle of thirty degrees. c. If a soap-bubble be blown up. C. of about ten is * The thinnest 8ubstance ever observed is the aqueous film of the soapbubble previous to bursting yet it is capable of reflecting the faint image of a candle. reflected on the surface. and set under a glass. as a spoon. your back to the window. OPTICS OF A SOAP BUBBLE. which appears in water ut the thickness of the seven hundred and fifty thousandth part of an inch . as in the direction E. three several images will be perceived in the circumference On this principle is formed the kaleidoscope. invented by Sir David Brewster. as in the engraving. so that the motion of air may not affect it. till they vanish in the same order in which they appear.176 THE magician's OWN BOOR. a black spot appears at the top. B. several colors will successively appear at the top. but it requisite that every ^''oung person should be able to construct one for himself. and spread themselves from thence down the sides of the bubble. and you will see the whole surface shining like burnished silver. obliquely. C B. A.* THE If KALEIIX)SCOPE. above the level t>f Then look the eye. . but with a brilliancy far surpassing that which can be obtained from quicksilver. as in a mirror. and spreads till the bubble bursts. a. as the water glides down the sides and the top grows thinner. He must. immersed in the water. under an infinite arrangement of beautiful forms and colors. with a strong metallic and any object. and bj' means of which the reflected images viewed from a particular point exhibit symmetrical figures. any object be placed between two plane mirrors. of a circle. Hence its thickness must correspond with what Sir Isaac Newton calls the beginning of black. or from the most highly-polished metals. procure a tube of tin or paper.

A rim of tin or pasteboard must be cut. b b. or any and by passing it other object. 462. capable of receiving one or two very thin plates of glass. now proceed to make the "cap "of the instrument. it will take an inconceivable space of time. so as to fit over the glass end of the tube and in this. will allow room for its falling in. and separating to the points c c. b b the tube. beads. for the eye to look through. To the inside of the hole adapt a tube. papei. are now to be prDcured they must be not quite so long as the tube. about three inches in diameter. . . meeting together in a point at a. so that the broken glass. which may be slightly bent over. to which the object to be viewed must be affixed by Having made a 12 . Supposing it to contain 20 small pieces of glass. a piece of ground glass must be fastened. and. . e. on the outer side. i.880. and 360 days. The following curious calculation has been made of the number of changes this instrument will admit of. and two and a half or three inches in diaOne end of this should be stopped up with tin or meter. 17"? inches in tength. in which is to be made a hole. having at a small distance from the lens a slit. A circular piece of glass is a now to be laid on the top of the edges of the which. and it will be supported by the edges of the tube. has free motion. and they should be placed in the tube lengthwise.899. little strips of wire. so that the whole may fit on the tube like the lid of a pill-box. by their not being quite so long as reflectors. and that you make 10 changes in a minute. This having been done. . the most beautiful forms will appear. securely fastened. on turning it. before putting it on. Two pieces of well-silvered looking-glass. &c. small hole. at an angle of 60 degrees. circular hole in a window-shutter. in the most wonderful combinations. SIMPLE SOLAR MICROSCOPE. the polished surfaces looking inwards.516 years.OPTICS Ai\n OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. to go through the immense number of changes of which it is capable. and place them in the cap over the end. place in it a glass lens of about twelve inches focal distance. to prevent the glass from falling out. apply the eye to the the instrument is complete. To use it. obtain some small pieces of broken glass of various colors. about the size of a small pea. Then.

prepare a drawing similar to Fig. it will be seen painted very distinctly on a card. Draw a horizontal line. is derived from two Greek words. producing a disThe term torted and grotesque figure from a regular one. v 1. from the middle of a h. Then. Let fall a perpendicular line. fit another. draw the line * h. The method of employing this arrangement of lenses for microscopic purposes is as follows Having darkened the room. on a separate piece of paper. or cardboard. and This is . Both e V and s v may be any length at pleasure. 4 After having drawn from the point v right lines. V 2. and by means of the mirror reflected the sun's rays on the glasses in a direction parallel to the axis. 2 hy the following means 1. ANAMORPHOSES. so will the anamorphoses be more and more deformed. r 4. and the shorter the other. place some small object between the two moveable plates of glass. equal to a b. and by its means many optical puzzles may be produced geometrically. and the almost invisible eels in paste or vinegar as means : A large as common eels. The proportions in our figures are sufficiently difierent. a hair as big as a walkingstick. and the whole shall be equi-distant. such as the portrait of a head divide it vertically and horizontally with parallel lines. u 3. in such a manner as to throw the light of the sun into the tube. furnished at its extremity with a lens of half an inch focal distance. or affix it to one of them with very transparent gum water. a h. will appear as a large animal. c. a. till the object be a little beyond the focus. to the di visions of a h. Place a mirror before the hole of the window-shutter on the outside. but the longer the first is. signifying a distortion of figure. if the moveable tube be then pushed out or drawn in. b. and divide it into as many equal parts as the latter is divided. this tube Into of a little gum water exceedingly transparent. : . and you will have a solar magic lantern. held at a proper distance.178 THE magician's own book. or piece of white paper. 3. Take any subject. d. small insect and will appear to be greatly magnified. ev. 2. of which the outer sides shall form the boundary. and bring it exactly into the axis of the tube . a very curious optical effect. and then draw * v parallel to a b.

and appear almost : . This position lies immediately over the point v. 1 the nose is in the second vertical division from the left. 1. 2 with por< tions of the device. now have a trapezium. look through the orifice at the anamorphosis. . and rest its lower edge on the line s v. divided into as many cells as the square in Fig. will lose all its distortion. and in the third and fourth horizontal divisions from the top. 1. 1. the card being accurately vertical pierce a small hole in the card vertically over the point v. 2. to show why this particular form of construction should lead t© such results. and assume an appearance resembling that in Fig. and it will be found that as soon as the eye has become accustomed to the novelty of the experiment the anamorphosis will lose its distortion. in Fig. then. By these means we procure the anamorphosis seen in Fig. when viewed from a particular position. which. For instance. and at a height from it equal to the length ui the line s v. 179 s b intersects the divergent lines.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. and would require geometrical reasoning of a lengthened kind. abed. and at a height above it equal to the length of the line s v . It would be very difficult. proportionate to their position in Fig. exactly like the symmetrical figure. with the eye placed immediately behind the card. and the means of determining it are as follow Place the drawing horizontally before a window take a slip of card. 2. and that portion of the face must accordingly be placed in a corresponding part of Fig. through each point where draw other We 1 2 e 3 4:^ The next step is to fill up all the cells of Fig. . horizontal lines parallel to a b.

is to be hung. Prick the outlines in every part with a fine pin or needle. c. and at rather less than this distance a picture. Landscapes or other matters may be drawn so as to produce curious optical illusions by Take a piece of smooth the following method. scape. To get your eye in the pro . Should it be wished to show the picture by candle-light. then place the pricked drawing in a perpendicular position. b.180 THE magician's OWN BOOK. THE COSMORAMA. and follow with a pencil the lines given by the light. white pasteboard. a. To absorb all the rays of lip^ht bnt those necesfiary for seeing the picture. or in a small closet illuminated in the same manner. and you have produced a distorted landNow take away the candle and the pricked drawing. Nothing more is necessary than to fix in a hole a double convex lens of about three feet focus. that any person may easily fit up one in a small summer house. and the drawing wUl assume the regular form. it will be more effective. and sketch the design upon it. DISTORTED LAOT)SCAPES. a squared frame of wood blackened on the The picinside is placed between the lens and the picture. The principle upon which the cosmorama is formed is so simple. a lamp. may be placed on the top of the wooden frame. and if the light of this be converged by a lens to a moderate radius. and put a lighted candle behind it. &c. ture may be hang in a large box having a light coming in upon it from above. Place before it another piece of pasteboard. and place your eye where the light was.

and of removing all doubt that the inscription is really road in the dark. Among that . To do this. both for the purpose of rendering the eye fitter for observing the effect. of red-hot iron should be concealed from the observer's eye. or those which are to be rendered darkest. If the coin thus prepared is placed upon a mass of red-hot iron. THE 3IAG7f mS. and removed into a dark room. from any other body. we make the raised parts polished. in place of direct or reflected. look through the hole at a. the inscription upon it will become less luminous than the rest. polishing xiie depressed parts. without receiving any light. that is. when the object will appear in its proper proportions. so The masn that it may be distinctly read by the spectator. the parts not raised. and roaghen the depressed parts. it will be advisable to cut out a piece of card according to the preceding. 181 per position. numerous experiments with wiiich science astonishes and sometimes even strikes terror into the ignorant.pattern. and after polishing the surface as much as possible.OPTICS AND OPTICAL AMUSEMENTS. retaining their polish. and roughening its raised parts. the inscription will now be less luminoua than the depressed parts. B. take a silver coin (I have always used an old one). If. and raising it on its base. make the parts of it which are raised rough by the action of an acid. there is none more calculated to produce this effect than the of displaying to the eye in absolute darkness the legend or inscription upon a coin.

unless affected by some extraneous force. and its course will be in a line situated between . Ductility. "These are machinatione comical. 2. Solidity (or The properties of matter are the following Impenetrability). Every body continues in a state of rest or of uniform rectilineal motion. as principles are founded upon the properties of matter and and in knowing something. In shooting at " taw. 3. Mobility. the laws of motion the tyro will lay the foundation of all substantial knowledge.of these. The laws of motion are as follow 1. Brittleness. Action and reaction are always equal and contrary." if the marble be struck " plump. it will move in an oblique direction direction. and Tenacity. it moves forward exactly in the same line of but if struck sidew^ays." as it is called. EXPERDIENT OF THE LAW OE MOTION. Malleability. The change of motion is always proportionate to the There Its . : : impelling force." Ford. Elasticity. Divisibility.— TmCKS IN MECHANICS. is no subject of such importance as Mechanics. C1821 .

On . the horse would immediately tumble. The will resist TO any slight force to disturb it. and is brought under the prop. The center of gravity all THE PRANCING HORSE. SHALL. because unsupported. if a small carriage be placed on an iron band or rail. WHICH. place a small Place the hind ball of lead upon it. it will ascend the curve. which sustained by two loaded balls below for the weight of these balls being much greater than that of the figure. TO CONSTRUCT A HGURE. and it will rock to and fro. legs of the horse on the table. or upon the chin. Cut out the figure of a horse. the center of gravity immediately changes its position. and the horse is again in equilibrio. a stick upon the finger. the whole may be whirled round without falling. This is called the resolution of forces. 183 the direction of its former motion and that of the force impressed. It is owing to the centrifugal force. and having fixed a curved iron wire to the under part of its body. become inverted. it is necessary only to keep the chin or finger exactly under the point which is called the center of gravity. the same principle. without falling. FACE. the center of gravity being in the front of the prop but upon the ball being replaced. MAKE A CARRIAGE RUN LN AN INVERTED POSITION WITHOUT FALLING. AND INCLINED Df ANY POSITION. .TRrrKS I\ MFCHANICS. that if a tumbler of water be placed within a broad wooden hoop. . pretty well known to most boys. WHEN LEFT RETURN TO ITS FORMER POSITION. BALANCING in a body is that part about which In balancing the other parts equally balance each other. and descend again. their effect is to bring the center of gravity of the whole beneath consequently the equilibrium the point on which it rests IS . If the ball be removed. BEING PLACED UPON A CURVED SURTO ITSELF. feet of the figure rest on a curved pivot.

Procure a piece of wood. If a cylinder so constructed be placed on an inclined plane. and thrust into its upper end the blades of two penknives. the position of the center of gravity is thus altered. about nine incnes in length and about half an inch in thickness. THE CHINESE MANDARIN. . then Construct out of the pith of elder a little mandarin provide a base for it to sit in. Place the other end upon tho tip of the fore-finger. it will. and in in a per- . wliich may be fixed in with solder. ITS EDGE ON THE POINT OP i it. and the loaded part above. TO HAKE A QUARTER DOLLAR TURN ON NEEDLE. immediately return to its upright position. it will roll up hill without assistance. Into this put some heavy substance.184 TO CAUSE THE magician's OWN BOOK. Take a bottle. and loading THE BALANCED STICK. on either side one. such as half a leaden bullet fasten the figure to this. and it will keep its place without falling. like a kettle-drum. A CYLINDER TO ROLL BY ITS OWN WEIGHT UP HILL it at f with a piece of lead. Procure a cofiee canister. . when left to itself. and in whatever position it may be placed. with a cork in its neck.

and having bent the thicker end of it in a sharp angle. the pail will remain fixed in that situation. lay a stick across the table. By these means. by and stick into the cutting a nick in it same cork two small table-forks. and this (eat the or letting the pail rest on any support laws of gravitation will enable you literally t<j accomplish. and the water it contains. You may rest on it in an inclined position. and hano. and this will be the more readily accomplished as the angulai part of the straw ap. this .it by the handle upon the projecting end of the stick. without raising the center of gravity of the pail. Cake a straw. opposite each other. a middle-sized needle.TRICKS h\ MECHANICS. 185 pendicular position. sion. as the center of gravity is below the the center of suspen. without breaking the straw. with the handles inclining downwards. so that the bent part may rest against its side you may then take the other end. . without being able to incline to either side nor can the stick slide along the table. THE SELP-BALAKCED PAtt. and lift up the bottle by it. . If the rim of the quarter dollar be now poised on the point of the needle. place another stick with one of its ends resting against the side at the bottom of the pail. put this hooked end into the bottle. You take the pail of water. Fix a quarter dollar into another cork. letting one thiid of it and you undertake to hang a pail of project over the edge water on it. in such a manner that the . and its other end against the first stick. without either fastening the stick on tiie table. it may easily be made to spin round without falling. where there should be a notch to retain it. as in figure subjoined. TO LIFT A BOTTLE WITH A STRAW. handle situation. with the middle of the pail within the edge of the That it may be fixed in table. or move along its edge.

?S6 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN COOK. THE TOPER'S TRIPOD. the mouth of the bowls downwards. if carefully put together. " The pins are only used to hold the pea steady before the pipe. as the pea alone will dance quite as well. in order to succeed in this feat. THE DANCING PEA. it is unfit for the purpose of performing this trick. which is neither broken nor bruised if it have been previously bent or damaged. to be particularly careful in choosing a stout straw. or small ball of pith. or damaged. This tripod. which imparts a rotary motion to the pea. to support the bottle. Place three tobacco pipes in the position shown in the engraving. . two pins* at right angles. and defend the points with pieces of sealIf ing wax. will support considerably more than a pot of ale. it is blown from . and the lower end of the stems upon the stem just by the bowls. as it will be too weak in the part so l)ent. It is necessary. you stick through a pea. proaches nearer to that which comes out of the bottle. it may be kept in equilibrio at a short distance from the end of a straight tube by means of a current of breath from the mouth.

the blade of No. in the form of a triangle. and when in motion will produce a very pleasing effect. The bridge so made will be self-sup» ported . as shown in the figure. 2. after being cut into the spiral. and cut this out with a penknife. which rests on No. as seen in the engraving. 3.TRICKS IN MECHANICS. a a a. and that over No. 1 over that of No. The card. If the whole be now placed on a warm stove. and then suspend it on a large skewer or pin. THE BRIDGE OF KNIVES Place three glasses. it will revolve with considerable velocity. or over the flame of a candle or lamp. and arrange three knives upon them. may be made to represent a snake or dragon. 187 Cut a piece of pasteboard describe on it a spiral line . OBLIQUITY OF MOHON. 1. into the following Hhape.

of any length or diameter. however. Provide some silver sand. that it is extremely difficult to thrust sand out of a tube by means of a fitting plug or piston and this. It would. and permit the sand to flow in any measure for any given time. From . : . for a like time. let the tube be emptied. . whatever may be the quantity in the glass that is. Fit a piston to a tube (exactly like a boy's pop-gun. and try with the utmost strength of the arm to push out the sand. be natural enough to conclude that. when full of sand. It will be found impossible to do this rather than the sand should be shot out. closed at one end. the flow of the sand through the hole will not be increased.) pour some sand in. that when the sand is poured into the tube. RESISTANCE OF SAND. and note the quantity. and pass it through a tolerably fine sieve. the tube will burst at the sides. . in which make a small hole. : .188 THE magician's OWi\ BOOK. and only half or a quarter filled with the sand measure again. Then take a tube. . is found to be the case. upon trial. Then. or fix it to a wall. or frame. the sand runs no faster when the upper half of the glass is quite full than when it is nearly empty. Hold the tube steadily. dry it over or before the fire. it fills it with a succession of conical heaps. and fill up the tube with the sifted sand. and near the close of the hour. and that all the weight which the bottom of the tube sustains is only that of the heap which first falls upon it as the succeeding heaps do not press downwards. The fact of the even flow of sand may be proved by a very simple experiment. . but OLly against the sides or walls of the tube. The above is explained by the fact. It is a remarkable fact. say the eighth of an inch stop this with a peg. that the flow of sand in the hourglass is perfectly equable. and the same quantity of sand will flow even if you press the sand in the tube with a ruler or stick. SAND IN THE HOtJR-GLASS. than when the glass was only a quarter full. the above experiment it may be concluded. it would be more swiftly urged through the aperture. at any height from a table remove the peg.

The principal law concerning fluids is. Then by leading it through the earth. Should any of our young — . by bringing a pipe from t. Hence water can be distributed over a town from any reservoir that is higher than the houses to be supplied and the same principle will enable us to form fountains in a garden.TRICKS m HYDRAULICS The science of Hydraulics comprehends the laws which regulate non-elastic fluids in motion. convey the water down to the garden. Water can only be set in motion by two causes the pressure of the atmosphere. &c. a water-tank. The part of the pipe at b should have a turnkey. or other place. the water will spring out. underneath the path or grass plot. that they always preserve their own level. THE PUMP. which should be at the upper part of the house. and : [189] . and especially water. the pump is as follows When piston-rod b descends. they may. and rise nearly as high as th*^ level of that in the tank. so that the water may be let en or shut off at pleasure. The action of the common the handle a is raised. or jet-d'-eau. or its own gravity. and turning it to a perpendicular position. friends wish to form a fountain.

This operation continues until thr. made of thin leaf brass. In tintj figure When place a small hollow cone. and. brings the piston-valve. &c. the water passes through the valve oi the descending piston. betwixt the lower valve and the water. . . and the water in consequence is again raised a rittle further. THE niDRAUIIC DANCER. . c. sailor. on its ascent. called the sucker. . the piston is raised. then forces open the lower valve. and is raisea by it. which is fixed.190 THE MAGICIAX S OWN BOOK. and opens inwards towards the piston. and rushes through to fill up this vacuum . in the stiftpe of a dancing mountebank. Make a little figure of cork. as it is air-tight. and the air in the pump being less dense than the external atmosphere. water rises above the lower valve at every stroke afterwards. When the handle is drawn down. When the piston again descends to the lower valve. the air between them is again forced out by forcing open the upper valve and when the piston is raised. a vacuum is produced between the two valves the air in the valve of the pump. until it issues out of the spout. a vacuum is again produced. the water is forced a short way up the barrel. or bucket. and the air below the lower valve rushes up. to another valve.

THE SYPHON. should the water be that of a running stream. be placed on a similar cone. and the water will rise in it till it empties itself . A place a handle at its upper end. The syphon is a bent tube. it will remain suspended. . b. sucn as that of the fountain recommended to be constructed. Between the last turn of the pipe and and twist the orifice place a paddle-wheel. about an inch in diameter. c. Immediately upon withdrawing the finger from the longer Any young person may form a syphon by a small piece of leaden pipe. OR ARCHIMEDIAN SCREW may easily be pipe. having one leg shorter than It acts by the pressure the other. above its common make a first to . which makes syphon fill it to rise b. the liquor will flow. turning round and spreading the water all about it. of amusing motions. of the atmosphere being removed from the surface of a fluid. as in the following figure. THE WATER SNAIL. the force of the stream will turn the pipe.TRICKS this figure is IN HYDRAULICS. and let its lower end rest in the water. it will be suspended on the top of the water. and perform a great variety If a hollow ball of ver^.thin copper. Now. Purchase a yard of small leaden it round a pole. it is necessary both legs quite of the fluid and then the shorter leg must be placed in the vessel to be emptied. level at In order to full act. bent into the form leg. above. 191 placed upon any jet-d'-eau. constructed.

begin to take the place of The cause of this is. the weeping statues. and raise the glass partly above the surface. toward the surface of the water. could not again be filled. — — — — — TO EilPTY A GLASS UNDER WATER. THE MAGIC OF HYDROSTATICS WITH THE ANCIENTS. turning of the handle at b will elevate the water from the lower to the higher level. . THE BOTTLE EJECTMENT. in the mean time. were all the obvious effect of the equilibrium and pressure of fluids. and expel the water from it and. so that the glass still remains completely filled with water. Next. and the perpetual lamps of the ancients. in the form of a little column. so as to prevent the water from escaping. The principles of Hydrostatics were available in the work The marvelous fountain which Pliny of magical deception. place it in a glass vase. and which. all the water will be emptied from the glass.192 THE magician's own book. a small white glass bottle. the spring of oil which broke out in Rome to welcome the return the three empty urns of Augustus from the Sicilian war. the into the trough at d. when once emptied by Xerxes. which was full of oil. Fill and foi'ces it to rise toward the surface. the glass tomb of Belus. and water during the rest of the year. that the water is heavier than the wine. which will be filled . and blow gently at the other end. full of wine. and the water will. which it displaces. remove the card. Immediately you will perceive the wine rise. into a basin of water. place over its mouth a card. Then insert one end of a quill or reed in the water below the mouth of the glass. which filled themselves with wine at the annual feast of Bacchus in the city of Elis. and put the glass. mouth downwards. Should the water have no motion. the wine at the bottom of the bottle. with a very narrow neck. describes in the island of Andros as discharging wine for seven days. Fill a wine-glass with water. but keep its mouth below the surface. when air will ascend in bubbles to the highest part of the glass. which must previously have suflScient water in it to rise above the mouth of the bottle. if you continue to blow throw the quill. with air.

nearly fill a glass with water. or eight in number. Sounds are propagated on all . passing round the interior surface of the glass. Sounds in liquids and in solids are more rapid than in air. or the hubbub of a multitude. composed of fans. but chiefly on the pitch of the note produced. bodies much after the manner that waves are in water. and the surface of the water will exhibit a pleasing figure. the water will be elevated and depressed.TRICKS IN ACOUSTICS. But when a bell is struck. above the liquid surface. Sound DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOITND AND NOISE. and this sprinkling will show the curved line 13 [1^3] . we have what are properly called sounds. VISIBLE VIBRATION. with a velocity of 1. draw the bow strongly against its edge. SOUNDS. the water will be sprinkled on the inside of the glass. Or. these elevations will be exhibited in the form of a curved line. is heard when any shock or impulse is given to the air. Noises are made by the cracks of whips. and the surface of the water has become tranquil. and when the vibration has ceased. HOW PROPAGATED. the beating of nammers. the bow of a violia drawn across the strings. If the action of the bow be strong. the creak of a file or saw. Two stones rubbed together may be heard in water at half a mile solid bodies convey sounds to great distances.142 feet in a second. four. or the wetted finger turned round a musical glass. Provide a glass goblet about two thirds filled with colored water. six. or to any other body which is in contact directly or indirectly with the ear. and pipes may be made to convey the voice over every part of the house. Acoustics is the science relating to sound and hearing. draw a fiddle bow against its edge. dependent on the dimensions of the vessel. and above the surface of the water.

and the motions will be communicated to If the appathe rod without any change in their direction. at a point opposite where the rod meets it. to vibrate by a bow. the glass wiU Pour sparkling champagne when . and will emit only a disagreeable and Nor will a glass ring while the wine is brisk. and its vibration will be exactly imitated by the lower disk. as in the engraviDg. flat glass ruler or rod. as in the engraving. the figures will be seen to correspond with those produced on the upper surface. the upper one. pufiy sound. and filled with air-bubbles. Provide a long. and a glass or metal rod.. set the &^ass in vibration by a bow. into a glass. as in the engraving. CHAMPAGNE AND SOUND. and the sand strewed over both will arrange itself in precisely the same forms on both disks. cement the two disks at their centers to the ends of the rod. carefully poured. and strew its upper liiiilllllillliiiilili^ liP surface witii sand. and strew their upper surfaces with sand. and when the air-bubbles have entirely disappeared. precisely of the same dimensions. full. between the level of the water and the curved line. the portion of the glass between the edge and curved line will then be seen partially sprinkled. ratus be inverted. but as the effervescence subsides. it will have become wholly wetted. viz.194 THE magician's OWN BOOK. until it is half the glass will lose its power of ringing by a stroke upon its edge. so that the glass above the liquid be preserved dry. fixed into a wooden stand. support the other end of the rod very lightly on a piece of cork. and sand be strewed on the under side of the rod. and cement it with mastic to the edge of a drinking glass. Provide two disks of metal or glass. DOUBLE YIBRATION'. the sound will become clearer and clearer. The water should be very perfectly. Cause one of the disks. TRANgMITTED VIBRATION. thereby indicating the height to which the fluid has been thrown. but.

so that each corresponds to the sound of a difThen apply both tuning-forks to the ferent taning-fork. Place a garden snail upon a pane of glass. and tune them by pouring water into them. ^ C fork). when a note of surprising clearness and strength will be heard. while the fingering proper to the note of the fork is at the same time performed. . and whispej . as in the engraving. Then set the fork in vibration by a blow on the unloaded branch. If a crumb of bread be thrown into the champagne. as the sliding of the upper end of a flute with the mouth stopped: it may (a be tuned in unison with the loaded tuning-fork f. THE TUmNG-FORK A FLUTE PLAYER. in other words. the glass will again cease to ring. mouth of each bottle alternately. If a person stand near the wall. and hold the card closely over the mouth of the pipe. or sufficient nearly to cover the aperture of a pipe. 195 ring. which is reciprocated by the unisonor.TRICKS IN ACOUSTIC!?. Indeed. it will frequently produce sounds similar to those of musical glasses. of the size of a small wafer. susceptible of vibrating in unison ^ith the fork. with his face turned to it. by that bottle which conant bottle tains a column of air. MUSIC OF THE SNAIL. Take a common tuning-fork. by means of the g: 1 '-^—-^ moveable stopper or card. in each case. Apartments of a circular or elliptical form are best calcuated for the exhibition of this phenomenon. by holding close to the opening a vibrating tuning-fork. MUSICAL BOTTLES. The same experiment will also succeed with soda water. and effervescence be reproduced. ginger wine. and on one of its branches fasten with sealing-wax a circular piece of card.as usual. THEORY OF WHI3PERI}fG. or any other effervesc- ing liquid. and in drawing itself along. a flute may be made to "speak" perfectly w^ell.. Provide two glass bottles. or the fork may be loaded till the unison is perfect. when that sound only will be heard.

with much force. than if the listener was situated near to the speaker. all the sounds within the compass of a double octave may be produced from it. and its vibrations will. in the form of a hollow cylinder. or arc to be drilled small holes. be transferred to the next string: this transference may be seen. when both strings are in harmony. This simple instrument. which is the organ of voice. The strings must all be tuned to . with a circle in the middle of the upper side. or not at all shaken. TO MAKE AN uEOLIAN HARP. and you may produce sounds varying in pitch with the force with which you blow. common as a child's toy or 4 sportsman's call. with holes in their centers.196 THE magician's own BOOK. a few wurds. PROGRESS OF SOUND. has indeed the greatest resemblance to the larynx. the strings of a violin. they m-dv be more distinctly heard at nearly the opposite side of the apartment. and. THEORY OF THE VOICE. this string heart the other. tones even yet graver may be brought out. closed at both ends bj Hold this flat circular plates. or fall off . blow through it. at first in a state of rest. When a bow is drawn across . the saddle will be shaken. if great precaution be taken in the management of the wind. of an inch and half in diameter. Make one string to sound. TO TUNE A GIHTAR WITHOUT THE ASSISTANCE OF THE EAB. or toy. moro strings of very fine catgut are stretched over bridges at each end like the bridge of a fiddle. If the air be cautiously graduated. in which On this side seven. and screwed up or relaxed with screw pins. toy between the teeth and lips. the bead will seem to form a series of dots during the passage of the bow. Tins instrument consists of a long narrow box of very thin pine. about six inches deep. or small steel bead upon the bow in sunshine. by placing a saddle of paper (like an inverted j^) upon the string. the paper will be When very little. the impulses produced may be rendered evident by fixing a when looked at by light. ten. abou three fourths of an inch in diameter. Provide a species of whistle.

from the top of a tower sixty feet high." are . He stretched seven strong iron wires. who was interested in the success of the experiment. When the air blows upon these strings with different degrees of force it will excite different tones of sound. It consisted of a wooden frame something like a tent bedstead.* and the instrument should be placed window partly open. and this apparatus. D. The " harmonics. by the Abbate Gattoni. 197 one and the same note. in which the width is exactly equal to the length of the harp. THE IMISIBLE GIEL The facility with which the voice circulates through tubes was known to the ancients. under the name of the "Invisible Girl. to the The upper string may be tuned to the upper lower D. But of late days the light of science dispels all such wicked deceptions.TRICKS IN ACOUSTICS. with the sash just raised to give the air admission. formed * D is a good note for it. and afterwards exhibited in New York and other cities in the United States. tuned to the notes of the gamut. A very clever machine was produced at Paris several years ago. and no doubt has afforded the priests of all religions means of deception to the ignorant and credulous. not more than a foot in diameter." since the apparatus was so constructed that the voice of a female at a distance was heard as if it originated from a hollow globe. to the house of a Signer Moscate. Sometimes the blast brings out all the in a tones in so. A colossal imitation of the instrument just described was invented at Milan in 1786. and sometimes it sinks them to the murmurs. and the two lower the sounds produced. called the "giant's harp." in blowing weather yielded lengthened peals of harmonious music. In a storm this music was sometimes heard at the distance of several miles. and D D.itest full concert.

such as the handle of a hair broom. and carried into another apartment. apply your ear to the other. and the noise ceases the same may be done to a musical string with the same reHold a musical pitchfork to the lips. The means used in the deception were as follows a pipe or tube was attached to one of the hollow pillars.. proceeding at right angles of the frame. The hollow copper ball d. The imitation of thunder in their subterranean temples could not fail to indicate The golden virgins the presence of a supernatural agent. 198 THE magician's own book. ceptions derived from science. by four pillars aaaa. whose ravishing voices resounded through the temple of the stone from the river Pactolus. TO SHOW THAT SOUND DEPENDS ON VIBRATION. TO SHOW HOW SOUND TRAVELS THROUGH A Take a long piece of wood. connected by upper cross rails hh. and from a diligent observa- — — — tion of the phemomena of nature. t t. crossing from it i^t right angles. with four trumpets. The science of Acoustics furnished the ancient sorcerers with some of their best deceptions. and similar rails below. which began at Lesbos. and placing a watch at one end. hung in the center of the frame. and meeting in a central point. being connected with the wires alone by four narrow ribbons r r. THE MAGIC OF ACOUSTICS. were all deat the break of day to accost the rising sun. when it is made sults. the quick motions and vibrations of different bodies. notes scared the robber from the treasure which it guarded. and the reply was returned from the same orifice. and a quivering motion will be felt from its vibraThese experiments show that sound is produced by tions. whose trumpet Delphos. SOLID. while it terminated above in four bent wires c c. —the speaking head which uttered its oracular responses and the vocal statue of Memnon. The questions were proposed close to the open mouth of one of these trurapetn. . : . had apertures exactly opposo that what was spoken site two of the trumpet mouths was immediately answered through a very simple mode of communication. and the tickings will be distinctly heard. in which a female was placed and this tube having been carried up the leg or pillar of the instrument to the cross-rails. Touch a bell when it is sounding. . to sound.

S the principal object of this volume is to enable the young reader to learn something in his sports. CURIOUS PROBLEMS IN ARITHMETIC. will be an uneven number. sum If two uneven numbers be added or subtracted. two even numbers be added together. before proceeding to the curious tricks and feats connected with the science of numbers. or subtracted from each other. and the product of two uneven numbers will be an 2. their sum or difference will be an even 1. 3. their or difference will be an even number. If two different numbers be divisible by any one nuna[199] . The sum or difference of an even and an uneven number added or subtracted. The product of an even and uneven number will be an Gven number. 4. If number. 5. uneven number. upon which most of the following examples are founded. present him with some arithmetical aphorisms.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS OR. 4. The product of two even numbers will be an even number. we shall. and to understand what he is doing. APHORISMS OF NTHTBER. 6.

The blind mathematician. Previous to the numerical recreations. such as are not only in themselves entertaining. If several different numbers. nine holes were pierced. and the sum of the two products be divided by 2. 11. the quotient will be the sum of the series. 10. their sum and their difference will also be divisible by that number. thus : and in one face o of 12 4 7 5 8 3 6 9 coo o o o o . which answers to the sum of these two indices. and if that sum be multiplied into itself. it is not necessary to continue the series beyond a few of the first terms. adopted a very ingenious device for performing arithmetical operations by the sense of touch. 7. of the figures in the ber divisible by 9. the product 128 will be the seventh term of the In like manner. in number the series 3 4 5 8 16 32 4 If the third and fourth terms 8 and 16 be.multiplied together. Saunderson. be added or multiplied together. If two numbers. if the fifth term be multiplied into series. divisible by 9. the product will be the twentieth term. divided by 3. ber. the amount of the figures of the product will be either 9. their sum and their product will also be divisible by 3. or by any other divisible by 9. In every geometric progression. Thus. Therefore. we shall here describe certain mechanical methods of performing arithmetical calculations.— 200 THE magician's own book. In every arithmetical progression. each. or a num- any number be multiplied by 9. 8. the be either 9. sum 9. Dr. itself. If amount will be added together. or any other term of a geometric series. but will be found more or less useful to the young 2 12 reader PALPABLE ARITHMETIC. or a number divisible by 9. Small cubes of wood were provided. if the first and last term be each multiplied by the number of terms. their product will be equal to that term. the product will be the tenth term. to find the last. if any two terms be multiplied together.

being placed as in the margin. a square board was provided. The example given in the margin is 15. and by this the cubes were retained in the required horizontal and perpindicular lines. one for each. The right wire denotes units. the height of allel to Upon Mounft Blano. and the principles of arithmetic. a small peg was inserted into the hole corresponding to it. and to denote any figure.781. the next tens. . the A cubes and pegs would be arranged thus : coo • O o o o 00 o • 00 THE ABACUS. Ten small balls are strung upon each wire. to correspond to the figures required. and inserted in the central hole. In using the abacus. divided by ridges into recesses of the same width as the cubes. 859. Suppose it was necessary to add together the numbers 763.THE MAGIC OP NUMBERS. parone another. 124. as in the figure. the 7th wire being the place of millions. If the number consisted of several cipher was figures. and at equal distances. all the balls are first ranged at one end. 201 Tiiesc holes represented the nine digits. To perform any arithmetical process. If i' 'l 1 4 Li 1 at a frame are placed wires. and so on. more cubes were used. represented by a peg of difi"erent shape from that of the others. This instrument first is used for teaching numeration. and a number of them are then moved to the other end of each wire.

3. 6.679 by 8 8. which we carried 3d. this gives us 63. 63. after multiplying the 7 by the 8. &c.202 THE magician's 0W. . Lord Napier* this introduced useful contrivance. Errors in a long multiplication problem are usually made in one of these three ways. in multiplication. For example To multiply 8. . and in each of the squares underneath is the product of multiplying that figure by 2. and We first ..679 by 8. To appreciate the merits of this invention. carry the 7 to add to the next product of 7 by 8=^56. for 1st. when multiplied by 8. a figure is printed or written on the top square. Thin wood. the 3 being put down as the second figure 6 is carried to add to the product of 6 by 8. 9 times as long as they are broad. we might add to the resulting 56 some other figure than the 7. and to secure its correctness it was much used by astronomers before the invention of lo. have then to write down the 2 as the first figure of the product. A blunder may be made in each part of this process. are each divided into 9 equal squares. 7. and putting down 2 as the first figure in the product.679 : 69. we may add 56 to 7 inaccuratel}^. the : We * Aneentor of the fighting and writing Naiuers of our day. The object of this contrivance is to render arithmetical multiplication more easy.\ BOOK. and so on. garithms. we must consider the process of multiplication as usually performed Suppose we had to multiply 8. 9. and on that line will be found the product of each of the integers 8. NAPIER'S RODS. making some other sum of it than the right one. 4.432 multiply 9 by 8=72. to prevent such errors. we might reckon 8 times 9 as some other number than 72. 2d. look at the eighth line of squares from the top. up to 9. strips of card. select the top figures of which make the number to be multiplied. To use these strips. or bone.

. that the eye may le thus assisted in adding the carried figure of one slip to the unit of the next. and then. He is next to halve the sum. it at first proceeds in a straight line. there should be several slips or rods for each of the digits.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. THE AEITIDIETICAL BOOilERANG. for the purpose of killing wild fowl and other small animals. In practice the rods are placed on a flat piece of wood. TO FIND A OTMBER THOUGHT First Method. to those who are unacquainted with it. making it proceed in a track so circuitous as to evade the superficial notice of the tyro. write 3 as the next figure. with two ridges at right angles. This is an arithmetical trick which. ^hat half . when exFor instance. but afterwards rises in the air. The boomerang is an instrument of peculiar form. by means of subtraction and division. To provide for the occurrence of more than one of the same figures in the multiplicand. If projected forwards. and for placing the left-hand figure higher I to than the right is. seems very surprising but. This instrument can be made useful in "divisions. and then treble A^ain ask whether the amount be odd or even. and after performing sundry peculiar gyrations. multiplied by each of the numbers I to 9. you bring it back to the original starting point. 209 udd 7 and 6 together = 13. ask a person to plained. carry add to the sum of 8 and 5. When he says he has done Then ask him whether 80. tell him to add 1 to make the sum even." by making by means of it a table of the product of the divisor. by which they are preserved in a proper position. it is very simple. The reason for dividing the figures in each square by a diagonal line. the sum of the number he has thought of (now multiplied by 3"^ be odd or even if odd. . think of any number under 10. used by the natives of New South Wales. returns in the direction of the place where it wae thrown. and so on. OP. desire him to treble that number. The term is applied to those arithmetical processes by which you can divine a number thought of by another. You throw forwards the number by means of addition and multiplication.

No. and contains one nine. and the remainder contains two nines. and even the second (of which no notice is taken). the number thought of. after being divided by nine. 2 is even the first and odd the second time (retain 2). No. No. need be taken of any overplus of a remainder. number 123456789 33 33 33 3 3 3 3 . still there is no nine in the remainder. retain 1 in the memory if odd a second time. retain 2 more (making in all 3 to be retained in the memory j ) to which add 4 for every nine contained in the re- Now ask how many . make 3. 7 is odd the first and also the second time and the remainder (IT) contains one nine so that . No.: 204 If odd. if odd. 6 is odd the second time. and 3. and then halve it. THE magician's own book. The secret is. For example. add 1 (as before) to make it even. mainder. added to 4. to bear in mind whether the first sum be odd or even . but the remainder contains no nine. 4 is even both times. No. No. . but the remainder is not equal to nine. and contains one nine in the remainder. No. nines are contained in the remainder. make 7. 1 is odd the first time (retain 1). The following are illustrations of the result with each 1. 3 is odd the first and the second time. No. 8 is even both No notice times. added to 2. 5 is odd the first time and the remainder contains one nine.

He must To multiply 2. 600 as the number thought of. in this strike off the two ciphers. Desire a person to think of a number. 6. EXAMPLE. . You in every case subtract 320 the remainder is. 205 EXAMPLE. Let a p3rson think of a number. 3. Suppose the number thought of to be 1. Fifth Method. Fourth Method. and announce 6 example. number by itself 36 So take 1 from the number thought of 5 To multiply this by itself 25 To tell you the difference between this prothis . - - Add 4 - 6 12 16 4. Multiply by 3 - - - Add to this the number thought of is 19 5t 63 . 1. Multiply by 6 Add 12 Multiply by 10 80 92 920 Let him inform you what is the number produced. 3. - - 6 - -18 - Add 1 - 3 4. Strike thought of 6. say then proceed as follows : 6. say 1. duct and the former - - - - H 12 6 You must then add 1 to it And halve this number Which will be the number thought of. say then proceed EXAMPLE.— THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. Let him double it 2. off the number produced it will the 3. Second Method. He must . Desire a person to think of a number. 5. Let him multiply it by 3 2. Let him inform you what always end with 3. must . and inform him that he Third Method. 4.

To double it 6. To add the second number There being a third number. if there were two numbers thought if four. number he thought he will subtract from this the remainder will be. —Where EXAMPLE. if three. To add 1 to it 67 286 7. tell —The 2.. Suppose the numbers thought of were 2. To multiply by 5 290 8. which are the uumhers thought af. 6. repeat this process 56 5. 2. 55 You of. - 7 21 Add tell the number thought of 22 28 24 6 Let him 5. 4. You then subtract And divide by 4 is you the figures produced (28): 4 from it the Which you can say number thought EXAMPLE. EXAMPLE. you must subtract 5 must here subtract 55. of. Multiply by 3 Add 1 again . Add 1 to it 2. Let him double it 2. in the case supposed. 555. . Suppose the number thought of 6 12 1. Note.. him. Desire him to add to this any number you tell 3.— 236 THE magician's own rook. 1. 5. remainder is always half of the number you him to add. 1. Then. 3. To multiply by 5 25 28 4. Desire him to double the first number 4 making 2.. say 4 it 16 8 if To halve You can then the tell him that of. 8 and 5 ' . leaving a remainder of 235. To add the third number And to proceed in the same manner for as many numbers as were thought of Let him tell you the last sum produced (in this case 290). 3. . Sixth Method. To add 1 to it 6 3. Ijt Case. TO DISCOVER TWO OR MORE NUMBERS THAT A PERSON HAS THOUGHT OF each of the numbers is less than 10.

3d and 5th sums. 15. 18. 16. 4. it is required to find how many he has altogether. 10 + 244-20=54. 22 + 34 = 56. 9 and so on for the other numbers. Desire him to transfer from oae hand to the other a certain number A . viz. 15 + 31=46. Suppose he has 16 counters. Where one or more of the numbers are 10. and where an even number of numbers has : . The sum of the 3d and 4th 22 4. He must add together the numbers as follows. viz. more than 207 —Where 10. 2. . The sum of the 2d and 3d 13 3. 4th and 6th sums. The sum of the 5th and 6th 34 6. or and where there is an o^c^ number of numbers thought of. Subtract one from the other. 16. take one from the other. one or more of the numbers are 10. 9. or 8 in each hand. The sum of the 2d and 3d 15 3. The sura of the 2d and last 24 You must then add together the 2d. 6. . 13 + 31+24=68. 1. and telJ you the various sums 1. 15. The sum of the 1st and 2d 10 2. and the 3d and 5th sums. 2d Case. . The sum of the 4th and 5th 31 6. the 2d number will be take the 2d from the sum of the 1st and 6. He must add together the numbers as follows. 6. HOW MAXY COTJXTERS HATE I IK ilT HANDS ? person having an equal number of counters in each hand. 3^ Case. and tell you the sum in each case : The sum of the 1st and 2d 8 2. The sum of the 1st and last 20 You must then add together the 1st. viz. 7. the half of this 2d you will get the 1st take the 2nd from the sum of the 2d and 3d. The half of this is the 1st num ber. and so on. 4 if you take this from the sum of the 1st and 2d jon will have the 2d number. 6 this taken from the sum of the 2d and 3d will give you the 3d. leaving 8. or more than 10. and you will have the 3d. — been thought of Suppose he fixes on six numbers. The sum of the 3d and 4th 24 4. The sum of the 4th and 5th 31 5. .— THE MAGfC OF NUxMBERS. and the 2d and 4th. leaving 12. Suppose he fixes upon five numbers.

leaving 1^ or %. Divide V by f. . the number in each hand. : when In most cases fractions will occur in the process 10 counters are in each hand. THE MYSTERIOUS HALVINGS..208 THE magician's owx bock. and add tiie 4. making - . To tell the number a person has thought of. the hands will contain 6 and 14. Here it is the larger half. and if 4 be transferred. number in each hand. he must take the larger half— you must tell him this before he commences." having ascertained this point. making . . You must then multiply the number transferred. : Suppose he fixes on He must add 1 to it. You Add whichis 9^. Carry in your mind. — halving— —2d halving — 3d halving— —4th 1st - . or on a slip of paper. it be 4. you discover the number fixed upon in the following manner. and to tell you the number so transferred. Ask him how many in this times the smaller number is contained in the larger case it is 3 times. equal to V Subtract 1 from 2^. by the 3. making this will bring 8. 13^. - Triple it Halve Triple it* it Halve Triple it it it Halve Triple it halving. making 12. 2-^. multiply 4 by 4 to this. as well as the numbers produced by the succeeding operations . One of the company must fix upon any one of the numbers from 1 to 15 this he keeps secret. the following list of names in which the letter a occurs in one or more of the three syllables of all except the last. but He he must let you know in which of the four halvings he was obliged to take a " larger half . He will divide 14 by 6 and inform you that the quotient is 2t or 2^. Suppose of them.When an exact half cannot be taken without a fraction... the then divide 16 by the 3 minus 1 16 . (larger half) - 8 9 21 - - - {larger half) - 14 42 21 63 32 96 48 . giving 10. Halve it need not inform you that 48 is the figure produced. c. 4. the hands now contain 4 and 12.

the right hand number is the correct one if a larger half was the Uh halving taken in the Uh stage. f . one of which was the number thought of and of these two. ber fixed upon. The tliree syllables are intended to represent the and 3d halvings. and the left hand one was exact. shows us that 8 was the num. and against it stand two numbers. and the halving in the 4th stage being exact. If the 4th halving If a larger half occur* . 209 1st.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. In the example given. larger half was taken. 2d. and the occurrence of the letter a corresponds to the occurrence of a "larger half" in one or more Having been informed where the of these three halvings. a larger half occurred in the 1st and 3d stage this points us to Car-ro-way. refer to the word which has a in the corresponding syllable.

The words. makes The half of the last triple. 1 23 69 35 being added. . Ni-mi-um No-tar-i In-fer-nos Or-di-nes Ti-mi-di le-ne-ant Example. Then. to wliich is to be added one. or left-hand column but if not.^^Suppose the number chosen to be nine. 1 being added to make an even number.210 4th. the number chosen is in the first. and the syllables containing the letter i corresponding in numerical order with the cases where the half cannot be taken without a fraction consequently. To take the half of the last half. one had be added. 1 is being again added. the right. Mi-ser-is Ob-tin-git The numbers 8 denoted. we find that the only corresponding word having an i in its second and third syllables is Ob-tin-git. and. For if the fourth half can be taken without adding one. 2nd case The half of the triple is which tripled. and which last. . looking at the table. shows which of the two numbers corresponding to each word has been chosen. that in the second and third case. 18 Here we to see. makes The half of tha triple. we know by the rule. Then : 1st case. 9. gives thirty. it is in the second column to . 4th case. The three first are denoted by one of the eight following Latin words. In this operation there are four distinct cases or stages where the half is to be taken. THE magician's OWN BOOK. that the figure in the Kecund column. is The half of the last half. being tripled. is 15 45 3rd case. which represents the figures one and nine. and that tripled. in those cases the person who makes the deduction The fourth case is to add one to the number to be divided. as one had to be added in the fourth case. each word being composed of three syllables. making ten.

the number thought of will be fifteen and if one addition only be required at the fourth stage. 1. 2d. . : 1 Double the number of the person who has the ring in the case supposed. . third finger. the thumb must be termed the first finger. 6. These preliminaries having been arranged. Add Add number of the . 3. Ong of them puts a ring on one of his fingers. The joint. and the left hand two. Observe. 6666 subtract from it 3535 in the present instance there will remain 3131. 5. . The number of persons participating in the game should not exceed nine. 2. - 8. that if no addition be required at any of the four stages. The company being seated in order the persons must be numbered 1. denoting the person No. 4. Add Add Add 5 3. the number will be seven. The wearer of the ring. the hand No. and the joint He must will then in all cases .TRE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. - - 35 55 65 66 660 063 6630 6631 6666 . The hand. on the right hand. The finger. Desire one of the company to perform secretly the following arithmetical operations — . 4th. No 1 . 9. 3. &c. the fore finger being the second the joint nearest the extremity must be called the first joint the right hand is one. you apprise you of the. and first joint your object is to discover the figures 3131. figures now produced. leave the room in order that the ring may be placed unobserved by We will suppose that the third person has the ring you. WHO WEARS THE KING ? This is an elegant application of the principles involved in discovering a number fixed upon. 211 IS the one required. and it is your object to discover 1st. the finger No. 3d. . Multiply by 5 Add 10 the number denoting number the hand - - - Multiply by 10 the the of the finger joint - 7. this will produce . 3. 6 II 2. Multiply by 10 10.

* From Moss & Bro. . but the life insurer has conned the bills of mortality. else it will be like the grumbler's bread and butter . the chances of "heads or tails. . but the average will be about right. And always on the buttered Bide. our calculations will approximate closely to the truth. are equal. we might frequently discover that all works by rule. But fell upon the sanded floor. When we . and the probability of the but- tered side being uppermost would have been increased. ma}'^ often shape the result but in the absence of these. and studied the ages of those who have died. say a thousand. and by taking a wide range of country and a period of years. he does a comparativelj'safe business. We : " I never had a piece of bread. When we throw a copper into the air. we may pretty accurately estimate our chances. or engage for a present sum. perhaps the sides would have equal in weight. we may readily mark the boundaries. Particularly good and wide." Had he put on been more less butter. We . until he can estimate at once the probability of duration of life. to pay the heirs at the death of the insured. Parkes* Philosophy of Arithmetic. but taking in a large range. and determine what he can afford to pay for an annuity contingent on life. happening at times and points least expected but the insurer has learned by observation to estimate probabilities. Disturbing causes unknown to us. As it is. PROBABILITIES* look around us at results happening daily. a capital work published b? Philadelphia. the results will bo about equally divided.212 THE magician's own book. In one instance his estimate may fall short. see accidents from fire and flood. and though one or the other may occur most frequently for a few throws. In this case the sides of the coin must be equal in weight. and in another exceed. of the causes of which we are ignorant. Death takes the young and the old. we are led to regard them as isolated incidents subject to no law or rule but could we see and understand the secret workings and connection existing between cause and effect. speak of Chance as something without plan or design." as the boys say. within which events must happen in very many instances and do much to estimate their probability. in a large number. or an annual sum paid for life.

five. e i o u y. If a man were to draw a prize nominally of $100.THB MAG So. . e a i o u y.. o. we may take three. a i e o u y. and he would be entitled to only $85. his estimates of probabilities are based on mathematical principles. but this is a small part of what may be secured yet even this amounts to a great deal. uy. as ao. io. &c. It is obvious that if we have a number of single things arranged in any order. a e. and though " luck" may sometimes be against him. depends on the data in each case. u. o i. as a. . y. VARIATIONS. be sufficient to prevent all intermeddling with lotteries and every other species of gambling. all at . we may take all together. but that does not change the principle. ai. or. a e. or. fifteen thousand would be deducted at once. be calculated. in a great number of ways. It is true that in his good fortune he would not probably regard the abatement. or we may form them into groups. . and are also considered one of the variations of two of which those six letters are susceptible e a. will subject knows . it is called either a Variation or a Combination . and it is reasonable to suppose that the numa time ber of possible changes may. . i. oy. &c. fifteen per cent. we may change the arrangement into a variety of forms.000. four. the C OF NUMBERS. the operation is called Permutation but if a part only be taken. even if all be conducted fairly what then must they be when fraud and dishonesty are superadded? It is downright swindling In lottery schemes generally. .000. y u. The probabilities are always against the casual operator. or we may take only part at once. For instance. and in doing so. . and he is secure in being ultimately the gaining party. the data and calculates carefully the probabilities. are three other variations. u y. . but they are the same combinafor a change of order will constitute a new variation tions but not a new combination hence the number of variations will always exceed the number of combinations. as above. are distinct combinations. in all cases. . i o. too. &c. is reserved as profit. How these chances are calculated. we may arrange the six vowels. 213 man who deals in lotteries and games of chance. The doctrine of variations and combinations *brm8 tho eu. and it is not within the range of our present plan to attempt more than giving a general idea of the and this with any one of ordinary prudence. When all are taken together. I .

when taken 1 at a time. 1X2X3 6 changes. cb. basis of many forms of lotteries. Thus 4 things can be taken 2 at a time in 6 different ways for instance. be. but if there were but a single grain more. the number being so great. it would admit of but one position but if two. 3. for the last two will admit of two variations. c. The rule to compute the number of these different ways is very simple. the possible changes would be 720 and another would extend the limit to 5040 and so onward in a constantly increasing ratio. it would admit of two positions. 2. cd. all of different colors. then they will admit of ab. a and d. the letters a. ac. but sometimes involves a multitude of . c and d if we regard the order of the selected letters we shall find that these 4 letters are capable of 12 different permutations. can be taken 2 at a time thus. = This may seem improbable. to the different ways of grouping these selected numbers. ad. bd. . or any other number each time. until the highest multiplier shall express the number of individual things. in addition to this. ba. and multiply by the successive terms of the natural series 1. COiTBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS. If th(nc were but one thing. b and d. Example 1. If we selected 3 letters at a time we could make 4 different selections. a and c.8i4 THE ma«3Ictan's own uook. as a b c. The latter is the province of " Permutation. dc. Ans. If three things. as ab. SiS a b c. however. . commence with unity. How many changes can be made in the arrangement of 5 grains of corn. db. d. figures. ca. and of other calculations used in practical life. ha.. b and c. will be obvious on a little scrunity. as a. and 24 different changes of grouping. and. To determine the number of permutations. The last product will indicate the number of possible changes. 2 at a time. as a b. = . and two changes made to each of . a ro w ? 1X2X3X4X5 120. laid in Solution. da. The reason. but without regard to the order in which the selected numbers can be arranged among themselves." which refers to the different ways in which a number can be selected out of one that is larger. and each of the three may suc« cossively be placed first. a cb. . " Combinations are the difierent ways in which a certain number of things can be selected out of a larger number. &c. b. a and b.

&c. and $100 divided by 5040 gives Ans. there will be 6 times as many changes as when and so on ad infinitum. the mind is lost in astonishment. When we consider that this would require a period of The story 9935. . there will be 24 changes in all. I M . we find the whole number of combinations of the 4th class which the word admits of is 210. and when 6. . In the same way we may show that if there be four individual things. do gamblers constantly risk their money Example 3. and the combination is of the 4th class and. I offer $100 to him who draws the card having on it the first four letters of the said word in their natural order (Char). inclusive. there will be 5 times as many changes as when there were but 4 . 3. I have written the letters contained in the word N I R D on 6 cards being one letter on each. and the cards placed in a wheel by . . I have put into the wheel as many cards as I can put 4 letters of the word Charleston on. Suppose that the numbers from 1 to 78. In how many ways may a family of 10 persons seat themselves dififerently at dinner ? Ans. and conseIn this way we quently. What is the chance of drawing a prize worth ? There are 10 letters in the word. according to the there are only 5 same law. and 210 X 24=5040 his chance of drawing them in the right order. be ulaccd upon 78 cards. the number of possible changes. Ijg cents. I am offered $10 to draw the cards successively. Example 4. a penny for the second. without having the same letters in the same order upon any two cards.628. Example 2. might show that when there are 5 individual things. so as to spell the name correctly. and having thrown them confusedly into a hat. Uf cents. The number of permutations of four individual things is 1 X 2 X 3 X 4=i24.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. is thrown into the shade and we incline to doubt whether there is not some mistake and yet on just such chances as one to all these.j5g5_ years. of the man who bought a horse at a farthing for the first nail in his slioe. What is my chance of success worth? Ans. according to the mode of determining combinations with repetitions. each one will be first in each of the six changes which the other three will undergo. Then he has one chance in 210 of drawing the letters Char. 215 the others.. so that 3X2=6. In order to form a lottery scheme.800. in some order. .

. viz. A speaks the truth 3 times in 4 B 4 times in 5. Of the 4 possibilities there is only one which favors the turning up of the obverse twice in successsion. — . and C denies ? Suppose a coin be thrown up. and the same is is true of the reverse. and one favors each . containing each three of the 78 numbers. It is usual also. Obverse and reverse Obverse both times : . there being no reason why one side should fall uppermost rather than the other.il6 THE magician's OWN BOOK which they are thoroughly mixed . 1 of the contingencies the probability of each will be 1 =J . or ^-X-^^X^. and then 13 cards be successively drawn out. What is the probability of an event which A Ans j|-| and B assert. ticket be worth ? Note. Lotteries may be arranged on a great diversity of plans. but no two having alt the same numbers. also that tickets have been issued. . . by a person who has no means of Supposo choosing. . having two faces what is the probability that the obverse (heads) side will fall upward. and what the reverse ? Here there are only two possible cases. the general principle being to multiply successively together the independent probabilities of an event for the fraction expressing the chance of all the events happening. What would be the probability of either side presenting +1 upwards twice in two throws ? Here we have 4 possible cases. and in each the probability of drawing prizes will vary.000 Ans. 21 f^f ^ cents. hence the probability of either only \. and the numbers on them registered. or having any two or one of the drawn numbers. to give smaller prizes to the holders of tickets having the numbers in any order. shall be entitled to what would the probability of drawing such a $100. and C 6 times in t. In like manner we might show that the probability of the obverse presenting upwards three times in succession will be -J. and that he who holds the ticket having on it the first three drawn numbers in their regular order. Reverse and obverse Reverse both times.

'd. This name has been given to a contrivance said to have originated with the famous Pascal. and divide the product of the former. so that there shall be some difference in the order of the notes each time The result of multiplying the ? 7X6X5X4X3X2X1 is 5. THE VISITORS TO THE CRYSTAL PALACE. that they wished to be allowed another series of visits. in how many ways can 7 keys be struck in succession. 336. it was agreed that 3 at a time should visit the Crystal Palace. or 336 days. before this " new series " of visits would have come to finis. to be continued as many days as they could group 3 together in dififerent order when starting. If Paterfamilias had granted such permission he would have had to wait 66 multiplied by 3x2x1. number of changes. 21t In a family consisting of 8 young people.040. So much gratified were they with the results of their agreement. In how many days were the possible combinations of 3 out of 8 completed ? must multiply 8x7x6. HOW MyVNT CHANGES CAN BE GIVEN TO 7 NOTES OF A PliNO! That is to say. and that the visit should be repeated each day as long as a different trio could be selected. by the product of the latter. the number of visits.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. We . a different three going each time. 6 the result is 66. 2 . or to have been perfected by him. and also 3x2x1. THE ARITHMETICAL TRIiNGLE.

and the third is formed from the second in a similar way. or three names inscribed on cards. HOW MANY DrPPERENT DEALS CAN BE MADE WITH this 13 CARDS OUT OF 521 we must make a continued multiplication of52X 51 X 50 X 49X 48 X 47 X 46X 45 X 44 X 43X42X41X40. Request that the three persons will distribute among themselves the three articles. . THE MAGICl. Three articles. look for the third number this is 66.uN'S OWN BOOK. This is the second vertical row.218 . Suppose also that in the division the first person has Emily (i). you are to tell which article or card each person has. Then leave the room. . and the third has Rosa (e). and will therefore take 4 . . Place the remaining 18 on the table. we must divide one by the other. Emily. We will suppose that the three articles are three cards. under the 3 4 and 6 are 10. To discover being 13 terms for the 13 cards. a. and the three articles. Suppose the question were that just given how many On the selections can be made of 3 at a time out of 8 ? horizontal row commencing with 8." that looks so formidable with of 52 cards. i. also a continued multiplication of 13X12X11X10X9X8X1X6X5X4X3X2X1. in order that the distribution of articles and of counters may be made unobserved by you. and that. Rosa. how many combinations can be made. This triangle has the property of informing us. and- having found the two products. Designate the three persons in your own mind. the second has Clara (a). which you will yourself secretly denote by the letters a. and on as far as you wish. without the trouble of calculation. as 1st. and the quotient is the number of different deals out This " sum. then the 1st will take four times as many counters as he has the 2d will take as many as (1). 2d. will take as many counters as he may have already the holder of e must take twice as many as he may have and the holder of i must take four times as many. tso . and give 1 to the first person. having done so. e. which is the answer. having been distributed between three persons. taking any number at a time out of a larger number. Provide 24 counters. . and 3d. THE THREE GRACES. e. which place under ihe U. 3 to the 3d. the person who has the one which you have secretly denoted by a. i. is a very short one by logarithms. 2 to the 2d. on which are the words Clara. natural figures.

It is plain that if the cards held by the 1st and 2d can be told. AKOTHER METHOD. and i. e. represent the 2d persons. Graceful Or. c. and never more than T. Emma. 6 counters being on the table. it will be best to keep in memory some 7 words which form a sentence. viz. Then request the 1st person to add together the half of the counters of the person who has chosen a. and the persons as 1st. and i. James Anger. give 12 counters to the 1st. 2. . b. 4. being twice as many as he has (3). . The performer must mentally distinguish the articles by the letters a. 1. and 3d. 7 never Now the 6 combinations of a. 6. the combination ia indicates that the first person has the card you have called i (Emi'y). that held by the 3d will be known. The persons having made their choice. you left 6 counters. 2d.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. ai admires pain — 4 5 6 7 ei ia a a ie bride. from which you can find who is the holder of each card by the following method. e. In order to recollect the combinations of a. 219 he has (2). 3. and 36 to the 3d. . 12 3 ae ea easy fear. if now reigning with may be hid with reigns smile. circles. but as examples we supply three. It will be found that only six numbers can remain. the 3d of the person who has chosen b. charming she in all up by the inventor of Salve certa they prefer Latin. articles held by the 7 ie 1st and 12 3 ai ae ea — 4 5 ei 6 ia In the case supposed. and which contain these vowels in the order just given. so that the 3d has E (Rosa). here given. On the table will be The distribution having been made. 24 to the 2d. they can use the pentameter this beautiful pastime made 12 : 3 5 6 7 animse semita vita quies. the 2d has a (Clara). and will therefore take 2 the 3d will take 6. will return and observe the number of counters on the table. 5. Our young friends can amuse themselves in forming a sentence for themselves.

24. or 29. . which must be either 23. as in the following table : 'irst. and then ask the sum.220 THE magician's own book. 25. 2*1. 28. and the 4th of those of the person who has chosen c.

by commencing at the K^4 ^^y four apples. earth's final fate 21 21 3112 —enigma ever dark 23 2 122 1 1 Our dear Richard's 46 3 1 tale begins at the sea. The number 26 can never occur. and which you perceive are consecutive. having the vowels in the order here given. sharp youth. and it ^o^^^4 ^ ^ ^ ^ will be found that. taking away every ninth. but this monopoly of the best fruit being objected to. 221 Th3 sum which will be given to you can be one of six There are only six ways in which the articles can be only. having gone to visit a good-natured uncle. give one as a specimen : ae ai ea — ia ei ie Brave dashing sea. 1. ^S^ » 1> lO A ^ ^^ *^VooO If we let the vowels a e i o u denote the figures 12 3 4 5. like a giant revives itself. THE FORTUNATE NINTH. The clever fellow ranged them in such a way as that. was about to take the fifteen oranges. all the apples were left on the table. recollc<t€d by the following line &c. 5. and all the oranges were transferred to his capacious pockets. you will find it will aid you in their recollection. not liking the apples. 23 ae 24 ai 25 ea — We 26 2T ia 28 ei 29 ie If you make up a line of good (or bad) English. and to recollect the six which do occur.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. by taking away every ninth. A representing apples. the old gentleman told him to range all the fruit in a circle. and there is a definite number for each of them. can be easily : Our 45 or. the latter placed on a table fifteen fine oranges and fifteen apples. and going round and round -«o the circle. fresh from school. How did he arrange them ? He placed them as in the margin. and all the apples will remain.A the oranges will be removed.. all ^ n ^. and to take every ninth. you need take note only of what the 1st and 2d persons have. 1 2 3 2 21 . and oranges. divided. 2. and desired his 3'oung friend to take half. the arrangement of the figures 4. He.

but the last word on each card must commence with certain letters which you must in your own mind associate with the numbers 1 to 10. . words there is Jane. though our readers will perhaps prefer having words of their own selection. find Our young friends may themselves as amusement TENS. in forming lines for much superior to these as possible. so that by knowing the initial letter of the last word on each card. you can determine its number. (call these the Selecting Cards j) which we give by way of example. a7:d upon each write any ten no restriction as to the initial letter of nine of the words.S22 THE magician's OWN BOOK. THE TEN card. Take ten pieces of . Here are ten cards.

give it back to you. and one which held three pints. choice. which he says contains the selected word. 223 upon one write down the first word from each of tne selecting. James. During the siege of Sebastopol. being careful to write them in the same order. Aunt. Ellen. Ralph. Sister. for the number of the word from the top on the grouped card is the same as the number of the selecting card. Newton. Benton. when the troops were on " short allowance. — DIVIDIXG THE BEER. till One of th^ . and so on till all the words have been grouped together. George. Ambition Scott. Putnam. from which he made his . Fulton. Robert. Rose. You can then announce the word. Sarah. 4th. and you then give him all the grouped cards. Isabel. Suppose he made his choice from the card which has Theodore for its last word this is No. Clay." a can of eight pints of porter waa ordered to be equally divided between two messes. Daisy. carefully note the last word upon it. and after he has fixed upon a word. 4. and request him to show you the cards which contain the words he fixed upon. but having only a five pint can.cards. the fourth from the top. by the aid of the key word. As an example. you will know that Ralph. is the name he fixed upon. The object of the game is to guess which of the worda from any of the selecting cards any person may have fixed upon. Friendship. Let another card contain all the words which are second from the top.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. 1st. when receiving it. the number of the card this you must keep secret. which will give you. when he shows you the grouped card. we give the 1st and 4th grouped cards. Let any one choose a card out of the selecting cards. Jane. it was found impossible to make this division.

6 of giving to a friend. 1. pints into the *I-pint bottle ? A gentleman had of which he was desirous 12-pt. the only objections to it being the time the thirty men had to Wait. 8-pint can full. commencing with 8 pt. and. the 5-pint Emptied the 5-pint into the T-pint Filled again the 5-pint from the 12-pint Filled up the 1-pint from the 5 Emptied the 7-pint into the 12-pint Poured the 3 pints from the 5 into the 7 Filled the 5-pint from the 12-pint Filled up the t-pint from the 5-pint Emptied the 7-pint into the 12-piut Poured 1 pint from the 5-pint into the t-pint Filled the 5-pint from the 12-pint Poured the contents of the 5-pint into the 7-pint filled He 5 5 2 2 9 9 4 4 11 11 6 6 5 7 5 3 3 5 1 1 3 3 7 1 15 6 ANOTHER DECIMATION OF FRUJT. completing the feat The 8 3 3 6 6 1 5 2 2 5 3 2 2 3 14 4 4 This was a dexterous expedient of the worthy sapper. 6. Pour the contents of the 3-pint into the 8-pint 4. 7-pt. to understand it. 6.224 THE magician's own book. 3-pt. II. and the others empty. Filled the 5-pint from the 8-pint 6. the contents of the bottles were 1. 5-pt. one of T How did he contrive to put 6 pints. 1. On duced the next visit of the youth to his uncle. except two other bottles. a bottle containing 1 2 pints of wine. 12. 4. 5-pt. Transfer the 2 pints from the 5-pint to the 3-pint 6. THE DIFFICULT CASE OF WINE. we will put down the contents of each of the three cans at each stage of the process. Filled the 6-pint can 2. 3. 10. Filled the 3-pint can from the 5-pint 3. Fill up the 3-pint from the 5-pint I. Poured the 3 pints into the 8-pint. clever sappers suggested the following method. and offered him tho . Before he commenced. 12 7 1 2. 3. but he had nothing to measure it. and the resulting flat condition of the beer. the latter prothirty apples and ten oranges. and the other of 5. 9.

and 7 apparently just emptied. . 1 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 THE THREE TRAYELERS. Full A Hf. his nephew \ 8 THE WINE AND THE TABLES. full. full. S25 if could arrange them in an oval. according to the custom of the country. 11. 9 empty: Hf. certain hotel-keeper was dexterous in contrivances to produce a large appearance with small means. 9 Table. 24. in Persia. Empty." preceded to arrange them thus: The places which the oranges here occupy can be easily lemembered. 36. but the third not having provided any. 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 1 1 I Empty 3 3 1 fall. Table. and 8 empty Table. and two of them brought their provision along with them. Table. 5 He also performed a similar exploit with 24 bottles. Full. full. full. so that bj. Empty. and Full. Full. ST. Three men met at a caravansary or inn. Table. 7 half full. proposed to the others that they should eat together.taking every twelfth /^ A the apples should remain.^OOAAOOAA/^^ favorite oranges. between which he could divide 21 bottles. Full. He did this in two ways: Table. and he would pay the value of his proportion. 1 2 3 9 half-full. 21. and in such a manner that each table had the same number of bottles. 22. of which 7 only were full. 8 8 half-full. In the dining-room were three tables. 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 full. being Nos. Empty. and the same quantity of wine. full. Empty. This being agreed to. and B 3 loaves* 10* . 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 4 Also with 27 bottles. 12.: THE MAQIO OP NUMBERS. being "OAOAAAAAAAA^"^ well versed in the " Recreations in Science. Empty. 8. and the old gentleman. Hf. Hf. But A* this he could not accomplish. 7. full. 34. Hf. Hf. Full. A produced 6 loaves.

of money WHICH COUNTER HAS BEEN THOUGHT A-rrange OF OUT OF SIXTEEN 1 Take sixteen pieces of card. to 16 A B . is the ratio in which the money is to be divided. and C paid 8 pieces as the value of his share. This from 5 would leave 2^ loaves furnished the stranger by A. as at A B. but quarreled about the division of it. but we must consider that. and number them them in two rows. of which the travelers ate together. and C to consume all.! 220 all THE magician's oWx\ book. with which the others were satisfied. Upon this the matter was referred to the judge. What was his decision ? At first sight it would seem that the money should be divided according to the bread furnished. If you imagine A and B to furnish. as the 3 ate 8 loaves.2f=^ furnished by B. and 3. who decided impartially. hence 2^ to -^=1 to 1. each one ate 2f loaves of the bread he furnished. then the division will be according to amounts furnished.

ascending obliquely 3 falls into the square. 228. to the last square. whether vertical. would fall into the exterior line. Those which have an even number of squares in each band. or from corner to corner. shall amount to the same sum. . . but four falls out of it. 3d. and would place 6 in the middle of the top band. Place one row under the other. and there placed. and divide again two rows. (see the first table on p. Those which have an odd number of squares in each band 2d. horizontal. and another exterior line on the right hand of it These two imaginary lines are shown in the figure.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. Where this even number being divisible exactly by 4 the even number of squares in each band cannot be divided by 4 without a fraction. it wculd be at the top after four transpositions. where the reader sees it. we place 5. Thus. is given to a square divided into several smaller squares. to the two following rules In placing the numbers in the squares we must go in an ascending oblique direction from left to right any number which. . They are divided into three principal classes 1st. . : . into MAGIC SQUARES. which will now be as G H. Imagine an exterior line of squares above the magic square you wish to form. The number thought of will always be at the top of one of If there were 32 counters the rows after three transpositions. Squares of this kind are formed thus. . in which numbers are placed in such a manner that every column of numbers. and it must be carried along that line to the extreme left. by pursuing this direction.) 2 would fall into the exterior square above the fourth vertical line it must be therefore carried down to the lowest square of that line then. The name "Magic Square" ODD ItAGIC SQUARES. whether vertical or horizontal. You will be informed that the number is in row H. as at N. 1 having been placed in the center of the top line. but finding it occupied by 1. we look for direction io th« : Then attend 1st. to the end of a horizontal line. Resuming our oblique ascension to the right. must be carried along that line of squares. and you may then announce it to be the top number of that row.


" Dr. 229 2d Rule. Then 4 more "chums" were admitted .THE MAGIC OP NUMBERS. on examining the establishment a fourth time. we come to a square already occupied. and 24 scholars the rooms around it. There are various other kinds of magic squares but explanations of them would be too lengthy for our work. give opposite. and so came to an opinion that their previous . when four had gone out . once undertook the management of a school . THE SQUAEE OF GOTHAM. at the commencement cf the wotch J the second. it was suspected that the boys were in the habit of playing truant. a seven-placed square. Four boys then went out. accompanied by four strangers and the Gothamites. and none has contributed so much as "the model of practical wisdom. and found three in each. and the wise men soon after visited the rooms. we must place the number. because the square next to 5 in an oblique direction is " engaged. themselves in bringing them to perfection. 6. . In spite of the strictness of discipline. in ascending with 4. thought all was right. which prescribes that. How was all this possible ? The following figures represent the contents of each room at the four different visits the first. The invention of these contrivances has been traced back to the early ages of science. can be easily filled up by attending to these two rules. and finding 9 in each row. The four boys then came back. boys were on the premises. and it was determined To assure themselves that all the to set a strict watch. still found 9 in each r3w. directly under the last numThus. when in ascending obliquely. however large in the number of compartments. or 9 in each row. 6. The wise men of Gotham. which according to the first lule should go into that occupied square. 3 being in each. they visited the rooms. but the clever men. Modern philosophers have amused We . The playground occupied the center. the 6 must be ber placed placed directly under the 5.'^ Magic squares of this class. suspicions had been unfounded. the . entertained no suspicion of what had taken place. and talismanic properties were attributed to them. on their third round. famous for their eccentric blun- ders. they arranged their establishment in the form of a square divided into 9 rooms. Franklin. finding still 9 in each row.

when 4 more had joined them. .230 third. when these i. THE Magician's own book ed . had returnand the fourth. accompanied by another 4.

8 and 1 are 9 4591x72=330. 13 can only be divided by 1 but deducting 1. these added together make 18. and where there is a remainder. Thus 5x5=25 25x25 = 125. be a multiple of nine r — . If you multiply 5 by itself. the product is 419. 45. added together. Any number multiplied by 9 produces a sum of figures which. and so on.296. 1. 81. For — . will.159. and multiply by 5 the answer is 1785. Take any number whatever and multiply it by 9 or any multiple of 9.422. 36x36=216. 17-f 1 = 18 19—1=18. 231 For instance. added together. &c. and the result is again 1785. Again. . continually makes 9. 87. Thus. 25 example. the figures composing the remainder. There is something more curious in the properties of the number 9. . . example. As 17X18=306. The rule is invariable. Any number of figures you may wish to multiply by 5. and as there is no remainder you add a cipher. when added horizoDtally. — . 2 and 7 are 9. added togethei the product is 27. a unit. . the figures sum up 18. and the second quotient by itself. and you have 232. If any row of two or more figures be reversed and subtracted from itself. sum up 9 each. and a remainder you therefore place 5 at the right of the line. . .904 the sura of these digits is 27. and the quotient again by itself. 36. if you proceed in the same manner with the figure 6. annex a 5 to the answer. 6X6=36. the answer will be 2320 divide the same number by 2. 125X125=625. 1 and 8 are 9. and so on. take 357.717. 216x216= . 63. Multiply 648 by itself. all the first multiples of 9. and so always. 72. To multiply by 2 is the same as to multiply by 10 and divide by 5. the remainder can be divided by 6 for 7—1 = 6. 6 and 3 are 9. the last figure of each quotient will always be 5. — . continually number 9. or 2 and 7 are 9. there is 178. will give the same result if divided by 2 a much quicker operation than the former but you must remember to annex a cipher to the answer where there is no remainder. as 18. the figures sum up 18. Now.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. multiply 464 by 5. and the sum will consist of figures which. On dividing 357 by 2. Each of them multiplied by any number whatever produces a similar result as 8 times 81 are 648. 8 and 1 are 9. Again. 27. 5 + 1 = 6 1 =24. the last figure will constantly be 6 thus. 54. after .552. 117X27=3.363x54=4. .

000 66. the first figure of the dividend. when it was required to have the product composed of 2. namely. 9^600. If the sum 549 is multiplied by any fi. it will be 36 and so forth. added together. 5. the multiplier will be 27 multiplier will be 18 all 4. as this : : .— 232 42 24 THE magician's OWN BOOK. make 18.000 9)40. — : : 12345679 18 12345679 27 12345679 36 74074074 37037037 98765432 12345679 222222222 86419753 24691358 333333333 444444444 is The rule by which the multiplier which we do not attempt to explain) is discovered (but Multiply the last figure (the 9) of the multiplicand by the figure of which you wish the product to be composed.444-4 9)549 any sum of figures can be divided by 9 as. the multiplier &c. be formed of the digits in their regular a multiplier maj^ be found by a rule. the 2 multi3 multiplied by 9 gives plied by 9 gives 18. the product can also be divided bv 9. the quotient will be composed of one figure only. with a number of ciphers attached to it. omitting the 198-9x2. be divided by 9. '•1 61 divided by 9 of these figures. which is divisible by 9. If a multiplicand order. 27. when added together. Thus if 12345679 be given. 4. which will give a product. the amount . 886 688 826 1623 18-9X2.^'-iu<'. and that number will be the required multiplier. 8. can be :— thus. and it be required to find a multiplier which shall give the product all in 2.666-6 If 4. the multiplier to give the product in 3 If a figure. 1638-9x2. 9. each figure of which shall be the Bame. Thus. that if if in 3.

quite sufficient to excite the wonder of the uninitiated. when added together.260 4.934 38. 9)3294 366 thus. These properties of the figure 999. .326 Produces the same result as 9 38. in any order he likes you will then. and the multiplier is six if then. therefore. 472. 19 The amount of these numbers 9. The order of these component figures is reversed after the said number has been multiplied by 5. but 19. being shown.326 4. be multiplied 43. 8 is stuck out. suppose 365.. to multiply by 99. : add a cipher. Any series of numbers that can be divided by 9. easily declare the number which has been 365472 erased.472 are 6 the numbers chosen. 21 9232 the numbers returned to you will be . as 365.754. 9 will enable the young arithmetician to perform an amusing trick. is 19 . and deduct the sum that thus. . add two ciphers . then. three ciphers. 233 549 6 And the amount of the figures of the product can also be divided by 9 . The component figures of the product made by the multiplication of every digit into the number 9.821. and to let you know the figures which remain. by the assistance of the knowledge of the above properties of 9. Thus. make Nine. &c. &c. : .THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. want 8 to complete another 9 8. 2)18 9 To multiply by is to 9.934 by In the same manner. to strike out one number of the quotient. divided by loaves a remainder of 1 you. is the number erased. a person may be requested to multiply secretly either of these series by any figure he pleases.

24. 18. 2-|-7=Nine. . or within 3 He feet of the top. . 21. Thus 3 multiplied by 2 is equal to 6. The amount of the first product (viz. The amount by the several products. added together. make Nine. And the quotient of 362. 12. He got up 3 feet per day. whose respective component figures make which is the square of Nine. gives for a quotient. . .320 . 45 that (viz.) is. The component figures of the amount of the multipliers when added together. necessary to enable him to get out ? The frog appears to have cleared one foot per day. that is 4 If number 37 be multiplied by any of the progressive numbers arising from the multiplication of 3 with any of the units. . and 37 multiplied by 12 is equal to 444.. that the number of changes that may be rung on nine bells is 362. gives for a quotient 54 : that is. or multiples of 9 (viz. is 81 The said number 81. again.234 THE magician's own book. 405) makes 486 which. 9. 45. &c.880. 9. THE INDUSTRIOUS FROG There was a well 30 feet deep. he would be 27 feet up. . . 15. the figures in the quotient will be similar. make 27 that is. but regularly Required the number of days fell back 2 feet at night. 9.880 which figures. 4 +5= Nine. 5-|-4=NiNE.) when added to the other product. and the next day he would get out. . and at the bottom a frog anxious to get out. divided by 9. 405) when divided by 9. and 80 on. and 37 so. will be 40. + progressive numbers. and the result may be known beforehand by merely inspecting the . — . when added to the above mentioned amount of the several products. thus. . and at the end of 27 days. 4 multiplied by multiplied by 9 is equal to 222 3 produces 12. 0+34-2+0=NiNE. would therefore be 28 days getting out. 3. 6. 27. It is also observable. or multiples of 9 (viz. . arc the progressive numbers formed by 3 multiplied by the and the result of the multiplication of any of units 1 to 9 these numbers with 37 may be seen in the following examples :— 37X3=111 37x6=222 37x12=444 37x24= by which it appears that the numbers of which the 888 quotient is formed are the same as the units by which number 3 was multiplied to obtain the respective progressive numbers. if divided by 9.

The accompanying figure shows the cards thus arranged. showing that the person thought of 3. numbeied from one to ten. THE magio of numbers. or the first ten playing cards of any suit disposed in a circular Ton cards form may be employed with great convenience for performing this feat. . . Two travelers trudged along the road together. that number will terminate at C. and the ten by K. THE COUNCIL OF T£I^. if ]0 be added to 6. THE TWO TRAVELERS. and touched 6 F tlaen. to touch any other card or number. E five. as Yankees do. and so on. Request him then to add to the number of the card touched the number of the cards employed. Thus. D six. and consequently you will immediately Having placed the cards know it. beginning at the card he touched. for example. he will end at the number or card he thought of. A greater or less number of cards or counters may be employed at pleasure but in every instance the whole number of cards must be added to the number of the card touched. which in this case is ten. designated by A. Talking. about the weather . the number thought of. 235 or counters.. in the retrograde order. number one. counting F three. the sum will and if that number be counted from F. and so round to sixteen. desire a bystander to think of a card or number. and assigning it the number of the card he thought of. suppose the person had thought of 3 C. 3 C 2B 1 D4 A 10 K 9 1 E5 F 6 G7 H 8 in the above order. By counting in this manner. the number which corresponds to C. Then desire him to count the sum in an order contrary to that of the natural numbers. . and when he has done so. the number be 16 touched. towards E D B C A. or the ace.

lo beside their path the foremost spies Three casks. Thus each person had four gallons of brandy in the eight and five-gallon barrels respectively. : . " I see This is eight gallons. therefore leaving four gallons in the five-gallon barrel. Each wondering if an owner might be found But not a soul was there the coast was clear. the casks. So to the barrels they at once drew near.T. in vain Filled up the five At length a happy thought came o'er the brain Of one 'twas done. but the other full. neither less nor more. This way and that they gazed. and five. . and the two gallons poured from the the five-gallon barrel into the empty three-gallon barrel five-gallon barrel was then filled. and from that the three-gallon barrel. say. 'Tis tasted and approved And each pronounces 't is the famed Cognac. my boy May no ill luck our present hopes destroy 'T was fortunate one knew the mathematics. . friend.hus leaving two gallons in the five-gallon barrel the three-gallon barrel was then emptied into the eight-gallon barrel. but all of various size. can you ? The five-gallon barrel was filled first. *' Won't we have many a jolly night. those are five and three. one gallon in the eight-gallon barrel. And their good dames declared 'twas excellent. Two they find empty. and one gallon poured into the three-gallon barrel. a prize 1" One large. Then measured lie — . filled up the three. A heavy stone lay handy. their lips they smack. and three they puzzle sore. And straightway from his pocket one doth pull A large clasp-knife. and all around." The question then was how they might divide The brandy. so that each should be supplied With just four gallons. two small. And had a smattering of hydrostatics : I ! . And thus in time they found their prize was brandy. and said. and each went home content. With eight. and three gallons in the three-gallon barrel. . — : In friendly partnership they'll fairly share. and loud exclaims " A prize. which was then emptied into the eight-gallon barrel. With those three casks they made division true I found the puzzle out. And both agree whatever may be there I When." 23(1 THE magician's own book.

It may be readily seen." replied the philoso: . as are performed in regard to the two hands of the same person. and from 9 you take 10 from 40 be taken. must be assigned to the silver after which. that the pieces. ANSWER. and the other the odd number. This was a favorite problem among the ancient Grecian arithmeticians. represented by an even number. . The same operations may then be performed in regard to these two persons. From SIX Take IX I From IX Take I X From XL Take L X THE MONET GAME. such as three. To conceal the artifice better. desire the person to multiply the number in the right hand by any even number whatever. and seventh added to three shall be equal to itself. and the other the left. . calling the one privately the right. the gold will be in the right hand. such as 8. instead of being in the two hands of the same person. such as 2. or piece of silver. Remains. you may tell in which hand he has the gold. or piece of gold. To find a number of which the half. THE PHUOSOPHER'S PUPILS. A person . and in the contrary case odd. and the silver in the left if the sum be even. : THB MAGIC OF NUMBERS. there will just half a dozen remain. must be assigned to the gold . by the following method Some value. h^w many pupils frequent thy school ? " " One half. and a value represented by an odd number. may be supposed to be in the hands of two persons. illustrious Pythagoras. as 3 then bid him add together the two products. manner who stated the question in the following "Tell us. and in the other a piece of silver. 237 and if 60 If from 6 you take 9. hand a piece of gold. it will be suflScient to ask whether the sum of the two products can be halved without a remainder for in that case the total will be even. the contrary will be the case. and in which the silver. and that in the left by an odd number. and if the whole sum be odd. AEITHMEnCAL PUZZLE. having in one . one of whom has the even number.. fourth.

Two. the square of 5 is 25. . THE magician's own book. if any. THE SHEEP-POLD." The answer is. that if it be divided by 4. When she arrived at the market-place. To save this trouble. 4. one seventh observe silence. COUNTRYWOMAN AND EGGS. . and half an egg besides and to the third guard she sold the half of the remainder. she had three A countrywoman carried eggs to . will be 1 thus. sold to the first guard half the number to the second. TO DISCOVER the multiplication of any number into itself thus. 4 multiplied by 4 is equal to 16. "study mathematics. farmer had a pen made of 50 hurdles. capable of holding 100 sheep only supposing he wanted to make it sufficiently large to hold double that number. Another property of a square number is. how many additional hurdles would he have occasion for ? Answer. one fourth natural philosophy. being a square number. for how can half an egg be sold without breaking any of the eggs ? The possibility of this seeming any of the eggs? . and another at the bottom so that. and 25 divided by 4 leaves a remainder of 1 . 16. A — . and 16 is consequently a square number. or with two cyphers. A square number a number produced by — by 4 without leaving a remainder. the remainder. the size of the pen would be exactly doubled. A SQUAEE NUMBER. and again. dozen still to sell . and half another egg.238 pher. 28 : 14 + 7 + 4 + 3=28. . 4 being the square root from whicii it springs. preceded by one of these numbers. by moving one of the sides a little back. 5. 6. and half an egg more what remained. The extraction of the square root of any number takes some time and after all your labor you may perhaps find that the number is not a square number. and there are three females besides. the half of she had. where she had three guards to pass. or 9. a garrison. and placing an additional hurdle at the top and bottom. can be divided is . There were 24 hurdles on each side of the pen a hurdle at the top. without breaking would seem at the first view that this is impossible. . it is worth knowing that every square number ends either with a 1. how was It this possible.

if once seen. that is. as a triangle cannot be formed unless any two of the lines are longer than the third.THE MAGIC OP NUMBERS. ZHZ four are rubbed out. It is as simple as any thing possibly can be. 1. . 17. 13th. of of course. it 19 ^^ not occurring immediately to the mind to begin to rub them out backwards. 12. . may be easily retained and the puzzle at first is. and every time an odd one. 7. 239 impossibility will be evident. 18. after selling 37 out of 74 to the last guard. ^ ^ J ii \^ u \l ^. 17th. 6th. then proceed say. 2. 9. rub out these four and be. 9th. produce an . per acre. then rub out and lastly say. HOW TO KUB OUT TWENTY CHALKS AT FIYE TDOS. 15. she had still three dozen remaining. which is fche had 295 eggs to the second guard the half +^. 6. and an odd number added to an odd number. 4. ber. when these these . 8 ing. J rub out these four . The whole twenty are rubbed out at five times. This is = . 8. : To do strokes. which is the major half of 147 and. . and rub out these and proceed again. you must make twenty chalks. 5. . When the countrywoman passed the first guard. I 6 g gin again. 14. again. we take the exact half -f--^. 19.^ i| a trick which. she had 147 remaining she disposed of 74. or long upon a board. as 20. this trick. as in the margin Then begin and count backwards. 10. 11. by selling to that guard 148. The longest ODD OR EVEN Every odd number multiplied by an odd number produces an odd number every odd number multiplied by an even number produces an even number and every even number multiplied by an even number also produces an even numSo. THE IMPOSSIBLE TRIANGLE side of a triangle is 100 rods . and 1st. an even number added to an even number. . 13. when it is considered. This is a catch question. 3. 16. that by taking the greater half of an odd number. RUBBING OUT EYEEY TBIE AN ODD ONE. and each of Required the value of the grass at $5 the other sides 50.

. while an odd and even number added even number together produce an odd number. thus 6X2=10. and the odd number will consequently be in the right hand. supposing there are 5 counters in the right hand. and tell you the last figure of the product if it is even. at the first house. and half a one over she returned with one egg in her basket. then add the two sums together. UP TO 100. and 4 in the left hand. and that in the left hand by an odd number. If any one holds an odd number of counters in one hand. 4x3=12. ARRANGED SO AS TO MAKE 505 IN EACH COLUMN. . and an even number in the other. multiply 5 by 2. Required— Ans. it is not difficult to discover in which hand the odd or even number is. : IKE FIGURES. WHEN COUNTED IN TEN COLUMNS PERPENDICULARLY. and then adding 10 to 12. she left half the number of eggs she had and half a one over at the second she left half of what remained and half an egg over and at the third she again left half of the remainder. . the last figure of which.240 . in the left hand thus. which was the squire's. the number she set out with. . is even. not having broken any. an old woman who possessed some remarkably good-laying hens. makes 605. (=1 10 o "^ d 00 (D ~ JS a. . wishing to oblige her neighbors. when added up. 16 eggs. the odd number will be in the right hand and if odd. and 4 by 3. *^ p O o o '^ Each of these ten columns. THE OLD WOMAN AND HER EGGS. sent her daughter round with a basket of eggs to three of them . 2. you have 10+12=22. AND THE SAMB WHEN COUNTED IN TEN FILES HORIZONTALLY. to . . THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. At a time when eggs were scarco. Desire the party to multiply the number in the right hand by an even number.

write in the figures neatly and legibly. 241 Procure six cards. How is this done ? by any person. bers not to exceed 60.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. and having ruled them the same as the following diagrams. It is required to tell the number thought the numbers being contained in the cards. THE MATHEMATICAL FORTUNE TELLER. and such num- 3 .

for it will be found by calculation that the mense sixty -fourth term of the double progression divided by 1. if a pint contain 9216 grains of wheat. For example : together. 16.242 THE magician's own book. and the sum produced. who had performed some very important service. But the gum of all the terms of a double progression. The num ber of the grains of w lie at. the dice to double the number of points upon one of them. from which if 25 be subtractthe first figure of which is 2. The courtier. suppose 10 is the number thought of. 8. may be obtained by doubling the last term. and so on with the others. &c. 23 will remain ber of points on the first die. will be 18446744073709551615. if to four. a gallon will con* . in the present case. and the second figure 3. to find the number of points Tell the person who cast on each die without seeing them. 2. if 3. and the second figure. to the left. Suppose the number of points of the first die which comes up to be 2. to which. pair of dice being thrown. 32. THE DICE GUESSED UNSEEN. 4. which makes the answer 10. only requested that the monarch would give him a quantity of wheat equal to that which would arise from one grain doubled sixty-three The value of the reward was imtimes successively. there be added 5. Now. Thus to the right. is 9223372036854775808. and to add to the product the number of points upon the other This being done. desired him to ask whatever he thought proper. be multiplied by 5. A . the cards with 2 and 8 in the corners will be given. . the product will be 45 . who was well acquainted with the science of numbers. die. THE SOYEREIGN AND THE SAGE. and subtracting from it 1. which will give the correct answer. beginning with 1. having thrown out 25. the number of points on the other die. the numed. 9. and. the number on the other. the number on the other. and that of the other 3 then. and add 5 to it then to multiply the sum produced by 5. 48 will be produced. : . desire him to tell you the amount. the first of which. .. A . is the number of points on the first die. sovereign being desirous to confer a liberal reward on one of his courtiers. be added. the remainder will be a number consisting of two figures. therefore. the double of the points of the first. assuring him it should be granted.

3^ and 2^ making in all 20." "No. and his adversary would finish by saying 100. "I have not a score. A : . . on the globe. friend." said the shepherd. and which in value would exceed all the riches. persons agree to take. alternately. By folif 9. and it will then be impossible for the second to prevent him from get< ting first to 100 for whatever number the second takes he can attain only to 99 after which the first may sa}^ " and 1 makes 100. . . he must take 2 8.— THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. but if I had as many more. 243 and. . a quantity greater than what the whole surface of the earth could produce in several years. 11. he who begins must necessarily win. The first and whatever number will then take 1. numbers less than a given number. or of a series which continually increases by 11. THE KNOWING SHEPHERD. who knows the game. by adding 10 to it. as eight gallons make one bushel." If the second take 1 after 89. what means can one of them infallibly attain to that number before the other ? Two The whole artifice in this consists in immediately making choice of the numbers 1. . and two sheep and a half. and so on. such as 100. shepherd was going to market with some sheep." Between two persons who are equally acquainted with the game. ." How many eheep had he ? He had 7 sheep as many more 7 half as many more. THE CERTAIN GAME. 12. " Good morning. if the latter take and so on. 34. perhaps. with your score. I should have just a score. . as he must count less than 11. up to 100. if we ditaiu 13728 vide the above result by eight times 73728 we shall have 31274997411295 for the number of the bushels of wheat equal to the above number of grains. can at most reach 11. . it would make " and 10 make 90. — . which will make 12 the second may add the first will certainly win. when he met a man who said to him. half as many more. Let us suppose that the first person. makes choice of 1 it is evident that his adversary. and to add them together Bj*" till one of them has reached a certain sum. for example. . . provided he continually add the number which forms the complement of that of his adversary to 11 that is to say. 23. he must take 3 lowing this method he will infalliblj^ attain to 89.

MAGICAL CENTURY. . THE ASTONISHED FARMER. They commence selling at that rate. and they have received $20 B still has 10 which he sells at " 2 for a dollar" and of course whereas had he sold them at the rate of 5 for receives $5 Hence the difficulty is $2.— 244 THE magician's OWN BOOK. at 5 for what became of the other dollar? $2. rather a catch question. easily settled. he would have received but S4. be multiplied by any one of the nine digits. being only true in part. A's pigs are exhausted. and B took each 30 pigs to market. and together they received $25. A sold his at 3 for B at 2 for a dollar. but after making ten sales. as appears in the following example If the number 11 : 11 . the two figures of the product will always be alike. A afterwards took 60 alone. the insinuation that the first lot were sold at the rate of five for $2. which he sold as lefore. This is : . and received but $24 A a dollar.

or was tion is. and had he kept the $8 he needed only to have borrowed $42 additional to redeem A . you must add as much to it as will make it equal to 7. and that you are never to add more than 6 then. A person remarked that when he counted over his basket of nuts. the number to be attained be 52 (making use of a pack of cards instead of counters). and consequently this number answers the conditions of the question. 60x4-fl. THE FNirCKY HATTER. it is evident. and called upon the hatter. the note. 60x2-fl. the number by which you divided. blackleg passing through a town in Ohio. This not being the case. it would answer the conditions of the question. that if 61 were divisible by 7. . and whatwill be the number which you must first stake ever your opponent stakes. 4. the remainder. so that the note was useless on the hatter's hands. as it serves to withdraw attenand in almost every case the first tion from the question impression is. &c. who was compelled forthwith to borrow $50 of another friend to redeem it with but on turning to search for the blackleg he had left town. and so in continuation.es and circumstances as a real transaction. that the hatter lost $50 besides the hat.. and if the company knows such persons so much the better. — . though it is evident he was paid for the hat. but when he counted them by sevens. THE BASKET OF NUTS. 60x3-fl. who changed the note for him. five by by six. there was no remainder. the least let . what did he lose it $50 including the hat ? This question is generally given with nam. How many had he ? The least common multiple of 2. however. there was one remaining. three by three. The queswas it $50 besides the hat. for example. and it will be found that 801=60x5-fl. bought a hat The hatter called on for $8 and gave in payment a $50 bill. 5. dividing 52 by t. and 6 being 60.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. . is divisible by 7. a merchant near by. Suppose. be tried successively. or six two by two. and the blackleg having received his $42 change went his way. five. The next day the merchant discovered the note to be a counterfeit. 3. 245 number you must first stake. four by four. If to this we add 420. which is 3.

THE UNITED Arrange the figures 1 to 9 in such order them together. and put them into the basket ? It is evident that. The man's age multiplied by 4 and divided by 9. Says B to A." replied A. to the hundredth. 30 years 40 weeks. 15 36 47 98 2 that." your sheep and I will have as many again as you. he must walk four. . drovers. — THE TWO DROVERS. the sum 121 will be another answer. the woman's age. for the second. and B. 3. DIGITS. 6 and 1. 60 years 12 weeks. their united ages amounted to C. An old man married a young woman. 4. the first being at the same distance from a basket. how many yards must the person walk who engages to pick them up. they amount to 100. " Pray give me one of your sheep and I will have "Nay. six: and so oa increasing by two. Two A THE BASKET AND STONES. the person must walk two yards. meeting on the road. we may many answers as we please. The man's age. for the third. What were their respective ages ? Answer." Required to know the number of sheep they each had ? A had seven and B had five sheep. and by adding perpetually 420. to pick up the first stone. 5. common find as multiple of 2. If a hundred stones be placed in a straight line.246 THE magician's own book. began discoursing about the number of sheep they each had. by adding 100 DECEMBER AND JIAY. and put it into the basket. at the distance of a yard from each other. "but give me one of as many as you. gives the woman's age. one by one.

39 rods. to which add 2. the third part you multiply by 2. from the second part you subtract 2. . 12. : THE FAMOUS FORTY-FIVE. 10. multiplied by 20. instead of borrowing 1 foot. 5 inches. divided by 2. if to the first part you add 2. From Take 10 7 39 5 1 6 In this problem. the last term of which is 200 (22). and the fourth part you divide by 2. In the in A first lir. 2. But the sum of the &c. which the person 247 must will be equal to the sum of the progression.— 9 4-8 + t + 6 + 5 + 44-3 + 2 + 1=45 l re- 8 + 2+3+4+5 + 6 + 7+8 + 9::=45 + 6+4 + 1 + 9 + 7 + 5+3+2=45 SUBTRACTION.. therefore. and leave 45 as a mainder ? Solution. the sum of the two extremes. from which we take 5 inches. 6. 2. multiplied by 50.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. 5 yards. rods. we borrow -J a foot =6 inches. 1 foot. 4. or half the number of terms that is to say.e. and 1 remains we then carry -j to 1 and borrowing ^ a y ard=l J feet. the product of the multiplication. furlongs. and ad^ . the sum is the remainder is the product is the quotient is 10 10 10 10 45 Required to subtract 45 from 45. and the quotient of the division be all equal ? How The 1st is The 2nd is The 3rd is The 4th is 8. subtract 5. inches. The number walk of yards. the sum of the addition. figures he may choose. . feet. 2. which makes more than 5^ miles. and afterwards proceed as usual. we have 1^ from l^^O. the remainder of the subtraction. any number of place desire a person to write down secretly. can number 45 be divided into four such parts that. progression is equal to 202. yards. THE EXPUNGED FIGURE. 7 From 1 mile subtract furlongs.100 yards. miles.

the quotient will be 286.214. and that is the quotient for five For example. as in the following — example: . (as in the first instance. suppose the figures given are 86. and 76518 remain. then 3 times 9 are total given. given. you make a mental sum one multiple of 9 higher than the If 22 be given as the total. If 8. The only way in which a person can fail in solving this riddle is. 36. tell him to subtract that sum from the line of figures originally set down.— 248 THE magician's own book. it is therefore needless to give any further examples. as it then becomes impossible to tell wlwch of the two it is. if 5. subtract 2 from the last right-hand figure. these.212. lines. required to name the quotient of five or three lines each line consisting of five or more figures of figures only seeing the first line before the other lines are even put down. the figures put down are 76542. as units. always make up 9 with the line above. With very little practice any person may perform this with rapidity. 76542-24 Qi : then 9 has been expunged. added together. Any person may write down the first line of figures How do you find the quotient? for you. as 18. You may allow any person to put down the two first and the fourth lines. make a total of 24 deduct 24 from the first line. the total will be 22. THE MYSTERIOUS ADDITION. 19 will be the total. when you will tell him the figure he has struck out. them together as Suppose. In order to ascertain which figure has been struck out. then desire him to strike out any figure he pleases. and in doing so. If 19 be 27. but you must always set down the third and fifth lines. units. and place it before the first figure of the line. and 22 from 27 show that 5 was struck out. and add the remaining figures in the line together as units. When the first line of figures is set down. the sum of the figure in the line being an even number of nines in both cases. when either the number 9 or a cipher is struck out. that sum deducted from 27 shows 8. It is — Example. the first figure be struck out. Should the total be equal multiplies of 9. the center figure be struck 76^18 out.) and inform you of the result. for example. 27. having done this.

he tells Thomas to add to his age.856 is 52. you 67. 249 Therefore in the annexed diagram you will see 86. and another.855. first reckoning 5. first reckoning the number of the hour at which he has placed the hand. which is 77.856 subtract 1 from the last figure. as Qt.854 to put down the figures should set down a 1 or for the last figure.212 sets down something above 1 or 2. and counting backwards. then tell him to count privately the number of that amount upon the dial. 268. 3'ou will add 12 to 5. and the quotient will be 167.319 with the lines above them. and ttuking away the first figure of the amount add it to the last figure. he therethat he can discover the difference of their ages fore privately deducts 22 from 99 (his age consisting of two figures. and place it 47. and make up the third For example: 67.145 another figure. who is 22. 16^ 855 shown in the above diagram. and tell you what hour that is. and so on until h« Ql.680 that you have made 9 in the third and fifth lines 57. and tell him to count 17 on the dial.781 line yourself to 9.214 42. the hour at which the index stands. Let another person add the difference to the largest number. and that he has placed the hand at 5. TO EIND THE DIPPERENCE BETWEEN TWO NIJXBERS. If the person desire 62. THE GREATEST OP WHICH IS UNKNOWN. figures in the smallest Take as many nines as there are number. Let the person set the hand of the dial of a watch at any hour he pleases. TO TELL AT WHAT HOUR A PERSON INTENDS TO RISE. you must say we will have 37. tells Thomas. and subtract that sum from the number of nines. For example John. and counting backwards from the hour at which he intends to rise. and to take 11* : . he of course takes two nines) the difference. In solving the puzzle with three lines. and to the number of that hour you add in your mind 12. and the number 17 will necessarily end at 8. beginning with the next hour to that on which he proposes to rise. . who is older.THE MAG[C OF NUMBERS. and that sum will be the difference of the two numbers.218 before the first figure. For example: Suppose the hour at which he intends to rise be 8. . given. which shows that to be the hour he chose.

difi"erence between John's age and 99 is 77 first away figure and that The To which Thomas adding The sum Then by taking away is his age 35 112 1. thus. The key to this lock of figures is. that half of whatever sum you request to be added during the Working of the sum In the cxamplc given. then to double it. . the sum is Which add to John's age and add13 22 . and then ask how many times the less number is contained in the greater. and finally to subYou are then to tract from that the figure first thought of. from the one hand to the other. Any amount may ten. for example. and add it to tie last will be the difference of their ages . be added. as they will divide without fractions. . Double it Add 10 to it it 7 14 10 Halve 2)24 12 7 Which will leave Subtract the number thought of will The Remainder be 5 A -PERSON HAVING AN EQUAL NUMBER OF COUNTERS. but the operation is simplified by giving only even tell numbers. the figure from the amount. as 4. IN EACH HAND.250 THE magician's own book. is to ask a person to think of a figure. . OR PIECES Oi MONEY. Think of. 35 very pleasing way to arrive at an arithmetical sum. the first figure ing it to the figure 2. now halve the whole sum. A the thinker what is the remainder. without the use of either slate or pencil. Example. five is the half of IS THE REMAINDER. Let us . the number requested to be added. TO FIND HOW MANY HE HAS ALTOGETHER Request the person to convey any number. Gives the age of Thomas THE REMAINDER. then add a certain figure to it.

or V if 1. B. with their wives. the weight required . and consequently the whole number is 16. by which. as before. and. which will give 9^ have 13^. This curious problem deserves another example. the quotient will be the number contained in each hand. was found to weigh 16 lbs. so that' none of the three wives may be found in the company of one or two men. and for want of a waterman they are compelled to row themselves over the river at several times. What is the true weight ? A The true weight is a mean proportional between the two false ones. lbs. the remainder will be 1^. take 1 from 3. A and B go over C's wife returns. The question is how those six persons shall pass. the number of the counters conveyed. Simple as this question may appear. find at the water side a boat which can carry but two at a time. A. we must. if V be divided. by 3. euppose Ihat he says the one 251 is the triple of the other . — : — — — — — — THE PALSE SCALES. two at a time. Let us again suppose that 4 counters are passed from one hand to the other. Lastly. the following may be as good as any Let A and wife go over let A return let B's and C's wives go over A's wife returns B and C go over B and wife return. In this case.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. multiply 4 by to which. it is found in the works of Alcuin. . and A's and B's wives go over then C comes back for his wife. be taken from 2^. . and when put into the other only 9 lbs. who flourished a thousand years ago. the quotient 10 will be the number of counters in each hand. if 4 be added. and is found by extracting the square root of Thus 16X9=144. THE THREE JEALOUS HUSBANDa Three jealous husbands. being ready to pass by night over a river. which will make 16. unless her husband be present ? This may be effected in two or three ways. and square root 144=12 their product. and C. and add to the product the same number. and the less number is contained in the greater 2^ times. we shall 2^. multiply 4. in this case... or |. cheese being put into one of the scales of a false balance. hundreds of years before the art of printing was invented. then. and if 16 be divided by the remainder 2.

THURS. the latter would each have three. . and gave her back 2. deduct 1. THE GRACES AND MUSES. and returned her 1 after which she found she had 12 apples remaining. wished them to take a walk each day of the week. How could they be arranged to suit the above conditions ? SUN. A . but no two ladies were to be allowed to walk together twice during the week. FRID. a b c . From 30 deduct 10.) THE JESUITICAL TEACHER. The three Graces. and then gave her back 10 the second boy bought a third of what remained. was 22. having fifteen young ladies under her caie. conditions of the question. which was half she had. SAT. and the third bought half of what she had now left. WEDN. and the remainder 20 is half her original stock. . carrying a basket of apples. it was then found that they had all equal shares. therefore. From 22 deduct two. wore met by the nine Muses. for if we suppose that each Grace gave one to each Muse. which was therefore 30. and the remaining 20 was f of her prior stock. and 11 is the number she sold the last boy. was met by three boys. poor woman. They were to walk in five divisions of three ladies each. TUES. How many had the Graces at first ? The least number that will answer this question is twelve. her number at that time. THE APPLE WOMAI^. and there would remain (Any multiple of 12 will answer the three for each Grace. What number had she at first ? From the 12 remaining. teacher.252 THE magician's OWN BOOK. the first of whom bought half of what she had. A MON. consequently she had at first 40 apples. carrying each an equal number of oranges. who asked for some and each Grace having given to each Muse the of them same number.

253 What is tlio difference between twenty and four and twenty quart bottles four quart bottles. . QUAINT QUESTIONS. nor the goose eat the fox yet the fox can eat the goose. What What — 56 quarts three Ans. and half-a-dozen dozen. and half- a-dozen dozen ? Ans. Ans. is ? difierence. will make precisely 5 ? the difference between six dozen dozen. came to a river. 5| "5 room with eight corners had a cat in each corner. . for says he *' Though the corn can't eat the goose. Ans. 792: Six dozen dozen being 864. and a cat on every cat's tail. . Ans. and the goose eat the corn '' How shall he carry them over. a Goose. 1. .THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. 1^. 72. . multiplied 1"25. and a peck of Corn. he was at his wit's end. by 4. countryman having a Fox. where it so happened that he could carry but one over at a time. Add one to Ans. figures. so as to make seven. and draw a line through the middle of it. Eight cats. — Roman THE FOX. leaving the Fox and Corn then let him take over the Fox and bring the Goose back then take over the Corn and lastly take over the Goose again. the various questions that are given for the purpose of puzzling the unwary arithmetician. Amongst : . IX — cross the nine and make it twenty. the multiplicatioi lake for in of mone}' by money is one of the most curious stance the f Mowing problems . Place the figures on a piece of paper. it makes XX. seven What before each cat. A MULTIPLYING MONET BY MONEY. — or Ans.—^. Ans. the upper will be VII. GOOSE AND CORN. — Place three sixes together. that they shall not destroy each other ? Let him first take over the Goose. was the total number of cats ? Ccvts A Prove that seven is the half of twelve. Now as no two were to be left together that might destroy each other. Place four fives so as to make six and a half.

we must multiply £99 19*. lid. We penny by a pound ? quite correct.. is £134 9* 3. 11^. . ll^d. In the other question proposed. 11^. of which the number of farthings in a pound is the denominator 960. Having sufficiently puzzled the tyros. £99 19^. shillings. being 99 and a fraction. and the different results obtained. the product of £11 lis. but who can tell what is a penny multiplied by a penny. To multiply is to repea' a certain number of times. shillings and pence ? know that a yard multiplied by a yard is a square yard. the quickest way of doing this. or ll|f^. or a . . shillings. To the uninitiated they usually appear easy of solution but the various modes of working them out. by £99 19^. into £11 11*. . it is incapable of solution . 1 l^d. without committing a logical absurdity. and after multiplying one term by the other. and pence. Some reduce all to farthings. 11^. third terms of an ordinary " rule of three " and though one of the terms is a "concrete" quantity of pounds. llfi. 959 or. the other must be regarded as an "abstract" mathematical quantity. or into aliquot parts. be confused. provided the question is limited. for what is the nature of the product of pounds. and it is ob all Now this is — . in a certain time.. llfi. and put suppose the pence. The product of multiplying £99 19*. and to subtract from the product the 960th part of the multiplicand. and the number of farthings in the third term is the numerator. prove that there is something absurd and Multiply £11 wrong in the questions themselves. lOj^od. llffl?? It is evident that. as above to the product of pounds. ll5. the querist remarks : " The problem itself is absurd. to answer this. llf^^. Multiply £99 195. by 99^! is £9. shillings. shillings." 2j4 the magician's own book. by £11 II5. the shillings and pence might be converted into decimals of a pound. return the product into pounds. Others whilst some work the problem convert them into decimals in the style of duodecimals. : .999 155. Number and value are distinct abstract ideas. and pence multiplied by pounds. instead of this. how much would be produced by a capital of £99 195. and pence problem were put in this form If a capital of £1 produces by compound interest.-Vo^. ll^d by £99' 195. shillings. and cannot. is to multiply by 100. and pence. into pounds. these are in fact the second and.

and each grave to occupy a space of 6 feet by 2 the territory of the State would contain 162. . or 960 is .000. and the One pound is equivalent to 20 shillabsurdity is evident In value there is no ings.000. or 960 farthings. that enough persons have lived and died in the world to cover and even two or three strata its whole surface with bodies Is this probable ? deep. often suggested from the pulpit and elsewhere.000 square miles. Put it in this way. Value arbitrary number is fixed.THE MAGIC OF NUMBERS. 000. A A POPULAE FALLACY.ly 255 impossible to bring value into the question.000. leaving 2. but what an enormous difference bedifference whatever tween multiplying by 1. . division was made.000.000. gentleman rented a farm.624.000 graves yet unoccupied.624. Say the earth has existed 6000 years. Would this method have been correct ? The landlord would lose 7^ bushels by such an arrangement. as the rent would entitle him to § of the 18. and the average life of man 30 years this being the utmost that could be claimed.000 while the mighty army of the dead would number only 160. I ^ THE UNFAIR DmSIOX. 240. : . 20. • The tenant should give him 18 bushels from his own share after the division is completed. it was proposed to give to the landlord 18 bushels from the heap. in lieu of his share of the 45 bushels which the tenant had used. the tenant used 45 bushels. tlie population always having been 800. . I . viou'^. and then to begin and divide the remainder as though none had been used. and contracted to give to his put prior to the time of dividing landlord | of the produce When the general the corn.000 How wide of truth then is the position often set forth so positively It is . . or 240 pence. . Allow then the State of Virginia to contain 70. otherwise the landlord would receive but f of the first 63 bushels.

introduced it from Egypt into Greece. OEOilETRICAL DEFINITIONS. c. *• Let young beginners come and try Their hande at our geometry. who were obliged to determine the boundaries of their fields after the inundation of the Nile. medes measured the sphere. Euclid of Alexandria. is particularly distinguished. TRICKS IN GEOMETRY. In elementary geometry. length. however. by others to the Egyptians. and Pythagoras of Samos." • is derived from the Greek. by geometrical measurements. but simply to set before the young reader some of the more curious properties of the science. who died 548 years b. as Archieverybodj'^ knows. [256^ . Thales. and after him other philosophers prosecuted the science with the utmost assiduity. Newton. our the most prodigious discoveries. who flourished about 520 b. The word Geometry nifies . and others. In Italy. that he may be excited and we will promise him that to study it for himself should he devote his mind to its study. In geometry nor thickness. and sigthe art of measuring land. followed while in England. a Phoeor invented it after it was known to them. nician. province to enter into a long disquisition on the subject. . and after them the Germans. The invention of it is ascribed by some to the Chaldeans and Babylonians.. The French. Hook. he will be amply repaid for any amount of labor he may bestow upon it. said to have neither breadth. carried the science to the highest pitch of usefulness. where the sciences first revived after the dark ages. and through its aid made It is not. several mathematicians were distinguished in the 16th century. the Egyptians either derived tlie art from the Babylonians. the distance between two points parallel lines always keep at the same distance from each A right line is what is commonly called a straight other 2i 'point is A line is . c. According to Cassiodorus.

line. and its center is equally distant from every A A A part of the circumference. * The following figures will show how the five geometrical Where solids may be cut out of a piece of cardboard. every part of which is at an equal distance from a point within. and is A triangle is a figure with either a superficies or a solid. called its center. Its diameter is a straightline drawn from one extremity of its circumference to the other. square has four equal sides. terminated by a convex surface. 257 A tion. three sides and three angles. . so as to render the angles of the models as sharp and as straight as possible.TRICKS IN GEOMETRY. and thickness and a sphere is a solid. K solid is any body which has length. . by a curved line running into itself. figure is a bounded space. The edges whicli require JZ/. An meeting curve is a line which continually changes its direcangle is the inclination or opening of two lines in a point. THE nVE GEOiTETRICAL SOLIDS. circle is a plaue figure bounded and four right angles. breadth.i. the lines are drawn the board is to be partly cut through with a penknife.

formed of equilateral triangles Bides.s. an isocahedron. or anything else. with five equal Fig. find the center of squares of cloth. with twelve sides shaped like pentagons. Bs/. The following sleight shows how easily the eye may be deceived. then cut it B from corner to corner. as seen in Fig. 8. Fig. 5. a dodecahedron. and cut them from that point to the opposite corner. hedron.258 THE magician's OWN BOOK. with eight triangular sides. HOW TO MAKE nVE SQUARES INTO A LARGE ONE WITHOUT ANT WASTE OF STUFF. 4.t squares. an inch and a half in width. Take a piece of pasteboard. five 7 Suppose you have as in Fig. and divide it by inked A D c lines into thirty squares. DECEPTIYE VISION. and the other pieces round. . . one side of four of these ir^. and five inches in length. then place the perfect square in the centre. with twenty sides.

— TRICKS IN GEOMETRY. After this cut off the top of these triangles at c and d. 259 BO as to form two triangles.* and arrange the pieces in this manner : .

to represent the two parts of the wall the piece representing the straight wall on the curved piece. by drawing a line from two opposite angles. The one half of thia wall. into eight triangles. whose length in the direction a b c was twenty-four feet. A geometrician assured him that the square contents of both portions of the wall were exactly alike which may be proved in the following manner . so that the base of this jmrt of the wall would necessarily be more than twelve feet. You may then lay the curved piece upon the straight one.l rising ground. wall may thus be found to be exactly sufficient to form a piece equal to that representing the curved wall. .z Cut two pieces of cardboard. lay 2 and 3. in the form shown in Figs. Take four square pieces of pasteboard of the same dimen sions. : n^. TRLiNGULAR PROBLEM. as in the figurt'S. and divide them diagonally.^. Paint seven of these triangles with the prismatic . namely from b to c.— 26€ THE magician's OWN BOOK. and reversing the experiment prove that the curved piece is capable of forming a rectangular piece equal to the other. The piece of board representing the straight n^. and it will be found that the angles which project at a and b will exactly fill up the spaces at e and f. that is. In making out his account he charged more for this half of the wall than for that which was built on level ground from a to b. had to be built over a piece of A bricklayer had My. THE BRICKLAYER PUZZLED to construct a wall.

SQUARING THE CIRCLE. Secondly. yellow. blue. and then. and cut it into three parts. puzzles. or the long square d. The Cardinal de Cusa rolled a cylinder over a plane. To find how many chequers or regular foursided figures. by combining two of these 261 triangles there may be formed." The meaning of this phrase squaring is scientifically expressed by the term finding the quadrature of the circle that is. and with these three form a perfect square.TRICKS IN GEOMETRY. which makes fifty-six. "Squaring the circle. First. which makes 140. and it will then be easy to lay down the pieces to form a perfect Take a piece square. the act of producing a square equal to a given cirand many persons but slightly acquainted with mathecle matics have puzzled their brains to effect this object. either the triangular square a. different either in form or color. consisting of two parts out of eight. indigo. as there are also many who believe that they can discover "perpetual motion. by combining four of the triangles the large square c may be formed. called a Rhomb. may be made out of these eight triangles. orange." as it is called. by a train of reasoning very unmatheraa. red. may each of them by the eighth rank of the triangle be taken twenty-eight different ways. Now the first two squares. may each be taken by the same rank of the triangle seventy times. is the puzzle of and there are many persons who fancy this can be accomplished. violet. green. two squares. called a parallelogram. consisting of four parts. colors. And the last TO FORM A SQUARE. and let the eighth be white. cut it in the direction of the dotted lines. of card of the shape and size or proportions of the subjoined. : . till the point which was first in contact with the plane touched it again . or the inclined square b. To do this.

that is. and imagined that the former was exactly equal to two of the latter. and then turning these with their angles outwards. and fitr ting the same turned pieces one into the other. Some persons have taken apiece of pasteboard. have come near to a notion of the superficial area of a circle. forgetting tiiat the double of this tri angle is equal to the hexagon inscribed within the circle. The early mathematicians. we can soon convince ourselves that the boundary of the square will be greater than the circumference of the circle. in their attempts to solve this problem. But this kind of demonstration is purely mechanical. tical. is in fact. For if we take the pieces of card. we shall soon find that none of them are geometrically true. that he could accomplish the feat. than the square. and by cutting that circular disc into pieces of a square form and definite dimensions. If we draw a square exterior to a circle. which he asserted to be equal to the circle it this however was soon proved to be ridiculous. both in bounBy this proceeding. and deposited 10. Oliver de Serras worked a circle. He reduced the problem to the mechanical process of dividing a circle into four quarters. nor of the same length or breadth. and the area of the former greater than that of the latter. out into a circular form. inscribed within the circle. and also a triangle equal to an equilateral triangle. generally proceeded on the following plan. each side of the square being equal to the diameter of the circle. so as to form a square. then it is equally evident that the circle is larger. no demonstration according to mathematics. and.000 livres as a stake. however exactly they may appear to be formed. and therefore tl»e conclusion arrived at is a false one. wo dary and area. and cutting . But if the square be drawn within the circle. touching the square in four points. arrive at the conclusion that a circle is smaller than a square .262 THE magician's OWN BOOK. and is neither geometrical nor scientific. he endea^vored to determine the length of the line thus described. and examine them with a microscope. and tlierefore smaller than the circle itself A Frenchman challenged the world. so that only the four corners touch it.

and the exact area of any figure bounded by straight lines. suppose that we draw a regular pentagon. may be determined with rigorous accuracy and if we draw two polygons say of one hundred sides. a figure of five equal sides. external to 263 Let us next it. however. may be so very nearly alike. and aflSrm that the area of a circle is greater than a certain amount. . But if the pentagon be described within the circle. By some such means as these Archimedes found that if the diameter of a circle be called 7. These two amounts. tains.TRICKS IN GEOMETBY. that either one will give the area of the circle with great closeness. — the exact periphery or circumference. one within and one without the circle we can ascertain the exact area of those polygons. and less than another certain amount. . then the circumand that if the square of the ference will be nearly 22 diameter be 14. discovered a method which makes an extraordinary approach to accuracy. exterior to the circle. named Metius. in geometry. and touching it on then it is evident that as the circle is wholly five points contained within the pentagon. Now. that is. and gave to the area of the circle too great a measure by about one three-thousandth part of the whole. then of course the circle is larger than the pentagon which it con. it must be smaller than that which contains it. and is at the same time easily remembered. He found that if the diameter be considered equal to 113. if the number of the sides of the polygon be so . — we beru suppose. the area large as . . and larger tlian one internal to it. a European mathematician. and divide it by 113. touching it at the five angular points. then the circumference would equal 355 or if we multiply the square of the radius by 355. then the area of the circle will be equal to about 11 but this computation was slightly in error. At a later period. my young readers must bear in mind.

off"er this explanation on the subject to our young friends that they may not be puzzled by the question and that should they be asked to square the circle. Since this.358. none of these computations are quite correct . " If we suppose a circle.950. and bring us to the conclusion that there are no numbers or collection of numbers which will give the exact ratio of the circumference. Ludolph Van Ceulen worked it out to 36 places of figures.323. will be given. the diameter of which is a thousand million times greater than the distance between the sun and the earth.919. and know how to explain it. and if 9. the result will be a little below the truth.264.265. John Machin to 100 figures." But after all. Now this method is so very nearly correct.14. M. or of the area of a circle to its diameter. Mr. an English mathematician. that the area of a circle one foot in diameter is given within the fifty-thousandth part of a square inch. and of the degree of nearnesi to which this computation brings the proportion. Other mathematicians have carried the approximation still further.264 THE magician's own book. .327. the circumference •w ill be 3. or that if the last figure be 8. they all deviate from the truth. and eclipsed all others.288. or hear any one assert that he can do so. . carried the approximation to 72 places of figures Mr. they may be able to show that they are " awake" to the question.159. the error in the proportion of the circumference would be a thousand million times less than the thickness of a hair. Sharp.846. We . de Lagny worked it out to 128 places of figures.338. showing that if the diameter be 1. Montucla says. a little above it.

by cutting it in twain. king of Phrygia. We look upon a Paradox as a sort of superior riddle. although by many persoiii* looked upon as mere trifles. calculation. rash Alexander Did not undo. .— PEACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. to pass away the hours of a long and dreary imprisonment thus does the misery of a few frequently conduce to the amusement of many. in our opinion. Tied up his'iujpleuiente of husbandry In the far-famed knot. the plow-boy. puzzle is By peipiiif^ 8t it« Paradoxes and Puzzles. and exhibit a great degree of ingenuity. ere now. in numerous instances. . followed the mazes of a Puzzle so ardently. in a trice^ When Gordiiis. cost their inventors considerable time. . patience. . and management. impatient sirg. We can readily imagine that some of the complicated puzzles in the ensuing pages may have been originally constructed by captives.-ebus. and a tolerable Puzzle. takes precedence of a first-rate There is often considerable thought. have. as tr be entirely absorbed in devising means to extricate ourselt from its bewildering difficulties and felt almost as much pleasure in eventually [265] 12 . answer. required to solve some of these strange enigmas and we have. A not solved.

7. or perform a Puzzle." to watch the stray wanderings of another person attempting to elucidate a Paradox.866 THE MAGlCIAN^S OWN BOOK. THE CHINESE CROSS. as is usually the case. achieving victory over it. : 1. and even Alexander the Great. in the above figures. puzzled. when there being only two ways to turn. as it is written. considering that he was entitled to the fulfillment of the promise. he takes the latter. the Phrygian king. he. made of the same length as No. or metal." Puzzles are by no means of modern origin the Sphynx puzzled the brains of some of the heroes of antiquity. he is actually farther from his object than he was when he began and it is no less amusing to watch his increasing despair. tied up his implements of husbandry in the temple. T Have six pieces of wood. a right dainty and pleasant pastime. when you know that. that universal monarchy was promised to the man wlio could undo it after having been repeatedly baffled. made several essays to untie the knot with which Gordius. by cutting the jrordian knot. and becomes nore than ever . and perplexed. " Pozed. drew his sword. . . at that moment. It is laughable to see him elated with hope at the apparent speedy end of his troubles. as we have in conquering an adversary at some superior game of skill. 6. at length. It is " in good Booth. in so intricate a manner. when you are well aware that he is within a single turn of a happy termination of his toils but what a mirthful moment is that. with which one is previously acquainted. bone. and each piece of the same size as No. . the one right and the other wrong. who had been raised from the plow to the throne. It is required to construct a cross. as he conceives himself to be getting more and more involved.

parallelogram. fig. and having a garden attached to the house. he was desirous of dividing it among them. No. 1. it *I 2. so that by shifting the position of the pieces. There were ten trees in the garden. as shown by figs. from these pieces. may be cut into two pieces. # t . and he was desirous of dividing it so that each of the five inmates should have an equal share of garden and two trees. and in such a manner that shall not be displaced when thrown upon the floor. 3. &c. two other figures may be formed. 2 A ~ and 3. How did he do it ? A person who mates.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. • piece of wood. so represents the end of each as to face the reader. The shaded parts of each figure represent the parts that are cut out of the wood. as in the illustration. let his house to several inoccupied different floors. THE DIVIDED GARDEN.. while the pieces marked h are the right side of each piece turned over towards the left. 267 with six arms. THE PARALLELOGRAM. and each piece marked a is supposed to be facing the reader. and is given to show the dimensions.

Draw adding five . THE MAGICIAIV OWN BOOK. and.y affection's smile. Haste through the maze. And when thou showest aught of hope or fear. whose spirit hovers near. Jet the whole form nine. by other lines to them. and reach the "wedding ring' The sweet Koong-see. six vertical lines. Shall whisper to thee. THE WILLOW-PATTERN PLATE.. in continent or isle. can bring Whilst ruby lips diRpla. Shall watch thee wand'ring through the doubtful way. " 368 6. as thy footsteps stray jilone ! Long fur delights which love 6. CHINESE IFAZE. Y»' fair ones wim. as below. THE VERTICAL LINE PUZZLE.

each of the same figure. Divide this figure into four equal parts. in fact. 12. THE CARDBOARD PUZZLE. three rabbits. . then divide four of them from corner to corner. and thrust a pin through it without crossing the circle. still keeping it in THE BUTTON PUZZLE. while. self U. cut it in such a manner that you your- may pass through one piece. twelve pieces. it. of the shape and measurement indicated by the diagram. 10. Take a piece of cardboard or leather. . THE CIRCLE PUZZLE. 269 THE THREE RABBITS. Form a square with them. eight squares of card. THE QUARTO PUZZLE. they have only three ears between them. so that each shall appear to have two ears. Draw 8. or thrusting it downward through the center. to get the string out again without taking off the buttons.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. Draw a circle upon a piece of paper. as in the iigure. puzzle is. and tie two buttons much larger The than the hole to the ends of the string. so that you will now have. 3 Inches. 7. and just below a small hole of the same width then pass a piece of string under the slit and through the hole. THE ACCOMMODATING SQUARE. o© In the center of a piece of leather make two parallel cuts with a penknife. Make 9.

pass one through each of the four corner holes. Get a piece of cardboard. thin silken each about six inches long. 15. Cut out fourteen pieces of paper. and pass the two ends through . sufficiently half square large to admit three or four times the thickness of the cord you will afterwards use. without cutting into any of them. shown. will be about seven inches long. and punch in it twelve circles or holes in the position The puzzle is. Provide a thin piece of wood of about two inches and a make a round hole at each corner. of the in the diagram. when doubled. . THE SCALE AND RING PUZZLE. tween each. and about half an inch be. 14. and in the middle of the board make four smaller round holes in the form of a square. 13. or affixing a little ball or bead to prevent its drawing through take another cord.2*10 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. or wood. Then take four pieces of cord. tying a knot underneath at the end. same size and shape as those shown then form an oblong with them. to cut the cardboard into four pieces of equal size. and to contain three circles. each piece to be of the same shape. which. card. THE PUZZLE OF POURTEEN. and THE SQUARE AND CIRCLE PUZZLE. the size and shape of the diagram.

) and again from back to front through the other holes hb tie the six ends together in a knot. and afterward through the holes C and D in succession. draw a piece of Btring. 271 the middle holes a a. will admit of being drawn up into a loop of about half an inch from the surface of the scale provide a ring of metal or bone. and draw it back . drawing the loop a little through the scale toward you. pass it. drawing up the loop a little more. (one cord through each hole. . Cut a piece of thin wood the shape indicated by the diagram. of about three quarters of an inch in diameter. THE HEAET PUZZLE. so that when you hold the scale suspended. so as to form a small scale. and having perforated it as above. througb . double as it is. with a smaller heart attached at the end. through the hole at the corner A. bringing the loop through its middle then. and draw it back . pass it over the knot at top. and proportioning the length of the cords. over the knot underneath. and the ring will be fixed. besides passing through the four center holes. like the others. from the front to the back of the board. 16. and place it on the scale.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. over the knot. then pass it in the same way through the hole at corner B. then. \ . the middle cord.

19. except just sufficient to hold it on at each side c c is another small slip of card is a bit of with two large square ends. divided from its bottom edge. THE CROSS PFZZLE. portional sizes. l/\l Then place the pieces to- gether so as to form a cross. 17. and which is kept on by the two ends et. without unfastening the loop. Let them be of proof No. \ <. 1. and so on to 6. then form the pride of the PUZZLE. THE CARD One of the best puzzles hitherto made is represented in A is a piece of card 5 i a narrow slip the annexed cut. the string when doubled should be about nine inches long.r72 THE magician's OWN BOOK. . The puzzle consists in getting the pipe off without breaking it or injuring any other part of the . No. and one to that of No. the size of the heart if you make the heart two inches and a half high. pass it behind. through which c c is passed. The puzzle is to remove the string from the large heart altogether. 18. one to the shape of No. the whole breadth of the card. and bring it through 2 before. 2. . Care should be taken to avoid twisting or entangling the The length of the string should be proportioned to string. THE YANKEE SQUARK in Cut as many pieces of each figure cardboard as they have numbers marked on each American army. and through 3. ee tobacco-pipe. . 3. K^ /^ ^ Cut three pieces of paper to the shape 1.? . when a loop must be made so as to enclose that part of the string which runs from 2 to 3.

is done in the most simple manner. of the shape of the diagram. Upon unbending the card the puzzle will be complete. THE CYLINDER PUZZLE. double. as represented in Fig. THREE SQUARE PUZZLE. Cut a piece of cardboard about four inches k)ng. by means of the loop of the slip to the card. 2. 1 cardboard of equal lengths. and make three holes in The puzzle of wood represented. 20. as in the diagram. The card in the first figure must then be gently bent at A. to 21. 27S puzzle.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. 1. and place them on d table to form six squares. which appears to be impossible. as is. yet leave but three perfect squares. 3. It is now required to take slips of Cut seventeen 4 r- -5 1 away five of the pieces. and appear : . to make one . and also it. Ou a moment's consideration it will appear plainly that there must be as much difficulty in getting the pipe in its present situation. so as to allow of the slip at the bottom of it being also bent sufficiently to pass double through the pipe. as in Fig. The detached slip with the square ends (Fig. as there can be in taking it away. This. 3) is then to be passed half way through the loop / at the bottom of the pipe it is next to be doubled in the center at a. The way to put the puzzle together is as follows The slip c cee is cut out of a piece of card in the shape delineated in Fig. and pulled through the pipe. piece to pass through.

25. as in the diagram. THE HORSE SHOE PUZZLE. 23. by a sister. Twenty-four nuns were arranged in a convent by night. each to con tain one pin.274 THE magician's own book. How were the remainder placed in the square so as still to count nine each way ? The four who went out returned. bringing with them four friends how were they all placed still to count nine each way. 24. as to whether there were 20. thus o o Suppose four evil-disposed rich men afterwards around the poor people. around which four poor men built their houses. and then. to count nine each way. THE NMS. THE PUZZLE WALL. 28. Four of them went out lor a walk by moonlight. by two cuts. : Suppose there was a pond. thus : built houses O o =^ o and wished to a o the water of the pond to themselves. How could they build a high wall. and thus to deceive the sister. divide it into six parts. or 32. stick six pins in it for nails. . Cut a piece of apple or turnip into the shape of a horse shoe. so as to shut out the poor people from the pond ? have all 24. in the square ? .

and four of Fig. b. They each have four sons. 27. fathers have each a square of land. How and where should these lines be placed. • 275 THE CAED SQUAEE. form a perfect square.— PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. four of Fig. 26. of the shape of Fig. Query. With THE DOG PUZZLE. eight pieces of card or paper. c. The dogs are. and each divides the remainder . thus Two — The other father divides his so as to reserve to himself one fourth in the form of a triangle thus . and what should be the forms of them ? 28. One father divides his so as to reserve to himself one fourth . to be suddenly aroused to life and made to run. and of proportionate sizes. PUZZLE OF THE TWO FATHERS. a. by placing two lines upon them.

and with D£l one cut of the scissors. a perfect cross. U A is 1^ 32. How can be cut out of a single piece of paper. 2 and 3. THE TRlATfGLE PUZZLE. and one each of to form a cross. . and request a person to make an exact square with them. CUTTING OUT A CROSS. and in similar shape. b c d three houses. from o to B. DH With three pieces of cardboard of the 1. 30. and forms as shown in the cuts ? 31. It is required to bring the water from e to d.8?« THE magician's OWN BOOK. THE FOUNTAIN PUZZLE. all the other ANOTHER CROSS PUZZLE. Cut twenty triangles out of ten square pieces of wood mix them together. a wall. and e f q three fountaine or canals. shape and size of No. No. . How were the two farms divided ? 29. among his sons in such a way that each son will share equally with his brother.

or passing a. fastening them with a knot. and thread upon it two beadg Get an oblong it. Then take a piece of twine.. and that of the circular piece. exclusive of the hand. how this can be ? Friends one and How you mne stars — — 34. outside of the wall 33. Ten rows to form in each row three Tell me. How must he cut his stuff so as to be exactly sufficient for his 37. 35. removing only one at a time. Place eight counters or coins. 277 and from f to c. . THE JAPAN SQUARE PUZZLE. THE COUNTER PUZZLE.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. Cut out ten pieces of card or wood of the same sizes and shapes as in the diagram. A holes in the center. are the same. passing the two ends through the holes at the extremities. and then form a square with them 36. purpose ? THE STRING iVND BALLS PUZZLE. I pray you show would so bestow. ye wits. and in each removal passing the one in the hand over two on the table. cabinet-maker has a circular piece of veneering with which he has to veneer the tops of two oval stools but it so happens that the area of the stools. THE PUZZLE OF THE STARS. as . in strip of wood or ivory. THE CABINET MAKER'S PUZZLE. as in the diagram it is then required to lay them in four couples. without one crossing the other. all. and bore three holes shown in the cut.

and (D four others. like No. or untying the knots. great. all into the cross-shaped 39. and substitute another. you'll find very fair The sum will be nothing. and noble. Above seven thousand nine hundred and three But when they are halved. 40. 278 THE magician's OWN BOOK. leaving the word so metamorphosed still a word of the English language and. totally after the syntactical construction of the whole sentence. THE DOUBLE-HEADED PUZZLE. without removing the string from the holes. in getting them until they look like Fig. and so mak« the entire stanza bear quite a different meaning from that which it has as it stands above . changing the moods and tenses of verbs. get both beads on the same side. The Bum of four figureg in value will be. The puzzle consists slit. rich. by that change. and adjectives into adverbs. as the most thoughtless revel Then seek the poor man's dreary home. 38. GRAMilATICAL PUZZLE. &c. nouns into adjectives. AEITHMETICAL PUZZLE.. 2. banquet in the festal halls. . 3. turning verbs into nouns. Let the Take away one letter from a word in the above stanza. 1. And pass the hours away. . Cut a circular piece of wood as in the cut No. whose very dingy walls Proclaim full well to all how low his rank and level. in truth I declare. The puzzle is to or rings.. as depicted above.

la Sip. ^ contempt. 42. PRSVRYPRFCTMN The two lines VRKPTHSPRCPTSTN.P.B.— Oft He ove N W.D. and was treated on by Cardan. the mathematician.C. stand your disposition I bearing a man the world is whilst the ridicule.R. on geno he R. S. and the trees all at unequal distances from each other. so that there shall be nine straight rows. What was it ? 45. PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. How— Ass kill'd I. shove N. RUSTO! Fnel L.E. Wheres Hedot e. with five trees in each row. Uf fap HL. friends. RUSTWI. Sofp. 44. Tom. i. D. Era D ! A CURIOUS LETTER. Yein hop Esthathe R. N. Ach El Lor. Liens He Ver ! 'Dli Ug H S hem A. C. Uf. N E. A kead I. ELY. Uld yo L. A PUZZLING INSCRIPTION. R hu S Ban D. above were affixed to the communion table of a small church in Wales. and continued to puzzle the learned congregation for several centuries. This perplexing invention is of great antiquity. the out' line a regular geometrical figure.D. Escu Star. Lat. at the beginning of the sixteenth century It consists of a flat piece of thin . 41. Friends Sir. I. are ambitious. E Yu8 E. W. is ' LL 43. AN OLD PYE WOMAN. No. H. San D T Art. F. T. W. Wa. V'DL. Thin Thed Ustt HE MO. but at length the inscription was deciphered.T.. THE PUZZLDfG RD^GS. Ear T. AN EPITAPH ON ELLINOR BACHELLOR. Bene A. Uch pra is 'D. B. San D K. Plant an orchard of twenty-one trees. M. 279 THE TREE PUZZLE. B Y he.

and aptly named " The Tiring Irons. with ten holes in it in each hole a wire is loosely fixed. and will prove a key to its . ofi". by putting it up through the bow. and on to the end of it.280 THE magician's own book. as it is obstructed by the wire of the first ring if you bring the first ring on again. metal or bone. The 1st will be the extreme ring to the right. to prevent its slipping through. as to make the releasing the rings from the bow appear an impossibility. The extreme ring at the right hand. and finally released. forged in iron. consider the rings as It will be seen that the difficulty arises from each ring passing round the wire of its right-hand neighbor. viz. dropped through the bow. of course. raised up. but it may be purchased at most of the toy shops very lightly and elegantly made. beaten out into a head at one end." The following instructions will show the principle on which the puzzle is constructed. . . within its oblong space. perhaps by some ingenious village mechanic. and drop through the bow. previously to its own ring being fastened on j and through the whole of the rings runs a wire loop or bow. in Take the loop your left and. being numbered 1st to 10th. being unconnected with any other wire than its own. and the 10th the nearest your left hand. all the wires to which the rings are fastened the whole presenting so complicated an appearance. .. The construction of it would be found rather troublesome to the amateur. B. also loose. After you have done this. and you will not sucbut ceed. and the other fastened to a ring. they vnW both draw Having done this. Each wire has been passed through the ring of the next wire. and you will not be able . try to pass the third ring off. holding it at the end. hand. lift up. by reversing the process by which you took it off. solution. try to pass the second ring in the same way. may at any time be drawn off the end of the bow at A. It also exists in various parts of the country. which also contains. you will then find that by taking the first and second rings together.

in doing this. You will now comprehend that (with the exception of the first ring) the only ring which can at any time be released is that which happens to be second on the bow. you will draw it off without obstruction and. and on to it then release the first ring again by slipping it off and dropping it through. A. replacing the third ther. place for releasing therefore draw it toward the end. bring the first and second together up and on again. through and on to the bow then in order to get the third then bring on. try the fourth ring. and the fifth will then stand second. which is within the bow. as you desired draw it toward the end. releasing the first and second together. . slip it off and through.the third ring for the present. and. replace the fourth. slip the fifth off. take off the first and second together. . and on the other side to the second ring". you will have to slip the third ring off. and the fourth also—" . . . leaving. dropping the third through. which will not drop through for the reasons before given so. replace the first on the bow. then the third the same. and both of the wires which affect it being within the bow. the third still fixed . as you cannot release it until it in order to effect stands in the position of a second ring this you must bring the first and second rings together. . . 281 because it is fastened on one side to its own wire. Now to release the then slip second. consequently in its proper . . drop the first off and through. . which is without the bow. to release which we must make it last but one on the bow. having dropped the fourth ring through. and drop them through. in its proper position for releasing. . bring the first and second together on. by drawing the second and third off together. . you can only slip the third ring on again. put the first up. and slipping the second on again. The sixth will now stand second. slip the first off and down through the bow then bring the first the third up. through and on to the bow ring up and on again. and drop it through after which replace the fifth. there will be no impediment to its dropping through. bring the fourth through and on to the bow. all which is n(nv at the end but one. then the sixth. Therefore. You have now the first and second rings released. raise them up. . and to effect which pass the first and second rings together through the bow.PRACTICAI PARADOXES kND PUZZLES. . and the third ring will stand as second on the bow. at the right-hand end because both the wires which affect it being within the bow. through and on the bow the two together off.

with each following ring which is finally released. until you find that the ninth stands as second on the bow. and so on. You will then find that you have only the ninth left on the bow. which having done. until you arrive at the second and first rings. then the third. . . your eighth ring will then stand second. the seventh in sixty-four moves. and working as before. consequently you can release it. Then to release the seventh. replace the first. which come off together. which are necessary to take off all the ringg . that in order to get that ring off. brin^ on the third. and going through the movements in the same succession as before. in order to release the first and second together then bring the fourth toward the end. bring the first up and on. This dropping of the tenth ring is the first effectual movement toward getting the rings off. release the ninth ring in two hundred and fiftysix moves and. for your encouragement. As you commence your operations with all the rings ready fixed on the bow. . you will. slipping the seventh on again. passing the second ring on to the bow again. You will then have only the eighth left on the bow you must again put on all the rings to the right hand.282 THE magician's own book. as all the changes you have gone through were only to enable you to get at the tenth ring. by one half. at which time you can release it. you must begin by putting the first and second up and on together. consequently. making six hundred and eighty-one moves. slipping it off and through. and replace the ninth. beginning by putting up the first and second together. begin ning by putting the first and second together. release the fiist. and which requires fifteen moves more. . The eighth comes off in one hundred and twenty-eight moves. and as it is necessary to bring on again all the rings up to the ninth. release the first. you will release the tenth ring in one hundred and seventy moves but as you then have only the ninth on. . till you find the eighth standing as second on the bow. bring the first and second together up and on again. or in its proper position for releasing and so you proceed until you find all the rings finally released. all the others to the right hand must be put on again. replacing the second. your labor will diminish. in order to release the first and second together. until you find you have only the tenth and ninth on the bow then slip the tenth off and through the bow. in order to release the ninth. and you must not be discouraged on learning. . replace the third.

V mV ^ ^kl vn¥^f> either. from which.iim from that square to any house on the board. t±^ ^^ >:>z ^¥^ > t^ A A EL 4. you may move him to . and move him from square to square. there are two squares. that to replace the rings. however. have all given methods by which this feat might be accomplished. The plan is this Let the knight be placed on any square. he would command the . MOTIKG THE KNIGHT OVER ALL THE SQUARES ALTERNATELY. De Majron. m ^ K. that in reckoning the fewest other squares squares commanded by him you must omit such as he has already covered. in his Treatise on Chess. George Walker. It was reserved. /•\U«x ^. has not been thought unworthy the attention of the first mathematicians. only necessary to say. in actual play. on both of which his powers would be equal. Ozanam. with some counters or waf- . on the principle of always playing him to that point. too. : observing. <> '<Xt\\ Try this on the board. De Moivre. for the present century to lay this down on a general plan and the only English writer who has noticed this is Mr. and others. De Montmart. If. The problem respecting the placing the knight on any given square.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. euler's method. Euler. and moving l. it is 46. you begin by putting up the first and second together. and follow precisely the same system as before. 283 Witli the experience you will by this time have acquired.« ^I? m.

though as the above plan was not then known here. has. The general rule for moving the Knight upon all the squares of the board. has been invented by an Edinburgh We well recollect the surprise occasioned gentleman. we are sure to arrive at a square. so that whatever square we start from. the last The problem of of the this . without seeing the board. that there are different routes which the Knight-errant may take in his progress still. by acquiring the plan by heart. but used something like the method laid down by Euler. last square being at the distance of a knight's move from his first. attracted the attention it is only latelj^ however. he may be placed inditferentl}^ on either of such squares. he can play him over all the squares from any given point. among chess-amateurs when it was first performed indeed it was generally considered a greater mental effort than that of playing three games of chess at the same time. when you clearl it. Chessplayer was last exhibited in England. from that square. the knight's covering successively each square of the board. this was made part of the wonders he accomplished. if we may so express ourselves. that if on any two or more squares his power would be equal. over the remaining When the automaton sixty-three in sixty-three moves. is to commence by moving him to that square which commands the fewest points of attack. and understand which we subjoin. you may astonish your friends by inviting them to station the knight on any square they like. ANOTHER METHOD. and by continuing this principle he will occupy all the squares in rotation. that first mathematicians very ingenious system for performing the feat without seeing the board. in all ages. a link in an endlesgi chain. each move forms. THE magician's own book. by taking one known route. .284 ers. and we have often amused ourselves by trying to work it on a slate. It is obvious that this route may be varied many ways. observing. placing one on eveiy squar<} and. his . . he could not adopt it. and engaging to play him. Thus we see. . which is soon done. whichever of these routes for covover all the board ering the sixty-four squares may be adapted. . Our young Chess-players must remember that it does not matter on which square the knight is placed at starting as.

PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. . could as easily start at thirty and end at twenty-nine. if required to mention the numerals up to sixty-four." and herein lies the beauty of the invention. a Knight's move distant from the square of our departure. as if we started at one and ended at sixty-four. if any person could commit to memory the consecutive moves of any one route over the board. in the same manner that any of us. are in. Consequently. A set of names. if we used the language of Chess to designate the squares . " Certainly it would be. whose application can be understood at a glance. he would be able to start from any one square in that route. sibility of performing the feat " What an immense undertaking it would be. ! Met. 281 link of the chain. to commit to memory the moves forming a Knight's route over the sixtyfour squares " and we reply. These considerations greatly reduce the apparent imposbut the reader will exclaim.

G six. or King's sixth square. three cc.) Thus. the terminal sounds of the first eight numerals. the Queen's Bishop's as K. . thinks in the new language which he directs the moves in the terms of chess just as many of us Odnk in English. expressed by these invented names. six ix. : Len . the King's rook's file is known as B. the Queen's as H. when we are writing or speaking French. and the Queen's Rook's as M. for obvious reasons. seven en. — . vented for the squares. in fact. omitted. not in the complicated terms of Chess. and commit it to memory. the Queen's Knight's as L. eight tt being. Suppose we start from the Queen's Knights seventh square. the King's as G.286 THE magician's own book. — . four or. having learned a route of the Knight. the route will be as follows — . Gix. but in these simple equivalents. The files. to select a Knight's route over all the squares of the board. and the performer of the feat. Im. the King's Knight's as D. The diagram given above represents the chess-board the distinction of white and black squares is not necessary for our purpose. the King's Bishops as F. required now is. Bun being B one. This is all that has to be for the lines of learned. or King's Rook's square We consider it quite unnecessary to say another word in explanation of this system its ingenious simplicity causes All that is it to be understood and learned at a glance. in this system of Chess notation squares tell tlieir own numbers one being 7t?i. two oo. commencing from the right hand are distinguished by the consonants in alphabetical succession (C and J are.

. PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES." 1 ^9 gj 3 17 19 ^9 26 §3 Q35 58 Q Q Q . 28'j' JightcDing pages. he will acquire an intimate knowledge of the peculiar powers and perplexing peregrinations of the eccentric Cahalleros. from black to candid white. From white to black. who •' fiery coureerB guide With headlong speed throng war's empurpled tide Alert and brave they spring aiuidst the fight. and. if not quite a first-rate player.

A MAZE OR LABRTINTH. ROSAMOND'S BOWER. 48.«88 THE magician's OWN BOOK. This maze is a correct ground-plan of one in the gardens of the Palace of Hampton Court. No legendary tale is at- .

49. which \^ is decidedly preferable. and many are the disappointments experienced before the end is attained and even then. it beingquite as difficult to get out as to get in. being one for the purpose of constructing different figures by arranging variously-shaped pieces of card or wood in certain ways.PRACTICAL PARADOXES AND PUZZLES. The puzzle is to get into the center. THE CHINESE PUZZLE. but its labyrinthine walks occasion much amusement to the numerous holiday parties who frequent the palace grounds. seven pieces. It is . one of figure 2. are almost infinite and we subjoin a representation of a few of the most curious. in J shape like the annexed figures and bearing the same proportion to each other one piece must be made in the shape of figure 1. N. This puzzle. of which we are aware. 289 tached to it. 3\. The combinations of which . or thin mahogany. the trouble is not over. t^^^D these figures are susceptible. 18 . and one of figure 3. requires no -y>^ separate explanation. Cut out of very ^y^ \. N stiff cardboard. where seats are placed under two lofty trees . and two of each of the other figures. .

and it will resemble a cover for an Italian couch. longways then turn down the edge of each fold outward. . and with the thumb of your left hand turn out the next fold. and it will represent a fan. like a ruff. fold it down the middle of the sheet. and it will resemble a wicket. sions in the sheet let each third part be turned outward. which make six divi. will fall right quarter of an inch deep. spreading the top. . must be employed 50. to form each figure. . and it will resemble the shuffling of a pack of cards close it and turn each corner inward with your fore finger and thumb. . that the pieces of which the puzzle consists. when the paper lies pinched in its form. all be borne in mind. as F pinch it half way. Trouble-wit may be made to assume an infinite variety of forms. by a little ingenuity and practice. into three equal parts. as D let go your fore finger at the lower end.290 to THE MAGICIANS OWN BOOK. it will be like B unclose it again. . with compasses. then pinch it a other. . as C stretch it forth. so that. \n fact. and it will appear in the form shown by G hold it in that form. the breadth of a penny measure it as it is folded. it will appear as a rosette for a lady's shoe. . of course. and bo productive of very considerable amusement. . and the . as E close it again. TROrSLE-WIT. it is in the fashion represented by A when closed together. Take a sheet of stiflf paper. . in plaits. shuffle it with each hand. . . and it will be as H. and pinch it at the bottom. and open the top.

5 cross. is directed upwards to the right hand side then push No. 1. 1 and 2 close together. so Now that the profile of the pieces should be as in Fig. 4 partially through the space from below upwards. 4 quite through. All that now remains is to push No. [291] .ANSWERS TO PRACTICAL PUZZLES. 2. . and it will be in the position shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2 Place No. the desired figures may be obtained. as in Fig. and slide it to the left at A. 6 which is the key through the opening M and the cross is completed as in Fig." 00/ Divide the piece of card into five steps. — — 2. No. Place Nos. THE CHINESE CROSS ANSWER.ways upon the part Y. — push No. 1 then hold them together with the finger and thumb of the left hand Push horizontally and with the square hole to the right. as seen in f. Fig. ANS^VER TO THE " PARALLELOGRAM. 4^ through the opening at K. 3 placed in the same ^position fachig you (a) in No. and by shifting the position of the pieces. 3. 2. . so that the point E.

the open door to gain Why — . and difficult the road . and the string drawn down around the body until the former drops down about the waist. ! . . ANSWER TO THE CHINESE MAZE. B C linger near the fence ? a word or two Would kindle up a flame for ever true. — THE magician's own book. parental frowns appear. but w^in by dutiful appeal L A barren path this way thy footsteps tread Thy heart will soon grow cold. ! I — Thy love. K What dost thou on the house top ? do not steal . And waves of trouble cast thy hopes aside.— 892 8. G A modest competence thy lot will be But richer joys than wealth are stored for thee. and orer then the hand the head. but never let it bloom. M Thou hast a friend can help thy onward way And such a friend will ne'er thy trust betray. then through the opposite armhoie must be put up underneath the waistcoat. worse mischance. E The ground Let no dishonor now your conduct stain. above. is rough. ANSWER TO THE ENDLESS STRING. THE DIVIDED GARDEN ANSWER 4. But. The string must be put through the armhoie. Leaving fond eyelids. when the experimenter may jump out of it and claim his coat. Favored indeed. 5. A Take heed take heed a strange transforming doom May fix thy love. Beware of rivals mischief hovers near Or. . faint not. moist with tears. thou shalt reach thy love's abode 1 F Against thy course runs the opposing tide. thy love be fled. J Be not too rash nor leap the Bridge of Love. Koong-see's A. Whispers.

. ANSWEE TO VERTICAL LINE PUZZLE. D Joy I tliou hast reachc. 29. THE THREE RABBITS. and from misgiving free.-d. 6. ANSWER TO THE CIRCLE PUZZLB. Thrust it upwards from the other . 9. ANSWER 8. side. at length.ANSWERS TO PRACTICAL PUZZLES. the wedding ring . NINE 7. THE ACCOiDfODATING SQUARE. Let white-robed maidens orange blossoms bring Oh may your years of happy wedlock be Bright as your hopes.

) and then to the left. a person may pass through it. Draw the narrow slip of the leather through the hole. THE magician's OWN BOOK. leaf may be treated in the same manner. except the two ends. cut down A 11. ANSWER TO THE PUZZLE OF FOURTEEN. and so on to the end of the card then open it and . and will have four pieces of the same size and shape. ANSWER TO THE CUT CARD PUZZLE. 13. Double the cardboard or leather lengthways down the middle.294 10. . The diagram shows the proper cuttings. and then cut first to the right. . the middle. ANSWER TO THE QUARTO PUZZLE. nearly to the end. and the string and buttons may be easily released. ANSWER TO THE BUTTON PUZZLE. (the narrow way. 12. By opening laurel the card or leather. 2 \ / 1 you Divide the figure in the direction shown by the lines.


ANSWER TO THE FOUR TENANTS. the card must be doubled (as in Fig. and great care taken that. ANSWER TO THE CARD PUZZLE. until there is sufficient of the loop below the pipe to allow ^ . In order to take the pipe off. 19. 1. . the slip passed through it.296 THE magician's OWN BOOK. 21. And he'll profit most does not labor shirk So let them toil on Till cabbages rise. as they lb would in all probability spoil your puzzle. in doubling the card to put on the pipe no creases are made in it.f^^ ^^|^ resented by the woodcut in the margnn would "^-^ then be produced. Gooseberries and currants. dividing it an equal section from either side to the edge of the circular base. Take a round cylinder hole. of the diameter of the hole. by spectator the mode of operation betraying to an acute m 20. 3 is then to be taken away. 3) being passed through it. Takeaway the pieces numbered 8. which would fulfill the required Having drawn into two equal ^^ conditions. 10.^ ^. and the pipe slipped off. the puzzle handled gently. a figure like that rep. And carrots and turnips To gladden their eyes. The card for this puzzle must be cut very neatly. Who And raspberries too. 13. 22.^3 one of the square ends of the slip (Fig. Fig. cut a straight line across the end. 3. and threo squares only will remain. Shall amply repay The work they may do. 2). ANSWER TO THE THREE SQUARE PUZZLE. circular and of the height of the square parts. My tenants at work. ANSWER TO THE CYLINDER PUZZLE. My ground is divided.


THE DOGS PUZZLE ANSWERED SEE DOTTED LINES. THE magician's own book. 28.298 27. PUZZLE OE THE TWO FATHERS. The first father divided the land in this way 1 .

3. and it will appear as in Fig. . as shown in Fig. of writing paper about three times as long broad. . Fold the upper corner down.ANSWERS TO PRACTICAL PUZZLES. and it will appear as in Fig. Then the last fold is made lengthwise Take a piece it is as . 1 then fold the other upper corner over the first. 299 AJfSWER TO CUTTING OUT A CUOSS PUZZLE. 2 you next fold the paper in half lengthwise. say six inches long and two wide. 80.

3 on 1. 6 on on 3. or. and hav- /^ ^ . The cabinet-maker must find the center of the circle. in each row three ! 34. half the diameter of the first. and 8 on 5 .300 THE magician's OWN BOOK. 2. 38. ANSWER TO THE CABINET MAKERS' PUZZLE. Good-tempered friends here nine stars see Ten rows there are. ANSWER TO THE STAR I PUZZLE. THE COUNTER PUZZLE ANSWER. and trikc another circle. ANSWER TO THE JAPAN SQUARE. &c. 5 on 2. 4 on 1. 85. t. 1 Place 4 on 8 on 6. 33.

and so turn it into the imperative " Set. — 1 1 ^^ again. 40. The rerest will follow uLHI^^^ H versal of the same process will put them baak w^^rjfii 38. The same process must be repeated with the other ball the loop can then be drawn through the hole in the center. Having done this. Draw the loop through the central hole. Push it through the hole at the extremities. draw the string back. 301 ANSWER TO THE STRINa AND BAILS the loop well down. T-» PRACTir\L PUZZLES. draw out easily. become ^-J^^. and draw it through again. The string is then replaced." when the changes which noccij&arJly follow will be immediately apparent.ANSWERS 37. and substitute S. Let " at the beginning of the first line. Arrange them side by side in the short the center piec^. PUZZLE. having both balls on the same side. ARITHMETICAL PUZZLE. or nothing. The four figures are 8888. . Draw ANSWER TO THE DOUBLE-HEADED PUZZLE. and the ball will slide along the cord until it reaches the other side. which being divided by a line drawn through the middle. There is another and perhaps a neater way of performing this trick. GRAMMAHCAL VJrHLE. the sum of which is eight Os. U. and both balls will be found on the same side. slipping either ball through it. ^^^^ ^^ r% ll and the ^^® cross. pass it over the knot. 39. Take away L in the subjunctive " ANSWER TO THB TREE rUZZI* • . and bring it through far enough to pass one of the balls through.

To make a In hopes that her crust will be 43. I understand your overbearing a man even with the world is above contempt.: 302 42. custards. she'd liv'd long enough. EVER KEEP THESE PRECEPTS TEN." . She made her last puff. the following couplet By the use of the single vowel was formed. disposition whilst the ambitious are beneath ridicule. puflf by her husband much prais'd When Now here she doth dirt pie. THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK. PERSEVERE YE PERFECT MEN. ANSWER TO THE PUZZLE INSCRIPTION E. 44. : And knew every A use of the oven. and tarts. lie. . AN OLD PU WOMAN. ANSWER TO A CURIOUS LETTEIL "Sir. rais'd. Beneath in the dust The mouldy old crust Of Nell Bachcllor lately was shoven Who was skilled in the arts Of pies. AXS^^ER TO AN EllTAPH OX ELLINOE. BACHELLOR. between friends.

get a little red or black lead. dirty appearance is \ ''^*. Take a card or piece of pasteboard. hundreds of tracings. thus ^\ The powder may be applied either with a piece \ of wool or wadding. powdered.. — quite through the outline. '. prick in this respect. or by means of adrycamel'scare should be taken not to let the \ hair pencil / tracing-powder get beyond the edge of the pricked i / card. to be used singly or in eombination with each other) any one with a very little skill will be able to form an infinite number of objects.. The rules of procedure are the same in all. which will be found to be transferred to the white paper beneath. The dimensions of the oval of an egg are immaterial. (a little further on we shall speak of other figures. In fearless youth we tempt the lieight of arts. or tracing point. Figs.. [303] . combining at tlie same time a considerable amount of instruction. 2.. or even stiff paper. and placing the card upon apiece of drawing paper any white paper will however do rub it over the pricked-out oval. 3. and it may be advisable to particularize one method among many. " Tired at first sight with what the Muse imparti. 4. suggestive also of others. With this traced oval for a basis. as in that case a soiled. Some of our readers may be unacquainted with the mode of tracing' an outline. for the purposes of tracing. 1. and the experimenter may suit his own fancy With a stout needle. with the pencil you draw a horizontal line us the basis of youi — — : y . 6 are very easy results. 5. Leaving the traced-out oval at first in its dotted form.THE MAGIC OF ART. and it is if carefully done.''' given to the tracing. and draw upon it the form an oval in outline. may be obtained in the following" manner. Having pricked out the oval upon the card. The pierced card will serve." An almost endless source of amusement. The best drawing tool will be found to be an ordinary black lead pencil. for obviously the best plan to take a little extra pains with that in the first instance.

but the . Let this and the other lines. figure. be done faintly or in dots. opportunity is given to a cultivation of the noble art of do> sign.304 THE magician's OWN BOOK. which serve merely as the scaffolding of your figure. draw a line through the center of the oval and perpendicular to the first. : 1 2 Now the imagination and fancy may step in to produce forms having the oval for a foundation and not only is a very rational source of amusement opened out. These will ensure your making the object square and properly balanced. After this you may draw lines parallel to the others but these are not so material. although they serve as guides. wliether as applied to utility or ornament . Next.

church. square outline {Jig.. Following the same plan in every particular. we subjoin some examples of what may be done with the square. but I would recommend my .865 remark that the hand of many an amateur be able to form the oval without having but as this portion of our recourse to the pierced card work is intended for all. 7. The dotted lines (Jigs. we have suggested the above mode as sure to succeed under every circumstance. 9) suggests the inner sketch of a . It is obvious to artist will readly . 8) represent the traced or sketched square and plan lines the firmer lines suggest In the same way the thin objects formed upon that figure. I stated before that the size of the fundamental oval or square made little difference.

9. this matters little and each one will the better. or simply . suit his or her own taste in that respect. or con* If a large black board. and the tracings prepared proportionably large (pounded chalk being used instead of the black or red powder in transferring the forms therto). 1. I now proceed to submit some examples of what may be done with other rudimentary forms. could be obtained. such as is used in most venient. describe a circle . younger readers This may be done with a pair of compasses.306 THE Magician's own book. 8. schools. Following the instructions previously given. and the designs made upon these with a piece of chalk. in place of the square suggested in Figs. so much However. to get these as large as possible.

and landscapes generally. — — Fig. are based upon further the square turned diamond-wise. foliage. and will need n remark examples upon this plan may be multiplied easily. 14. 16 is drawn upon two circles in combination with each other. 20. . The dotted lines of the plan will be readily perceived but lest there should be any difficult) they have been drawn separately in Fig. . 11. t : . The mind of the experimenter thousands such will inmiediately revert to other objects having the circle or the are to be met with around us sphere for their basis. are given merely as suggestions. 15. It. With this uplex figure little skill will be required to present the lord of the farm yard. 19. Figs. such as a coin laid flat upon the paper. 18. Fig 10. Those given will serve as hints in the several directions of flowers. if they are not actually distinguishable thereby from those that are artificial. the circle forming an important part of their figure. whereb}' they will not fail to notice that nearly all natural objects have the curved line for a basis. 807 sketched or traced by means of any round object. 13. 12. The three outlines. if any number of my younger readers are led thereby to a habit of observation.THE MAGIC OF ART. And it will be no mean result of my labors.

e. circle. let me introduce another. the girl seats herself within one. that from the little nymph cut to the great pyramid. and which enters. how naturally. by a kind of natural law. namely. into almost all forms Observe in the or groups of forms.90S THE magician's OWN BOOK. the oval. the triangle. ^^. 21.A A moment's in the reflection will show.. square. although unconsciously. everything that rests s >lid- . t. 19 Before proceeding to show what may easily be done by a simple combination of the figures we have constructed. annexed cut. Fig.

one of which the three sides are equal. 23. Suppose you had either in your mind. and at the point of division set up hu upright line then from each end of the base line slant against the central These. . but the following directions may not be Draw a straight line for a base of any length. churches. differing triangular in their form. 24. the length of the sides being at the choice of the artist. and towers. look around you for others. will meet at the upright line one the length of the base. * This is needless for some. divide this base line by two. rections. more cr less. similar manner. Roofs of houses. ly 309 upon the earth must take the form. all trees. to proceed to something more complicated. Figs.THE MAGIC OF ART. and make various exercises upon foundation. of this broad-based tapering figure. this Now. 22. are angles. e. as are all great from each other only in the width of their Construct a triangle. . t. and the triangle is formed. of course.* and trace it according to former diand from the examples. If you wish to form a equilateral triangle. or sketched out upon padone easily enough. Any other triangle may be formed in a top.

width of the beds i7i perspective. shown A These give you the all these lines to the point A. suppose you had the dimensions of a piece of ground. and intended to lay it out as a garden. is nothing more than the actual representation of things as they meet the eye. in reality. allotting so much space to this and that bed. until it meets the top of the triangle. 25 place your triangle. in other words.310 THE MABICIAN'S OWN BOOK . and is what your experimental drawing would be if. garden that is to say. cross and across. The other sides of their figure may be easily enough found. draw a line through the center of the square upwards. 26 is the perspective view sought. Next draw lines from the corner of the beds parallel to the center line until they meet the base line of the triangle. having done the plan and guide-lines in pencil and the tinue . for perspective. and wanted to see how such an arrangement would look in perspective. the plan of a — Let your plan be what is in the square portion oi at the top of this plan Fig. From thence con. like an insoluble riddle or a monster cobweb. so much to-gravel walks. however alarming it may look in books. per. Fig. with its net-work of lines.

rest in 311 pen and ink. means nineteen out of every twenty individuals. are not referred to. readers regard the matter in appears to the present writer that this the triangle little figure is capable of working wonders in the hands of an amateur draughtsman. those regularly educated. I ask whether the preceding cut is any exaggeration on the average sort of result attained. long course of training as artists. whether . if only properly Of course. or submitted to a used. ordinarily.THE MAGIC OF ART. not only amongst very juvenile experimenters. but only the general public. but I do not know whether my the same light. you had erased the former with a piece of india rubber. which by the by. — but it — those of maturer age ? Everybody possessed of vision can tell.

by marking the same at a. b. sible. to form lines. and these and other figures. 30 sist in shows how two parallelograms in combination giving the perspective of a block of stone or bale asof goods. Perhaps nothing is more puzzling to the tyro in sketching . Thus we get the three lines — . The difference between the two results is as great as pos. 29 the triangle placed at the side of the soldier in front gives the perspective of the whole line. in the way of depicting them with accuracy. To proceed let us take the above misrepresented country residence. and triangles. or necessary to its stability. 28). a person is put imperceptibly.312 THE magician's OWN BOOK a building or other object is upright. circles. as shown (see Fig. In Fig. we place a triangle then drawing an upright line through the center of both. Fig. or in the position proper By accustoming the hand to it. see what we can make of it. make that the base of another and lengthened triangle. 31 exhibits the parallelogram and triangle in combination. and by habituating the mind to form comparisons between objects. We would first draw or trace the parallelogram shown in dotted lines over this. . and if we knew the proportionate of the side and roofs height of the side window. and applying to it the previously given rules. we get its true perspective dimensions. ovals. Fig. as it were. and carrying the lines from those points to the apex of the triangle. squares.

THE MAGIC OF ART. 813 method than the interior of rooms and halls. and with- . 32 a very easy is given. In Fig. Trace the outer parallelogram.

Now oddity of feature or exp':ession is simply the result of a deviatir^n from this regularity. how the I shall end is attained by placing a pair of dark spectacles upon a . ao a necessary result of such disarrangement.314 THE MAGICIAN'S OWN BOOK it is intended to set you quizzing ^r\d caricaFar from it. Fig. 34. 35 you will see this worked considered a well proportion! ^d face. the line above that the top of the forehead. 36. which is founded upon irregularity or incon- gruity in things. Let the central line (across) mark the position of the eyes. 31 and 38. at preeert merely pointing out.. Draw the oval. carry out this hint more fully. proper places. you have. and have what is By Fig. strictly speaking. out. these lines are placed higher or lower. and if. or comicality. the oue below suppose that the bottom of the nose. or out of their. turing 3'our friends. Divide it by transverse lines into about equal portions. You have now the basis for a face. oddity. as you will perceive by the other Figs. in reference to the next two figures.

lengthening or shortening the chin. which are appropriated in the same manner. . attempt likenesses of your friends and companions. nose. and try the effects of which the above are but indications. with a slight side face. or the nose slightly on one side." let me add. You will perceive by Fig. it should be borne in mind. is far from being heightened by uglimss. however. The omission of one eye. . and hair and some modification takes place about the region of the eye. chin. . and remarking whereabout the lines of their features would cut it.— THE MAGIC OF ART. Now let us take the simplest elements of the profile or This is also formed upon the oval. which. and marking them in very lightly. such as is shown in the Fig. True humor is closely allied to kindness. 41. or its being covered by a shade. (41). 41 that the oval used for profile purposes is divided as before into four about equal portions. without difficulty. you may. and the other two for the limit of the hair and the bottom of the nose. But not to forget the " Art" in the " Sport. destroys it by raising painful images in the mind. 315 reg-ularly-featured face.. g. This will be a sufficient . or trace from Fig. 39. Your imaginations will furnish an endless variety of subjects. a figure for your basis. in pencil. at the back where the neck is inserted a little has to be added for forehead. the central line across is for the eye. the humorous. that by sketching the plain oval. little more into the " Art" than at first sight the " Sport " seems to warrant.these are all sources of . that great distortion or hideousness. Suffice it that the oval forms essentially the basis of the structure of a well proportioned face. so far from contributing to humor. Indeed. Next make a number of these tracings upon a clean sheet of drawing paper. or adding a little flesh to the lowei portion of that at Fig. And here we must go a variation. But take notice that portions are cut off e. closed while the other stares the mouth a little wider than usual. proceed as directed in the case of the front face in the last lesson altering the feature lines. Draw for yourself. Now fill your slates or sketch-books with ovals. and forehead according to your fancy. That is to sa}^.

The last hint only dealt with the depth relatively of the several parts of the face Now. the same end is at- . 41. the hair cut absurdly short. (See Figs.S16 THE MAGICIAN S OWN v. may you summon up our ancient acquaintance Mother Hubbard. which may be seen underneath in dotted lines. They are constructed upon that figure. In Figs. beards. Tne variety of ways in wliich this exercise may be worked is infinite.. How few magic touches. Subjoined are a few. 42. 46. mustaches. 44 and 45. 41. produce the effect of comicality. this are accordingly om^^ Let us proceed a step further. by means you are magi- cians enough to impart. and illustrations ted here. joined to the sinking in of the facial angle. by this time. which. BOOK. as of a to their prominence. 43. guide for you. or left redundant. or the modern hero Punch.) Observe that the peculiarity of these comic physiognomies consists merely in their deviation from the regularly formed bead of Fig. very easily. eyebrows. In Figs.

27 give you the annexed (Fig. L Every one as is will recognize it as a model drawing —such to be found upon walls. This the artist (!) intends from a comic drawing. 48). will new take up the grandest object of art the Human Figure. In desigining the human figure. And As a pendant to the comical landscape given No.THE MAGIC or ART. Of course it is no such thing. that the less deviation there from ihe proper proportions the better. and occasionally upon the margins of school-books. and with even less exaggera- here I again repeat. tained tion. is iJl? by the simplest means. there arc three principal rules to be observed : We .

standing at ease. We so ! They have. Whenever the body is at rest upon its legs. the second reaching to the chest of the spaces the fourth cuts the entire length into two to above the hips equal parts the fifth extends to the center of the thigh the seventh to half way down the sixth. viewed In laterally. entire length hj eight. that no part of the body. any part of the body will follow. . : . By reference to the fig. The second rule is. as the experience of most people has tested. however. . is more than twice the thickness of the head. a vertical line will be perceived. The third rule concerns the center of gravity. shall see more about this hereafter. 49). this imaginary line must always pass through its center. to the sole of the foot. the standard height of the human body may he reckDividing the oned' as eight times the length of the face. (49). First.318 THE MAuiCIAN'S OWN BOOK. as shown in the annexed diagram (Fig. however. as one may : : . to the knee joint the leg and the eighth. drawn through the center of the figure. very young children. it will be perceived that the face comprises one the third. to be well considered in connection . the rule is. at present confining ourselves to the consideration of the first two rules These must be considered as only generally true. say. that where the head will go.

Then.THE MAGIC OF ART. or legs otherwise disproportionate to the rest It will be seen of the body. the figures (Fig. any great deviation from them leads to oddity. first dropping a central line perpendicular to the ground. that is to say. Fig. for the purpose of comic drawing. 53 is given in illustration of the remarks upon ilw The form is correct enouc^h as regards second rule. and familiarize yourself with the proportions of the figure. height. draw with a black lead pencil upon the print similar lines to those in the figures. or any others for yourselves figure in a print which may not be too costly to use so. We — . Trace out. You will thus test the accuracy of the rule. now come to consider the third principle that of the center of gravity. by the Figs. you will vary these proportions. 51 and 52 that their oddity has been arrived : at simply by this rule. a body too large or too small for the legs. divide its length into eight parts. and is at the root of caricature drawing. will yield the desired results. A face too long or too short. . 319 with our present subject fur as we said with the face. 49 and or taking any well drawn 50). or sketch out any size. and deviates in the matter of lateral proportion. or by the deviation from the strict rule of proportion.

because the line passing through the center of the figure is a vertical line. The first is at rest.320 THE MAGICIAN S OWN BOOK. the same principle is enforced. The next diagram shows a partial deviation from the center of gravity. the balance is disturbed. commends itself to the reason like a mathematical demonstration. and we begin either to pity or to laugh poor diagram The two following figures are other cases of the same sort —we feel instinctively for them they are very far gone. and after that we will go subject. that line being out of the vertical. In the diagrams (Figs. Nor need we confine our experiments to figures comparatively at rest forms in every variety of action come under it is a law of nature the same rule There is a central line drawn through : — . 68. In the next figure. 59). being at rest. This is so plain that argument is not needed to . Observe in the annexed figures how the first (Fig. — I — • Try this rule upon your slates or sketching blocks. on to the next demonstrate it. is in a false posi* tion. Try this also for yourselves as before. and the figure topples so with the next.

a central line. this curved line is distinguishable. Indeed. just so far as they are graceful and pleasing objects to the eye. square lines offend the eye wlicn met with under such circumstanin any ''^ . but it may go on for ever. and stone. the earth. If we turn our attention direction upon natural objects. 65. could we but see it. 321 the whole systeu of the universe. but taking the objects as a whole. nearer still to that consummation. in the positions of Figs. 65 64 and 65 are never seen unless through some violent accident they may bend. vertical to the horizon. as shown in Fig. trees. and every upriglit thing. the clouds. flowers. will be detected. r 63 . or animal bodies. and plant. On the contrary. The second is fast hastening to its The third is much fall. we cannot fail to see that a curved line is always to be made out in their forms. The first of the following figures is in full action. and meander. It will suggest itself to every reader to apply the rule to other objects than Trees the human figure. and twist.THE MAGIC OF ART. through every tree. the sea. as its balance is not in any way disturbed.

It is almost impossible indeed to imagine a square cloud. Let me advise you to practice : — new source of amusement somewhat perse veringly. You wish to produce a droll "bit" of landscape Take any simple view. or a square Piorse. the meandering stream. 68. disdain to write an essay upon this subject. such as rocks. the student who best understands is — Socrates did not the first will best appreciate the second. apart from the which it is the object of these this lesbon . have met with representations of natural objects. magician's own book. ces. which had a square or nearly square appearance but such things are almost always presented to our view as phenomena i. insisting that the very same qualities were essential in the comic and the But this is digressive. ly. In this you will readily discover. When we see a square may headed man. which is the line of beauty. and the like. things violating the regular order or general rule of nature. . of beauty disthe outline of the tant hills. Does any one ask what particular reference these observations have to " Art in Sport ?" Let us say that they alone can properly understand what is comic who have learned to appreciate what is not comic. In proportion as you are able to make this perfectly. At any rate. e. such as submitted in Fig. we are not impressed in his favor. a square flower. you I must presume that will succeed in drawing gracefully. your slate or board the figure (67) until you can do it easiThen. as I said above." proceed as follows. hill tops. graceful lines in the clouds.— 32' r. the curved. tragic artist. In the annexed figure (67) Let us resume 67 you perceive the curved line. the foliage. The distance between the sublime and the ridiculous is said to be very small only one step. mountain precipices. for the purposes of "sport. must pervade and we cannot suffiit is the natural law all nature cicntl}^ ddmire the truth that that which is most necessary We . very many of my readers will have no difficulty in copying Practice upon the few natural objects suggested below. also most beautiful. . This curved line.

a beautiful lesson could be impressed upon the mind. 32: papers to open up. is similar. how it has become so must Fig. Nothing is more calculated to refine the mind. u^^^^vA3 [i#z£lvi^^^ in other words. if we me able to do this intelligently having learned the alphabet. that in cider to be graceful everything must be round. or that everything round is arra^eful. 69. or that every square object is un . TO. What do we see? The lines of L»eauty have given place to others less pleasing to the eye. shown in Fig. to ennoble the thoughts. In Fig. and the resul' And if. the same process is carried out. and to gaze upon the fresh face of nature. 70 I hope that I shall not be understood to mean. — — . and (except as a source of merriment) less acceptable to the mind.THE MAGIC OF ART. 69 is a comic landscape be clearly apparent. we are able to peruse as it were the book of nature the delight and the advantage Now turn to the example is proportionably increased. than to withdraw one's self from the artificial world.

conducive in a degree to its general pleasing character.) in which.o2i graceful .\ BOOK. are made odd and comic-looking when : drawn upon In Fig. the oddity is attained by making the whole attitude stiff' and angular. the curved line predominates. but the attitude is formed upon This will be perceived clearer by reference a curved line. and. 71. in which. as many others composed entirely of straight lines at various angles to each other are exceedingly graceful. or. therefore. without using a single straight line in the parts of the form. again. But what is meant is this that natural objects. (t2. The student for hiuiself : will find no difficulty in multiplying examples must now those given will suffice as hints. that by making any curved line into a square or straight one the end we propose is to be obtained. THE magician's 0VV. to the next figure. the square. not only the lines of the shepherd's form are curved lines. Doubtless many round things are ungraceful. We proceed ^o show how comic designs may be made and ap . left to themselves.

as in painting upon ivory. In originating this paper on " The Magic of Art. place it beneath your slide of glass. . and are procurable of most artist's color makers. to which it might be fastened at the corners by means of a little gum or varnish. Prepare your design. The colors necessary are what are called silica colors. available to almost every intelligent reader. that upon glass you cannot wash in a tint." the author did not propose to himself to give a complete treatise. procedure is as follows Procure a piece of clear common window glass. 325 The proper course of plied to the slides of magic lanterns. such as skies. which.THE MAGIC OF ART. but siiujdy to point out. without specks or scratches let this be made perfectly clean. . It is hoped that. of course. in this subject. Broad surfaces. . Now commence to paint upon the glass an exact fac simile of the design.easy processes. you see clearly enough through the glass. It will be necessary to let your first colors dry before and it is desirable not to work in putting on your shades too hot a room. . however. Common camel's hair brushes will do those made of sable are. which should be made the exact size you color it and when intend it to be painted upon the glass quite dry. he has not entirely failed. much better but the first will suffice for : . ordinary purposes. must be stippled in. as the nature of the varnish with which you work is to dry very rapidly. and that all will find some entertainment f. Bear in mind too. **|irt in Sprt. by some ver}. . at source of amusement and instruction. .-om.

upon which they wrote. however. is the following. and wrote upon the skin with some indelible coloring matter. bark or papyrus. is very ancient. to the place of his des This is not. or only another letter. which are legible only to him for whom the writing is intended. but tination. Hence many illusions are used. after his liair had been grown again. He wound the bark again round this. only a concealment of writing. (chiffre) is also easy to be deciphered without a key. or who has a key or explanation of the signs. used by the They took a small stick. [32G] No separation is made between . which corresponds better with the nanie. and wound around it ancients. properly secret writing. Another kind. which is intended to be illegible except by the person for whom it is destined. The most simple method is to choose for every letter of the alphabet some But this sort of cryptography sign.SECRET WRITING The art of communicating secret information by means of writing. This mode of concealment is evidently very imperfect. and then sent him. The bark was then unrolled and sent to the correspondent. Cryptography properly consists in writing with signs. who was furnished with a stick of the same size. and thus was enabled to read what had been written. The ancients sometimes shaved the head of a slave.

the writing will appear of a beautiful purple. A weak sulphate of iron will be invisible in writing till washed over with a weak solution of prussiate of potass. and various substances were found to afford a fluid which would leave no mark behind the pen. 327 the words. to agree upon some printed book. but it is also extremely troublesome to the correspondents themselves. is also troublesome. the writing cannot be seen until it is dipped into a solution of galls. There are many kinds of sympathetic inks. or signs of uo meaning. If we write with a diluted solution of muriate of copper. which turns it of a beautiful blue. Various keys are also used according to rules before agreed upon. and not at all safe. with holes corresponding to the places of the significant words.SECRRT WRITING. so as to give to the whole the appearance of an ordinary letter.-d the very fact of its being plain rendered it suspicious. it will be of a j^ellow color. when they appear. or other substances are brought in contact with them. By this means the deciphering of the writing becomes diflScult for a third person not initiated. This is caused by the action of the heat. and intercep. is attended with many disadvantages: the paper may be lost. and mark the words out. if a solution of nitrate of iron be the fluid used. till by the action of some chemical agents. or even into tea. acids. It was found that if a plain sheet of paper were sent. The method of concealing the words which are to convey the information intended in matter of a very different character. If we write with the nitro-muriate of gold. and afterwards brush the letters over with dilute muriate of tin. Another mode of communicating intelligence secretly. the words will be invisible until the paper is held before the fire. is considerable. For example. Chemistry was also in great request for secret writing. They are so called because the writings or drawings made by them are illegible. in a long letter which the correspondent is enabled to read by applying a paper to it. viz. and . and become ink. and a slight mistake often makes it illegible even to them. the repetition of certain words may lead to a discovery.are inserted between those of real meaning. and the difficulty of connecting the important with the unimportant matter. if a letter be written with a pen dipped in the juice of lemon. heat. and when dry present it to the fire. Again. such as light. until some chemical agent were applied. which will act upon the iron.

are arranged as follow '' zabcdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyza bcdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyzab cdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyzabc defghiklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcd e f g h fg h i i k 1 1 m n n ( k 1 in ) gh i hiklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefgh iklmnopqrs tuvwx yz a bcdefghi klmnopqrstuvwxyz a b cdefgliik Imnopqrstuvwxyzab c d efgh ikl mnopqrstuvwxyzabc d e fgh klm nopqrstuvwxyzabcd e fg hiklmn opqrstuvwxyzabcde fg h ikl m no pqrstuvwxyzabcdefg h klm nop qrstuvwxyzabcde fg h k Imnopq i i k m p q p q r r s t s t n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e u V w X y z a b c d e f u vwx y z a b c d e fg i rstuvwxyzabcde fgh k Imnopq r stuvwxyzabcde fgh k mnopqr s tuvwxyzabcdefgh k Imnopqrs t uvwxyzabcdefghi k mnopqr stu vwxyzabcdefghik Im nopq r stuv wxyzabcdefghi klinn opq r s tuvw xyzabcdefgh iklmno pqr s tuvwx yzabcdefghi klmnop q rs tuvwxy zabcdefghik Imno pq r s tuvwxyz i i 1 i 1 Any word example. as it is generally known. it The word Pariz. difficult to be deciphered. A letter was therefore written with ordinary ink.: 328 THE magician's OWN' BOOK. every means were used to rende-r visible any writing that might be on it. because the agents employed to render them visible are too Hence. for is now taken for a key. and between the lines the required information was added in some sympathetic ink. It consists of a table in which the letters of the alphabet. and the key may be preserved in the memory and easily changed. on indifferent subjects. or any other signs agreed upon. This is a short word. the chiffre indechiffrable. has come very much into use. and for the sake of secresy would be well to choose for the key some one or more . called. because it is easily applied. But writing with these or other sympathetic inks is unsafe.

The key word will thus change every time. In the same way r gives Or you may reverse the process gives 0. The utmost accuracy is necessary. Thius the pos. on the left. thus : Pa We risP a risPar lost a battle. site e. b and k. because one character accidentally omitted changes the whole cypher. Next. thus e and a occur twice in the phrase selected. and so on. and any combination of letters will make it. writing is almost impos- The key may be changed from time ent key to time. at the top of sPa r which is p. may be used with each — . cypher with this key the phrase. for example. We now take cypher for w. we should obtain the following series of letters : mf the letters cxli b tkmimw epistle writes the The person who receives the key over Paris Pa He now goes down ri mfcxlibtkmimw in the perpendicular line. he finds. and they are designated respectively by the cj^phersy and w. Proceeding thus. e. It is easily seen that the same letter is not always designated by the same cypher. 1. repeating it as often as is necessary. " We lost a battle. and a differ- correspondent. sibility of finding out the secret sible. i begin with p. and under z." we must write Paris over the phrase. which \sf. 329 Suppose we wish to write in this words less striking. for /. and so on. which is m. This will make it impossibla to be 2:uessed. until he meets m. he finds w. over which. the letter which we find in the square opposite w in the left margin column. and under _p on Instead of e we take the letter oppothe top.SECRET WRITING. in the left marginal column. in the top line. opposite to which. you will find w. and look along horizontall}'' till you find m. and under a. in the left marginal column. the letter opposite c. going in the line of a down iof. The best way of determining the key word is to arrange that any word which occurs at a certain distance from the beginning or end shall be the key word the tenth from the beginning.

) 92s3. letter w at the left hand.5-2 .:21t:2-s 262 ?16 s22 : : : S6?U!s 3.)t:2 stlrrG s.) 1-9 7192 t:23r vlr329 . 40 744..) &c. m A LOCK FOR iffi.)w:4 It 921t: 114-2 T:23r 922p s3.. T:2 21rt:(. (.) T:2. With this key the lock may be opened. Here is another specimen of secret writing. The letters are represented by the figures and symbols below them.: 044!s ?16 . the sea. 3.I4r325 s:3-2(:) 3. s t:2r2 !32s 1 .3v2 t:2 w4r!9s t4 8:l-82(.20 34 r219 t:23r ?Gst2r32s (. The easiest method of working this square is to cut a piece of thin wood like a carpenter's square..-4rl-82 T4 rl3s2 1 str58t5r2 40 92spl3r(I) T:45.t:2 71s2 40 3.t:2? 22. For example. The earth.6(. !?-456 The stops enclosed in brackets.S30 TTiE magician's own book. . abcdefghijklmnouy 178920. and the otlier on the will be in the angle.52 19vl-82 3ts s:l!!4w vl5-ts(. are used in their capacity of stops: thus. the letter so that the trouble of following the lines with the eye will be avoided. And bade their varied glories shine .) lr2 86p 2rs wr3t 76 1-9 93v3-2(. Are cyphers writ by hand divine. and by applying it to the alphabet the letter is at once seen in the angle. supposing such a square to be applied so that one side is on the letter p at the top. the starry sky.!2t-4t 013t:!2ss t4-.1-9 pr4v392-82 lr2 t:2r2(.) :4w 7!3-929(. That hand which tuned their harmony.)-4r s84002r 91r2 5p4.rl-9 trSt: 84?75-2(.-30381-86 4w-(!) HERE IS THE ANSWER. HOBBS TO PICK.)t:2 s21(.) 7Ct 3-t:2 744.) (.) T:lt :l-9 w:38: t5-29 t:23r lr?4-6(.

Provide a piece of square card or pasteboard.person. But in the book of books there lies A key to read their mysteries.SECRET WRITING. in case it should be opened by any othei. In 8131 them e'en heathen's eye may see Symbols in one grand Truth combine. in each of which parts must be written om of the capital let- . which circle is to be divided into 27 equal parts. let Then Its Upon To raise a structure of despair! Though fools may give the world to chance Design and Providence are there: not faithless tongie advance shallow vaunts. has emplo^^ed tiie ingenuity No method will be found more effectual for this of many. and draw a circle on it. who at death alone Their deep significancy owai! THE CIRCULAR CYPHER. than the following. To carry on a correspondence without the possibility of the meaning of the letter being detected. nor scoffer dare the base of ignorance How blinded. or more easy. purpose.

through which you cut long squares at different distances. and those words which are between crotchets [ ] form the intelligence you wish to communicate. I call [him a villain] who stole him. watched I cannot see you as I promised meet you to-morrow in tlie park." You may place a pasteboard of this kind three other ways the bottom at top— the top at bottom.^' I [trust] they will be fail to send my books. as follows • T h uf Ih pumwayx h pbee h wugghrn lyy rim ul mli h ikhfhlyx vmn fyym rhn tw. ready when [Robert] calls on you.1AGICIA\'S OVV.332 THE ?. he lays his pasteboard over the whole. and must run round a pivot or pin. hut I will You begin with the letter T. You lay the pasteboard on a paper. Take two pieces of card. which shows how you have fixed the dial. Suppose what you wish to communicate is as follows . and made exactly to fit the blank space in the center of the large circle. which answer to each other when you have fixed your dial. for / am. and the &. of the small letters of the alphabet. and make a different . Sfc. and the other you give to your correspondent. When he receives it.\ BOOK. [I have] heard that you have [found] your dog. you write h uf. and end with the letter m. The person with whom you correspond must have a similar dial. and how your correspondent must fix his. pasteboard. : '' DonH trust Robert : I have found him a villain. / am so . that he may decipher your letter. with the letters. or by turnings " [Don't] — . or stiff paper. Then. For example suppose you want to express these words. and so of the rest. and. One of these you keep yourself. and at the end the small letter. in the spaces cut out write what you would have understood by him only then fill the intermediate spaces with any words that will connect the whole together. may iuhd phma may eymmyld^ Another Way. This circle must be cut round. sense. fhkkhp hg m. and at the beginning of your letter you must put the capital letter.

like that in Fig. and the circumference is to be ruled like music paper. 2. which will inform your correspondent how to place his circle. You //. SECRET CORRESPOXDEXCE BY iirSIC. divided into twenty-six parts. or he may not be able to decipher yt)ur meaning. with a letter of the alphabet written in each. and on the outer circle the figures to denote time. The interior Fig. Then get a ruled paper. in the manner expressed above. 1/ t iLT* e d mt It cL then copy the notes that answer to the letters of the words you intend to write. 333 but in this case you must previously apprize your it over correspondent. Form of ihe circle is movable. . a circle like Fig. AVithin the musical lines place the three keys. at the beginning of the paper. 1.SECRET WRITING. and place one of the keys (suppose ge-re-sol) against the time 2-4ths. . Place in each division a note different in figure or position. 2.

Until the end of the sixteenth century. various positions of his body in which men even of common strength could perform ver}'. who was executed by the Emperor Aurelian for espousing the cause of Zenobia. however. the exhibition of such feats does not seem About the year 1703. all his feats were ascribed to the same cause." Pope's Homer. however. . his methods were discovered. either by its ingenuity or its magnitude. and raised enormous weights. exhibited such feats of strength in London and other parts of England. bis back. and which could not fail to excite the greatest wonder when exhibited by persons of ordinary size. yet there is no reason for believing that they have executed any machinery that was capable of exciting much surprise.surprising feats. His own personal strength was very great but he had also discovered. that he received the name of the second Samson. without the aid of theory. Vopiscus informs us that he could suffer iron to be forged upon an In doing this. as we shall afterward more particularly explain. his whole body formed an arch. In his account of the life of Firmus.— THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. ^ent. seem to have been successfully employed in performing feats of strength which were be3'ond the reach even of strong men. he lay upon anvil placed upon his breast. [33i] . and. In the course of eight or ten years. a native of to have been common. resting his feet and shoulders against some support. and manv individuals of ordinary strength cKhibited a number . but as he actually exhibited his powers in ways which evinced the enormous strength of his own muscles. was celebrated for his feats of strength. Firmus. who lived in the third century. " Not two strong men the enorraous weight could raise Such men as live in these degenerate days. The mechanical knowledge of the ancients was princi and though they seem to have executed pally theoretical some minor pieces of mechanism which were sufficient to delude the ignorant. . of the name of Joyce. a native of Seleucia. He drew against horses. The properties of the mechanical powers.

Another of the German's feats is shown in Fig. pulling at the other end of the rope. 1. and as Dr. Dr. with thi< view.THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. and not of strength he was desirous of discovering his methods. but they were of no advantage to him whatever. to the iron ^ . Dr. Dr. Desaguliers was convincer ordinary strength that his feats were exhibitions of skill. and. accompanied with the Marquip of Tullibardine. same person whose feats are particularly described by He was a man of the middle size. a native of Harzgerode. Pringle. that we shall endeavor to give a popular accouiit of them. Round his loins was placed a strong girdle ring of which g was fastened a rope by means of a hook. placed upon a frame c d e. or two horses. with his feet abutting against the up. The rope passed between his legs through a hole in board c. They placed themselves round the German. 2. right board c. is the able examples of his strength. and has given such a distinct explanation of the principles on which they depend. John Charles Van Eckeberg. Alexander Stuart. traveled through Europe under the appellation of Samson. Desaguliers. were unable to draw the performer out of his place. 1. of his principal performances. 2. and their success was so great. FG. The performer sat upon an inclined board a b. 335 man nor greatly Some time afterward. we believe. Desaguliers exhibited some of the experiments before the Royal Society. that they were abl^ to perform most of the feats the same evening by themselves. he went to see him. and his own mechanical operator. Fig. and several men. though in a inferior to Joyce. so as to be able to observe accurately all that he did. ard of Dr. His hands at g seemed to pull against the men. and almost all the rest when they had provided the proper apparatus. in Anhault. exhibiting very remarkThis.

In imitation of Firmus. he laid himself down on the |7round. 2. 3. n man hammered with all his force . 3. and made above mentioned to a strong post pass through a fixed iron eye at b. to the Fio. as shown in Fig. falling back on a feather bed at c. 3. ring in his girdle. spread out to receive him. B.336 THE magician's OWN BOOK. as shown in the figure. fixed the rope it Having at A. and when an anvil a was placed upon his breast. He then suddenly stretched out his legs and broke the rope. Fio. he planted his feet against the post ai. and raised himself from the ground by the rope.

The performer then placed his shoulders upon one and his heels upon another. was laid upon his belly. A stone. one and a half feet long. and. as in Fig. he raises his own body up. one foot broad. he rises with him. His next feat was to lie down on the ground. was then laid upon his belly and broken by a sledge hammer. with a sledge hammer. as in Fig. placing his arms around the man's legs. chair. he lifts up the man gradually. as in Fig. 4. Fio. an arch springing from its abutments at a and b. till. and sometinaes two smiths cut in two with chisels a great cold bar of iron At other times a stone of huge dimenlaid upon the anvil. having brought his knees perpendiculaily under him. . 3. half of which is shown at c. thighs.THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. sions. 337 the piece of iron b. This feat he sometimes performed with two men in place of one. with his back-bone. and broken with a blow of the great hammer. A man being then placed on his knees. forming. he draws his heels towards his body. One or two raeu then stood upon his belly. raising his knees. and half a foot thick. 4. and. 5. touched the ground. and legs. as in Fig. and sets him down on some low table or eminence of the same height as his knees. rising up and down while the performer breathed. 5. 6. an operation which may be performed with much less danger than when his back 4.

S"iS THE magician's OWN BOOK. 6. but when all is ready. and eren untwisted one of the irons which the German had twisted. 5. and the cannon is sustained by the strength of his loins. of the scale being fixed to a rope or chain attached to his girdle. the four ropes Fia. 6. 7. Fio. Lord TuUibardine succeeded in doing the same thing. He first bent the iron into a right angle. performance of the German. and apparently the most wonderful. the two rollers are knocked from beneath the scale. Fig. 7. is shown in Fig. were I tr . Previous to the fixing of the ropes. and then wrapping his handkerchief about its broad upper end. the cannon and scale rest upon two rollers b c. as at b. 8. in the manner already described. as shown at c. where he appears to raise a cannon a. The last. placed upon a scale. he held that end in his left hand. twisted about the angular point. and with his right applied to the other end. FlO. It would lead into derails by no means popular. The German also exhibited his strength in twisting into a screw a flat piece of iron like a.

A few general observations will perhaps be sufficient for ordinary readers. which form a double arch. indeed. The feats No. by any external pressure directed to the center of the arch and. the man feels less of the weight of the anvil than he did before. all the parts .THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. If the anvil were a thin piece of iron. because. and it is the less liable for when it has received by to be struck out of its place the blow the whole momentum of the hammer. Fig. depend entirely on the natural strength of the bones of the pelvis. The feat: of the anvil is certainly a very surprising one. is struck. the performer would be killed by a few blows but the blows are scarcely felt when the anvil is very heavy. . in the reaction of the stone. and 7. or of . 8. really consists in sustaining the anvil for when this is done. 2. as the legs and thighs are capable of sustaining four or five thousand pounds when "they stand quite upright. the performer has no difficulty in resisting the force of two horses. the effect of the hammering is nothing. however. When the blow. . or even two or three times heavier than the hammer. as its quantity of matter is greater. . which it would require an immense force to break. the greater is its inertia. its velocity will be so much less than that of the hammer. for the more matter the anvil has. 339 give a minute explanation of the mechanical principles upon which these feats depend. The difficulty. 1. Bustaining the weight of a cannon weighing two or three thousand pounds.

he broke them by the force of 3. what he learned had been done by others by artificial means. which Dr. a great stone to be broken with one blow. who was five feet ten inches high. and if the blow is not very quick. his He broke . and the bones of his legs and thighs. 4. property is illustrated by the well known experiment of lajnng a stick with its ends upon two drinking glasses full of water. he rolled up a very strong and large . The stick will in this case be broken without breaking' the glasses. or spilling the water. by his own natural powers. 4. as in Fig. or. as if to throw it up in the air. the bowl of a strong tobacco-pipe placed between his first and third fingers. But if the stick is struck upwards. plate. Having rubbed his fingers with coal-ashes to keep them from slipping. he seated himself on the ground with his feet against two stirrups. and one of his knees was shattered against the stirrups. described. he could bear three or four.. by pressing his fingers together sideways. in their stead. in London. he does it by means of the strong arch formed by If his backbone. and about thirtyone years of age. and by the weight of his body he succeeded in pulling against a single horse but in attempting to pull against two horses. Having thrust such another bowl under his garter. so as to deprive him of most of the strength of one The following are the feats of real strength of his legs. A distressing example of this occurred in his attempt to imitate the feat of the German Samson by pulling against Ignorant of the method which we have already horses. and striking the stick downwards in the middle with an iron bar. A number of feats of real and extraordinary strength were exhibited about a century ago. there were room for them. Havi'-r laid seven or eight short and strong pieces of tobacco-pipe on the first and third fingers. pewter 2. the water will be spilled without breaking the glasses. the glasses will break if the blow be strong. by Thomas Topham. he was lifted out of his place. When the performer supports a man upon his belly. 1. This it round about the hammer rise towards the blow. his middle finger. S40 of THE magician's own BuOK. Dcsaguliers saw him perform. He was entirely ignorant of any of the methods for making his strength appear more surprising and he often performed.

and held in a horizontal position'for a considerable time. and he then pulled it almost straight again. This experiment ^as.. The heaviest person in the party lies down upon two chairs. he brought both ends of it together before him. when he is lifted up the instant that his own lungs. One of the most remarkable and inexplicable experiments relative to the strength of the human frame. 6. till he bent the poker nearly to a right angle. are inflated with air. . Taking a similar poker. 7. Holding in his right hand an iron kitchen poker three feet long and three inches round. as nearly as possible. 800 The weight of Topham was about 200. I shall describe. which was partly wound about a cylinder four inches diameter. . 8. He lifted with his teeth. 341 legs teing bei-"^ he broke it to pieces by the tendons of his hams. with half a hundred weight hanging at the end of it. He broke a rope about two inches in circumference. performed it more than once in my presence. and taking hold of a frame fastened to it. is that in which a heavy man is raised with the greatest facility. who saw it performed in a large party at Venice under the direction of an officer of the American navy. 125 pounds. . between the elbow and the wrist. because the muscles which separate the arms horizontally from each other are not so strong as those which bring them together. . Dr. without altering the bending of his leg. Strength of very strong men. 9. and those of the persons who raise him. a table six feet long. Desaguliers gives the following relative view of the strengths of individuals Strength of the weakest men. As Major H. he struck upon his bare left arm. I believe.THE MAGIC OF STRENGTH. 400 Strength of Topham. Hence Dr. This last feat was ihe most difficult. The feet of the table rested against his knees. Desaguliers saw him lift a rolling stone of about 800 pouuds' weight with his hands onh^ standing in a frame above il. which we have ourselves seen and admired. and the middle against the back of his neck. the method which he prescribed. 5. first shown in England a few years ago by Major H. and holding the ends of it in his hands. his legs being supported by the one and his m : . having fastened the other end of it to straps that went over his shoulder.

not succeed if the person lifted were placed upon a board. I have not had an opportunity of making any experiments relative to these but whether the general effect is an illusion. When he is replaced in the chairs. upon whose head a boy is sometimes placed with his feet upwards. then try to raise him. He conceived it necessary that the bearers should communicate directly with the body to be raised. On several occasions I have observed that when one of the bearers performs his part ill. from the difficulty they experience in supporting him. declared that the experiment would six persons. we can testif}^ how remarkable the effects appear to all parties. back by the At Venice. Four persons. . as if he were no heavier than a feather. "and the person to be lifted gives two signals by clapping his hands. periment. the experiment was performed in a much more imposing manner. Among the remarkable exhibitions of mechanical strength and dexterity. and when the inhalation is completed. or the result of known or of new principles.342 THE magician's own book. The simplest form of this feat consists in placing a number of men upon each other's shoulders. and the strength of the individuals applied to the board. or the lungs filled. To his owm surprise and that of his bearers. and they find his dead weight to be very great. At the first signal he himself and the four lifters begin to draw a long and full breath. each of the four persons takes hold of the body as before. The heaviest man in the party was raised and sustained upon the points of the fore fingers of Major H. the subject merits a careful investigation. w^e may enumerate that of supporting pyramids of men. otlier. for raising the person from the chairs. the part of the body which he tries to raise is left. curious facts . either that the load has been lightened. and how complete is the conviction. the second signal is given. behind. by making the inhalation out of time. This exhibition is a very ancient one. so that each row consists of a man fewer till they form a pyramid terminating in a single person. one at each leg and one at each shoulder. and have performed the part both of th^ load and of the bearer. or the bearer strengthened by the prescribed proc(^ss. he rises with the greatest facility. As we have repeatedly seen this exas it were.

MISCELLANEOUS CURIOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. as au. i. u. Till the soul sighs for sameness. o. a. — . many methods have been contrived to supply that defect by art the most material of which we shall here describe. the diphthongs that begin with the first four vowels. representing the remaining four Let the ten first digits. " Yoath loves and lives on change. or cypher. ou. The reader must have observed. let y stand for an 0. consonants also stand for the nine digits and the cypher. represent the first five digits. ie. and takes its place. let the five vowels. ea." AN ARTIFICIAL MEMORY. An artificial memory respects either figures or words for the former. which at last Becomes variety. it is necessary to have a good memory but as that is a gift every one hag not from nature. in the following table : a . e. as . that to perform sevora/ of the recreations in this book.

thus. or b. : . . suppose the twenty first lines of Pope's on Man. if it begins with a consonant. and to the first add a. which were in 1492. . the Battle of Bunker Hill. To remember any number of words. . if it begins with a vowel. if you would remember the dates of the discovery of America by Columbus. Construct a about fifteen tal p. . y. in the same manner. In like manner e or c to the second initial letter to the third add to the fourth o or f to the fifth u or g. the Declaration of Independence. for example. Or. 1775. Let it be fixed to the pedesIn each side o/ at the usual height of a man's head. &c. if you wovld remember ber of versep. select the initial letters of those words. \ii ho hu E5 me ed ]o cu Vva ]e hi e/ eg EJ Ca ec rz ho hw je wi '^ifgu Ga ge tliat gi go wu Ya. for 3400. suppose you would remember the names of all the kings of England since the Norman conquest in the order in which they reigned.we hi so \m E6 Ye. a b c d. the settlement of Virginia by Captain vSmith. and of every two words you make a verse for example.344 THE magician's own book. 1605. so that of i or d the five initials you make five syllables. When y seTeral cyphers come together. as well as similar cases. 1776. and for 256. you write as follows for you are to observe that in this. it is unnecessary to write it after the first time easy to remember — : Afouc hyh hen keag keah lag. instead of repeating you may write y or ?» 2. of inches every way. : Wo. 3. you then write as follows or n. which are joined together in one word then of tlie next five initials you make. box of wood. and 1815. write t/3/2.u write as follows the letters : begin any num- Essay AMeliioeg Taocedstflu Ahacodiotu Basewioffu. 1620.000. write ehun^. and the Battle of New Orleans. — . the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. another word. THE MAGICIAN'S MIRROR. when the first figure is always the same. of a cubical shape.

hes mirror. of an oval form.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. Decorate the openings in the side of this box with four oval frames and transparent glasses. The otMcr part. In this box place two jv a d. close. and at equal distances from the box. THE PERSPECTIVE iriRROR. and 12 in(. place the concave whose parallel rays is eighteen inches surface. Provide a box. a curtain so draw up . i b. as it will be very diflficult. must be covered with . this box let there bo an opening. Let them cross the box in a diagonal line. and then draw them up that the}^ may see themselves in the mirrors. instead of his own figure. in which a c d. yet they always appear to proceed in right lines. ten inclies high. if not impossible. At the end a c. Cover the tdp of the box. Place four persons in front of the four sides. and seven wide. that the mirror h may be entirely darkened. of about two feet long. but who will appear to him to be placed on the opposite side. a b wide. and cover each with contrived as all to together. the focus of from the reflecting blacked. when each of them. Their confusion will be the greater. for them The reason ot to discover the mirrors concealed in the box. against each other. this phenomenon is evident for though the rays of light may be turned aside by a mirror. fifteen inches high. and in 345 a vertical position. from a to i. hole is cut. At i l place a pasteboard. will see that of the person next to him. w_th their backs mirrors. sufficiently large to see on I A B the mirror h the object placed at b e f d.

THE MAGICAL GYROSCOPE. exhibiting such remarkable results in connection with rotary motion. placed in one of these cavities. with a thick lead rim. this wire being inserted in a heavy metallic base to give it solidity. and rapid motion imparted to This constitutes the the wheel like the spinning of a top. Although many of our readers may have seen the instrument. on the inside. so that the end of a cord may be thrust through. which is shown in Fig. The axis of wheel terminates in pivots. A^eut the inside place in succession. beneath which. b. landscapes. the appearance will be both w^onderful and pleasing. as the figure represents. to pro from being seen. four or five inches in diameter.345 glass. near the top of the side e b. 1. Now. that it has greatly puzzled most of those who have witnessed its strange performances. under which is placed a gauze or oiled paper. Make an aperture at g. THE xMagician's own book. by placing the wheel and its ring. yet from the numberless inquiries that have been made for the rationale of its peculiar feats. It consists of a brass wlieel. on the upper end . has been constructed lately. and if the subjects be properly chosen and well executed. or by wax-lights placed under the inclosed part of the box A I. A small hole is made in the axis of the wheel. and a small cavity is made on the under side of each piece. the cord wound around it. and also from the fact that we have not yet heard a solution that appears to be the true one. By this simple construction. Let the box be placed that the object may be strongly illuminated by the sun. the objects placed at G D will be thrown into their natural perspective. so that thej^ may be in front of the mirror h. figures. Two small flat pieces of brass (a and c) are soldered outside to opposite sides of this ring. so as to impart to the wheel when revolving rapidly ^^^^ sufficient momentum to cause it to spin for this ill A little instrument some minutes. paintings of vistas. \^hole of the apparatus. or circumference. we are induced to furnish a brief description and explanation of the whole. &c. so that the whole may rest on a pointed upright wire. set a circular ring at right angles to the wheel.

of the wheel. performing a steadj'. in any direction. throws all this swiftly flying matter into a different course. The combined motion of the forward part of the wheel both upward and to the left. we are not told. The slowly revolving. The true explanation is this 1. 3. and many explanations have been others attempted. c. So steady and uniform is this horizontal movement. and it be placed on the point at a. — . yes. but will move slowly around on the upright point. it is evident. as the arrows show in Fig. Now. cannot easily be done. the wheel will be found strongly to reso much S'>. This self-wgholding property constitutes the wonder and puzzle of the instrument. when the wheel is moving on horizontally around the pivot at a. and the hinder portion to the right. immediately fall by the force of gravity. to electricity it is the motion which keeps it from falling I understand it the centrifugal force " but why this it is the momentum result is produced by centrifugal force. that a sist any side or twisting movement novice will start. 2. The wheel when at rest.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. as shown in the figure. the wheel and ring would of course. But this is not so when it is made to spin rapidly if the ring is held in the hands. horizontal motion on the pivot at a is in a contrary direction to the spinning motion of the top In other words. attempt to alter its position. " Ah. . revolving horizontal motion. only one side being supported. the forward portion of the wheel flies upwards. This will be found to be always the case. it will not fall. and almost let it drop. there being no support at the other side. Some ascribe it to atmospheric influence while others confidently remark. supposing there is something alive in it or. that it generally suggests the motion of the planets round the sun. may of course be easily moved about so as to alter the position of its axis. and the back portion downwards. as long as the rapid rotary motion of the wheel continues. 1. — — — . as they sometimes remark " Why " This is owing it feels as if there was a snalie in the wheel to nothing but the strong momentum of i\iQlead rim (already described) tending to keep the wheel in its position for an . as represented in Fig. 2. I ! . which. But if a rapid spinning motion is given to the wheel by means of the cord already described. 34'» of the pointed wire. ip therefor© . : . the forward portion of the rim is continually moving to the left.

but inclined to the left. supported only at one end. through which the eye can view the objects. and on the pivot a. scrape the quicksilver off the glass.) tending to keep the wheel in its position. the downward momentum behind throws the bottom to the right. as in cut. or horzontally. as shown in gravity. In the same way. on the inside of this box.2 tendency of its momentum is to throw the top of the wheel also to the left. of course raises the wheel as it rests on the pivot a. and consequently to lift it upwards. Let there bo two grooves at each of the places c d e f. 4. In other words. eight inches wide. tends to draw it down(3. without altering this inclination or the same result takes place. The momentum of the lead rim. . Cover the box with gauze. . thus overcoming gravity. that shall exactly fit but at that end where the sight hole a is. and as gravity assumes a greater proportionate force. As a proof that gravity thus produces the onward movement when the wheel spins with the greatest rapidity. on the opposite hand. and the ^ig. and consequently has the greatest relative force to gravity. place a piece of looking-glass. this the spinning force of the wheel tends to throw it to the left. or any other dimensions you please. the horizontal movement is slowest bnt it continues constantly to increase as the motion of the wheel is retarded. and maintaining the wheel in its position. so they do not greatly vary from these proportions.. keeps it also in a uniformly horizontal attitude if placed by the hand. . Throwing the top to the left and the bottom to the right. is 5. : — . — THE ARTIFICIAL LANDSCAPE. of about a foot long. Procure a box. if inclined below the horizontal. as described in (1. not perpendicular!}^ upward. constantly tends to raise it.) ward the resultant (or mid-way) motion is therefore between them. The reason of the forward horizontal movement. to receiva . it will move around on the pivot at a. At each of its opposite ends. and six inches high. over which place a piece of transparent glass. the combined motion of the wheel on its axis. inclining upwards. 348 THE magician's own book. which is to be well fastened in.

The boards painted on both sides are to slide in the grooves c d e f. in very moderate weather it will be found to rise above it before rain. on both sides. as follow let there you On two pieces of pasteboard. gradually losing and be found well worth the pains beitself in obscurity stowed on its construction. : . be skillfully painted. When it is viewed through the sight hole. gardens. or of saltpeter. exactly where the plummet reaches. 849 two printed scenes. the box with its transparent top. and a plummet affixed to the end of it. as woods. that the mirror placed at b may not reflect the hole on the opposite side. and then hung against a wainscot. : &c. and to sink below when the weather is likely to become fair. the same subject on one observe also. and a line drawn under it. well dried a stand being placed under the scale so as to hinder it fulling to low If a line . and in the other a pound of salt. that is well dried. bowers. side only. But the best instrument of all. . houses.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. it will present and unlimited prospect of rural scenery. . and those painted on one side are to be placed against the opposite mirrors a and b then cover . EASY AND CURIOUS METHODS OF FORETELLING RAINY OR PINE WEATHER be made of good whipcord. and cut out all the white parts that there ought to be in one of them some object relative to the subject. in one of which let there be a brass weight of a pound. any subject think proper. placed at a. to have a good efiect. Tiiis box should be placed in a strong light. and on two other boards. is a good pair of scales.

about six inches long and twelve high. would make very sensible errors in the measure of a very long line. uniform piece of ground. Take a square box. the pores of the pine will absorb moisture from the atmosphere. and swell until the whole forms a bow. about twent}' inches long. accessible at the extremity a. so as to keep his head steady in one position. and with the same position of his hat.S50 THE magician's own book. he who line to . but cut along the grain. THE BOrXDIESS PROSPECT. and cut across the grain. the brass weight will regain its ascendancy. THE MAGICAL MEASURE. suppose the breadth of a small river. be measured must not be extravagantly long. and set them upright in a stand. one wide. and sink the the weather is growing fair. to take a strip of pine wood. Some time before rain falls. It is needless to say that the rods should not be painted or varnished. especially if the ground was very uneven. he has the length of the line proposed a b. The C A pretends to measure must stand very straight at the extremity A. He must pull his hat down upon his forehead till the brim of his hat covers from his view the inaccessible extremity b of the line to be measured a b. Another very simple method is. and a quarter thick. as c. which will straighten itself as fine weather approaches. it is When Bcale : when inclined to rain. of the same dimensions. Glue them firmly face to face. Then take a strip of cedar. the salt will swell. observe the point of the ground where his view terminates. and support his chhi with a little stick resting upon one of the buttons of his coat. or of any other proportionate dimensions. Cover the inside with four flat pieces of looking glass placed perpendicular . then he must turn himself to a level. then measuring with a line or chain the distance a c. or departure from an upright position. otherwise it w^ill be difiScult to measure it accurately for the least failure of a just aim. To measure then the line a b.

it will six. . as a piece of fortification. you will observe. however. tents. for instance. assume the action of a pendulum. : . and this may in some measure acbut to what cause its» count for the vibration of the shillinjs: However improbable it pear. a castle. the following experiment may aphas been proved by repeated trials Sling a shilling or sixpence at the end of a piece of thread by means of a loop. strike seven It is necessarj^ to observe. it will strike six and so on of any other hour. and thus suspend the shilling into an empty goblet. The four sides of this cover are to be composed of ground glass. observing to let it pass across the ball of the thumb. On the top. that the thread should lie over the pulse of the thumb. Oband if you find serve. so that the light may enter. . shilling is properly suspended. place a frame of glass shaped like the bottom of a pyramid. that the to attempt the experiment. &c. your hand must be perfectly steady it difiScult to keep it in an immovable posture. . : .MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. it will for a moment be stationary it will then of its own accord. will strike the hour nearest to the time of day. as in the figure. and without the least agency from the person holding it. vibrating from side to side of the glass. after a few seconds. it is useless Premising. and. and so formed as you to fit on the box like a cover. amusement. if the time be twenty-five minutes past if thirty-five minutes past six. and yet the inside be invisible. will afford a deal of tent : . hold the other end of the thread betwixt your fore finger and thumb. except at the top. or covered inside with gauze. soldiers. the inside will present a pleasing prospect of a boundless exand. if managed with care. to the flottom of the box. 351 Place at the bottom any objects please. Then resting your elbow on a table. that when it has recovered its equilibrium. which must be covered with transparent glass when you look through this glass. THE HOUR OF THE DAY OR NIGHT TOLD BT A SUSPENDED SHILLING.

THE ENCHANTED PALACE. double convex. tliese six triangular spaces. and which. PERFECTLY SAFE. WITHOUT ANY TROUBLE. eter. CONTRIVANCE FOR A WATCH LAMP. place little. rep . and six inches in diamIn the center of one of these sides is fixed a lens. which must join exactl}^ at the center. is fixed on a small proportionate table. that when it has struck the proper number. placed back to back. the body of which is confined on the outside. . tin. It consists of a stand. that at the same time serve to support the mirrors by grooves formed on their inner sides. On the six-sided plane a b c d e f of the figure. or any shining metal. a box of six sides. WHICH WILL SHOW THE HOUR OF THE NIGHT. Decorate the exterior boundary of this piece. striking the precise hour is to be traced. of at least three inches and a half diameter. lined with brass. The center of the side directly opposite to the lens is perforated so as to receive the dial-plate of the watch. and cover the edifice in whatevei In each one of ^^r^^aSJC manner you please.) with six columns. nine inches deep. TO A PERSON LYING IN BED. figures of pasteboard. (which is at the extremit}^ of the angles of the hexagon. the pillar of is which hollow. contained between two mirrors. draw six semi-diameters and on each of these place perpendicularly two plane mirrors. must be thin as possible. it acquires a kind of rotary motion. by means of a hollow When the box is lighted by a common watch-light. with three claws. Add to these columns their entablatures. the figures are magnified nearly to the size of those of an made ordinary clock. slide. remains unex plained for it is no less astonishing than true. as before. for the purpose of receiving a water canOn the top of the pillar. in relief. by dlestick of an inch diameter. its vibration ceases. . and at last becomes stationary.352 THE MAGICIAN S OWN BOOK. means of two hinges and a bolt.

as when seen in an hexagonal fornij will produce an agreeable effect. ornamented with chandeliers and figures. if they are of equal goodness. If it be a piece of silver that is not very thick. it is certainly false. This illusion will appear very remarkable. such as copper. and rest assured that it will sink deeper in the lighter than in the heavier water and so by observing the difference of the sinking. and put it into each of the two waters. or fir wood. When you TO KNOW WHICH OF TWO DIFFERENT WATERS OUT ANY SCALES. it is . the objects there contained. there is some othei metal mixed with it that has less specific gravity than silver. as a dollar or a half dollar. the specific gravity of which is less than that of water. you will know which is the lightest water. and two demi-bastions. especially if the objects chosen are properly adapted to the effect which the mirrors are intended to produce. take another piece of good silver of equal balance with it. S53 resenting such subjects. pine. If it is heavier than the other. the goodness of which you want to try. of equal purity.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS Ai\D FANCIES. and tie both pieces with thread or horse-hair to the scales of an exact balance (to avoid the wetting of the scales themselves) and dip the two pieces thus tied in water for then. which. If you place between two of these mirrors part of a fortification. IS THE LIGHTEST WITH- Take a solid body. as before observed. . all these objects being here mithltiplied. . all meet in the common center. that is. will seem entirely to fill up the whole of the building. and consequently the . will afford a very pleasing prospect. that is. KNOW n? A SUSPICIOUS PIECE OF MONET IS GOOD OR BAD. as a curtain. the place where the mirrors join. . and take particular care to conceal by some object that has no relation to the subject. for instance. beng reflected six times. most wholesome TO for drinking. 3'ou will see an entire citadel with six bastions or if 3^ou place part of a ball-room. look into any one of the six openings of this palace. To these add small figures of enamel. thc^'y will hang in equilibrio in the water as well as in the air but if the piece in question is lighter in the water thaD the other.

king of Syracuse. showing. but that. this experiment in some directions than in others. likewise l:ad. and as the alum dissolves iiwill assume the shape of a pyramid. Having done this. and a fine needle at the other. sent to Archimedes to know if the goldsmith had put into it all the eighteen pounds of gold that he had given him for that end. which combines first with the alum. The cause of the alum decreasing in this peculiar form is at first. in the present instance. the' solvent pow^r of the latter diminishes. as it wer*'. If the piece proposed is very thick. THE DANCIXG AUTOMATON Procure a piece of silk thread about six feet long. such as that crown of gold that Hiero.. take a piece of pure gold of equal weight with the crown proposed. cut out. then make a knot in the thread about ten inches from the end upon which the hook is fastened. the water dissolves the alum briefly as follows very fast. and pierce a hole through the center of the same just large enough to easily admit the needle. of the atoms of the alum resists the power of solution i. and without taking the trouble of weighing them in water. nearly terminated. becomes heavier by the union. The water. put them into a vessel full of water. although the water which it has dis: and placed from the bottom has risen to the top of the glass. if you closely examine the lump. not only that the cohesion in relief upon the mass . PYRAMID OF ALUM. eighteen pounds. beautifully illustrates the opposite action of cohesion and solution. You also procure a small pasteboard figure about four inches long. as being mixed with a metal of greater spe* cific gravity than silver. but as the alum becomes united with the water.354 THE magician's own book. such as lead. take a convenient opportunity ana" fasten the hook in the carpet . When the solution has is there acting upon the alum. and that which drives out most water must necessarily be mixed with another metal of less specific gravity than gold. as taking up more space.i the water. one after another. you will find it covered with geometrical figures.it resists it moro Indeed. though of equal weight. and fasten a small wire hook at one end. viz. where it ceases to dissolve any more. Put a lump of aliiio into a tumbler of water. and falls to the bottom of the glass.

US TRICKS AND FANCIES. : injury. You then can inform your audience that you intend to make the figure dance and keep time to any tune they may name You then slip the needle through the hole in the figure and throw it down on the floor. A PIECE OF ilONEY IN A WALNUT SHELL. with a bit of fine cotton thready at the part where they double (i. you will find. and. behind the table stoop to pick . e. This will make the figure about five intend to sit dance. This is an excellent trick for the parlor. exactly similar cing these cords at the edge. to keep it steady. you can hand it to the audience for examination. You then return to your table. will defy detection. Bend any thin coin. . so that they fall (apparently accidentally) to the ground. hand round two other pieces ot . that the metal will also be melted at the bottom of the shell. in length and appearance to those which you have prepared. and a little sawdust well sifted. THE INVISIBLE SPRINGS. WITHOUT INJURING THE SHELL. precisely alike in length double each of them separately. in form of a button. so that their ends meet then tie them together very neatly. and desire your company to examine them. with sufficient force to make it slip on the thread until it reaches the knot. when it is melted. TO MELT if well performed.MISCELLAM:t. When you are dle). but not tied. to the great astonishment of the spectators After you have continued this for a few minutes. being careful to retain the needle still in your hand. then whistle any air the company may suggest. and appear to beat time with your hands upon your knees. which will become hard when the burning matter round it is consumed the shell will have sustained very little . one part of flowers of sulphur. you must drop the needle and pick up the figure. and the automaton being free from the thread. and put it into half a walnut shell place the shell on a little sand. . 355 and a half feet from the chair upon which you while performing the trick. pla- cord. Take two pieces of white cotton cord. going to exhibit the trick. the midThis must all be done beforehand. when the needle will again slide through the hole in the figure. Then fill the shell with a mixture made of three parts of very dry pounded niter. If you then set light to the mixture.

in a loud voice. but take up the prepared ones instead. while somebody holds both your arms. with dexterity. and vice versa. and desire them to look for the springs in the rings. or the thread will break. the rings remaining in your hands. when they will pull hard. You may cause a ring to shift from one hand to another and make it go on any finger required on the other hand. and your trick be discovered. leaving to him the choice You then say that. which is likely to create much laughter. you state that this trick is performed by the rule of contrary. them up.»>66 THE magician's own book. and desire each to give you one end of the cord which he holds. whilst the strings will remain unbroken let them be again examined. the other ring fastened to the watch-barrel near the entrance of your sleeve. and give the two ends of one cord to one person to hold. which will break the thread. which fasten by a small piece of catgut string to a watch barrel. . and which may be had at anj" of the toyshops. recommending her at the same time to make a mark on it. and sew it to the left sleeve of your coat Take the ring that is given you in your right hand then putting. and with the other fingers preventing your assistants from separating the cords prematurely. and la}'' them on the table. to slack. and the two ends of the other to another. When the rings have undergone asufiScient scrutiny. You then take round for examination three ivory rings those given to children when teething. which you do. bringing the knot down so as to touch the rings and returning to each person the end of the cord next to him. pass the prepared double cords through them. they are to slacken. and that when you desire them to pull hard. that she may know it again. : THE FLIGHT OF THE RING. you will tie these two ends together. which yet had previously placed there. . . by attending it these instructions Desire some lady in company to lend you a gold ring. to make all fast. . During this : . During this time you are holding the rings on the fore fingers of each hand. draw it pri vately to the fingers' ends of your left hand. during their mistakes you at length desire them. as they are certain to make many mistakes at first. Do not let them pull hard. Request the two persons to approach each other. in order t© prevent communication between them. Have a gold ring of your own. are the best for your purpose.

Much dexterity is required in this trick. and the other end of the spread tho hair. After that. Tell any one to shuffle the pack. to the card chosen pack upon the table. 357 operation. make it jump from the pack about the table. After this operation. will cause the sand on its surface to form regular lines and figures with astonishing celerity. : be occupied to prevent your hands from communicating. held within a few inches of the membrane. then to lay it on the table. or that the mark is right. and fasten it dexterously on a little hook sewed for the purpose. with its face downward. to take off the upper card. Then at pleasure. and make the ring slip under the sleeve. and afterwards put it into the pack. and as soon as the answer has been given. show your ring. MUSICAL FIGURES RESULTING FROM SOUND. and. The spring which is in the watchbarrel. and make them remark that it is the same that had been lent to you. put a piece of wax under the thumb-nail of your right hand. hide the ring that has been lent you betweeL the fingers of your right hand. Cover the mouth of a wine glass. so that the deception may not be suspected. by slip the ring on it opening your fingers. which then ask the company on which hold in your left hand During this finger of the other hand they wish it to pass. . having a foot-stalk. The vibrations excited in the air by the sound of a musical instrument. put the before mentioned finger on the little hook. show the assembly that the ring is come on the other hand. will contract. and fasten a hair by it to your thumb. TO MAKE A CARD JUMP OUT OF THE PACK. on your waistcoat. being confined no longer. as their attention will . which vary with the sound produced. by the same means. not even those who hold your arms. without any body perceiving it. making use of any words you think fit. : THE TELL-TALE CARDS. but take care that you know where to find it This you may do by having forcpd it. interval. over which scatter a layer of fine sand.MISCELLANEOUfe TRICKS AN") FANCIES. in order to at that moment let go the other ring. and hidden by your coat. Let any person draw a card. and to notice it. with a thin sheet of membrane. and put so many cards upon it as will make up thir* teen with the number of spots on the noted card.

or your back is turned upon your turning round. bid him lay that card with its face downward. when the remaining fifteen will be the number of all the spots contained in all the bottom cards of the three heaps. calling it . . in all cases. which will be found to be the case. after which you will propose to one of the company to take . you throw aside the three top cards. . : . queen. without its being perceived. . &c. put them along with those which you previously rejected you now hand the three telltale cards to any person. knave. . counting the court cards as ten you must recollect that ten is. until he makes that heap up to thirteen then let him go to the next uppermost card. All this should be done either while you are out of the room. . let him lay it down on another part of the table. assuring him that the number of pips on those cards will be the same as those on the bottom cards of the three heaps. calling it eight upon the latter ai^ther. three or four which added together will make fifteen. . the number to be deducted from the cards remaining. and lay the next three on the table. and so on in the same way. the next two. calling it eleven upon that. For instance should there be a deuce. .358 : THE magician's own book. and to get them shuffled by whomsoever he pleases then make several pe:'sons cut them . he must lay it down. THE DOUELE DOZEN. twelve and upon that. until you ascertain how many cards they are we will suppose that you find twenty-five cards left deduct ten. : . face uppermost. and taking the other cards from which you selected the three. . calling it ten upon that let him lay another. and 80 on in the same way. calling it one. do not declare it at once. a five. lay them aside for a moment. . or ten. with their faces upward then throw away one. another. calling it thirteen then bid him take off the next uppermost card suppose it to be an eight. how many there are remaining. For instance if the card which the person first looked at was a king. then turn up one. you take the cards which "have been left your object being to count. another. . but select from those cards which lie on the table. desiring him to shuffle them well. and should the uppermost card be an ace. Having found that fifteen is the number of spots on the cards. Present a pack of cards to one of the company. calling it nine. . and so proceed to lay out the third parcel in the same way as the two preceding. and an eight.

and so on up to the kings. and take with them their implements fcft housebreaking (and upon each of the knaves j^ou lay a two. pack say. .. three. " Here are four houses (laying down the four aces separately). consequently. if you have been blindfolded and.. twentj^-tbree cards that is to say. which he is going to take up. exclusively. and eight). You say. from the bottom of the pack. then passing it behind your back. . or under the table. one less than the number you have stated the card thought of shall be place these twentj^-three cards on the top. will be the card thought of and so it will most certainly be. by attending to the following instructions. . . four. return tiie pack to the person who had thought of the card. and that. six. This being done. their husbands also return (laying a king up* Be sure and have ihe number you name greater than that of the card in the pack for instance. without asking any question of the person who has thought of the card. and remember it. the twos. THE HOTJSEBREAORS of cards. as if to smell it. by counting one. the number you have stated it shall be in the pack being twentyfour you return to the room. &c. 359 the pack and think of a card. The mistresses of the houses come home (laying a queen upon each of the heaps). seven. and place all the aces together. : — . to the one thought of offer to go into another room. he will be compelled to count fourteen. or desire the handkerchief to be removed. four. and apply it to your nose. There will then be thirteen different heaps. it will prove to be so Suppose the person who thinks of the card stops at thirteen. beginning by the number of the card he thought of. . and that the thirteenth card was the queen of hearts. which four knaves enter for the purpose of robbing (laying a knave upon each ace). ask only for the pack. while he is doing Now declare in what order the card shall be in the this. five. bringing their money with them (laying a nine upon each queen). or to be blindfolded. and likewise its order in the pack. MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS AND FANCIES. two. Shortly after. His card being the thirteenth. take.* . till he comes. . the threes. Take a pack first position of th« . iwenty-fou. for instance the twenty-fourth and. in case you had left it.is greater than tliirteen. requesting him to reckon the cards from the top of the pack. . . three. reminding him that the number 3''ou have mentioned is twenty-four. and you are to stop him Avhen he comes to twenty-three. the twenty-fourth card.

THE TAPE TRICK. Then paste a slip of paper or parchment to each of the painted leaves. in reality be tying them. and paint the same again. "Be hat over your hands . yet it will nevertheless appear to him that he is doing so. of course. and so on. of whatever thickness you please. on each queen). over the other. and set the thumb of your right hand upon the first of the parchment staj^s run the book through. placed side by side. This trick consists in suff'ering a person to tie your thumbs together tightly. and paint a group of flowers more leaves. until you have turned the book through to the end. taking care one side of the leaves is left white paper. but he will not. Turn the book over again. . . and say. you will find all the aces together. at the same time privately catching hold of the middle of the tape with your fourth and fifth fingers. Request him to place a then blow upon the hat. and it Afterwards. . and let as many persons cut them as please. and it will appear full of flowers then stop and. hold it in your left hand. and it will appear composed of blank paper. will. and tie them together again. When you use the book. which form four distinct heaps. : — . with the thumb upon the second slips of parchment. because you have hold of the tape. as you originally placed them. only a little lower down. appear full of parrots. Turn over seven leaves from the beginthen turn over seven ning. so as to make thirteen separate heaps. reverse the book. When this is done. one by one. blowing upon the book. if you commence at the top of the pacic. and so on. and then paste strips upon them as you did upon the Proceed in this manner until first. THE MAGIC BOOK Provide an octavo book of plain paper. and run it through as before. and lay the cards face downwards. and paint upon every sixth leaf a parrot. Then lay one heap cards. The mode Lay a piece of tape of performing this trick is as follows across the palms of your hands. letting then bring your palms quickly the ends hang down together. run it through again. Then direct any person to tie your thumbs together as tight as he pleases.560 THE magician's oWi\ book. and yet that you shall be able to release them in a moment. also bringing money with them" (laying a You have now disposed of all the ten upon each heap). the twos. you have painted the book full of pictures of various sorts. .

muslin. gently lay on needles. or linen. you say " Be tied. your thumbs will appear tied as at first. and they will float. about a quarter of a yard long. The operator commences his work by drawing the needle and the thread in it quite through the linen.MISCELLANEOUS TRIORS AND FANCIES. and the usual. direct You to remove the hat. and you may add to spirit of wine without causing the water to overflow. while a needle is threaded with a bit of thread of a similar length. which is fastened under the thimble. Fill its surface small fine THE KNOTTED THREAD. 361 loose. This must be done privately. After performing the trick." slipping your thumbs from under the tape . notwithstanding the knot." slipping your him thumbs under the tape again and when the hat is removed. Fill FLOATING NEEDLES. and the thread kept concealed. so that these two may appear to be the two ends of the thread. by a clever performance of this trick. The end of the piece that is fastened under the thimble is then knotted. and the performer begins to sew. may be occasioned among a party of ladies. A piece of calico. Considerable amusement. by moving his hand quickly after he has taken up the stitch. and show your thumbs free. then request the hat may again be placed over your hands. a needle is threaded in the presence of the spectators. and blowing upon it. to keep it secure. and be concealed between the forefinger and thumb the other should hang down nearly as long as. The thread in the needle must have one of its ends drawn up nearly close. lest it be detected. made at the extremity of one of the ends of it. It is most frequently performed by a female. . and continues to make several stitches in like manner successively. not unmixed with wonder. is turned once round the top of the middle finger of the right hand. : . convey the tape away. upon which a thimble is then placed. . or even a double or treble knot. a cup with water. it a glass to the brim with water. The mode of performing this seeming wonder is as follows A bit of thread. is taken in the left hand. MORE THAN FULL. and by the side of the thread. but the effect of it is considerably increased when it is displayed by a youth.

Put into one of them a portion of wine or colored liquid. figure. he can just see at the spot where he is able to do this he makes a the top mark on the ground to the base of the tree this distance . at the bottom of your three first fingers. showing the elasticity of air. experiment. a bladder. and place the apparatus under the exhausted receiver of an air-pump. a man proceeds from its base to a point where. To ascertain the height of an object a peculiar method of measurement is in use among the Isthmus Indians. so that they may be but and observe. in which are two separate compartments. is fastened around the figure. In measuring the height of a tree. It represents a figure of Bacchus sitting across a cask. the dime and the quarter eagle will appeal . and produce an apparent increase in the bulk of the figure. will be equal to the height. then rivet a quarter eagle and a quite thin at the edge dime together. into the mouth of the Bacchanalian To render the experiment more striking. and grind part of them away. on turning the back towards it. that they must be half the common thickness . . THE TRANSPOSABL':- PIECES. is performed with a pleasing toy. when the air in the bladder will expand. on one side only.362 THE magician's own book. This CURIOUS METHOD OF MEASURING THE HEIGHT OF A TREE. and lay the other piece with the quarter eagle upwards in like manner. when the elastic force of the confined air will cause the liquid to ascend a transparent glass tube (fitted on purpose). with tho dime upwards. you naturally turn the pieces over. and putting the head between the legs. and covered with a loose silken robe. for instance. THE BACCHUS EXPERIMENT. Take two quarter eagles and two dimes. in the other hand Let the company take notice in which hand is the quarter Then. on the palm of your hand. Lay one of these double pieces. . hands. as you shut your eagle. and in which is the dime. It will appear as though he actually passed the knotted thread through the cloth. and when j^ou open them again. to have changed their places. with a small quantity of air therein. as if occasioned by the excess of liquor drunk.

and iron how to keep the eyes.000 at six and of all weights and measures seven per cent . Price $1. gilt. and other fancy employments for the ladies to establish acquaintances according to the rules of etiquette to enjoy an hour at curious puzzles and arithmetical questions to do up a neat parcel to relieve the invalid to acquaintyourself with the technical terms in literature. or cut an acquaintance to get up a — — dinnerparty. but the whole are fresh and new.. or any other populur grame. Besides all this information and we have not all —how to —and —how to compose kinds of from the —how to clean furniture. or dine abroad to play at cards. cloth. .besides innumerable tables on interesting and curious subjects. As a book to keep in the family for reference. or Wax work. bil- — — all — room to give an idea of a hundredth part of it it contnins so many valuable and useful receipts that an enumeration of them requires SEVENTY-TWO COLUMNS OF It is FINE TYPE FOR THE INDEX. Send cash orders to DICK & FITZG-ERALD. It contains tables Interest Tables from $1 to $10. or arrange a plain dinner—^to fold fancy napkins to start business to make money to tie any kind ofaknot to to dress with taste to conduct a courtship to behave wellin get married to give an evening party to your friends company to Iceep house properly to dance to make ornamental vases. and write corrrctly let-doux to the business letter animals fradulent scales about the properties and uses of different medicines. No. teeth. 18 Ann Street. law. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . Y. or at a public meeting. or among your friends. and complexion in perfect ordei how to punctuate. hair. chess. comprising as it does all kinds of Books of Information in a single volume. take care of pet measure kinds of mechanics^ work—how to detect all letters. or at a private assembly. spell. of 436 pp. to do every usefid thing that can be thought of or imagined. by the new art of Potichomanie.— Know i OYER 3. and suited to the present times. title A large Vol.— whether you wish to establish yourself in life according to the rwZes — ofetiquette to get up a sumptuous entree for the dinner table. it is unequaled.— INQUIRE WITHIN For Anything You Wish to —OB. no collection of ancient sayings and receipts. It gives complete directions how to wa^h. N.700 FACTS FOR THE PEOPLE. as its imports. Sent free of postage. or on your farm. will give you correct information on ! every possible subject that you ever heard or thought of It tells you howto cook a dinner to cure a sick friend. starch. Indeed this is really and truly one of the most wonderful and valuable books ever printed. or in your business. whether at home or abroad. and m£dicine in short. This Book. or bi your garden.

cloth." &c. supply all the " Reasons " which the human iniud has discovered for the varied and interestingphenomena of Natui'e and for events. By the au- Why do dogs turn around tiro or three times before they He down 7 Why do birds often roost upon one leg 7 This volume answers about 1.! tffE ^-EASON . The Gardener's and Farmer's Reason | TfILL BE : -7^' ^. gilt. and executed with the most conscientious care embracing the very essence of demonstrative truth and inductive reasoning must become as widely difiiised as the language in which they are written. I The Geological Eeason Why.bellished with a large number ofwood cuts. in Such a series. printed on fine paper. — — The Reason Why General : Science. A book of condensed scientific knowledge for the million. and em. The Chemical Eeason Why. Price One Dollab. when completed. THE FOLLOWING BOOKS OF THIS SERIES ARE IN PRESS. and a Guide to Fcamily Scripture Readings. J The Grammatical Reason Why. and the Acts of his Apostles. are imperfectly understood. gilt side Price Onb Dollar. of 356 pages. EXAMPLE. WHY SEfijj^ These useful works will. Beautifully illustrated. Why did the. and their consequences. Why : Natural History.325 similar questions. thor of "Inquire Within. Reason Why. which. and assigned by the most eminent Divines and Christian Philosophers. Price One Dollar. The Biblical Reason Why : A Hand-Book foe Bib- lical students.400 similar questions. entirely origfinal in their relig"ious and civil history. bound in cloth. Why does silver tarnish when exposed to the light 7 Why is the sky blue 7 This volume answers 1. EXAMPLE. By the author of "Inquire Within. first patriarchs attain such extreme longevity J Why is the Book of the Prophecies of Isaiah a strong proof of of the whole Bible 7 This volume answers upwards of 1. This work gives Reasons. 12mo. EXAMPLE. founded upon the Bible. AND ISSUED IN RAPID SUCCESSION The Denominational Reason Why. . the authenticitjf The Reason and back. tliough generally known. Each work is complete in itself. large 12ra i. 1^ . A careful col- lection of some thousands of reasons for things.500 similar questions. illustrating the various subjects treated of." " The Biblical Reason Why. gilt side and back. This work assigns reasons for the thousands of things thatdailyfall under the eye of the intelligent observer. By the author of "Inquire Within." &c. and of which he seeks a simple and clear explanation. plan. Giving Reasons for hundreds of interesting facts in connection with Zoology. The Housekeeper's ^ ." It is a handsome 12nK) volume. and throwing a light upon the peculiar habits and instincts of the various Orders of the Animal Kingdom. The Botanical Reason Why. for the great and all-absorbing events recorded in the History of the Bible. T^e Astronomical Reason Why. cloth. the Irtfe of our Saviour.

j . Things that ought 'is III. In the present work. Father's Book. Cloth. 1 I I i Comprising the Marvellous and Rare. stupendous waterfalls. the whole forming a complete Encyclopedia of Useful Knowledge. Gardener. before the'/ lie a large maTte ? wJien hunting for fsh. nnd Ihro-tt'ing a light upon the peculiar habits and instincts of the various Orders cf ha Animal Kingdom. the clothes we -wear. goce period. 18 Ann Street. the chamber or the boudoir. as well as from Literature. " .. It is impossible to read the volume through. i 10. but well instructed. Eccentric and Extraordinary. AUTHOR OF 'LTEX OF NEWTON. 'Vhether iu the iF«rlor or the kitchen. Phygiolofn". and itrike tcilht lieir hind feet ? Why docs the wren build several ncsls. lie on Why have flatfishes their upper sides dark. A Complete Master's Book. A Comp'eti Servant's Boo7. *cPro*tisely Ulustrated. rather predominate . OR. Gilt Side and Back. tcTien against the stream ? Whj do dogn tarn around tuio or three tim's hreatldn. of " Inquire Within. TT EXAMPLE. and facts frvJL Mb Art« and Sciences. includiu^ many Wonders of the World. Things not generally known. free of postage. The Corner Cupboard By Large the Attihor . Cook. Price One Dollar. without feeling. uot onlv that you ha7e been well entertained. Cloth. Family Doctor. A Frifm/J at Everyl>ody\« EU>ow in It tells about the food we consume. The " Comer Cupboard" is A A A A A A A Complete Complete Comi>lde C'miphte Comp'ete Complete Complete O'nfectinner. enriched with Hundreds of Authentic Illustrations. PLAIN TEACHINGS.' The Reason Why: Natural History. Odd. beautiful landscapes. swim Why do birds often rorst vpon one lerj f do frogs keep their mouths dosed wJdle cats. Commerce. i 12mo. M. Gilt Side and Back.\ A Complete Amusement Book. 400 pages. Manufacture. Vrhj/ Ay has the lion such Why dues the otter. Quaint. Anatomy. S&vr York. or. It contains not a and yet. Nature and Science. Gilt Side and Back. i Complete Ladi/^s Booh. ' j 1 j ji : ' from Nature. the honse -we live in. ' &C. EY THE AUTHOR OF "INQUIRE -WrrHIN. ." "THE BIBLICAL REASON VTSY '* "REASON WHY OF GENERAL SCIENCE. "The Treason TFAy. Things worth knowing. Time of 17'eed." <fcc. but occu- inq vyihthem pies only one? This volume answers about 1500 similar questions. Illustrated ^rltH over One Thousand Engravings. Facts for Everybody. at home or abroad. i j ' Copies of either of the above books sent to any address in the United States or Canada.000 ¥OIDERFTJL THINGS. and their vruler sid^s white ? down ? Why do sportivq point?'" dcgsmalie what is termed " a backs. i. in Art. it may be very appropriately called the Family's Eeady Adviser. in all Ages and Nations. seize the hand of the person playvriih their fore pates. Price $L I Giving reasons for hundreds of interesting facts in connection "with Zoolo^. in every page is amass of material ! lino thatthe nicest judgment could pronounce obnoxious to create both surprise and laughter. ' EDITED BY EDMUND FILLINGHAM KINO.q? Why do titeir being played \ciih. Mother^s Booli^ Family Book. interesting scenes . 12mo. Clotli. costume. A." l^Szuo. PniCE ONE DOLLAR." "THAT'S IT. Curious. tho Ofcrdea «nd Field. and sublime sea pieces. A Complete GirV s Bool:." Ac. curiosities of art. A C mplele Gentleman's Loo A Complete Boy' s Bnoli. be known. and customs of a bybut we hare devoted many of its pages to descriptions of remarkabJe occurrences. Send cash orders to }^W I jj DICK & FITZGEEALD. Embracing Facts about I. 11.

and embellished with a large number of Wood Cota. We S16 JPages.ICIi: yilF'TY And sent to CENTS. Clotb. and books in eencral. others yellow.325 similar questions. containing examples of ONE THOUSAND MISTAKES Of daily occurrence in Speaking. silver tarnish -when exposed to the r Why does light 7 do some colors fade and others darken when exposed to the sun ? | Why What develops electricity in the clouds 7 This volume answers 1. EXAMPLE. ' Thb Reason Why" is a handsome 12mo volume." ia reipect to scientific facta. P»I?. Punctuation. Composition. GENERAL %. in. and of -which he seeks a simple and clear explanation. periodicals. Bound. Writing. does lightining sometimes appear red. THOUGH GENERALLY KNOWN. bound in cloth. N. been wanted by those who entertain the wish alluded to in the title. &c. free of i>08tage- Live and Learn A GUIDE TO ALL WHO WISH TO SPEAK AND WRITE COERECTLY. with explanations of Latin and French words and pli rases of frequent occurrence in newspapers. Y.. I is This Work assigns Ebasons. ISxno. of 350 pages. be generally consulted.. this wonderful book ic plan of the book and its execution leave nothing to be desired. 18 Ann Street. . of Reasons A CAREFUL COLLECTION OF Some Thousands ^ooK FOR THINGS WHICH. ai Canbenstij Smnltfit ^nofelebgt iat i\t ^. The work is altogether useful and indispensable. BY THE ATJTHOB OF "INQUIBE " Wlkst H«ydn'» Dictionary of Dates ' ' WITHIN". and as deserving to [Tribune. The in regard to Hiatorlcal events. ARE IMPERFECTLY UNDERSTOOD. at others white 7 does dew form round drops on the leayes of plants 7 Why is the sky blue 7 at Why Why iy Copies Mailed to any address in the United States or Canada. for the thousands of things that daily fall under the eye of the intelligent observer. together with detailed Instructions for Writing for the Press. or even the ripe scholar. '• Church of England Monthly Rerlew.. printed on fine paper. have attentively couned its paces." "Such a book as this has long It is suitable for all clashes. and Pronunciation. to any address Free of Postage. and forms of articles in the various departments of Newspaper Literature. Particularly intended as a book of reference for the solution of difficulties connected with Grammar. gilt. Send Cash Orders DICK & FITZGERALD. reviews. and can recommonded i t as one of the best works of reference for the young student. The Reason Why: SCIENCE. illustrating the various subjects treated of.iUion.

. 1. besides. etc. And intended as a source of Amusement for gilt side ONE THOUSAND AND ONE EVENINGS. sent free of postage. etc. Gilt Side Large 12mo. Here is a book for the Ions winter evenings. a great many new and interesting ones — the Cloth. etc. whole being described so accurately and carefully. . ever known or invented. and gives. With an endless variety of Entertaining Experiments in Drawing-Room. NEW YOKK. A Book which explains ail the Tricks and Deceptions with Playing Cards. Uj the Author of "The Sociable. containing over One Thousand Optical. — The whole IllTistrated with over 500 "Wood Cuts. j | DICK & FITZGERALD. that nnvrprsnn can c-'inprehend and perform f hem with ease. that anybody can easily learn how to practise thes^ Tricks. cloth. and back stamp. Celebrated Card Deceptions. Amusing & Interesting Sleight-of-Hand & Legerdemain Tricks illustrated with Ever invented. Natural Magic. of every description and they aro all explained so clear and explicitly. Astonishing Sleights and Subtleties. and one that will make all merry and happy. Own Book. Price One Dollar. Being a Complete Hand-Book of Parlor Magic. Engravings to make each trick tmder- The Magician's Own Book THE WHOLE ART'oF CONJURING. ILLUSTRATED 1VITH OVER 300 ENGRAVINGS. 400 pages. full and easily understood explanations of some T-wo Hundred and Forty of the most Curious." etc. OR. 18 ANN STREET. including the celebrated Science of Second Sight. Amusing Transmutations. Magnetical. This book contains. anyoneof which will aff)rd ainnseinint enough for a whole evening" Copies sent to any address free of postapre. Price OXE DOLLAR. Ingenious Tricks with Numbers." "The Magician's Theatricals. in addition to its numerous Card Tricks above described. Curious and Entertaining Puzzles together with all the most Noted Tricks of Modern Performers. and which are stood with ease.000 TRICKS WITH CARDS AND OTHER RECREATIONS.The Secret Out. It contains over a THOUSAND TRICKS." "Parlor and Back. Amusements in Chance. and Magical Experiments. Together with a choice collection of Intricate and Puzzling Questions. Chemical.. It also contains numerous CURIOUS PUZZLES. or White Magic. And containing clear and comprehensive explanations how to perform with ease all the Curious Card Deceptions and Sleight-of-Hand Tricks extant. Send Cash Orders to 12mo. with patterns showin<» how they are done.. Mechanical. with engravings to illustrate them.

so as to be an center-table. Many of these Games— the majority of them are extibelt new. amply illus- BEAUTIFUL WOOD ENGRAVINGS Which render explain all the Contrivances things difficult It is elegantly the Text clear. $1. GAMES OF ACTION. THE WHOLE BEING A FUND OF NEVER-ENDING ENTERTAINMENT.00. bound in cloth. as a book of reference on all matters of Amusement and Recreation. with gilt side and back stamp. PubUshers... nnrlh. Games requiring Memory and Attention. free of postage. iJ. Send cash orders to DICK & FITZGESALI). including Acting Proverbs. Acting Charades. so that its name may be familiar as a "Household Word" in all families. Nearly 400 pages. sent to any % Llrcss ia the United States. Each department trated with is AMUSEMENTS OF HOME. OR DRAWING-ROOM PANTOMIMES. or Catch Games Forfeits Puzzles Fireside Games lorWinter Evenings. CONTAININO ACTING. OR. Social Clubs.'llo\vs Parlor Theatricals. One Thousand and One Home Amusements. stamp. there must be a steady and permanent demand for it at all seasons and in all years. \although few of the so-called "Holiday Books" arc as appropriate for Gifts a's The Sociable. Street. It is to render it a complete and invaluable vade mecum of Domestic Amusements. and other to describe in writing. gilt side The Sociable" will be found one of most extensively popular familybooks ever issued from the press. Games of Action. They have spared neither trouble nor expense TABLEAUX VIVANTS. 18 Jkxin. etc. it is a collection— a complete repertoire— o[ the THE ONLY BOOK OF THIS KIND Ever Published in America. . MUSICAL BURLESQUES. TABLEAUX VIVANTS.nbracing a large and comprehensive list of recreative pastime. and fully Puzzles. &. and Science in Sport. And as it will be invaluable to Families. also. " the 12nio.PROVERBS. south. Dramatic Charades and Tableaux Vivants. DRAMATIC CHARADES. must meet with the fullest success. Schools. the Mechanical mentioned. to supply that want.. arranged as f. Which were prepared expressly for THIS WORK. bound. By the author of "The Magician's Own Book. — ornament to any and its PARLOR THEATRICALS typographical execution is a specimen of the highest excellence. and Parlor Magic. Games requiring Wit and Intelligence Ruses. . PARLOR GAMES. . ACTING CHARADES. as are." Illustrated with nearly 300 Engravings and Diagrams. where the value of wholctomg and innocent recreation is Price only One Dollar. FORFEITS. SCIENCE IN SPORT AND PARLOR MAGIC. . Everything in the book is superior of its kind— the greatest care hiving been taken to exclude everthing thnt ^^'as not above the standar-l of mediocrity in interest and ingenuity. and the pubishers believe that this endeavor on their part. Ne^w "STorlc. cnst and west. AND A CHOICE COLLECTION OP CURIOUS MENTAL AND MECHANICAL PUZZLES. The need of such a collection of HOME GAMES has long been felt. As its title implies. Cloth.c.: A Book of Hever-Ending Entertainment. THE SOCIABLE. the .

Price $1 26. In short. j A for handsome volame of 335 pages. Convivial and Comic Songs. including Dinner Speeches. Satirical. It has also an American Code of Etiquette and Politeness for all occasions — Model Speeches. Dollars' M^ortli. and a complete Etiquette of the Dinner Table. the above to Books sent St. TO WHICH ADDED Music and Necessary Performance of tlie most Modern and Improved Dances. ETIQUETTE AND <fcc. By EDWAKD FEKREEO. modern accomplishments which have become almost a It gives directions how to use Wine at Table. Affections. and Miscellaneous Songs. but all it contains minute Instructions j Gentlemen in those necessity in this age of refinement. Price Si 00. Dinners or Popular Gatherings. Patriotic and Military Songs. with directions how to deliver them—Duties of the Chaira Forms of Preambles and Resolutions. Author of " Handy Andy. engraved by the celebrated Dalziel." 6ic. MornI. G-uide IS and Instructor.. &c. Ball Hints on Etiquette Room . It is a choice book that any gentleman willfind a valuable addition to his library. Gilt Side and Back. Hints on Etiquette. will give man man Art of Dancing without a Master Or. The MUSIC alone. Wit and Conver sation at Table. 18 Ann Street. Tlie Figures. and Ten DOLiLAR. would cost ten times the price of the book. T. N. to any address tn the United States free of post- Send cash orders DICK FITZGERALD. The whole forming the most valuable and useful melange for the centre-table of the drawing-room ever published. . Embracing Sonss of the B^* Copies of age. not only a valuable book of reference.. if purchased in separate sheets at any of the music stores. tlie Fignres and Steps of all Dances. Arranged for the Piano Forte by the most celebrated Professors. Sentimental. Thus you can obtain a History of Dancing. Edited and Annotated by SAMUEL LOVEK. 12mo. Embellished with numerous fine Illustrations. &c." "Legends and Stories of Ireland. of the Clxoicest Music ^ FOR ONK SONGS OF IRELAND. also. Or. beautifaUy boiuid and This is gilt. at Public Meetings. Historical and Political Songs. Esq. Toasts and Sentiments. We expect to sell at least cue hundred thousand copies of this work. Professor of Dancing at West Point. Cloth. tlie Instruction for By the aid of which any "ne can attain a knowledge of the Art of Dancing without a Master. or at Parties. The Perfect Gentleman. This work also contains ONE HUNDRED AND FIVE PAGES OF THE CHOICEST MUSIC." "Rory OMore. A Book of Information and Instruction for those wlio desire to become Brilliant or Conspicuous in General Society. this book every possible information he may desire to enable him to appear to good advantage in either public or private life. and the price is correspondingly low. EEOCtUEI^CE. -with rules forjudging the quality thereof —Rules for Carving.

price 25 . Send Cash Orders to DICK & FITZGERALD. ^ . remedies for love.r. Sam Slick in England.. With specimen Love Letters. cutting. ncyings over the world. . and how Love Letters should bo directions ahont pickin' and choosin' of them. 12mo. but especially relating to all cir- cumstances connected with Love.ry intercourse. Snyings and Doings practice upon their unwary dupes. Paper $0 50 Cloth. Bridal Etiquette A Sensible Guido . in the parlor. It gives the experihero see how easily they can bo swinences of the Yankee Clockmaker. for Ladies and Gentlemen containing rules for good behavior at the dinner table. or. 12mo. together Avith numerous examples of Letters and Notes on every suliject of EpistoIr. or. Code of Gallantry.. Made Easy. Largo 12mo. Paper This work contains one hundred Cloth price 1 00 tricks wi'ili cards. aphorisms of love. ''. Pailcs for Punctuation and Spellings «5:c. 18 Ann St. . Sara Slick's Sayings and Doings.. and price the art of conversation. and the necessary rules for bridesmaids. Reformed Gambler. groomsmen. who has been thrice a widower married.. . and dled by dealing. rules for Sam Slick's Nattiro and Human £0 telling the characters and dispositions Nature. There is a book called ''Tlie Horse. Simplified. How 13 The Ladies' Love Oracle sellor to the Fair Sex. explained.50 . and shuffling the incidents that occurred in his jourcards.' Tricks with Cards 'Exprice 1 00 Cloth posed and Explained. of Iho famous Sam Slick. DICK & FITZGERALD'S LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. By Madaji Le Marchand. Chesterfield's Art of Letter-writing A Guide to Friendly. Polite and Busincs Cor. Containing also a Treatise on the general qualifications necessary for Marriage. Sain Slick in Search of a Wife. Epistolary Code. Y. &c. prico Pap. . ing hovf to v. N. with several Important Hints on Love Letters... H. price Containing a large collection oftho most valuable information relative to the Art of Letter-Writing." . . why and "TJio Do^'. Paper 60 Gamblerr. and the proper age and condition for Wedlock.. price 1 00 more and situations of life. with important hints on introduction. but is still young enough to be an especial favorite of the ladies. 13 B^~ Anv Book on this List will be sent to any address in tlie United States or Canadfc. Illustrated cover. or. Vv-ilh clear and oomplcte instructions hov/ to begin and end Correspondence. sendprico ing cards. Free of Postage. . printed in colors. price Jr. respondence." and so on shoukhi't there be one on "The Gals?" They are rJ. &c. Large 12ino." and ho has given his opinion on ahnost cvcrythirp. 12mo. Paper price 1 00 of women. price $0 25 Es-erybody has heard of "Sam Slick.d to manage of any created critter. Buy this book if you want many good he-^rty laughs.. Afiectionato. - 13 By Harry Hazen. . and in the street. and an Cloth." and another "The Cow. By J. . written. 25 How How Miscellaneous Books. The Attache . Courtship and Marriage. This book conlnins liis opinion about ''Cour^ tin the Gals!" and his laughable adventures after fhc petticoats. events Judge Haliburton's Works.. - price 13 Courtship the Mysteries of Making Love Fully Explained.. with directions showon 3Iatrimony. also of Courtship. &:c. and shows This is the most amusing collection the numerous cheats which Gamblers of the Opinions. the Clockmaker. The Spirit ci Etiquette : A complete guide to Polite Society.^out the most difficult to choose ar..an the favor of Ladies. . ^. Paper. Green'. to the Eticjuette and Observances of the Marriage Ceremonies containing complete directions for Britlal Receptions. 13 and tlicro ai::t any dcpcndablo Containing conciEo rules for the conduct of Courtship through its entire progress. that has ever The uninitiated will stare when they been published. plete Fortune Teller to all and Interpreter questions upon the different to Behave or.. how to begin and end a Courtship. .. CounBeing a com. together with his observations on men and things in to "Woo to Win and Containing Rules for the Etiquette containing his opinions general. Ij it any wonder then so many fellows pet taken in when they go for to swap hearts with them ? The Lawa A Completo of Love.

. By Charles White. ingly comic engravings.DICK & FITZGERALD'S LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. Transactions of Learned Societies. . new stories. price .. Valentine's Lectures. quizzihle. on from designs from John Leach. Funny Adventures. with Specimens of Eloquence.Wikoff. $0 50 tinted i)aper. Bioicn. some thirty of the most amusing articles -we have ever perused. Witti- cisms. provoking. Queer ConunLaughable Adventures of Messrs.. All fond of aliearty laugh." of which students at Old Yale have been guilty for the last quarter of a century. but with wisdom and pathos. Ac. Fox.. hundred of the most risible. N. and all other serious complaints. - - - price 1 00 The Extraordinai*y and MirthProvoking Adventures by Sea and Land. tho first and only work of tho Containing a l:ind ever published.price 25 This is a book of 114 pages. and how they tences. It will be found a and fresh complete antidote to ''hard times. By Dr. gilt price 1 00 comprising a collection of over 500 Laughable Stories. tho favorite delineaters. as told by the celebrated Ethiopian Comedian.. Charley White's Ethiopian Joke Book. 94 pages price 12>^ Comic Songs. An Encyclopedia of Wit. price 25 a series of nearly two Dr. Send Cash Orders to DICK & FITZGERALD. Animal Jlngnetism. Cloth. Faces. portraits. 18 Ana St. The whole being a most went. Cloth. . Valentine in his most celebrated characters. and Darkey Conversations.price $0 25 Dashes of American Humor. redolent with not only huraor. Comprising Comic Lectures on Heads. Ornamental Paper Cover 50 hundred Comical Engravinjrs. showing his heart-rendand most wonder- The Comic Wandering Jew. Being a perfect Casket of Fun. Large Octavo.. and near 600 side-extending jokes. Valentine's Comic Lectures. this List will be sent to any address in the United States or Canada. Laughing' Gas. Embellished with numerous Illustrated with over one Knife. astounding. price 12^ phoscs. Stories. Stories. showSublime Jokes and Sentimental Sening where they went. here is amusement for many a merry hour. Mouths. containing accounts of nil the noted and famous "Scrapes" and "Sprees. Morsels of Mirth for the Melancholy. what they did. Illustrated with twelve portraits of Dr. Noses. A certain cure for the Blues. Full of Fun and containing 100 Humorous engravings - price 25 ^F* Anv Book on Free qf Postage. Comic Poetry. Dr. With nearljr 200 most thrillLargo Octavo price 25 to laugh. sauq^ and spicy cuts ever gathered within the leaves of £^ny one book. gilt. Jokes. Wisdom and Wind.. With numerous laughable illustrations. etc. of Oscar Shanghai. — all new. Witty Sayings. paper cover. and " . Delineations of Eccentric Chirac. Funny engravings. Jr. Being the second series of Dr. Jones and Robinson. and other tliinc-s to get fat on and tho best of it is. Containing a large collection of Laughable Anecdotes. and how they perfect portfolio for those who love did it. tor of Eccentric Characters.. Valentino's Comic Metamor18mo.. Cloth. the happiest days and most innocent recreations of our youth arc here recalled. 320 pages. Illustrated with 200 comic engraviogs . Illustrated by nearly 200 comic engravings All told in This -work contains in its 320 pages. The Comical Adventurer of David Dufficks. Illustrated with over 100 25 Yale College Scrapes or How tho Boys Go It at New Haven. peculiar. 12mo. "Witticisms. that everything about tho book is new . A Budget of "Wit and Humor or. ful love adventures with Fanny Elssler and Miss Gambol. gilt -1 00 Ornamented paper cover - price 60 Black "Wit and Darkey ConversatioTis. .-. Comical'y illustrated with 100 original and laui hable engravings.-. with characters as given by tlie late Yankco Chips from TJncle Sam's Jack Hill. 18mo. etc. new type— no comic almanac stuff." price 25 Sly- The Courtship of Chevalier ing. By Sam Slick. drums. Valentine. price 25 . Terrific Puns. full cxposo of all tho most laughablo Jokes.. W. Y. Charles White. etc. new designs..

Large 12mo. Henning. Quibbles and QueMerry Songs for ries. THE BOOK OF One Thousand Comical Or. Bon Mots and Broadgrins. from drawings by Darley. Tenniel. more than a Million Laug^liSt and ifvith 800 Comic Cuts. Funnv Conundrums. having been several years in preparation. . a Pleasant Companion for Winter. By the author of " Mrs.The Harp OR. Conundrums for the Million an inexhaustible store of Nuts to Pastimes for all Seasons forming a Welcome Guest for Crack. $1 00. N. Cheek-extending Poetry. a Jovial Host for Autumn. Side-splitting Jokes. Day in the Year. — Appropriately JUtistrated with 300 Comic Engravings. Bound in Paper. and a varied Feast of Mirth for Everybody's Enjoyment. to And peculiarly prepared 400 Page3 It contains of the produce prolific very quintessence of HUMAN WIT. Illustrated The pictures are all original. Meadows. Cruikshank. Hine. designed by some of our best artists (including Darley). Heart-rending Puns. Witty Repartees. B3~ Copies of either of the above Books sent free of postage. To those fond of Fun it will be a treasure. Price 50 Cents? Cloth. Illustrated with over 150 of the most laughable enj^ravings ever designed. Epigrams. Y. In offering this book to the public.000 of the most Comical Stories. Doyle. Illustrated with 200 fine Cloth. we must caution all weakly and nervous people against buying it. &c. with several courses A rich Banquet for Every BILL OF FARE : Comprisinsj Tales of Humor. Leach. etc. WAGGERY PEALS OF LAUGHTER. Oddities. Stories and a dessert.. and grow fat. Price One Dollar. and bound in and back stamp. Crowquill. with gilt side Comic Engravings. ENDLESS REPAST OP PUN. DICK & FITZGEKALD. and the collection of droll conceits and queer stories is unsurpassed. Comical Conceits. <fcc. Laughable Anecdotes.. to any address in 18 the United States. Ann Street. Mrs. Cloth. . is most Mirth-Provoking Literature ever printed. Puns and Pickings. PARTINGTON. Phiz. Irresistible Drolleries. Merry Moments. a Cheerful Friend for Summer. Partington's Carpet Bag of Fun. PRICE ONE DOLLAR AND TW^ENTY-FIVK CENTS." Large 12mo. McLennan. Amusing Adventures. It is only intended for those hearty and robust persons who can laugh long and loud. of a Thousand Strings LAUGHTER FOR A LIFETIME. nearly 400 pag-es. Jovial Jokes. being a perfect Encyclopedia of Wit and Witty Sayings. etc. and Sports and Spring. . QUEER SAYINGS OF MRS. Goder and others and a collection of over 1. The and WISDOM. Partington's Carpet Bag of Fun.




the teeth. &c." "The Secret Out. such as: Games of Action Games which merely require a'tention Games which require Memory— Catch Games. Besides Hoyle's Laws and Rules. Price — 50 The Ladies' Guide to Beauty A Com- panion for the Toilet. Price 12 D^"" Postage. pleasure. Private Physician to Queen Victoria. the hands. .. Simplified and Explained. And also upwards of one hundred recipes for various cosmetics. Perplexing Deceptions in Numbers and Amusing Tricks in Geometry. Bound in cloth. Smith. — Price : 25 The Game of Whist Rules. This is the latest work on Whist Playing. The Directions for the Games of Euchre. A neatly printed book of 64 pages. With Practical Diagrams and Illustrations." "The Magician's Ov/n Book. large collection of Entertaining Paradoxes. together with many original ones never before published. Revised and edited by an American Physician and Chemist. The Book of 500 Curious Puzzles. the hair. Winter Even- Containing the Eighteen Standard Games." ''The Secret Out. per cover. The writer. Eleanora of Aquaitaine. Queen Consort of Edward IV. Esq." &c. It contains truthful and admirably drawn literary portraits of Elizabeth Woodville. The book maybe read with equal entertainment and profit.— . so as to insure the highest degree of perfection of which they are susceptible. POPULAR BOOKS SENT PBEE OF POSTAGE. Beautifully illustrated. Actmg Charades. the Directions and Maxims of Mathews. together with a careful concentration of all the practical results of the author's great experience in the structure and management of Aquaria. an Ex. fancy paper cover. cloth. pomades. Queen Consort of William the Conqueror. in giving us the history of these eminent women. By D. it gives complete. Matil. Price 75 Eomantic Incidents in the Lives of the Queens of England. Also. By the Author of ''The Sociable. The Game of Draughts. which have for their object.. Each sketch is a complete narrative In itself. suited to the Family Circle as a Recreation. or. N. Containing Acting Proverbs." 12mo. This work is a complete adaptation to American peculiarities of every species of useful information upon Marine and Fresh Water Aquariums. illustrated with descriptive engravings and diagrams. By the author of " The Sociable." " The Secret Out. together with a Checker board. Free of 18 Ann St. «fec. Containing an Explanation of the most Entertaining Games. which form the staple of all works of fiction. with flexible cover -. the features. to be met with in the elaborate volumes of European authority.Y. or some slight knowledge of — The Family Aquarium. with the additional value and merit of historical truth. Explanati uis and Directions for Old Players. possessing all the charms of a novel. 25 lic Rules for the Orderly Conduct of PubMeetings. and Poker. gilt side stamp. Dramatic Charades. are written in plain langurge. Musical Burlesques. and it is probably the best work on the subject that has ever been printed. revised. United States or Canada." "Amy Lawrence. Price : certain Sciences Amusing Forfeits Fireside Games for Winter Evening Amusement. Butler. the celebrated Whist Player. Compiled from Hoylc and IMatfhews. and it gives minute directions for every phase of the Game. Extra Cldth. selected from the various authors. gilt side and back. or River and Ocean Gardens. Price : 25 The Book of Fireside Games tory of Social A Reper- Amusements." etc. F. Directions and Maxims to be observed in playing itContaining also Primary Rules for Beginnere. Tableaux Vivants. 12rao. etc. Euchre. or Checkers. Being a familiar and Complete Instructor upon the subject of the construction. and the Laws of the Game. planation of Marked Cards. the form. Wit." " The Magician's Own Book. Cond. Author of'' Stanfield Hall. A new Pleasure for the Domestic Circle. and Matilda Atheling." ''Parlor Games. as now generally played with an explanntion of Marked Cards. Containg practical advice on improving the complexion. D. showing how the cards are marked by gamblers to cheat with. la of Flanders. with over 200 of the best va- riations. 12mo. and the various vicissitudes of love. cloth. «&c." «fcc. has remarkably exemplified the old adage that " truth is stranger than fiction. oils. Gilt 1 00 This is a beautilul volume of 350 pages. An v Book on Send Cash Orders (his List will to be sent to any address in the DICK & FITZGERALD. the eyes. numbered and printed in red. being a result of a combination of practical and scientific skill. so as to be easily understood. By H. Parlor Theatricals . and Poker. fancy pa- taining "Gus Howard. the feet." ''Minnie Gray. Price 12 The Chairman and Speaker's Guide or. Tricks or Mystification Games in which an opportunity is afforded to display Gallantry. and maintenance of the Marino and Fresh Water Aquaria." Illustrated with a great variety of engravings." for no pure romance could excel it in stirring incident.0 38 ings' Entertainment. also.. and suffering." and ''Parlor Theatricals. fitting up. By J. stocking. The book contains. Sc attesGOOD. sorrow. Loo. 12mo. By the author of ''The Sociable. etc. By Sir James Clark. and pointing out the marks by which they distinguish the high cards by a glance at the backs of them. Loo. Queen Consort of Henr>' II. 12mo. Queen Consort of Henry I. or Drawing-Room Pantomimes.

Being a true account of the most remarkable events connected with the History of Love in all Ages and among all Nations. &c price $1 00 This book should be in the hands of every Avoman. Cloth. H." or. in detail. Spanish. VineDistillation.Y. married or single. in part. at a trifling cost. JcNioR.. Prepared and arranged expressly for the Trade by Piebre Lacour. By Madame Lola MosTEZ. and yet the book tenches how Cognac Brandy. Independent of its rare and really useful matter. itself. The Great "Wizard of the North's HandBook of Natural Magic. the Great Wizard of the North. Foreign and Domestic Rum. False Pretenses By George Bishop. By a practical Liquor Manufacturer. t^'' Postage. N. or. which is not to be found except by reading through interminable volumes. of all the arts employed by the fashionable ladies of all the chief cities of Europe. ranged Being a series Anecdotes of Love. it really contains a great deal of valuable historic lore. and the legal advice. and other intereslins matters appertaining to Love. from the choice-. It is compiled from the very best and most reliable authorities. With Hints to Gentlemen on the Art of Fascinating.. for the most delicate subjects are handled with a skill. . By Theockatus. and be her own Legal Adviser. arfor Amateurs and Lovers of the Art. 12 cal Blunders in Behavior Corrected. 18 Ann St . and Gamblers. to Cut and Contrive Children's Clothes at a Small Cost. Price Lacour on the Manufacture of Liquors. from the French. Blacklegs. kind of book Avhich a man will find it impossible to relinquish until he has read it through from the first to the last cha. look through the book for a few moments as a matter of curiosity. ''It wi!l polish and refine either sex. 12mo. with what cannot be purchased at the perfumers at any cost. A private Guide in all essential interest to women. Eighty-fifth Edition. Secrets of a Lady's . Procure a copy of "Lacour on the Manufacture of Liquors. and a Companion of Married Life. all kinds of Wines. concise code of Deportment for both sexes. as well as a Complete Guide to Matrimonv. in Courtship. 12rao. and Cordials. and is Chesterfield superseded. German and Italian. gilt side and back. cloth. . Anderson. By Lola Montez. Price A Physicians' and Druggists' pharmaceutiknowledge cannot bo complete without a copy of this work. without the aid of Also the Manufacture of Effervescing Beverages and Syrups. price.d^ POPCriiAR The Dictionary of Lovo. Toilet. Rights of Widows.. price Wife. in whatever situation. the book is a curiosity as a piece of art. when women arc beginning to be so universally recognized as competent to attend to all sorts of business matters which relate to themselves. forms and information it contains. Guardians and Wards. with several Original Translations from the Greek and Latin. price $0 50 many This book contains and account. Containing a Art of Beauty definition of all tho terms used in the His- tory OP TEE Tender Passion. gilt side. Translated. the whole forming a remarkable TextBook for all Loves. A Treatise on the Manufac- ture and Adulteration of Liquors. Countess ofLandsfeldt. and by the aid of which every female may. which is really surprising. cloth. <kc. To which is added an exposure of the practice made use of by Professional Card-plavers.'. Price 12 Any Book on Send Cash Orders this List will to be sent to any address in the United States or Canada.pter. 1 50 cfoth.t to the commonest. such a work is invaluable. With numerous explanatory engravings. Property in Marriage. $1 00 Matters of Law. Free of DICK & FITZGEEALD. Countess of Landsfclt. are for all the States of the Union. By Professor J. for the purpose of developing and preserving their charms. 12mo. Large r2mo. $1 00 romantic and surprising anecdotes These really contain all ot the most tragic and comic events connected with the history of the tender passion among all nations and in It is precisely the all ages of the world. can bo imitated to that perfection that the best judges cannot detect the method of manufacture. and an unexceptionable propriety of language. never before published. gar and Bitters. understand her legal course and redress. price 1 50 And besides the exciting love histories em- braced in this volume. Rights in Property of a This work is also full of the curious and useful recipes used by the beauties of Europe. Cordials. with rare quotations from the Ancient and Modern Poets of all nations together with spccimens of carious Model Love Letters. In this work not one article in the smallest degree approximating to a poison is recommended. young or old. of Every "Woman her own Lawyer. Scotch and Irish Whisky. The Bordeaux Wine and Liquor Dealers' Guide. Wines. especially. in the United States. containing the Laws of the differerent States relative to Marriage and Divorce. and will enable our ladies to supply their toilets. if you do not wish to purchase. Now-a-days. — BOOKS SENT PJEIEE OF POSTAGE. price of the newest Tricks of Deception. — How Home Companion.

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