Design
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Bernard Leupen

Christoph Grafe Nicola Ko,rnig
Marc Lampe

Peter de Zeeuw

Material protegido por derechos de autor

n"5ix~1 fjlJ(t .·!/ttlfl'si.(

is .~i~.'1-l1published

l,n the Dnteh
S!!C!lTl d,

hlm"l'lnage rhy 0 I e Pu hi ishers jn I(J(H. A revised 'I'(Jini,~:mw,~!< pu'lllli;;h.cJ :inl HJ~3.

f)<'.!igll /itrJ .. !l!d(l'SI~~ .fC"I~'I: j}lIbI~~hed ;cjlir1,u.hlln.cumJy is ill lll:~!': ut!;tlli"h 1:l.llg~l~gc i11 uJ97 by @ HI ~jllI~)I~.sl]e.i'"!;', E \\1 merto n:iElwctf: I ~o, JO ~J ~ ,'I ROUe,dOln. The ~ ,\h:~~.Wi'll:liill.d~ (www.archincd.nl/oao], and in the Uniteel SI:~.ICS of .'\,I~lr1~ri("~,. C:"na<ia by Va~l an.~l

;\lo~trnnd Rci.lllll:lokl, New York.

Co'pyri!:hn
,C1I"/u!i!r"

·[1

lolllJ1 ·010 Publishers, Rm[CfJaln

90 t>..j.:i:O 2:)1) :)

Material protegido por derechos de autor

Foreword
Eve.1isince the Renaissance ~Ves[:ern culture mas beenplagued
the homo, .univerS{J;iisanll. the sheer v:a.r.ietyof design disciplines.

by a cmll~ict~th.at between the ie~3i. of It WaJS only a mau~r of time before
the

,calls: to draw the If architectural
onlyiftbe

tWI)

dom:)ji~s togetherarQse. HQwev,er, what is genet:!!! iJ!nd what spedtkin of spaoe clesign,ilicn

designing (if sudl. diverse ob~i!;}Ctsas buildings, cities and landscapes.?

thjfi]~ifig is the Hmater en magist!'ll"

this rl)~1,'; be~ulfiUecl 'cat!

v:didity of its rules of.c:ump<lsition are examined.

By merhodicaUy examining: theway

designs fiJ together, dive.rg~!llgdesign tasks and ideas can he pla:c:edin meaningfll~ oOJifr(l!ll1u:~O!l, The isslle!'eallybec{)mes interesting once the designs are ahstl'a~[ed~i1r,chil!ecmrl1il types, Ibrmal.m.eIliIils
and ruies; of
(:O[fiPOSiti.Ofi

can l'nen be re.~mt'N)dllCedin iliIilodile;fcontext. Such experimental urban and landscape designs.>

a.cti\,ity

enables us tIDnan::;gl'~S

the limitatl.o:ns (llfboth subject ilirndscale, bringing to light unexpected

r:~Lati.o.nships berwce!narchitect!)r:lil1

Is this aery to abolish theseautcncmcus
(10.111':;

d.isdplines~l Far fro:m.it. It is not our wish.to undo
OlD

history, but to open thewa.y 110developillgtbe design disciplline:El further. Boundary-hoppiing M.erely dadfyingthe potential telaiio,~shlp.
ar,c:hite(:tl.Jl'algrammar IS not eneugh; it is equally importaat

be

at any time; fitst, though, we should have an accurate pk~nl.lieof where those boundaries li~.
m de;(£;l'mine the a.gainst their the:ir
atutifHlomy

fiange and dYIlil!mics of each design disciplIne .. We need toi)alance

This: book evolved during the dai:IJypra.ctlce of teaching design at: the Fa.culty of Arebirecmrear Delft .. P1l'csentlng design ana.lysis as a..lin.kootwee:1l new points
design. education and researeh, it Oillbrscol!lntless

.or (';(Intactbetween

the rwo, Inthat sense dilis study has burgeoned into. abro.adly
t:og:ethel'wltliIil1

a.ll'pllcalble handbook for spaee d.csigll .. It is Olll' pleasure
to pl:'eseml theknowledgebreegbr

these piage.~ for colleagues,

sruule;rnts and ntbeJ:s with an interest in the sulJject to dlges~ and de\'dop.

JOlinHeeling,

P:rol(:CSSOIr

of Urban Design

A111,'; Ho~[ag. Prof~cS8I)f of Strl1(;fural DesIgn Clemens Stl:..cll.herge:m; Proif(''Bsotof Landscape Afcl!tiOC~!1!J'!t
Care:lWeeber.,PmfesS!C!r of A:rooitectura.1 Design
Material protegido por derechos de autor

1 111 Design and mlOllysis .... '3 Design and IUH~: I~ 4 4..) .:1 4..Conrems J: 1..H Material protegido por derechos de autor . .6 4. II J~) ~·'In[}r·~U..nd structure Structure and truth 4 ....11 Design~l.lIC1]QII] :. .

2 Desi:gn a:Dd typology The devdopliUCl1lt 0 YQ. 6"1 6"11 6.l3i 5...4 The naturrull.of the urban m.esigilOd Transforming Sl[Wl]Ci1UJJre Ih{~urban fabrie D'rawing te. Theasehitectueal lam1ldsCllpc 6.J."nod i:gn de Typo]ogy3il1ld hm.pe 6 6·'1 Design and icontext btmdjifl'!liUI 6.5.1.dry !ilorm GrowEh .1.el1t of .. 6. !.hll'ic The d.illlidscape Theoul ivated..chnigues to aid analysls Bibliography lndex Credits Material protegido por derechos de autor .9 The d.ii!iiiJdscape 0.e"ciopm.:.dscll.3 Y'!I 5·4 TYPtllogv .

1 wa)' to 1J1i>t1li:t:l 'iT1s:ilJ~t in~u ~hc prncess or desi gil ~ng. I.d rcsesrch.. "r~lrn~dJes el!:~hllil:drnwin.. [h.'Iilii.." ix tics.eruergiug in its present fo:rm.ape ensembles .~\~..!d1<~n andlandscape .is has proved to be a first-rare did.~ ourssdc 1.ndiv[du:l1 i ll>uUd~il~ ~a urban and lilrn{]St. Sill ceth C II1lt..'~ . analysis of arehireetural imtroductiOll to design analysis.es. flil'ly"cO. Rossi.::ic\\· of f~clors W he discussed in G~".design :mal~'sis.gn s analysis and m{!rpho:~ugi~allll~l.o1 to.:hiICl. lJ'fsil..'iIIa p3l~. it unfeldsan erdered S}.t. It examines the din:rsllY of idem. nllis book oftc'rs an t111i1tI ne of space design as a w]n'fJ~e. Ehnih. landsca pe architect me. It thereby introduces the an. rhe An::Iil~~t:~wrc Facuhy. in a historical perspective ..SlCI11 which enables the '~U:'I(J. MoiJ'i(~[han just an i\rIllOI1~fH).ugI'U.:r CXP~Of"S ~he rdtllionsilil) iJCIween d"-'Jiigrland use.! is al}UUl Ib~ b~s:ml'yand praeriec uf '1:~l. Each chapter examines oneaspect or the dcsigil tield. In."LThe '~hird Cha~lll.frOm..gl's.r<11. Dcs..e A!'lglu"Si!.~mp~cs from architecture. 01'1 'l~..l. On the 'otilc.a~r.!. of its own •. 1iil.PC'" ~lI1ldcoU!.dITIIHphology has been unfurled in the Mctli~crranlJe~!:l.g .rIJ se in colleges. enuatries.~ .C: Ofil e hand... l!.". urban dlesign and. and D.~ . the discourse 1.milltl.n.:iUr>\~ SJtld urb'!i:! oJcsi.lytical drawing as .IIe~ !llIl'Ot!ghom~hc lidd.md.1. ~n1Jll~rs..~nllmCnl. ClliI. Thoug'lit primarily intend ed [(ii. Providing material fur a me [l!tiud it.]cliclOoll im..uendl'lg designers' decisions and mrelere these to the resulr. 1m Ch:l{)!cr .l~.j~l.s~gIDprocess and rhe basic principles nf . :l.H Introduction lJt.ir.~'S~s ave taken their h place ~ dcsignc:du(:atiulil n . iln:Sl~r~mcll'laFit.dCClii. DiNCred at students.soon folloilllt. .~$·!..I!:"l!...cr dc!]~cn\(::mrs to in~. Bacon and ethers .l I]uC designer"s fUI'·.d the fmulflhl Material protegido por derechos de autor .:l1tri1 and the ordering (~fspace and material are .ddn.wilh [Ill tlW!I·. particularly in Itlll} and! France br IVlunHori. ~'~"I.ll fOul Al~a{)'sis rakes irs 'I:). 1.ltj) Il~rl describes the de. These appruaches have also been asubject of srudy ar Delfr UfllivCFSily. Panerai :md Castex. i1ppmlld\t makesit accessible w [)Ibep'.:\if!.pters ~ to 5.gn.d.I study of rhese designfields..i:QUiJ flfen" in the ~\'Q~b ~~fRtlw!..'1' !:dut~~ti(m1!~ instiMitiom.'hil'(:<. design ~liI.si~ grew oui uf experience g:1IfH:d over d\e years . m~tim] ~ such as dlcsi.~i~jillIul AII.riiiil Aju/~l'si.ing. on design ~n(J places II~!!:cniil..111 typulugy mrn. uts l)t(. struetureis mlgoing in. O.igrIJ education.tiUIli yf design iri.

ql.p!~r on !)'pol~gy.halllIDsl:ivdy the practical means.I} that bCiwc""n(l.Slyer by b.cc'. d!:!Jwing'tcch_hi'ljU. as ill d~d.pteil'C1(3m~mICs the re:lati. An ilppl'nllix dOCllLlmenlS e!1.1l .p between dicsigl1lnil its Pl'-':@.hesta:blish~':S It c:O:lilnecliimillI.'bcm.i.lltle:xt and desi. whk.YCi'.srnperhar has: gmwn I."S tll!t~s't. r{..kli.ology.dll dill~ \l<)t~(IUS. The fina~ ch3.grliplilli.ng tc-.es..c\ll~ '\!i..chn. Material protegido por derechos de autor . '1J.l between CQ.lC!'ic mod~l "0 tnl..!if~d to rnak~ anahses.~ ttlc ordlc" use and sU'uctur.c of Itn:d1di!lg.nclll)\jli.r.cllrllil~' iu the btltll.l.>et". it sets fOf.onsl:ii.t.itll .\ ~(1 SyiJrjlX:fS d.gn . foU~wll· adh... a man-made I~illl!d.r~COlI co~~cxt It takes tile DU:iiChlandscape.I.cal and hi8t~.C(l ~1'UlhiSLXJIf~~a~ rlliatiomtshij.coS land t()'I!!i.

.TIIIONS BE D IEV 1.IRT OF ARCHIWliLL l OR.. Of' PI1UNCIPAL OCCUPATIONS sere JCE AND FOR Pl-ULOSOPHY. BtRNA R.ND TlJIEIR ORIGIN THE REASONS TBlElvlt. CONVI~NTIIONAlk AND.$ IED . WI~IIETHIEIR PA. SUFfice WIILll. WILL AIN INTEGRAL PLANS AS . TECTURE..ARCHIITECiUIRAL NOTA. NlEW TYPES NO LONG!EIR WillL OIF .HIDS.. ARCHITECTUIRE nJiNCTIIONA FORBIIDDEN. RATHER BECOME OIR NlOT.QUATREJl1ulRIE DE QUINCY AND PRJIl\fIITlIVE CAUSE .TIl-IUS \VE HAVE ACHIEVED At D ONE OF TFIE }\ THOUSAND THINGS IN EACH GENRE.INiOT SIMPLY BIE THE IEXPIRIESSIIONl Of ACCIEPTED ACTIOIN S. IN ORDER TO UNDERST1\.A RESUlt T. IS TO DISCOVER .f) TSCHUMI Material protegido por derechos de autor . MORAL ST AN D'A.

Ma'rirlal Ploil:gldo por oerechns Uu au r .

III. ~.....~.~.!i. I r-"'VK --~ -. L _.."fi! lfi'ioli."..... ~ .f I\U ur 1 I I rr I Jb" flif1<. .." Sc-cti"" Material protegido por derechos de autor .... ...:.... ~.. ~ C ---... - I u I- -~ TO~Y<l' l I NlIlu". -1.....'lllll..1L ... + . 'i_::. + • .(>I:'t.. ~~~!H~!JI!f~ I I I n II ....-...~~I H!~ lW_ !II'!!!i!!'I!!!LiI~ ~ 1 I ~ I I l__ J I I T~ I 'j III ~ I I I I ._ III r--r-' ~~....__ _... 1 I _ . I 1/ - <:~~ I gmJ I JI."'i olesii~i'ifor" I h"~!&~. I I ...~ .... ~ . -~~~' ..... • : _ • L _----'- ..roIl'Jwil1!J:' ef IJ.. •• ---1.. .__ r-- rn ["~. I I ~ iI. ~ +..'- .~~t. II I !I I II ~. I I rn :. ~mij.---I l~ _.... I II 111-- ~ m ~ Iib... • _ _ ~r r'..... I .. . .= I. ..... '1.l._.-1"T ...I.. • ....~..~ ~'~~...... 1i:I_..

t.! I~ fult!JI ..sik leads t\~ a tl()f1(:(. was searching fow the ."mgtr~m~n:d."ing d. 'w.g: begins om"::.)1 QI)f!cl)!)t'sis Nouv~.1iI designel'.~{a:.v.! h:~. ~!~I~ O ¢~!tr~ll!lig case a musk-al runl!!t!tl'!mem:.1b. Ad..C.gle line is drawn t~xl. FililiJJIUy. This sh..~ of diseusskn:t~ wi t!l1hl the s !i)ffiL'tl.o!'ls.i!'>c· in a. I~ .cl]ruil!disih s~ribb~iWlJgs lies the essence of Jicsigntbe dwdlmg:s fam~iltlg: eurwurd.!) rnil!~n I'b. ~ Allb!l!llgh I low01il'id dJd 11(.lI'Sl{ and a<ljiiisit the reJativcimp<lltai:!c'C of~he!tilf~OUS ri.u:g la~"d~.ig:hl sha:pc fu:r the curvi. a seale hel!ow ii.~.ie..Ct~!nCS 9.('signCifS.: fru:lrut'agc lil~~will11U units {1 rruc'nNld forrll1l2limli):1n C()1POSIlTcC Ito sunlight.l.(many> des~glillers 3]\(: fa. f'Cw liJrnlcs im1icating the main form of ~h. Oi r!!pld sketch ill. fD!r tllil.'(Imdili~ns of 11I~f[:dl'l(:s$ :and OOllSlnu::tion.'1. [)r~j("I. t!nd~d)'ing a d~ign i1!W). p(~siMI) solutif)n.(l.l.'bil's jd~. liKed".rpret the ('.:JlF~SSI)8 rhe .e dlesign in me p!:J)~s. rQil' ing'8 ~!(Itm'[O!f wouLd Material protegido por derechos de autor .n.1I.ec in t~e ilpa:CC" like jnsli!'um(''lll~s in :!J case. he:hi~Jd il dc~ign. !.c-cpt c~1t lake.g.e plan.r...ilillU p:lll't !):f a town park.oe"lCCf design.need SOlly nmhinl& about the form .sf~1i. ..r culture or mm'wtio:n .Tillis il...irurernents and expecJtotti.l1s~dl1.. A!!.'.petiIDiotll design (<lif an o.. designs must s~d.it regi~!1J:atl0n of cne particular mo:m.I. may ~I.\\lhat M dl.11 ~It{:se rc(.d g~'i'~Sdirl.m:l.I The design mil~CS II OFiI..<1 liluildlillg.. With a S€.il.t:ep' wh~I1C"rmlb.rdl also shows that Ai!I~o" wihJi~(. l'la.1at ~1iS1S\.~int. The progr~m I (. h~ b~J1with a 'i.(ic.crs must: inte..~ dGS~g!1! Wb.':s oo:rn.lil'eSless in its (''Grr{1c. Nou\'eII. be .'ti~fl"~ ~'\.e md only m (iI'll!.II. SowitCI:iim(')!(he 'CUi!TI:CCllt :iilID.CrnTIl! Ib. N~I!.:l'---'aC()nC(~pl!is clearly I"ormt. ¢1If\tOO ::>om!).pc\[illmu~ i~Tokyo (t 988).a location 0[[ !li:t:e. an excellenr uillitlplc .s ~mtwce.. dillJg.~ivc ~nllin in tile lini:~~-. \V]).KJ1.. and dl.o'loJicd tl1e8!~CI'S iiiOtlJlJ stand fr. TheJ)c am: <I..anmher mcdlod ..!!'.0 ~mplic3tiorn.i.)cm.\I<i~. nf fonns" oo. IIInlJ ustrntio:1lI 0'[ a test .r€If a.rcssiuJlisr:iu'ch:itc'Cl Ericll M~mMsollil.!10b!':s II skctl.eidlcil.)rkilllg: on . Tb<: bl!!ild!haliCC 3 <smooth blacifillish.n. a:ndl specialists ii'll (it:I'l:)in sl1bw. wealtil!l.of working is IDi:ftmpliicd by tbe Dlx.of I:be malEtlJ p.in.Based on tlu::ilr cou!>ild. l'le ramnus. :1898 of tlli..ram.:FJp:tlofi of Ute. c. '\1!'ith ca~ll.. one .res~e'. !lis dr~gF::imprij! .s. The power of this S:klell~m. design. ~'\bm~"'II. dimwtng. '!~C 111i.t:l1Bi\'e disc!il!ssj.tiny . Drawin.~win!1l.l:(\f. Mo he . rllmi..\qi.gi.~tof inlcrp.th:cd. ~'.l:cdlX:! critical sc'UI... buiMin..fixcd in a l~ to ~dop!. ffiL'e a ~be Fl'c. OeneraUy these' 3spects dv nul: :n.owilIl'ld T b in. The !lkeidJ..llr~J.cll.e<l!di:r:lg' on. 1'~ul.u!!ull!ttng I!ww the oli)se:r\'iI!t:Ory was to illM~.ogi~al G'rdel'.lr:llwirng: jl Ebenezer H.e:raJti:olils" oond:usrOlillS. 'al~alllt8.c gardelli dt)1 can lseceneeivedas such.(:t!olD l'O destgn dtlcisi.pla. ber~!rehalU:d .'.i. tsbasicilly ecneerned :l. I.l::I.:u:i(~11li'f perspel.\ll<p.mcn :mibilem ]ea".relella:nt .~klE'S iniul'tnill!ih)nOlJnoOI :flllla!tfi)i!lc.of the iau:er' cltiCgory. I)efrll:'C:1 Slt'I.iWd1~J[I..'1netller lit be . m .iiPCC[S need to be s~bjc:(. In V!I~a.ae.l.. g~vh[g the pdmlllJfY c1I::pcressive elements."liitl. made by the l'"jnmi~b arehireet AI:var' A::litIJ f<Jr '1ne NC'lII:'.01' do:'::!!emlined ills the deslgn ~rt~.pp~i:es t'll) definingi'hc: a sire. and '\liew..h of Ilhc section 'llliTIl.bm iIJ d!CoSi.et.l1:sl!OiI ~[m¢l)pt. . by IIIpani. it canlJ be 3. dilllgmm .f!t.. 1:1..igrung is: not a linear prooeSls. som..C~c!iiull'ing cQmpae~'df~ul.)m~l~ (If SUdl \'~ib.ld-c.~liti.c actual ~~h~lpc of or a~~:lllf~ iM~g~flta.s.1J design.A[ 'IlIruL'. All .. des.. th~ choke Fellil ll tile ml. h~'J.ol]s .iIl. <lnd~n YnllL.llIilft1t a sped:1k l::I'llk I.r. O!fg_:z~n:g ~b~milnd cl~d.m at P(!¥I5!d~m.1t{uit'emcnm and' ItXpL'lClalions is. ~ ~iI(.en dcsigning die :lEinstcin'fuwecrr in ujl:.:h lihe s~m]. 'This '\Ii(nk~(J:!l:mcthnd prilsllppoSCS Ibo~ha ~ras~i!IlOW[l)digc (Jr the p(lssjbiliti~ amd!an nmJ:J.':Slgn~':s "i~w (If !he !:. V:lllr apartmem buiMing (~~filJ)in Brenlcn is.l:don !lpa~e.n.d..rtJMcms fJl(.dcs of fixed!precepts: ~nd unwriuen demands informed. A tcunli. is ~ 'reffilarkiilblc .&Llghdill:.ced.n!g .'!taphi'O. fo:r~aml'l~e.\ . tlil.i: aj)pHf'.>. wim l:h¢ cit).g isa prol!l!1li!ml!l'). [he I g£l.:m.llt •.

EHoh M"IlJ . .~I"tm T'.~ <"1<.b"". I'.:11 IUT Ih. i·.ii.[)full.k'Dgn .~."~..'let."~\I'" rGCI1Q au .

o. I'lIDWl1:rd'8 di~&f'!m AU.!d'y.I~" of Wdw)'i'l G~j\(reti Cit)'" If)O.m bUI~ili:t1ii!'.tpttmn.8. P:rnrtf <l!O'>dII.. !. di~~.. Neue V.&~~tn [tIC 11'>. !8~ MF~rial protegido por derechos de autor . . dl:y I:r. Unwin. ~. Bm~~et'I..·u ibllU.Z I a garden. !-n"wl!¥d. 00.hiT ...l~iS.n\ .. 19]1!l-~\l6~ Eb.[>rll"rdef.!s:ed.

mther" it i.edirectly from the bending momeae d iagrilm? t\ nd if !Ii jil'n.e~en"lllJiilethat of tlM~ Sp!:I<lI\ or vice versa? The different points of view adopted in praerice U'eganlil'n.:~ively" 1. generate (I.II' . it possible.~ !.e~.nffiHlrtes ~ n:g:~] t is a i . '!. CIt a i(II.q!lIFe'ment.t:ad1 SIC-P he or stll: also lonks back to see whether I'bl.~i_ K. UsuilIl~! iirevelves around tbe question of w~cthl:f [1!Jcdemands made 'Of a desiga.'ICp rbe dc.. suffi ceit W say ~ha( pr'ogN!m.!iii:gl'!.iVi and ~S<.Uize into .(~P{:ti'l:h'cl1tMJCSSW hoseeearse is parrl y eyel iealund p jf}ltrt:ly di.d~tll (~ . other.! structural I"l1.KilmllliCs the possible oOl1sequem:.~H~ shape of (I maim..l. slMIUId!the form of the structure tll. 10 derive 'I.1 final form Cor [llC design _ But how does the desilgner ani".od ification.g[l.. I''J<~~• ~.1ct". "r 11m 'ntcrhJ"~ i.m .erli.lu prO(~I. and p05:!':ilM y n.n:g whatever umfiJrCM:CrI ptu'Mems mlbY ocuw_ AI: .is is non asimplequestion of translating one inm I~H.s are nm exclusively able leo field f~l(.rc u on rhe D~h'~1' an: .c of mevement can generate forlll. or can a span dle. T~~.ri\'..~1I'tic~lJ). . for example.~ Qf 1:01:1 SlntC'lilon.'n:lI! is designing .ahle to solving:t fOlrlll)is problem whose solution (in t:his cese [he c:rU-:ilpsulledinTh~he I:l!sJ.hip between d. rest U~ <I~'li~~$! il~ :~~quinlrncn'Q&.IUISed a pel'll deal of ink to How.i~cs.:sfor subsequent SH:Pll and CrC.r (. QilJ I!:I:H: ne h~. d~\'dnpililg :Ii concept is 'QIl!l~!]~t MCp Inwiirds malldmg a desi gn _ IBetwcc 1I'I!i1. through which il Itun(k(ujaHy g<l!ill. F(illim AI :1.ge..S dcp~h_ At eVClfY s. e.: ol!i~iml~ concept still holds or reql~iresm.~1~r".~ompmH.~"~'~i nders Material protegido por derechos de autor . fortu.i'li.g [he relattoflls..1D!Il!> m'l:rginsl""of solvi.oC<lh wilful ~¥! C~a~:*'T!> 3 a~d 4+ ["Csl'cg.jl.s a creative operation in which designers fonaulare it :possible formal elaborarion.:)This issue hilS I:.DESIGN AND ANi\I. eertainpoirn in (~1C process concepts uysm.. or If 'I ill e form can be derived fl'Clim another source.Y$!S 16 The desig.\l:[ Q the sol'wuti(J!nm lIuljust it f[u flJ).'i:p]idlly !rol1lJl the pattern of lines of meverneru through that room.era d.. fo~ of <It:! l}biCl'. 15.m31~ ~ <in.!iS' Thus.."'I"j l'Ii~I'" hl'Y"'''. Selti~g 'l'm-iolls po~n~Ic-~QlutiQ!'!s side by side for ClJl'!ilp'ilds-on can be i:mt~I?Qrnun alllilis st~. p"rli(l!!t~rly in terms of 1!I~.fc"CliufiiUl..e:omp'I'r.eabsrracr concept all d the eencrete -design lies all em ire PI"OCCS:S.c.and .!l!l:l.

i.owledg:e of compaF'Jbie soluti.cr nf~lio!'nJof "oont.al~ll(ld it :p:re-S'(lIUS iI. These (Irimary geem~tri~1 forms illre inl~llectllal . Material protegido por derechos 8~~WlTl~I.n in .lIlll-st be .pe8.otl will prevail.:l~s3.er ilglilt: also m !:!(lit Fe fQi!'!'!'! is C(ilmpo5<iti.tbe d. !h~ Itisto:ry ofdhc iili~e. tl1.oc a.r" d sppeatanee :lmd.!llns .(l~1 O<i.tn1'iti~Jl fl10m p't1hli..ese org:Ji1il1c fonns:" tlley 1:00 late erans- when It cemes to tihc ilct."''>1.t:X!l.ll it'~ i propel' P:1::R. Here ill where d:ecisi.!: tail."S~.loJ).'.lidJ).-atl':.iuo'undi_rl. erience lSi the customary 'P!J100CdUI'C. p ~mp~mb[e tas!:::n simillar eireumseanees has i brQught .c w nOt most popular shape fora tihea!tuaudi:t:ariuliI1I. i.e:i~gred. a.ill be S~W. P!):F ¢x'amp:le. ~hU:l (set do. cubes.ta!ll!ding these issues e:n:ha:rruc(. To IX: Ollolle to mssrer Ilh.r. dcs:i:g.l.fl.bt¢dIyraiii~ ]l.1:3S~ i1lrsi(lllly .mntle.iI'.meiry A d esi..dic:rs.sign. !atedin..tal! wilih mOlllliY !ki~d!s {If iSlt!iirs..es.ucf<'!!iig(Jd [flU} lh~ limil .eslgmJ!.p!empli(}y~d ~h:imatl)~)! iet ..ta.e:= 8~~[ il!>(.If Cha.0:nsarc criJiJiitd.trllct:10JllS(tibe ~Illed PI(J:lornit' .t~ thcd~rr'JIli:i:(i. TOQl'cJ!Jt:e a new fOrnil fo!". dtef-e are twO PO!lsibi~ili\es: desigm:.ents a.pillilt[olll.to In itthe maltEriai forms: . How de.n.(~ft~rus .e}leell!t«ill. dc:ri"e a form ffQ~ n~~YIC.':SIhie de-sign ms]i.!. Ilh.a d!l:~igt!~F m .'h)QfS" a:udi foria" bulMi:o.o:st: 1l~II>'~bic p'-'1. As the place w~ei!'e the ftlllllJle design . he able to name tlhem. hrQildly lSpealji!l!g. Wli~d'ow~.t !!ioes on m.S fonns" dwellings a:nd 'Urb31iila:y~Ults: IWIlIi!.r~. .g. Thus.-g.h(losillg 'iI form.'Sigl1lng i~ :more than.'O: di~llJ'~m~<. p~'ri. of rb.tllT ..cmu'!. "rithout: Illis ordering prooes~ the £(.s 3.jg'ht lin~s:.j~ is "proven [[te.rise.Or Ii"" de autor d~~idlil !".OI"ld s:piu. ~'<l'Sfi.6St parIS.!I(l. must either draw en e.:y d~d!il ~Q a.e~' ilibsi'ract Or l1Iatwlral farm.$~gnc:r chooses a.ing :1:D!IUrn Ine design's pi:JI\illt£al.orl wifh ils si. @f iJOlillp€F : :sil:ion." if'll which :I.~(). design .e ~aci1j:b'TOund toli~e: d~sign task and rhe social processes infurming the <i(. ntW whole ill 'Oomb~1illti.l1d! u~dou.tc!f f).<l! teJllillril.>.l"lsidIN:lbJe kn.. ~Hmllarly" il1i design we have a "bl.m£s rersonal Il'fef(hlitm. ~"'!'\ry typc.:lnd the desl:g. fuvLng (}f dead.pl~!i fl. Herel too dte desigfi~f csn clJ()(~c bci!Wc¢J:! ()mlbillirush~~g ~hl) famliiliiwli' 'Itne t)lpe) and Inttodudng a fi.c:..tsense "CQ.ble I)a.J0cording to tine 'princiwles.colilfllp. the oompae.\\i'here iii. set.tb.m1dsand l:he like. jUM c.s s~. hold a·~'true fClrlLllic. a. I~ i~8i hr{J<ldl.:D." COniIC:l<:t.\x[. On. 6ty spa.a dlCaIWell'.ing t~~ ~r. PlreWotri:mg a meal iiSMt meJ1c~y a matter of bril!lJg~i1Jg to:gefliie:r ~b..'. as .£:.e.y. 'ro Ibe able to resort tD' experience.net !.ing I1!r ensembie. For a fll!blic .pp[y lit again. ililiowevf'4:."..'perreillce nrcnme 'Up 'I!.Typo]o:gy deductible from I:hes:er~q~lIirem..Thi!: melihtod of (ll'deriml!.elOS0t look af wlt:l.e w. The silte j" .lldl be dl. .W'.e.c ~o prj.g"S.. Basing filrm on ClI. Bearing in m.ifid dIe type Ilf task.At tItl..-.t..t~}s.S SIJ:1ge eachelement endls (j{~.ients burrather or hOiwthey Olii"'c p~ocessed.O\\i. Fhis ·'bb.11'1: WQuid be ch:.re is Ih(l S'lIuj(lC[ !. mixl'tl and! eaeked.tfi!i uf O!rga!l.'1filiglnl.mcnts pif\t's(::nt th(. and sO on.dn. LQdh~~dual parts of tiRe design as fbr the !tom.lilliei!'!.oons. iIIoo11t. illlC . ~y.::i:" inciudl)!.ll is..S.l)ublcms ·of s.l'. Mor..iij.my visat'0'fW' Amst~rdillm M'm ~i!n. s.ce Ol'.~js fbI: dIe design.ith a new fOM..:e.!'" i~ wffilJichtile des!!gn is '''~repared .S!iliilffil's shell. dCSJgmJ is I'{. it ~'{1'"1. stu.ic~h. The need ~Q p~lllic:e lim owiginal (tlrm may p. des~grn.ad: oo.!llding.rking with trpc!iin Cbap.tyEe: of :I. suei'!J!a!!l.'.~cqml'iJfrU::Wllt of ~bc bf1fu:d.ief) a~d a sirte.mdl ~lOW'I~ey respond I~ clt.ieaJI s:ba... dl~Y :must be 2Cqjll:l[n.cik box..r8t g:!v(]:rl s~[l.ki.~~ompo8i1!'!OQ. These are wllut we COilII (YPtf. cnr..OI1 D(. prisl'tu:.~ br.e desig..w0.rs.x~ .ers must I'liave !i.form hesurmises 10 bea su:i. The d. 'lIo'her. dtlfini'I!\'C the d. and appredadon of the !file.e at one time Qf' ii!:!lAther.ual !l:ons'lrlJlctio:n of a b1. ers regard thegil'l"ell .em.e site is tb.S<ll'i~ryingr~sul'ts.i!suailly be~ns with ab:nr~ot geomeit..' :Judi t~ll~ '~On(1). Un..Jf: al1cwail..to [uditlea:ng'llo. Uite <l:bo\'e T j)~itb about ti}:rm. Chap.la~"aI:Oiry.te bll!itd.

This can just a.)!1.ii projection drawing.I.u.I[luc·li..~ :lIJJla~.. such maps provide derailed infoT'ffi<1!ti.lI1I1lMr~.r~~ld Illllt!j.i~li.j..1.y cunsists or or.:si. W1UCr lI'[Jd ~u lunh_ DMTi:r. l\:he~her the merphological. ~ ~1I:tnu Id be IUl inJt~d 0IJ1.!~I:!li a 1 pb}ill1lg .l'l!1I)'sis such '1~ its c. :m. lies I h is ~I~ ll bo: accumpanied ._~crCSU'k!cd w Ifolc_ To .g:ing om the Imld.lrl.l II. ('" )ii. C':!.~ ere II'u."urkin~ dr<lwj~I!!~.n:!.Iddin~ inlurmation. The basil!: material of ~ulalyliis aJnloS.c the nb~<!O.'D under scrmililY InUI" rath~I' In a m~Ji..lIS1.l<lrts of the design an! ofte rI ~ndlJ(led as a frame of reference. \\ifh I hI.ing.cmm.gh!11 t'n e rcsul I s uf a de~iP'l :J[m:~~is (.c:: ~.'I::>sing rhe ..e4lmI~.\I]iz~d i!1f~mn'!'riun t'I:!c~-p:!'C)\'id~c can he !lM!fl. d For the purpuse of :Ul~!I}'si3 th~s hesle material crm \)1: processed in several will·'ll. W ibril1. ineluded . Sm:h anlalyscll In.Jl':C.!"li(l:r:1 can SCf\'C file purj)n~i..1.wings.T ~~-i[l~id (.orm~J[lc~iliml." If (lcs'i~ningis a creative Illi'lJ{)CSSthat produces somelhil~g that did nul nisI prCYLuw. The analysis analysis ~houg'h .]S . trrorogiC'll air Jlhysil:a~ structure.1ysis. in which 11l91'It:r VCI'SU:S One W~Y fif gai:m~n~ insight inw~h.:rn.drawing Wh .'~ can uffer asi ngth e perfect i ~g llJu..liD1i.Jro. ~l hllild'~ll~ to bcecnverjed q.·CT.orr'!.c prQl""(.·~u!..~!( !HI! our i~lC!wimll ~.orrell even ~hc 'P~illit:'ipalmeasures are ~i1din~.This J.e'O:i ion Ih~">[)Llgfu..g out such r:JInicul'II"S as irrelevant ob]ilille COl'rlerS and physirni p:~"j~<.'ilfl.'_\.JJ~p.'liC!n.made for ~...)!.. In the remOl~~d e !· of this cl1"'IHC'r we will exam inc 111:u.":'J.s.'1iign analysis.:nCSI measure ~ usually obtainedin au abstractien of (If :I'br.1drawing will never bemnrc rhsn ~wo-ilimcnsione].c:I~' at rhe technical 'l'flt.:.1S.2. techniques ro <li.:11 BriJ1l~~n~ out such aspects 'i~done b) r(:\\'ud(in~ lin !.lwinp.dc fi:!)" presentation pm'p05C~ an: fl"equcmly devoid of n:fi::]1Cllllil~~. hlMjgg~~S~: srruerure.nls . t:tlilds..:. models :md cum purer sirnularions.n:f i!s I.l.bj..Ji~cd.~r. ~"Cr perspcerive«. yer drilWill11lp.. d~~i~Ii... ."Vhen 1!. omiiting from ~hc dnwim..I~..":li!jrn!l in thu design.I~JIL:ti{llrns i clh'a. !Jh~""m:.~~. 'rlil!~)l!.un.f p~.lp:ing rgW1 of a cit)" [If .Jj ury...!]u. and l~. of de~i!.. This mulluo eperandi eq~m~I~IY 'lpplicaMie is ~cpm.Kily inl-uhc []imill:il1J~'<IS . I !-IOWC\. the I'~'-Cr IH.~~ nil p'apcl' a lh:~J. hi igllli! 'pl~niccl iuns U W IOl!Oing l~t<Jlrc!:hCI' the anal y:r.'lwin~s. thu'l!iigh.onst ru et iona nrc] lI!icfulncss.na.'~lIg~ii':1!bll: [..c.g )'Illil'ilf(~fmatilJiUbcarin~ [lit) relation tu thl: main "'O!TI~11~5i~iml0f'1~~CC .~d objectin 11~c :redueC lio~ drawiJlg. ierure 'm. term "d!. ~l J1lmd~ll...iliql... h is pU~li~b!C. be tfilnsf(~rmcd.dill~llI11 ("'r [he i''' rJ~"''''. 1l11lS ill :1 reduction drawing of ~ city on 3 r~\"c:r. by Jr.. rypes . tiL\~il!!Ul.nccs in level ali"<: Thllt·tecil[lsing conrourJmes.uIL \Vr. Thl: <lllpcndi:.~rw:ii!1tu t]fi.~\u!!:ra. Drawn by surveyors.'d dimel1:~iu1. Prm.phical map. green !i1). i111\:!i.!:ll~llg i~by fUHlllyziIil!.mdH~'li~!'i:!t In a t y]p!)logi .JItx:~. In making :m ilml~ysi!iit is not our task w fairhfully ~)I . r a t~d):an .I[il)n ~mr(:d in these drawing types varies withlhe obieerivc of rhe Material protegido por derechos de autor .. .limll dru\\·inl'\".fruM nl~iQrm.'lJ~lfl~"i!. : hn:.:a~ysi~s.IS uf IT)mjC!.re.t.i!i begins presenrariea the: a. Reducti'-!lr! "1'11.:l1proJe~~li~'Il1i.\\·i!'!!_{ ffil1!Y:hllH' W PI: Ifllle5~eJ at. ~hc IUc:ill and dearly urg.In element of bndscl1pe our most h:n~mrtllm mol is the' tOI)og~'I.I:I1iu. .. The g:re. .oF str~!.).-bl:'llring '~~l'oughthen ~I is of cm~]. of ~he ~lcsig]\.~)·. more d!).!:trhe ~ th:sig-~ process.'\.III represent rC.l!t. possibi~ t ies d:l$i gn ~nal ).~t between design • •.\\. 11180:' it primarily ro disclose the ~~tn!cWn: (If a design. '~)r t11. Unlike wurlting dr1t\\.:~m. Te c.lll: os 1't.~. ~y rneasuresnenr.g~. yet :![ can alsu ]W{)r\"Cuseful when IT'!:~o.d ~lnJ. These mighl he' skctl"hcs.. with I~C OU~Cu:rIlIC nf'~hJt pm~c!is anti thl:ll attempts to ~!:I at I he 'lI!!l ~h. For this we enlist an ~llm1rof ~"'m\l.': .lIn Hike I he form (If n s w'riUe ~lrut • ill crlJrC)Si !. :md lilt '-.~ll'u!.~ means of dnd'~fl~ng i in~ighl into the I~I·ofcs~iun.1 r(ld~Ci~inil this means h·<lvin. nJpli"iru.winlr-' o1:]!(. rhe rdali!lnship 11( ..:h~n~ ~ ~i\'l~'n sire.phh: nr[l. most c:~cml:luary I·c~:~.d fin some I~'I)CSof designl ilnal~·sis.ecl isgrenem~~r reduced mso~i:d space.ngdraJwiiU.mtl I:IJUliC).qI)OS(: the sen .~)fh\: .t1r·iaM.gur mudel. is pnxli(''aicd ( 011] hyp(J.. ~h~ co:~. The ~ni(nfm.':l~xistin!_l: wOirk.!. n1::JJ teri a1and ecnstrucrion to :riIl1 et hulls.S~. ut .1.iout.\-n~d m."·) Imlh.)n provide three-dimensional I·CII~c~cn~·'~lions.\" well.on ilho~uhl!1ildi~Jg~.~) "\.

axesallldzoliilCS.".edj[ocestihJ.. Oil!!! type 'of drilwiElg helps to pro:vidie irls~gltt into tile :rd3tmo~5. such as . \I'dl =.1' Material protegido por derechos de autor ..I".-:rign i~ addled gJiJC¢ the dr:iwi:ng has been str:ipped of as much s!!l!perfhio~s a!ld disi:tilctil1ilgdatil as. hOiS b~~1'1l"edtlOild).hjp I)e~\. Juxtaposing or superimposing .e. Illyeni IJ a p~.edllne::. '7~~.1"non-visual or :no]Ji~.UI'Y Loforrnallio:DlJ.e.tu"t'l as piJ.tiofiship between oompoil]en~!rior' aspects .plowed ..1 o:m~' I:ruo .1l :re~lIltimil!simip bet\'l/lBe~ dijfe~CliUt s)'stems ~Il rthe dlesig:n.1l11Nom.rchmte[..tfu. tpart can bring out diIJerchl. giving comple.n:t. Generally spea1lkimlg such IPf(!l:rm. Demontitge Dlf:lwi:n.mcJlt.i~\'ij'.dr.." at It may bt [nlbj'm~t:iOfl abQut fUI'lt. .drlcl'iDll lle~"'. DO-' 1111tfutt [~II'I~ka ~ cli.:t:11 public and ~ri"llt~ SIl~'CI:. . Noll.lly term.of ~biCde~gn .g:the object for ana1ys1:sasthougb it ltad been llI. Grilphi.tiol'lJ or use. "r Il:<lm<.. possibl~ (i. whether t~ese be s!..lve:rnl stories or sC'!N:il"lli. can 'be helpf~1 wli1lililnl eX1I!mini:n'lg t~..: in~crior 81l~C" a. er ten IlS !<o:ml):tl<ling alt!oul the undcl"lyin:ggeomctr~CllI syner(iJ.ken.1tl!ll"..]00 pussible to draw the obJ~ct as mQuB:h it had b¢en blliw~ 3p. I~ is .D:H(.many dements.'een.an.'~~ee!:>UJt r..~willgs. fii:ir:i<:ltil:Ie G'~JOii.Addirililln.c~.b~tti:.. Additb:m invelves im:mdJ~d:nlg IIlIforimut:ioninto· time (trowing that is d.

.<.."" .tj-"n .jJ~til ~"d je. "Im.gt~tIl 1!~(!dJi!./ 1111'\ "1- 'I -- "'''1 1:' Stp~~M 0·' Cr.0. $.rOlo(l.. .!I"i"l c I)f'll!)l)~0.• .ill ImS'tit<>t!"""" " ~ G"""lf1 ..-.$ f! tf!dllS '-I~ -.~"dJo.

.j!J~. i .l Te ill. . RotD!l-it" IS66r.xlllod~d dfi!wi!ll: of.'ltl7.'~ g «>!l'I~~~"n M~~~tlp~dtiW 6~p8re§~r~M~ffigi~tor [I~rrJ~.. iii!d.I. v.llljl' 01 j>.iiJ'" do 1:1.Poill~ilio.erl)fiiO'lg 00fI-..~I~rn~l!tl!~l!o".sl:rnl:i: 'Iilit..m~~t".il)S. dcsllJR dFliW.rillTseharrr].l_n~ ~!~me!l~: f !llo.. !:. ViILIa.!'!iG ~J]!.jj_"jl:'.

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IWD. and space Whcl!~l::r .concepts thll'~ refer to [he l'lem"lds of which '~Iil. [ Introduction h~ O." BOIEI descrjptions use technicalterms.0 x [:!:Om. As(...l!s the q~"ll~.ding l!!rb<lF!fabrric< Then there is " system of ~illes. Ji>~lri ofa cit):.lt .illg of II design..C'S!If 51rce 15 em J SlIUlUl"'~ as . come underebjeets 01" rnaeeri .). From I~f:re the axial line continues thlXl'llghl :I new barrel-vaulted to tJ].emm~I'S '\i~ry design.frrC. and th.rooms rmd urban S(IU:'m. place._Sj)~ti . co IOlnn. From the hroildl. 01" designsred in !)1ll.I~ ~id e I h ~ hll.~Il Villctlcin 1.'open-ai.:1the ord. 0:0'1 I~leother.~!i.U A PQ~~US grid of 1. can be broken dow]1 iaro ~:p~tilll a nd :n1I'H'!w!:i~1 el. era triangular space. garden.~L~n ~ll'm:t'Ss.!I'[hidi.(! of Iypes (see Chapter 5):· Smvu.'~~r1.' rooms as ago!iris! the esreri 01:'..ene ami ViUII.:!' IU·!)~e..l~IHcr ~ we (. a eovered axial intersectiea as m. drtldar llrm~l!dtll'lmba and j!or. place "rid the n .a square ~s.fll~ /mJlJli!tl.i.lit(}'fs. We saw :hnw aspects sueh as fo:rm..!' of (he m. and du~~l's ofll'ee~ t.1 del'n~!l!!! i:ndude CUpbll<:lr<h. Evidently the designer intui Iilie lines. i:l:n'lnls.C' (h:sl~n IS co i1IstruC!od---:folli.c putl:k!~ nil the ~)t er side.in :I park Inc olpen spaces.n:d (l1l"iIlJ ""I. p'rngr.take place in t he spaces. composiuon . il:nn:d:'l.lllrak along rhe rheme garden s. thev resort Itl' !HUlS! describe how II de~i:g'1'Iis cOin.ed.~HI:r'\' <l!~d (IUa1i1r of [l1c enfolding' materials cl:c'!ermi1l1Iethe quality of a room in a bcuse. ur . 1ln:d T!ii!:humi'~ li~~[li~!i. 1::0:11'11 position of spaces and JIlta rerial.d .t"rncdhy the rurm. and in a I."PIl~'WJ the broad ~inf.edport ico on 11~lfou r sides.rly disposed Is foll~t$.l:.lposed without the cJicl . The fanciful promenade (olJfronts 'us' with an e lem enr l.1.! R""'l~~'~i~.ty .{ult (irdl. shapedthis element ulcng by rhe IM]imn renaissance ])<lil!Her R1!philld.ack la ~()li.(Ji!oll. then. such as Inc circlIllar domed chamber.~u:l. tl\c scheme is 11'!p~bm:~ihrl!" 'ba~l'd on Ih~e~ :mmrmmU'liD$ Ji~I'r.t:sigTllrng a house.[[I:~ld[syou into '!!'tie circular clonu:J dum her lin [he U.ly lIsed 011 more [I.~!icdh~$ r<'Ul~adi[)'s \!illiaRnwn{~a IhlJ:s: "Most ~iun(Jlills.> Chapter 2 kes iI look . such as the porticoes ohh~~ ViII" R.l:l:rmld:ly SIJC'aldng.o~il by rhe Swiss a rc:l!:i"{.C'lc't~ WI[fuJ iI.~11 ble ck with a ]il:rge. a ~rid ".cflding the bruad flight of stairs 10 one .(llckin~ a gcolfUel'rica]]y (tc£~UJed :Cor~".I'arishns been described as follews: "The p~<'Un ·dmrn"-'leriz'~11 b~' d\crcgiUi.of drawings. f(~~~y :1[ c'11crypoint.ifirl in Le Pare {~e b.lilr ("xamrh::.()omprl:!l:i.. whereas duol' kf!Qb~.l!:l"lurn'l build ~ ng..2". h hall out T'. '1. :\ c~~ i~'i\.. bOIJ[II ed d by taut ro".al.!l. all the villas of was the ~~1-c~~I'kd II.e.!" ncriv hics.hc de::.120' UN:tr:T:r <1iH] fil1u..!.mn: Vi .s. b~ii:din~ Mock~.~. is sim:ncd..2.cscribe ~l'OW these inlo 3 w~ul. d.~~IC'.I'llI. '1~~Cdesign is predicated upun J.t::!)\·. nature ami f~lrH:l:i:[J:n nn1~ildin&\'>! around it.~ [mel t rc!:s :lm~l.tton. u pn~ or :1 bmlsc~]lr.t}I j 20 x prm.\'s of trees.111 I d interior waU~...~~ !>p~.E. 1·e~Cm'll.!:.ak \ty.:s~ described asthe "bl.u C~P~("_ ·lrh!.:l H hnx. canlJh. which shows a building' with <I like spOlin~.J. form.rt with tenus refcrriu g: t. Rotunda. OIU the (me hand" [hey dmw o:rl.~)f.llmli!ics. ·file Danish architect Steen R"~l1I1u!i'lI.lli:IUJae ardl'l:II:CIlIf'n!rr un the .o 'c:x~.II$(~'hc~c~n ~d<li~!:W 1hj(.t I"IH: /"mf!. (his is I\.1Ulit '1coess".emcn~:.l.I. nileyi nell] de terms eernponents I hill d. e the E.ri."~. In . l\t~uerinl... are treated and arranged such 'is PGiJif~ g. Upc:llporlicu )'(m C:1~ICI" the burrcl-vnulted hlll~~. WllC~l designers Of c!':ili(. here .sting compo:nelUJts most proh~h.:dmlcal. II.Euu.uc~i~J diet . surt !l'!!Jl!P.: elemems ~re described il~ terms 'of their basic: geonll~l:dc fOirm. .c. w<!U~.m. ViU.:'i'ly ~hc open S:P'l!..of rhe purtkQcs JOU arc aware "I' the same composirion Of'M()nlS ils ill the StiWIJJ r1"A~hem ~:i\frcscn ofl5Q8 rllJn11On1IC occasion. paths and lawns :1!<O ag:Jilflsl tilt' trees..~. Third..eIHS" The eemponeats or elements rhar eenstinne a design. ~lm~lli't"'! !.CI Bernard g ~ Tschumi for t&lie cempetirien fOlr Le ~"ln: de . Iypt: and context alfi:!.I~ on the same principle bot each with its OWiU.. there is a system of pl<i:lnics~'l:rgel"spaees meant fOl.'s ufth!" .wrm •• Material protegido por derechos de autor .r1tllt'. In :~ house these are Ihi.\rI1 of ITf:! iviries.

d .111 :prj:n..g: ordered to sildsfy the {)1)!ilJd:it~ons.!..~OQ~S ~ they have used and tihe nlllcs: [0 w~. .>C j)tcsCOt day illl!slti!'~C ho.)!1S.etry I:QOJ !.o:i:pile mean gl'ewt'er etUdency.ilii.ld.~rC!lmsr:mces· ::r!ld! i'1it~eiq'l'e}t~ti.ln11 . TlhepoilT1I'S grid and the axial ~lne aile jllSI tWI) ex3. i\l'chit:ec~ural :syst:e:m Wh".clillth.of eX3.roo understand . Tlhe need 1:0 or~e. 01' tnJl1{.Gwith usc .edl Design (CA!})' p:rogl"3ms:. hdt gri.c"(:Q~lIl'i. the \\"'y dl<l elemenrs arc 1. tmlJ!sf.resentt. clisWl'l!cd.j()l!iii!' to ii.g.ce:around us' IS ~t ~~rmt':S :110'nIOf1C 't!'!'il. (a Material protegido por derechos de autor .g.i. g(.l1.~dng of ~bl:.ci1ang!.I::t.p~lac~as mucb on tbe teevc.W~r I:he. bceninfhieaeed by social ::md el1hl.:tbie Ofl! centuries of spaee desiign.1lay Computer Aid.1mples ~wve been ch.ial. ).er.nimg :t betrer lunde~'l":l. prerequisite 1!> fur ~llccl. employment .g has aroJet'O play inl :gai. Altho. in ardhit!)C't...[!J!J a crt)' who!i~ 0:rder ~~ u_nClcil!.g HI luke its place in.~ dp:l.0.ese pllirdcu. ZO.t w ml!lmipulatimg'. :iI.I!.e~ lUI: justas lIipplicaMem urban desi!&lllit amI 'la:ndlsc~1W 3ifdtlle~.(l. mGl!eClJindamtma~ SJ1strnll thn f!"I!r.dll.cs.mG CAl) spol:~al~.~ges.!ls.of pi.r IS pnT!l'!!WtOO mQ!'i!l I!hili!l anything (). 'fhe art Msot(llrian Emil Kaufm.mJples frulll ancient Greece to d:1.. ill:!.es: !If objects er buildings.rnptes.ric:al completeaess. we only tend to get I.. Ilboough tne .e :s:une time. of In.gua..l kit consi. :tim:.. t!tl:!)'\t(K'[l:bl.i~<I!1 "'lyle..ly ex:bibit~r'1!. then. Po.a ~e1tmQlif in this rnOliI.ct:<ll. CbriJty of GrgaWJJ~zat[on.lirul hOli\Ie. every Ielement: ~i~ ".fI'S. as beilll. Th~ "~ay d!~ign~ .gJidls.~).lnyj)!iI!ui!1!g a dt'sign if!!!) I'r:lct:k~ (~'..Iim.!)guf<l!~ing Hn. h(.. It should! 00 clear t.l.llIfma:nn anJ 1\!I:j~'C~be..i:n. TIHl following analyses .t~¢S dh.es. Arc:h..Cil!t.rindp.clilltcs 300:1 3. 'f"he d.L':t!!m~ti!~c~~varyi!'!g frpmj)~ac~ 1:0p:la(1tl G.st 'William Mitchell drOliws::I. parallel in.itcct . sp~1.e Slake ofh:ism...W d.f 1)C!N!l :[mm.:.. gmmmur Oit QOlll!eot~Qll sel:l':'im:posed rules.ndhrug' oflitrue >:p. dimenf.Inll elcrrt!lrlts w:idil ~'l)~dil.lse by (lllf ge.n'S in the ellitvirurnm1il.(11: stile ilt!lS a oocond.combined..ropofdo!ill .ann.s 0:rd.u:e.}\'a "art.ml1i.pardcl.e!i.1l. Jx:rwJ:\ to pen!(!:f!~gii'i'e' a dch per. .ugh Ka.. grids ~e. oilanar-cbJ:tk':Ctu]CiII idiom er system.riaill OODlipositiioili der~ved fi:'!)m painlting ean also pia..i:s pr{I~~sjng A scc0\1iId moti~'iC 1:0 arrange lOr'9rdel1!' rellat:e!!. ul'rledng :princi. Grde.:l.esigns and design too:18 have o:J!c'\!cloijX. and building: Un~.:mattcIJrpt be to prc('~nt ~h!) hlSI:(~r~1 ~f~&il:$Dt1. lines atld! axial lines I!e.'S~:fl.spe.' J~s.g:takes .ors .hi](lc!!.!'! W!) s~~k of ~tyl~" WI).nive . jJri:mci:pille:.of d~8Jg. Tine}! should in m!~1~"'y r.. be found. with :many stYles e..Eudideangcometry.have olfdtr~d th~ir dil)Sign:s. Il~ comp<l!(:'(l:S l)rchtt~(:t!. the ('brm of tile elemems and du: diffcrilllJOGS i!il. f.li)osQlf i:~:llS(t cu.l ~b(l 'World so :iSW m<l~(l lf~ilSil:. changing !:'. a mOV~m~i!1!!:orit In3r.egaf'ded ~..f thdt. to produetion . . P.s(l Ft.'fh.ubje.several ordierin:g Ilriril:c1(pllies emerge ."efai d~s:if'~W arrall:g'.il 31lJ iI.mrc. 'W:h@n~mpO$i:ng: ordEr.Can d~cta'f}ethe !ltd!et of ill scr.1ar eX\.r:ansjormcfl.I!J(.lian.illtro-dneing cl"S'SllicMlons" as Itly plil:ysical inte:rvc<ml:io.i.'!i !h~ $l'f.hat am.ring:: .!~i!:r:fand ~h.ltt.t.'at(ld. tbis :rcspe~~ between language (lnlil an:.31Is it (be: IIfchitec!und system. the des~gn can 00 traced! had in purt ttl the set: of rools deriving from .ng or il:rjimnci'n.i. :systems of mejjsun::~m.)' . dGcoiICatio[l. Tlilli.ini~ing.rns'Ofisid~rOO t'().\ dlirdl moti!i!efol' IQrd't:rin:g nws to d.osen ibecaus.ii<!):!:! wndp:rop!)tltion.order Every d]eslgll~s based on oeder.gners use .11:01 only the geom.d. Jesi. At th. 0l'g.i1(1ingmethods.pitillg 1)0 Of~e-rmg isa m~lI:ms.~".f: .. Some ~ftbese toolsClIIl also.101\g d itiloJ).sts JQf the f". E\lc'ry lailillg1lJlagc: mast ha:"'-Cil 'U'fii:tj'&ulary of dem.:llitioo. symmetJ:~1 ax~s.can :1.'oll"ing Gi~'ertime.r.t as '!'!''Glfds:ire Id~liin0d [naooY<l!!II~eOOI r~ch (.ur!l !h¢. tile ar.cy ha~ie ad~eTed~.lllg (ems.ln.1~fN)wany ~hink first M thellJll'pean:U1Jce..l.e ~hey cle:l. be ." Th.tcttlr~ ..tl'i gri:dfi. aml.p\fOC~sing is mere drastic. ~ An i!r.(ufg.In!ii'tfumen~~ The tetJ:th'lwe crnp]oy to dl:o~('r~l~ o!\d. th¢co\!~1t !)( <tn!te<tion. programs and b1ll.bUit:3ilsQ' ~ther pnndpJ¢s" Fl)!r ~xamp'l~.. This ~rn~tr~1 ~oo.ofdfllwlngWitrhil:f con- eruoo!'C0IJIityandab5t!"lCt!Lhoughr.i.ge by assign.~!li':(ihow irs elements are IlO be l.us~.! 01' .. A~ o.o]fyed~liIJdtile marmer o.r31i1gc'rn:M~ OfCOnlllP'illlit:ion.c.cloiPcd their ideas Wifh architecture illl min.d.ples.g<..cla. dIe S\':!: of dCSoi:gJ! rools to rbc emp. and !lot: f~r lilli. sca1c. p.. Tliius.miz~ s}!stem (If streets 0:r corrid. wid~1 clements being rGlrntcd.~yri!] syStem dficS('f.. [.ds).lferilnce in.n dc\'.(l Cbpter 4.ilt. thcse prilil.

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d.thm in.b!. the llll'g~: 'ia:ngtdar u end -of the ~~.€:oldesttacls ji'Ot creltting ilr(]er is the grid.d"ic b~lilld.U'e in [:let .fi!clp~~iiS:l1Ji!Tllli):!l n:~OUf:~ fiJr lay.ij}s IiO between the. the t~mrl:e'sc.eein the cill!!' center ~o sh:e the msin .~~~ grid-cit)r.OCll'ilii:)'. firid Tille special m1e~(l.r !:he strill~.S. ea:dier Em.loy a. The Greeks regarded du: SYS®CIU of proportion .t:dty"F'rolU.: G.~bjt1. Arist10tle WI.ed. " Arch:~tec~s 'C1UlJ.~flgth.ing>eut cities.¢~I'I.~ellp(~lnd:i'ng: the l~f:~ialil~m:s~. h: dominates the and. which (." 011" islands} best :..ably the fi.r. 1iiN'(M'.!'l.eek tem.ilted dile idc.nt mlal1l~.{)en::h:iM~C:tALbeni ~ {14i'.ds <!flEe ttle \l1\r}'ing h~:rmmonles which the' "!'ti.'l'Il be fil'l!lcrrnJd.tmetry) In .eligh![» a~c:Jltiltl'lcm:rc{'G:rViwU\lius mea!'ll (J..1] "bil)ut 30!M:.fyil. cl:i~jb'iQni_l)to bl.egrid-t.t~.al't standi eight C·r'l/.!:'!r a. system .:wo[ 'rhe elemcnes inthis (:om.I.onim.tN!S (..lfJI6.u:lcllefuacl:. i..: ''''We ddin.:e.of equi. The ~:li!>r 0fin. nonhic.cr lISf!lll!ly have been fmmd Ijo c(lllTI!ililC!: whl1 the c\li~~c!!(:.ocls (." ami titmc llh!>li). be oom::eivc:d 3S 3.2 The basile insrruments of elassicalarehisecture One of tb.onc.ep.i:s based om:a.1o.reeik t~m. On iii.c. )Tet this p!r.1.u.~CT!il!tl.rll.\Vh()ru WJ.lnl:C plroporl[on~ it eomprlses . T~i!'i syst<lm relates as much In rihe me. hOllse.of [hI).s·san.) who in his ooo..plet.nt.k Polilim presented thearchitect Hip[lod:a.'·'.I$.bly due 1:0' AristOl~e Ib84·-.: ~imi1Jltio[! di~t<It'()d-j. ...!sly !j() botb. grid.\ie tll!i. Gr.2 s.<)(!RlIJ. s)lrl.\ologiciiJch:. the a bmg:'Cf l~e snring dl!i1i: crulJlir.e liU:W plili'~ .I~~in.' l word!"synlmeny" ~aslooay.<!~1 il'!!li'ITloniG8.the !1Jeld.0 length.in.:l1i__lk t:ectu're.t s)1swm oj'p.a! thl:: Grceksrcgard.@!t 'W th('.c!Il. A nember of :!]XOOnll:vor> serve 10' l.t :er"(j. ~n~ tl'!!)}1 US!) the:m also intihlr-Ces:.:Sp~l~laJ: d~Cl)t.~i.tJ demerits (il.e.hu:.commo·.pl~ is . Tllis.a. illTld! so on" 'when lli:idtlil: ~c~r.~(has it! a pu~Ih': sitting room. refers m ].. Smmd:s mayhe ~fJW~ to (]ir higihc-Vildfucd •.S ~iirm.NlIls (COmDUil.s. '1'11..plc arc:hi.. mlJn(i!f--lli~e i(l(lnnot:il:~iofiS [he Siuing: awp the A.lls (It[ dCirn..(illli:n:~dly!h. ~a:rmo:nIY (IS ~~'.ti't!':.squar~ grid.d'ljl. !l.Itdcd lIS Ibe liirslt cily te be deaignedwith a grid. ag in .git.t Vil'fl)!\tIYS wrote "ib.g I'Jl.. Milct:us i.'(\r." One oJ the most ["mom.!ifi.CCPti rum: Vhrmrius. p:hu.l'O'Us 01 i\UL~~us <is !Jill) (I:rigiif!<lit:~f of .(:witilOllt dileOI ae~'t~e'k :it'Jf:emi{lfiS ise!ficlellt .~d. The R~!tili.'ITI!!!. in as an org.l:lrm.lt~onSiQ'ni!:m::.igned ~Q t~e lonicciw of Miletills l.di[y) and .s ~~te:n :r~:g.~ 'imp and ~h.s (]Iuil:e basic. Ihe mnffiGt willfu.w:nlllig e".gtou:md" S Ha!'mO: __ F!Yand pT{)pOr~'~on ~hc Romat1a. !:ihe ~Ul.l-'JO\\II)'\It::F.p!iliSh~. width ~ndl.x. Thi~ 'Ordi$T:l!1ig "'l'i.c forum.2.p.ii> in AE~le.le: they usc thC<ffiIin pai. F':~fllll rhe di 1'I:"e.. n mue sic.110. sets rheeenrer U!.lor M:i:lletu!l 1JnJ(emcil!'. TI1I. llvc ·cli!!>siliedin~o set munlbcr".b]O)g\l (If de:mGl!'tl> ~s w~~cll)d !:!HO a whole I:'yllt" Iyl!'qmmm~.d in ancient {)fiill:aJ t.I.01" square. '[hI': J>ih.!nli~-illg pr~!iI.om-' IHlsitinl) j.hy.IIIIII. h l10r.frnxlm the Wilt)' i~ is d. By p(JstJlI.f. {!1J:1!.J'st ham:l!boil<__ n~ .c PeW"SIDall's. eM'tMIJji <lndl 5J'lnliMITJI.d:isl!Jm alld int.lS'1lIIIcmcntS llild [yropolitiorls of .d~r. [{i. A number of bl~~b were Ik.l.~e:~' L'fm!I"a'llIS b~tw~(\Qthesc sOijlfi.tl1~ om equal foo1t[ng..t f.g~daftcr the: dty's dcstnn::.l!(:r'~iI!)s..:r:101l8: tllC-:uw!':s OIl this milt~.f! rud.na A Meso[potl1l!nrill" ~Jill.sp.a~]er li ~iuger>rectO angular . this wa~!. th.'i. the {/.e dlt: actual of m~:S!.Injling' OiIH II romn]".! il.as g:l!i11lld CtJltlcr'Gte form in. This as-~~m. the fro.e Parihcnun (c..kas:I!IlUt the ears.. ~!illi'g(! pillalfmlrTIfll or &/jr.oni(Hlsly order II:Ml.cmpol.(: l.llrsecring axial tines. the \.ll'cadiy buil:t in. vl'lc h:ig!truer~''pijclhcJ!.t tlilegr. and thcy want th~ height tnrelate harm. llil~ll.. h<l'nlM'lJ:I_JI.ldl's equal.on.~hese mlmbcrs in the Illo.t\l"Ss).I'~.. 449 e"c. "fr{i .lrgivesa clear idea of the ae$tlilie~ic 3:il~f].md.!.1I. is i!Tgu."(JpEiMel/~~.s 0f dIe' Milet:allg£lidl might he ~~rn. Material protegido por derechos de autor .c~of these isa great stnne beam..ml clement as [0 tlhose of IJII.Sof classical :a:ntiquil}'" Not omly dihI .t/jjl:"u.(. i\l)!()\!"e I~~ll: ({j:#l~. 'I'ilili. of sounds ~ which is p:.tcctUlre.roh.\.-t4. .· Th!!se id(.:!l •.raped (liver ~he uficvetl."oportirm.ow<i:r'-pitc.(jd sound.a Min.J:I.~c~t~. Of opeliiJ SfP"(l(\.J.itics \'Iicr(~ a.. wh~!'!) only two dime-n!llo~s are oO!lsidl)f-cd.h."i':::) d!~cFibes tffil!~ pl!t!)n()m~IHJn as follows. bl!lliJ'dillg' haee w i~3ds:f~' jir-mi!t<tl.~w.Si cO[l'\it~nk.': cLilifi:l:orlillJj:los:i'iton. oonSOlihUU strinll.d~rhle>df~om mU!1il.rc(.l:tcment$.

_. 19' IG!<i.0 ...01 . I".. .. -I~- II I ... 1 ) !)I I . [I 0 L n t"'i' .n-I'""'I. . ~.' I~: I". li'i. :1 .Ii'<!. 0' 9 r1 . 1 II' I'p' u U 01' i 0 II II 0. 1<1' V ii*. . - c c o o ~ : I - .:. I:II~ ' I II. . . '1i9' If.\. I Ill.1trt.__~~ . 6~ ~ill: I 'II..ial protegido por derechos de autor .a. .6'. I. I -I ~ ~I IJk . "i't .1<!.. -~ I):II _~ I tl'!:'PIT :1 III o I ~I t:l.. 1. ..t") .I<>" lot. ~ :"~~ I~"jo. i6 :11' "" 0 0 r . '"" . D 0 - .9' J " .. ~ I I'" 1 I J -. I.n a I .t r o I ." o I .I - I" I'" I . II'I~ ".10 IJ ~ ~ j 6i'<!. ~..#" "'' ' ' '"'kl' 1\0.f II II -Ilr~. 'l.~ II!.. .Io!o.-. .IA.~. d I - I. -. . '~ P 1 ~J T '0' ~: -'lO C' I. ~ 1 II I II M':1LIi". . .0 1 I 0 ..I ~.I' I 'lo.a . III 1"'1"" -. !9' to I II . . ''''j. - .-' h r o o ~ -I - P gl.

a. Thus..! diM) cenrer of ihe wotrld-\riew. d the s.e ilimd. ~ympa:[la.\tdal. The '!t)()k . emergence grl)~t('f imp!)r~1!!~cG in R.S:J\CIr of C~I:ucib had held tor c.Wil can dffisti.n.:il1.bec'e:IlJt".~the t I!Titl:l.:I'S:I whole. n.In G~!hic cMhedra1s the eelumns to agrid of mattlr. d..e bas:is of the p'ropo.l: Srlt!olt-cof iilJfluCll.IlJdnggrad!1!lall~' d!lminish.!) the . una church based On ti1J1.. eolumns.. organi1lmlillg lines: that. A. of Tlhdr ". Va:rious ~nrnetrk devices were' de~'. oJ pr(ljWrtiOI"l).O:Il11~ip-£.termiJle the bistoty ef .c . Withllhe.my.es.This bay m~Ol~ur(l:m~ntdJl)5fi¥'~(r.'~.cd i.u.!!'bOlI!ditl). of th~ ch:y aeadeh..~)n. Il'rct:~sc s:.uly did the Church's illllrllmmce on Ilili.n 14912s:hio\\1Img 11.s Material protegido por derechos de autor .ity-state.O!Il 01 blllildings .on tlil.H"S rcg!.'r~ir)fil~ the: bU!lilJall: iJ. the Cl'li4. seeend row ~f (lolumms.plan. (lilt emer~n{l~.:iC!urc (If til1(l pirou. t. Though nl'N:lI[I).t11y ranked ·I.e" for' e:..IY regulates Ihecompooltion.e:by ~he I):.depe:!l!dingQ~ the rf~pori. Th~ :riSilOf C(iillm{. run ~b[o!lIgin.onopo~y on the kn. rise to 3.fln" F!f~m system ~h.(is' ~JiJ.eroped tJO tr3:1ls!b..g~(I.c writingQf ~h~ pyrhagJ:}f:~st~." W!lS i~vigot:!..urWmJlg medieval during the Rell:ltl'sS'll.::ample" were regarded as being alllOlllg' the elemclilt:s of tilil:cdilline 1lI00el.de. . Man ~ook over frem m'usi. Not ol.ces between the axes dic[Oll:irnl~ ~~. giltden!iO!nd i)rt1biln i>l".nd (he n'blG.IlOiw. . sy:mrnel\ry axis 31.ciry tonk a pruminent pnsitloll run.\tn'Q)f imaginary lifie8Of rl'.ppty tl1:cm. AI: the front and OilC(k af tbis tW1(>.".sG. bur also town :aud ceuntry !~OlJl!>e!i.ocngtlhe length of the temple regulates dle minor s:y. (liI!l><eS.$1 @ill man ·1\!1IJsl()\(~k~d(:H)n as: the u of ehe groin ya~hgal\'e.~ I!k~wjil~ de~~JyaFfOl!m.m. plastic and spalla~1object. which can be fOllnd. to do ~o: ~h~ P'a!Wtl:S' tastes r~flecwd more thsn :inytihilll.1erialllxis.d ~.of tmilding . in. and 3S mUielliJ.Following tllle line nf the ~Jilcien~s"gco. 'Thls l't~birlh of ~h(JI0S1: :mdent d.edge dl.c ~eJl1JlJPCSI~OI]'S d~"'~lQFm¢nts [iii.c as th. P'I<lt()I.e fOUflliCC<IlI!tb century the .rchirec.nQ!t only did ~I1.1!tiOfi. as was ~heIDI known ...dU!!:lry dlUfi[lg tifruis period.:ltl." One . examples of R.m in major 3..n.the center Q{f~h!e.ofG:rcc~k. .pfu.I.. ~ow.thl.te.iu'a'i'es:j land the ('ools used m order mem.ecesslt'y to a. dll..d thcst:and~nt ~~pll.oe the monastery I!l!u:ee steps. l.\1~f:::!1writ(.l1t. Ill.it!)nal sYNtcmi.iHldin.:g made by Pr:lJl:lcesc::o tli GiOf:gl(l MaF[inii.Jcsi~..rial sy".reemed cella stand a.e adhere l:1iU.1yde~'!lillQ~ed!ntf) mlghtyr~:T)i!lbU(C"S i meas. thus ~liJ.d f!~'S1~~.'. Elemt'ilUary :geometric systems: and.o'wl.noe.ody. (~f (~tQm!1J.~ym.. b~t also Ihat of f'l1li. This gmu.l. Bay The dist. Itcl1aissancGarchitecture.1. :mliquity.e.giOIll.clrawin.pm>'!!'S lin!) dw~ d!gc iJr~he<:ib!oillg 5!yI0ba.:i!OlIill order was eehned in tne sllil. mw.QlQiJuudJes ~1!'eclete:rmined by malt:e..Qldes ofcentnd and. spllcee. as !! "cast" of tbe divine model.~{!If th!)thinklne.di an ever SI!rong:ilr p{J<SltimJ.d (.crH!l.l pw!)p~]... i designers dCcSo:ri~be i:nteJm5 of materia] dements it whic'h to~the:r Jefiimn:ehe l'empk.f:. is 3 ·"':IIlIed.lual transitien [l'Om a felldall E:illiOpe ro a new srn.sysn:ncms. ma... .clphilowphical ~d~a8 s~ifi.aca. This belief.eviilope.Mate.~ :and reinforced. COlumll:5 inside ~l1e u:lb are also set in.ofJI. (he eiwell). 'come~ under d1C l1!~ading 1]lf m:)t~i:.metry O/. RerlaisS:i1nce In th.rial! ~x. wereregarded as rtlll objecd\'cc medium between the dlvint model 1'0 be e:mul'aJled and hljm~fi Cj\~. In.rt[ona~ ~y:S'T!Cillil..'s oornpos.g else ..c Il.. "TIt~ sq:!l!.e positi. which in G:ree:k templeerchitecture I'el:lted.·ealthl!>".itiop.om ~h~~hi!.J.ulf31 ooWl. of the eolumnsare called bays .. :wllch.fIf the best=k.mlllam.i~1 axes.\i'f.!l"ie.".!j\(l.. ill.il. espec:iaUy ('OIYmn'8..k~~~" ~hll. only to the centcr-ee-eenter distanee ~etrwcc:n the. This Gntire aJl'lCi!I}' of matGriill ·C:lem(!Jl~s (columns.:ls ba&ed.cs fti}tt! Thefleer pians of mi.il)ttl.~il axes .0ilii!il"lgof tfu~ m.at£ri<llell!lm!lIil~5. l(l cube._'mJples a.t}! btt}ugru p:rof@u:mdiCiliatlges 1:0 thesncial ~tri.~~hJ'J tllI(l' t}'p~'S or aX~-~YSilcl! the devdo:prnel1t of relligiflu:S 911.omanesqlXc and Gmh:irc aJ1c:birrel:!lu[e.e ~e3.lliz3rnoiDlrS takes the Frcm'~' [1)ame Ren.mmetry of the temple" Tlliu: pesirions of ~Il... her. a ba:yc3n roe dC'flll!ed a~ '1~e zone OOI'We~t'I'tworn3~e.. examples IS dl.11l.wbich can b~ entered On all sjd.thu:c du) pm.st~m crumbled.Yj\~Il!esde.i_j~cdL Tille bay. t A sY!lt'!.:{8~(lmS of pro(pordmrl. m(lTthefn lttl. of t&e t£ml'~~!).rm human measurements in~o p'roport[ona~ I"cllial'. pr(18~n.i.nlis~ !lion!..of all tihings.fSof mtiqrll. timcs~llld.aisSl!:nce" . l\<lan d. i:bt: orml'igul'.'Jlhe :ttI.

k~ uf i.[If the pa r:. Such uf ~J- and Imus€~ \\"jJr~ i1l1.al .671 nilt.i.l~!-fuJ.:i :'it.e dCfrrCtlt. :(S~~ 'lIse. IrdtifafmL' 11.<.lmiq\il~f) .eJi'!.r:g:cd .t ~(:tr~'..']wk .II.'.t:d utLcd'l w this th:vdop- mcru.1. Fm Marerl:J.u!'l')liHi~'i .:nrist.-~nl"t~ In uri b~g.acr.:tt' mca"Un.bc RC~lali8s:JncercMr'~(lS used lticrilrt'lry to G.L:.em'~I~I:'lI n::dp~'"l.}'SH~ln 'uf cl'ili.lharl lht: r(_'. Melli d a~ f k~o.<..iffll:r~~·U ht(!..] Ii] 'iv! r ).1 t. I) f~he ..1.. th.)hjCt:i !l!. "~lip!. ] ffiis~~.mce :In. rrHlch lhfm~h~ iN I-h. Su!.i~ sj.<:.!'\H~ '"ilbs ~~..I'y i .in m. t:ii'y.G 'nl'~l''\'L~li.8:" ln ()rder In ~ K.y'.. Vilb {.Lljn~lil th'!. whii.g\~ fl'l~fiI~ l'hdt whcdiflg' :md cl~.ll.r~P1·j:n.~.' the <. -1!fl! 0/ {f'i'lmm.':i.l!':I)1t!nnU_\ g('Q.\\.I.l.mild II~I: 1~J1Ji~.~lld rhc n~i..~h): !.nc~J:')afNJ ~:.. ~.~ p" "The idcnl qf ql!'~m!il:.dI~ illig.cttml '~)~-"I1"'..hilcctrilJf:11 5yS'H~rn..(o]'jng 'I)d nciph::!1 ():f ~ln. wao therise nr:l new Qnmpw.jff\::'I"Cno~ b.'n J~ 1li:crcnciaI~(ln would hsvc been sl'r~mge to antiq nitl' ..".! mt ~[J 'thi: Jh:nai. h~hi..J~ici1.~<lm.01'11~ p osi tio III i11.'(· and m'llll:~~{li.n[n~ues (Jf rbe paiJits m31~C'of rhe 'I.Hiv(J r("r!~.:.~hm.~1. .nt.(.~ gl.i'll_.JrI[~q~!iity nJ '111<11of ihl::nt:'fin~!>"lMrh:t: ~ (.ildJ. is E.I'I.c<.~t i(.n!. stmn.lfIlt~.'~' h!: re:q~tir~d hicr. K~1Ilr:m1lJ1n d~crib€~ [ht:~I.t itw:H~ inIPIlJ-Wl:~I.~" t~o'~gh l~ditJldt.lcl:if1!i1.Fl!i:I:..W'1.1111:11l~ rhe D)fo.. host ~~ .'(.iJ\1t.ul!rtllll of ~~I~l-frnlfurm..] I~1.: hum' hm\. tu rhe "Goa"~t'(.im:i'p'k: ~h~ P".lr ~t:r'~..K"3I!ifivm1:l.'.].S:1(1'll:~..~e. .~\hmJ"~C cinli.::mnt.u'~lIe) rulltJw. lUI.l'ti:114fi!rlg.'l the md il'ld ual b~ril.l:3.rn.l.~. h:lIs !TI.1mld.ilia di}In~n:u!.il:1 C'm1Ph. To 'dl'c:(.n~hiF~OfsiZ!1: lInd. Cln I..~I~I~.el h:.am~ th~ ar(.} "I"Il.tnilk~.~Tn)W .1 ~lJ' '.h.1IIiI.: . j.~f"l'eL~ sed the ssme \!~!lffih l!it!il'"_\ :itl~I'he ~amc t fQ).iliu:II':1J ~I'.~. l he.r.omrQi the a urd~r~:'ng ll)pWt.~l~(:nrrlJ.r.in norrhern It'lll}.-~h<jl~ip'li]]ql ( ~IQnu:§I:t.\pchk (.II' {tli' ri~lM '! O\l!' n-d w...$lululd ~I! pr~'.d l~l'll· hrgc f~roning !)rlr~rn"i~<i!l ~~I'~\ {'-ll :IS . "rile ~.<:.~(}odll'..mo j~ CJ~:a~'l(.1ir.llcOl. The Ilmmw~di(lVa~ "11~l1p()t:jrim'.~'l)rr s ~ 'i~ ~!lc main focus ill Ihe ~:r'S~nf these.om'pm~ttun mO)r~ thiul '!Illwt5."ilj. atany nH e withi.n[.Rm ".:ed !he· L~i(fi:!'.:I nil q:i'lm ptl'''ll-IO lit of 1 he ~af'tkn:< 111 the mid ..\v".\!iRl:'mliss.u_trill I)<i n ~{:!Hlt.'t.si~.!C~ .::h)" Bt.]I h'fer~"!!~...~!itd'~-il'):g~l>atw.1.ilI..j!'n I.cri~m li\~ii<.. pllU~inu (lUnll'r1:h:Llt.1~:lle~J litnlk!:.T~..eenche ltr.._. ~h..1<J. ~. \'.h~ G'!.lJ.il'n ~hc)~cn a.hire<.. -"~'!l1'.m.Ji~~..p...J fill' more- ~t!.iI13 .lcil::_..opnrdQ'Il.~\rtC b(. the efcva ti:OIl.f pro eqtdo por nerechos {JC autor .r~:\d'[lr of rhe "'~lh. . P.rl"1.·m·~ does M~aLCI>uh~( rit!~y."lll~ W.::)'ihn~~W hc !._ !:N.H rh.(:ran..il'l11 t1rms.)' a I'H!W 't}<~}C' I) r h c[!umr.1ii~~.il.u'..ctrl.1i'\' j.llkl1i:1i~1 'cuntmHcd the cmnplJ~.!!'d VJ.ll. ~Slit'tts l'[' uh~1 lusr h(:t~lU)..!.}~~fwc.~h:.! o.d i'flf'(::iri(~'r · ~o:[l1PfJ'~:'.~ide~~. R~!'l.Tb.!OI-n~rl:d ~.teC'nt .. th ..X<]lnjm~d :ri~al~nly terms of the ~~ome'lrk: urder in .e) Vill.l.

.a l'eil'8pect:ive (TllilI[led. Space sys~m.1'IiJp~~ fw>oni~ !i~ ~t:f\. or in all~{heT-the To 0rga!lru~ze the discrete martrerialSlx~s. In the door openlfrugs .il1itJed IMer on the !l~lIster !iydil!re~gh'C the ~I1OC!i(lf 1!il1! I.u the rooms in PaUa.c~l..tIhe oQmpQsitiQI'l (j r dl!. Rasmussen is Jlemwl"i. The Vi1bi. Oil the :symmetry axes.icoes.ressiv(l Ff~nch word .R"umol'.•Vi~]. 11 de_~cri[Jli'olli of tfu:e villa.s ~h.illa and tie it in witffill the surrounding lamiJdsC3.lrtilflJP.~e m!lm'l.1iveeen defined.ri. b where the srrucreral COntlponenlS of the buildillG: ~I'e to bc' fO'illmd.dio brought ~o bCSiIi. Two suchaxes t orgal'lltze the basie ]ayom of tile ". Yect til e surface of the material flg.nitly here too.the :sp~:ce axlE.Lim~. one tOf the majIDr ditoooveri!cs . 3[ dFcul~r hall xes. f01!]]"dio I'I:SOfIrS.OlS a w:itoEe'.niliilg of!~e chapter. Such .lf :oid!ls..H:i(liri lines.~ (:'l].~.s pW1uine.Thus.wial s)ls~ema[1.lll)doors threugh ene of I:~Jeport.Clts.:11 eoncatenation of spaces we d~Ii[lI~ by the ex. In.I.to perspe~l[llve Ivilil a cellJ~rlllvanishing PQ<IU't..lLIIF(:..f.lwtd the dr'Ollar domed eham~~f it! r:bec('fI~er.!Vi II!! Rom!1lda is based as much 'O!lSPIlC(: !'ISO"! I]:'Ul'erl:a1.ealJ'el" of i:ma~ry and! :meall~m1g" T~le magnili!oemt frescoes pa.c Qrderin~ "f m~tel"i\ll i!J![dol-derin:g of sp'lloe adhere to their own !'II~)tt of rules" diesig[1lers dist.. In. P311 .~rily th!.i!lg COIn onay be seen one "t 1I. !lion j~slil'l defining dn: spll>ce~ form bll!llt as .ORDER AND COMPOSI'IiION instance.of the Renai:ssltllce. Material protegido por derechos de autor r. Rasmussen describes 'I~e Villa Raw!flIda as a Mod. the b<1Jrnel-Villlbed hal] . like iii'S counterpart the ]100m.':.cI~)d¢ rhat Iw~likethe. @f rTh1e lock.Y eu arc either in une roomS<!R disltinct cJl~iries.il1lp1ltS:h 1'\\10' distinct :systems tthat m'g'Cthe:r shape the oOITlpo!'litjoif!.d:ary sysiem of. c~Ynt~:rr~rm (If ~b¢ ~P.pe.~~~ by b~:i!!!g:!I~~(lIiI the fQi.[des the demcii'lt (dle space) imrutowo equal parts. I [I tffi1e design as: huilt theywere shift~ e~ 011 re!1!fi.i'h" . T'he space axis. rooms (du: spatial elemenrs] in the COH1POsivioll..}'h~. the quote at the begi:n.~ T~~ iOliqllcn¢~ of rooms set: Olfu~out he r al.1¢ladl!. He then lil!J)es nto describe Ute place of the o porticoes in terms of this block..f'\1rt_hen(ln.1 ~swr:iI~. l'xterior d lsS'(. CtDrn:its poshion imo ohi:e(j[S:" inside RmlDl1l!lssen dis:tinguishes spaees.}t:i:)]oorn. P~I"~i".. On theint("f~Qr" the rn.dthes:p!!oe system.pO$lti(lln-nh\l residue h:ft afoot me :op~ces EJ.()lng a ooc(lrn.('tt<i d~m~!1~io~. Rotond!'! s~dm:gsrM!ilii~ In $eq~e~ce atong alii i:magiulIl1l axis. In the o:rig:ina1 desig-IlJthese axes ran dlfO~. in pdltdple dii". If his descei prlioJll of t1iu.dig?s builcl.f:reeing rhe Illkld!Te of the rooms 1~l)r <!il'(l . as self9lufficient b elements.i'l t..:r~¥ed fr~)m G~~1)1Iktt.Imdi:n:glanilscape.of the s:ul'fOl. R~smlllJsseWlJ mkes his G!!plnralttion.gh the heart of ~be roams. ~h~ fQniC(l(}~ dt. F~t)mit we can ~o!1. Because d'D.

11<.-.:00--1 j6.vm~ Secli1lJil. !'~rl~<liQ.lplallJ ~J)I'D1"]~'1 1..1 d".Iiml Material protegido por derechos de autor .'.'\. .

.P!lCj~"C dll'llwifl of !l.~~ ill r I'""""' / 7 J ~ I--:~ \J ~ Plano metric redllttioil ~M.r <. ~ ~ '.Jriml of Vil'l>l.. MiI'i1ErR:~£i 1·... ('Qmpg.1II1l1~dehro:lll!h l ~tegl 0 por derechos de autor . Roool'iJiJa.\p"tilil.i.".S .

J~oi:Uil'.h". 1 '8~!Y\Vii'll> ..n~..I""~'~"I1'(' J r:.l\ ""~""'i~~' i>i'mncllk 'I.~ .w~. t~JI&bl'lwrn."'_-'J !lj ~ii"'r~i".Vjl!~ R<\..J1< !>umon ..gitF..:~ .f .i1i'''gr~lllI"r " ~~ul'i:b ~)!.mm ihe i''''~'''r.f~'_.lYIlf'ji~.t=:~ +-"~ Ffljn~.~'<I'.xe.]f)~.rini.. "'(lCU 'Hr Po!'r . au .!J"lrf/s ~t.lo\ d<Tin'.R.i''I'''. M~lo!.[I..PJ):tLill~.jr.".1 .f.

vie\\' r~ducing ij 1.V~lla ~QI!!nd~. Cl[pll)liI.'lI1miilJlllie1em ms Material prategida par derechas de autar .0 its dielit.liI..

!:4 etc).lg l ttm.]] cemp onent. Thus rhe tnajof pictorial elements.:hiucC'[IJ. II sCi of steps and an !llr'lalT!~ma~ l1!kc.'li1 iln 1:111.ysHom u.S l-iH'1." 1l(l!h r.Isystem B.re it is ~be mareri ~Il.lid!.:::lmiS~i1nl.i~pnJipuniotul. cllc:riv. the cube-shaped hlock illln."::.:principles of I.)I:h.!I"il'he"p<Vl'. I.'? In rhe 11h'lny ~oo!' plans of his designs illustrated in the Fonr Ilfll}k~.I~~ ."Sw]rh material 1.:~li!'lg his stamp 0'0 l'!he surround- \~C ~<!~~r~I:Uy .1.i~.n:len.heexi~lil'ag ~.lUll i1 design from c~t:..11 ~u the ~i!:II.dcomposirion founded on a g~vt'U'fr'if ~l'~/erll.s su'bdi. The' greatvalue accorded gCOTIilelr~' ill []1C litc'Ilaissm:u:.CITY to rcgrul:ate the spece ~ml material systems."~ng: Im..I)iSis ~f 3g'J.)ictnri.a!!!)!:! ·co!'wctn t~C[i]lSl)hrt.as bearer 0 r illla:ge an d meaning (Il.nds the slop e in ed t"'-u In~t: terraces.nn.trl.:. The picruri .\s. In hix itT. !i~hc~ ri!l~ 10 <l hk~~rchic and f usually central i:r."_irlaYUlulof spaces. \: l.rn~cm.iI ~~~\lbtl.R:~..lI'Ids em h.d ehe SP!I(:<:s~is!em.'i!.e g~s.\-. the elements thM dictate the imag'C' and how they arc orgauieed ill theeomposiriea.iilS<lnCe wnsa time of experimcming \~ti~h gt~om. .rl:I'h~ Villa lJt(lUHilhs w.sl~~man.l:fi.ng geotti.~ stone ·of .~na eeruury hr.::e the g:a.~~t". The ~""f1:J~:rn. 11 pamlle] ro be drawn between thisconcepr and that ufl:h~ "material system.iUry for wc.OIl.ng being hy andlarge geared.if the argues rO'f simple ratios (! :".~ ith !h~ rerm of w rha I name asused in in e [\\'0 ji. the Jfli.'1).INis wl1lich crosses the terraces in the . Tllegocmllcllt')i E~rl)"iiJJ'll'iI main fo~'~s when "J].ul<1!ly:. In dil.in.c. IIt:nl'C the gcUl'lllci.d~.1I1.I.. \"i~~Jility of rhe city_ On~ Q:fIhc!i!.\1'11('1 to the ~1. PaII:Jdi(l' ~xpm.h::sign:w:.ll~lry "!!. If sl. an. lakes. O1ind powerful :\:k.rde~ lit Fiesnle we ~l[ld that rlre mCl!s!Wl:ement system can be reduced to concentrated on the interual organiza- tien ofthe I. g'lrden and so :~~~Y1~OnjimO~~..t:lrY g~{)metr:cc form!i.lcTI :Ind panorarrue h '-I. a number of elementary geomctrn. In ~}def. Ih:i! of hOI:hwupper are primarjly P~~tc<:diFi'~~ers.("t~QJi.i. There I!.'msl:~I"I.1Icm~1i!s.l.t: !iys:u::n1:s whose precise measuremersts and p1fiOpnnio'l'iIiI:I In Florence the members of tllcri.~. agecmerrlc l<1~-o'lJl besed oil 11grid whose '~l1l'~113J orgnniz3'tloli'l ~·!mkills cue from the r~ll{lnlma.gc[jd The metric sy~t~m.-u nf I he ~mlls~.!..nt:'dto (h.:.r~·. ~l[~ relationships re'.l uih for b !h!.i prQim prs us to' tum W tlhc order~11t.'om rhe gemnetry of the hou:se.MiIt'lSiC~]lfIC.glhcm..~tl'~ II ia rhis urmngement of 'the s-pa'~l ~II.ctri.pii:rm!<)!'I'l~across ihe \'~Iilley of [lle Arno and Florence. otglUl izcs 1101 gan.~.eil II major' role at that time.cs and lewer terraces.l~iI was t:Uslon'il.)at Ficsolc..' i!i ~h~ Villa Medici (11458. fOtiil. the pruporrionul measurements are !. [his.such ~.i].ihls \\las 1:1]1(: ci'!:ydtv~ll~r'" way of ilTigs.n The sqlJ:U'C' of 4e x 4 :t1I1Ill" d ules can be reg'll:rded asth I: basis :for t~egarden's r~rth-~f design. The elemenrs ofl\1C! p~cttorial system play aseccndary parr in the design. planes and terraces ·comp!·]s.:.lin.d cum pusil inn.e'!.nm..hh}-cilium.Ci]OC~~e IIiMIWl.ttd variocs VI.l..!iy.~s.' tains.s Ewu. . III ~il\"l::I h·~)use O'ill:sh_lIc tbe diY.1. 10. a spring.(]id f:llnil.'unn:'r~·~d intc r~-al nnes ~X~l[(:ssl. such gardens h01:d.i.~f~1!turc~ rnoreh (_'a\1i~~r_ Gardl~!:I d(.i.es)·s.~.4i6l.igl'l.:f{J.DISXi(iN f~!\!1!) I\NAL'IS!S ]6 DI_Qildin!:'.M!h..' Th« PfJllf: l1{W.(Ii~eclion of the Arno. and rhus dw geometry of lin: W~. il~ case of Iimdsl'ilJIC the "". Inthe Villil Med~c'i these Ollie P-~I'1:iC'lIbl'~Y ~llediscrete compenents ~md oblecrs placed in rhe ~jI)['l[la]~}'SICM.'d b)' a !!.I:3!.-idcdi into sm<1Jllersecendsry f'i(:toriul system In m~\.Ij':¢going '~I.u:h:n design a we di~til~gtl. Rcp~tesemil'g rhe geometric srrueru reo this ).~loriiIJ~S}·.'l~.' ·of Ihi~ chapter. built..ion.I1l!i~!'.ct: ga.hi" 'fiUa was maid more tli].I]!l !.c spaees.lh Rotomht.dsl:apc an3. clumps of ilrt.C Rt. 1~.. fJC"riv'ed f.etric syi>CCnttl.".:UU~..ed from Ih.~lin Vkcn~j1)il fee~ and. their i)Os. Th~ twu "ymln.. The R~lI!".! :-3.H)!e CO'MI)OS il~. sci un aslupe.~!. system ..clIss.('~lJf_t/rdJ/'l'fmm~.y of bal1i!(. The.iJrm!>.~tl.em rdM($ clc!:l!~~~!'u~.'9' meters . I~O Sil"t:n.!]leCled[:~1!e ivine 1tI(~{11C].g the pilI1l0~mllliil-<JIri)emed oomposlliOl.di\-iik.:Qm'po~il:ion_ The well-preserved garden of the \I il b ]\'I cdil. nr !iP"~~ !iySII.(.hc..I. Material protegido por derechos de autor .J with a P lin piaN_ of rhc reaaissmsee :gardelll [" Rl~ iJJ.mu. with if" anendent prnpcrriens W<lS laid over !.aiM>iUcrIl'l.rs ll. rh e system of 11xes and ]~IIIe_" d!cfining [t~e garden's composhinn. amndule of. ll!.s!h~wo systems.he two terraees t Q~. set on ~ symmetry . square dccc1tmin.'!Untiizl.dln.:ing a bUliidil'lg is rhe material as st r'~ctur.~ :lnd steps but (I:I~lJ I1IO! inftl(lq1LlcIiU:ly "mylhol{lgic:al" componenrs such as c~n:sailJ ~!'iI1"_U temples.'..ing P:allJdio·'s Vi. is 'gmCfIII!.

enaissan00 g1i:rden relies me:!f\illji {).~o Ell:e oiIncept of "I1Jir.a.dt this P(..n~ '0.QRO~!l:/l'NU ~QM?O~~l·~nON AIru)ltl'ierimp(lrrnnE ele.nt fu ~he IQ~g_perg.lM to tile retain:ing wall.geom~1:"J[rhas g'ill. 'The j\"Cm:gl.side 00 haV'Caconr:tt:J.~ is. :fores:rollfnlJd :._ 17 me Matenal protsqido par nem8hos 0(> ausor .flla: para. enhaneed. simult3n:6U~s~~ p.llal 'cie'il' of ArlIll!)lIilid F.~ID.RI>"iclies a.C1l r~~ ..C!' grf d:epdl in the l(lndscap.nai !'Mgir~g.11·1: .m.mes t:h¢.:E'JJ'ol.ethod of oo. vi"w i~Q fJra_~ tho.lla.: .d fi:8.ne. As the .lll1positio'l]otme· R.~lie. ·has onley Ito loo:k to o.!).1(~re~c'£. Agd~J' W~ltj~1l ~_I1i(l».

"''''''.r. . ...I).-. I F ~~ 9" I I• I I~ I 1/ ~ tL -I I l..~ .--. II .:1f"j of th" \ \n..I \1~.' • .1.! r.." 1~51(· I' -t~~...:.

mporl.~ one lookc~ m.y of 39 walls are curved: and..I.rcm:::h Classi. sistt':Cm.ge:lli_ug i~ il'm unhrnli.t:!!! ·Qf ~he Bamqye may be deSC!l'lbed! :IS I:he deslre tlll~mpl:ess wiidl.gned. :pi!:i!ldpala~ph:!I.'lrlcal schema 'of tbf.ric s.di:irin_gthe days {Ii' ab:. V.l"S are in faclin.l"S...of the church.egal\d.fk of !h~ 1i]1cll!tx. Ilb~ll!l[epower of dIe Sun King iml a m3mJ1nerqlli. geolilil.gu~~ stronl!:ay .slioilm to th!.li frnm ~!!t!. p. (~Jmp!cx~'it_1Thol!!!t parallel in .1L'i are possihle.m:llslu:rm!lf.~..mdi furmisililed~~iiIJll. ~tUjf~ system. :a.aJpit':llW~$ hilt at the f'f(i~t '~)fdw pala.€IIion i~ 1. dilC sp30e.miss[oll.1" p.cd .samC: elcmentsils R~~ais.!rroundi:ngfi.. isoWl:c of '111'ruc most complete . Wltll! the sp3tia~ units :001 lllo.C:lIrl)1 d.cfiu0d.:rrden d!esigninltrndlllced g.C.gsp3Q: whicfl.x:t:ell.on.ot! p¢nd¢1l1jV!1S th~ One (If the mo-st i. mO.g.g-ht rb'ycreadn.~n(It!~~~!].t.il1<di:swrted. Tillie I'mll.661 the F~cnoh ki1il~l.dor.pI3.i. t~.:allt elements of ~b£ tl}.mllgeml..taJtors speak of d!ynamics :i~ :Ii keyn.. :iII~te.ed as oae of ~be maJor "c. JiCaufm(l!I):Il 1lcsse.0:J:l.g.loys.e e.a:re.paeeand H.e 'l'lomrn.rld".b.oorporat:e-ci into dle lUl. terms of 3. Le Notre'.. its 1l~II:lcc:.~n~1).l$ ~liIatthe 'Ibroque and Renaissance Olf~h~!~ctyrill ~y!!t~!Oaft: bllSkall~r 'Ihe Same..l'iiiy Yl'lUS. G!:rlo alle Q.{)o.tyic cmp.).c Sun Klimlg:'·s.s ['Q.lernefil:. ua~tlt0 Funtane In Rome (I633~[661) . the .hie~re!l1CJlt!i .~illl. system. . TransfofmaJtiolli is such ::IS pmil.S!:c:.1Ikinils of melati0.!fY Ff~!i. He . .. :ga'rdc!Ils 'and t{llW~.s flltlter's huormg lodge expanclediO[(i :l.c~.JpOlI [c. T.ent dllWUgih dl!e: space: {so:m. tille QU:a!ltll'iO Fo:ntaneis ~[le:raillyr.ed a visual aXIs fo lil!ilk his VilIa.. Versailles !:(10k mOire ~.:!a:trro Fonrsne 'Col. the Il'ilrtcrrc .d bui~d:ing: Ibene""."ays" l\fal1l.g.h of S.I.m. .tlll[~.llion: otf peil"Siulcth..(Jo!l!'romini S!l!b-- ol'dinates ~Ih liIetail and large elements tbii:s :f'ospt.'·1i BeClY8e tile division between irs sp~ces 1.~.l.!!Illlis.c[C!jjJ)cetivll In .\..f.'S of ~bc Gn:lio\!.mal to.iq. the term :f..)iace ~O domi[late~hc Wrirld...l. the elements.lpe 'Oifbe QJ.lnllen and Ibe Gra.t-Ih!. Look.\f.cw desiig:n (£o.~:t:lisXI" dccid0d w haee b.\ Grand SilillomJl ef the palace aeross dIe f.li. lu!633 th() Italial'l allcihtiC{)ct Fril. To qJY@!e C1l.ftUmtilunilit ellch (.'.i.\ ~fOY!t!Q !)XP~!i~Jrn:l)<tlili:ng l!'!ise.tii. dille d!et~.ei spaces '!I'llhose prilll. w~ib: ~be sl.emt :spill o¥er dtcir bOlllndarlt'S.lsh it: from.jon yj.l.).'Iihe.of Reman B!'!~}q1!l.chu:rc. (1...!· T"h:~ ellip:tk~l dl»)'ncccan 'be ILtndt1'fsrQOO in.se:. Slt1l3tudi at 3 'Gl'OSS'r~ds 'YOililru a.}dillie"tlhis was the ·I{~ng\::isuallolIxis.o .lltllfSmn. '1'0 dlslin'Q:u.ding dle BanJqiilil.m.c:r Material protegido por derechos de autor .tilllar..e :fll~d.is llinm!:h B~utl<l\. To c(ilmpl~eiie tJll.to!i).U lln!)!.if<ll thoori~t Caste:.mdi CA.::Q.d e~he:rent C'xamp~cs of ((bis style run wmiielil gc:o:rne'tr:.1. and tympana '1:0 a gre~l.r lillie :g. all eI:enlents 'Of dte ''.cb.i'. dIe 1kt1~.dd11l. .The e.rn3te> evC:lii. '1\" this end.!)s.l WQ..:c:n . Versailles. Tbccurn(.m is .o\'ed . ani.on..pulating 'the m classical.dula.e g\tn~~Jly r~f~f:J\~d 1:0 .. 111.ean:dthe inte.lir ~-mn(.tli be concei\Oed! as 3.rod!uet of t.ipula.cr' deari [y defined.o:l1igated along' a .l1iI.~ L~ and! Mafisa:rt.n:y B\ill'Oque.ntrJaUy clj:ff~f(lf!'t!~ 'n~c.ott T:!'ansft:Jrmatioo of~:(unetr:+.1.Iomer. A(1(lQfdJl1lg tli'!!h~F~Ll'lch ar(.s g:l!eM axis was ..a:trl!c.(~e s~YI.I1i11ik:cts: Renl:lissauec eq~~v:~illCiIlt" is: n01.i..5111I~jstinct.Jjoesoo BorromifJIi desi.23 Transformingand .he fiami}Us landscape :trehite:ctLc Notre to matte:a !n.t'heemJltl.c oomp~c:>l.ger d.c hO:fI'WI1I.e Rcna.'Ct}.. styl~ il~d e'\'ell resorts ~o tile same set: of design ~ools. in wh. The posi!jo.tI1ons of itn.olult[sm.Rl!J!to.i.. Ifwe sFudyuhe plan ofBorlromi'lilli's QU31UO FI\I:'iltilM it IS imm~i:l:[¢IYilipp3:ren! that druc dC.l!turc is i'hillt 311 e!l:mlemt:s nf ~be Sp:l.iS'sance was cc6n~'erl~ediint0an i.~Lvod.rspecti\ie de:\'cloffi}cd! ... similar l:rans:liol'Dla.et1ry and detail.r tffil. the geomet. all are the p.I d0'ui::>l-c C'ulumln.e:n.JJsuumcirn! 1'0 m:an:i'P'!ll~!lC' vlSlllal perceptlmA.~~ Baroque s.:~:p'rC8S. :d{)llgwI:Jj.cu:m. eld ~oget~1.ed !. HowewJ:.~':stl!.t"'i. Where :j}aJl~adlro e:mp.of ovedappill.sIngle 3)(i5 .enOl!iss~!i'!(ieas ~e~« h made way f~r (! mucc_h !lrno~(.IJm.ibit~cti. p:lI:l'j~ was ibl.. Th~ ' [!JlOOCMlll'f desigm:iiDgaJliJ.c: I'i.CQMPli¢>'!t~do!t!) in whkb conCIl'l"e and oomre. {om. a new eeurt {.ng of (lr a dell!r~ult: Silll'l!Cl:llre based 0:11 3L~ieS:il!Iil.reetan~le----a lifOlJn£fiUl'tl'lo'l.:cross arc :r.etds.mcailil.lihr tLhesame purpos:e.(~"F t-e!'tace..r and :tJ!te malllipui./. 1..re ibe}. l!.ondcomp. "[lorromini ~nce again resorts 10 the: procedure .xwaUs dlelagade . gardens iI!n!dtown WCIIC W c.o!. Thi~\\~S Oi~ (lP~fl ~U:irOF V~S1\l.cistml na5i been adapted ImJIthi:s !book.mIIX'~:iti:om. !l.dbays. eUip. Lb~ .qrgami:dmgj' system of ipe..W !I:i('\ j)~~naJ~d !bel d~m(i . Palace.loy.mim!g ~hc pmafS rootra~'SrrU)[hi. ~.~.'em.a:nti..trQqull 1!fdli[~nH\~ cit" b~ ~.. dte m~in s'h.td in ITtJny di:li1icwen..~V()fi!:(. Greek CrOSS OOllfro:lllted by a .elm. R_.

.

-I .

s. In the second phase of the park layout. Le NOofl'C the p ower of dne mani p ~~ lla~ed p ersp eceive.gh the m:m]I)ulatio]].lipl!]aiell~e perception Viewed from. extends forwmxl the :grt~lItt~xi!i behind the palace. The second ph~se wm. This part oh~e garden is domi~iil!cd by the grid d. 'i1 ~"Iil.l~11everything is geared toward impressing the Ob!lCI:ITt:T ~hro~. HUL!~oO is the fOl<l.~. The vertical .tle 'lg~il1~~ It~'H.'OI1i I"". ill M the ~ h fiu end..ry~t1ig the breadrh of the vista. "I (I increase the perspectival cllcc'l: of [tu: IL\ds" Le N&trc Immi.tiJo!l is created that the two outer J..ln effect of fODC. By h. Ahhollg'h lLe NOire's means cl..iu it imothe northeast :md oo:l. has been described ~ls.. I\'ay. cum posears of the pm:k..~"ing the vista termlln:. the perspcetivalcflcc. "l[':Cli)llft ~111~ \:'.v thl.. Material protegido por derechos de autor .rS fU IIl.givIllJg.<~g~~ ] widc~anll'le lens. The other twu diverge FI'!l.~!.n m one hundred and fif~y in: l~lC biUCk. vista one hundred meters .1: N~3ITe used the vistas here w bind IOgetli1:er the v~l"iom.c fi"()!I.5IilonCn~i1g"On the oth~¥ hand.l puinl of the trio of'1I'C'lmes: that ~OIJlVCI'gc OIl the pal.uenoe of t hese a venues for the town is ""<I:. it Wi!\> the vistas that ~Jlicd rhe CO[J1POlSil:ion.. giv~llg the e~roc:t of looking IIl..~rgclj' followc{] the b}~iOtltof the e.foni[~ :) ~o.r.r1~g'''. T1lniefirst phase of the garden I.at~l:ice tiwol!gh ~h'e \\'oo(kd t<':rrlli!l1. ~.n!mICS are 31 right-angles to each other. n in Hn\~ hl. of visunl p"r<:e'pdon'~~'fromil'ni 'ld'~IlI''''' hi.cat" or ch. set on tlle prim:ip~ll axis behind the palace.'l'>o.ma...:. This lie did Ol'nl tth.-S:~1!~I~' ~hl i!~1 Pl \. forging a ~ink 'between ~h. Heine: the O[!hOgfJ. ~he perspective..?l.d a hill into t~~ perspective. is even further [engrhened. aim t~l'm~gh rransforranrions t~w~gh 01 geometry. The for.NALY. one strongly odcmcd ro the '!iusual 1"01'»1.~h {>mml e"".!lI.c-fom .i\'esw~]yw lJilUCrnS star-shu ped it venues 'im d~."1."J~m'I.epslece and the WWrnl. he intf(ldw. such . The centeal avenue.13 the S. The method of eomposirion uSlcd for I~\C Fru:clil garcl:n. ~all!"d "patte-d'oie" or "go(l<. to dig [he Gnlllid Canal" i\ basin of colossilliellg~h. Le N6nre used it tn :place the palace an dH! world's ce IUel"..IH.pulated.jormtll sMging.Slt'l:-l ANI) i\... here ag. 42.nul grid :.f!er from Borromini's. from fifiy mC'IC'.I~bea~:!.~~I ." Thisis another motif rl"l::'(~~lelJiltlJl used 1'00 mil].::is:ting Renaissance garden..r~i! liI.ll ~~.lt1!l.1 ell'eeil uf the grid Set b don:: '0ht~pa~ace in Versa illesis 11 large sq !13~\l..!. ~ The COfasc(iJ.cri\iing from the original garden.~. 1rtlgt:'tno.e Ollie hand by v.aI:I"OSs.1.m... (he ~qu"rc die !OU:g'ics.Ul'! of the Gmnd C~ll<lIand the more northerly 'Grnmt Trianon .

igns of milllOiY cidetll.eQ.QilllS-~diu.tl.wptii:J:cipi. th!1.1.nlJeRtioned avenues funoE·ion 3S v. e~ecarrj~d .".t! .~re:en mas~ bll!: ~he ~ass' t 'Qf Utlp.001.eiltectof !he.~ imo 'l'ie\Y act 'ii"ilri0US ~.~d~~~M.gmn.ng> '''gi-een ~~fUils"'5iuch ~.ur I~e Il':!ro~!l ..a}rMn.aljl buHd."'e rise t~ .& :It it "'''1mb er ~f IUleJ).i!'['.:t:lJ"i'l!J .lj) $0 tb. .g tlJjs t01'ma~ ~~ ~%.:ri}~ ~il~.'iitl itS'e:lf is: built 11"0~ grid!s~rBteT:lilJ suehas tWIt ~vpJiedb)l (he Grook$ in Miit:tu. The "l·pecial p'la.!$:loe :t9'~I. T11le.!Ilett:$i.'d~'f1 ~!ld wQul. Mate-nal pro:egJdo por ourcchos Ii't.Ol.l:pf.. S!'[P.i~y 'huildings.vc. ~een "~holliJw~l(] .sir116N that there 'ih~'p.. ".d S(j'uar!Mi: om t'hl:lfctJtl"'J:lg:rj!dbwu..! '~l.'I'I. L~ Nf)trr: h..vel!iII rorm.tY:r)! ~rJin :uir(..gi:C@I~ypI1~vldi~d ...E{)WI'l..lotillIl th<1t~~()tdd 11e:f~ist for mil·1i!Y yw.istas lind dlWta%~ tifufl !n:[!.k formal ~proce~sin.his d3E.l pi!b~ .the..ulue_h ~ 1'.jiE J..illr~wl)~ki1?_g.:m's v dJC:isi_gTI. f'rincip.g of the g#id ga..Qu..ark.l[lfthe' nIIl~ 1rerntruu'~nfllti'y. the fabric f'Ofl:uilJ 3j(S:liIm~nt.-r. give:rt dl.rs ..~'!lifb~and flilii:~t:ennl:t"'¢i:ltrl!l'y[>i1l1S:.em.!.s:.S ]l~ayed! a mAjor pa.n phdlJll.ces thus e-f-e~t~d Lp.ln.Jac~' ~me.not llbe .e .~~d llinetee~~h~.'i¢rethe neutral and :3tt:im0S:SQ~:cwhO'i~ 1m~"'Jiroo :grid is g.Ql1s im ~r:e tile gr~d.IiJI':' AND cOMPO.fa:tury space>'!.'l'lte nc.edfu:r~h:er by assimllt1till:g: ~t~m. 'J'1il. ~I'ba:n l"XliI1Jipos:itrol'J.~i6i...t..mpos:ln.". 'The perllp<. Cl&sical oTB{jra:gll.] ].i~g~" .t tffitJ)SI) SPil'ces· ~ail: ~ffia.q]:inf]ucll'lte~h~ des...I'I(!1sqmmes.es pC ereruti. In additl01Ii" sql!.h.Jj ~s !l ser~~s of ever smalJe£"pt1e.!> im~~l1g iilpawer: 011.s: I I'itJoogtb.Ojd done in the ".I. T11<l: t:b ree~~Iif.further in rhe to...lew' t au or .:!'ittmwy and oHt1iIlt.. 10' ha ''''~O:li:~e stroe!S .CHt.me.g):i ~'i1 hicFard'tk ~I'der ta Ui!e l!o. ifidudleeight(.l t'? the 'l'iO'l'i1. .'i.~""m of:lvenul'iil aJiI.lt'l.~ill.lfi lilI). txampl:ell.eri.".Olli the .".~m~.ll.

i'l'p.'~m.a.. dR' n i'!'l'h1. h i~{.d (l1lt:gruurni dirl'lllc.}lMs...ll.I(llirl.lil'i:\ elemenes inl [].1Ii:i11 h" ~ha!'ic-e.oc.J.J? ~Q'riJ_sideso-F the "~CI2!1C (fi1.nalems j'g] t hit d:.~ri!l~t'~~~. ")I I.(1 flil"CgtrQ1und aad haici. m .igIU!i:£i.bcr o.~W].: pilrks.of tlu~ pal"k H(~lI!r(lh::.fY BfJal:c..nt.sm'U}..~"iJi.gu. pdllrdplcs prevllknt in R'enaiSlJaR(1l a.. SLnmn'll'r7!~!'i di'i!S~ ~~yJ:i'~t1 p~'i\i:t:hpl.Jmj\l(L~lt ir.iriuJt.lnii ~ !cch~~icqu..Ho...lJ: {be: d~ag:on..(lrn.miNt IhelHI rure :rlread~ rhere.."U.l imlwr~~flc(o(i.iil reurrn W Ib:i~ iJr.~:rJil j.~IIW.~it1ling Clili$/ n~IJ'ljrtf .~~:I:'H:~ :ly st{:...h gard(:!:!s.!l'plc Hoare used Wij:s his . ~1i~:....'.nghmc. fIIacturaf' £Cilnn-.~\'6: Chnl'4e ~l~..J natural ·~'aILlcdlc·. 'l'~~ !.<!-n..n:izi~~ exist ing lUTn1l'C.ingulsh.:lfi..I. f'J41 b~ []ue h~nker Hel'!.l~~ '~c)dJ.tllre. pa'rk'~ {. hl{}ll.llU bits.4 The picturesque and the nanrative W1i1ili. S(IJ!JithwlI'cl.t'-ape Rmri.c.'hrqiirjlH:..ctn with ~!.fg!'Ii.. l3.of 1l•.jl'I~ees ~lun. i13' i~~ pidi nig out t1:.{r eans.os(fd !h0ir !l"nvaS:~$.':"~lh~o.I~ jUt ~m!U.g.<> :~:~i:R!gm~thn(l~ (. [he teols d10) i·i.d US] n ~ t.or '~.!. \lVc i.r~d :111. :\!i h.\miHi~if!.C~l.: rr!l~Wer t:~tmu fr.1 rq1.l'SL 'pn ~c~c~lJ.!n in g Ii f"w l.W~ lnhy :lb~.tkcd intu rile !lJIir~'iiit~"'dl~.c~ r e as (oll.[~th.i I u. de:ad) !!il!1!>I..j~}I.own \1.t~. is ~h:HI:t~(:) W~l'fI de"jK!l·~d ll..tsli:rJg la..IIJ.i. h:id 111itk lt~ do wi[h form: in narure.~~. of' the best I)reser\.c'.I-Hgehliglns an ~n~ r. sceoe hy~b e I.itCl.:.itl:: m\:lt"rlj ur b~' The pierb11'11)!!i[I[L1. dlill PI'.l.t.dri!>Hll.h up 'hi~ IMFk lIrmil'id •• st:d~~. lksib"J~t'I]> ~('j'lug!hl .-a~J" ~uiIlH:r" 1.'f~[l(:h iJJ1J.llifid'.hlll .l \\-il.:~]UjFJ:d.p. t.yilcdl'i'"m " p:~i:ntli'lg.J1. cump'm.lr Claude Lorraine. ci~htC. aflll:l.[ib.rc~o..l1 til!? lP"ripd ."._np·:\: 11(:rurned ll) ilr..'cd [»lrb in 1M" series !:.nvc lin: "oj'l'lJ~hiifh.inte.l .c.'I:n'l. rh.\ M rhe tinae uf Jt'·~1iIl aCIiCilt'S R'Ll!l!i~t':Ju whu IAi'~d i. fn:n.l:.tl.m:iec.2.ing ill a .ecnth-..nr)l hnd"t.i!~..jRiIJ [.!.I 'fh. ne ~~f n ~hc!l!! wn.s:f.'Ur. ~Iarr.tUH: oiru Ch:1pl!c[' ..':ri.idc ~)r:he P\lj'~[i~ t .)1in the foregr(lufld. the I:mrk's i'mmllo I "stc~le~ of prt:Jjcdil'll g ~1l'c~. (.:)jI.ft:el ll:.PCp'J..'T-c.k:groumi.'t~fro:nrl' !!lilt uml lMdls.~ seene In ullder i'tt:t~t:-ni1 ifI whttn:.f Eiig~i.n~.1 ~.knq' in I (In d:>.l"1.(~.~mqu\tred E~rlJlp..lth is d'r'~·~I{Ip'tneU1:I. Oni!:.hl':ing~ Hfl! ~.c p(l'rk des~ril.nd ~'rer:t<).'k'ffiJC'o btl"} gj3!)!TIcn-~to ~nf.' Ihc CklS}jtJ. . 'lliid t he flf'l'lc-lhrmli.l.rciumed :m pahnrn!k hr"pir.NCd d(fn~lnp. Q. I-J O. n!':iIl~UIl'S phcc::l'1 omcnon wi.).d.tr.:~.~di b~' ~hC' way the ~e\lefll.: m~g!!m-n~. fo'r hts ~uJ:MI~' r.1 ~md O~ude eXp'~rI Nb.ndc~e~liiri1"it:d) Ihi!' the fU'tllf~ Llf ~~mIpu~}6n!1.om bt'StH~~ .rn.1:t: j. A 11..$lihmd.ilre d~J~IQy~d~hree 111ea..h~d r~i .D.Jelen appih!$ W !lillf !.c in L"0Ufllks$ nl..'l.!J&llllS w~rh no true ittCMt~~HIt"lI~ rf<litJing:. Mt!S~ 1l01(.:i1I(.n'~ I!Ol1 !l·t<l.'.~'Pcd w 1L!~1lI1.elw!llen ihes1: ~~lert: may bee <!.Utlrt" rH.I.ldy in t] LC!~l!J cc.-(.}.c:nlur~ E.capc ardlite:ct'(Ir.[}:'.\ m~n.lcapi::.r efn::~ ~l..(..~I'c:hutec. dlC nusueal t:uIHOoUl!" f. ~\I'~JfH Illli?' '0 DrillS J'r'uli Th'c ~hojee or n~lldc 4"lj~'N~.U. irlcrt'it~il:'01 "fhe Clm.4.tc'~'1id.tti dc 11(:1:t}!'~ '[h~ I.m 'in1S:(!:J::lll~raHy .i:rge 'm~iS"sl!:S" Lilrg'€' f~awrcs with ~e\~1 d~t:JilS' ~'l.:.uCt flh~ 'liI'u~n.. q<l~iip\etl i~..II-u]utd 'I 740.&l:l~shl:r:. The ell3].we bJ.!. Tire' an Ilismri1l1.mdc !.-:Ihi"..qjr~d.I'ly Iram m. onlerlng: .doiJ:et:~a.>u.

film i~wo!.scale. ro~!te throlllg~~he park.[ each oOln])oiIJ:en~ exerts an influence OR dD.ters.(\ seeae can fFOCe.jy~cC:lll1!ijqucs eomof l'ositiiol1J w(}u~d ~8C6m eincreasingly ~n:lll:tcn~rual i~ a]\I.ldthc mUi!'. 1'0 soh'. iP'.N:PCOM!"I.cl't seenes.posiriofl of .om limerature.gi. ~h. En EngLi~lh gard(l..this ruuteiII.e si lliionLI)llttcll: in.l:tiv~. ~i~.l!llty wi~h this methoo IJf ICompcsitiQ:1l is d13.ke.aWl the otiil'!lffl.i!'!g i~ l.of sim!pllie'.icluresqul? uagj.~".- ~<!ft'i!~iv~ ~h~\:vay il.ectedi afO:u!m:dill ~a.ti~gi~ which '.l~ prQoo.ig. as much inceloras .l'C eo acMe\'e his :!ill'l1.:R I\.!]le loohd to l.d'. e Heare ordered his SiCeIIH!~~ruolilig <I.~~ piCi. I:W~ i()b~ecls ill! ~h~ fo!"~g:l!Q'l!!1!d rutdMc~grol!~d can be estreme.l~!i .s:3J wuikd.ng ~:If. so th~tt the pIII". ']ike diJi'.icpif~miii>ef~(lm wl1icJ!i.ed.~n..o.!:nd (II'! a !'(l\lID Id"tt crr I).d ~11 be the ~tili¢~et ofdu~n~r.of .il.Wh<!t j:slml~r~!l!ti.nle surrounding: I1:i:UsSf.aiilt. SIS: a sta~ 01" as SlC~nl}-pail'!.!i of Aene:!i1>as described in 'Virgil's: OdJlSsi'y.e~his plioblem HO.(J!M))'!.ng episodes fr.ese segments of 13nd. compact forms..he wandierlf]. OM I! e OO~~~ has ~o l)~ censidered in t(.cEli ( scenes iii'! d~~!i.eglll'ld. impli:ll\l. the eoatrast be.1!).$!~~ f'l)oo and oom.. The roure leads them pll£~ '!3irio:us buildimllgs 3nd seeaes visuaJly depi.ed!.)!!~l'!ON ttillliisitions in tone :~Il. T.0111: scene Clol'I. The fO[ttlili m~as: lilltle infi~e~ce 'On the -..ite:ra!l:Y sub.'$qUi)!lO~j)l'! (1$. in level. Bur: siml"I)"applying illufus p:ictu]je~uc" com" position!!1 technique was m)le~:noiUJgh f~. Material protegido por derechos de autor Pian (If Stem rhead crl<lll"~ .-..l.roiP to su.!\d~sign thes~ p!"indp']e5 U"1l:!1s&atd i!l!t~ thre sm.ib~d i!bI)~ and die placing of tl)h~ects such as temiPrues iOJ rd~~ion l~ differcnce£.ll.dcolor froM lill'g.F 01" this [ne~ll0{1 presupposes for each CO)"!il[!l'on~nt abm. T~e e:x:isd:ng narural landscape served a.e o.us" Indeed" the main m(l'[ffif ln .k 'CIIllI be r.liIstr8i.Wi: ~o set the SOl:mlIe.~~tClcrtural and urba1Jil dcsigR!1IS p.cti.1.ss i~ wlilJi:eEli '!i'C!'l' ch:ang<l in.roJ.!'isioors bli>Cumc!j-p~(":I.illciple is his lll'ieldil1lrg .:3d .hornftn. OnJ}' t~e e:tder IS.im tie had"grouTId . OinJ dH: mlhl:lI' hand.smpe serve to ll!!'!fo.. ~h)(lSC paj~tf. TiheroUiIe as tK:..!1 gradual '1$ From then on. Stl~da:" if paintings.iects. the fQfc~grol!lnd tl)l sm':IJ~l(l!r f'@:rm:s.g.d bearing the film. ThJ:s m~1'!!!l!~rnii~ M1!. A~o!tther sty]istiiC fr.kilil:g sueh a seeming1:!' f~ee design is .~es t.. thel'l1sehrcs a:ndlriwe~rerder (li\l"cr time. lung and lil~riOI.Qorpso!l! ~h(l ifllioo!'.. cantakeen jliinym~ble forms.rer o:fl'henarrnrive" I:Omp:lI:I~le ~o the pertor\lltw SUiI' of ooLlu1O'i.r H03.

0.j/.".h~ m.. ""'>r" 1~1)7..".. I !.'.b'l ~ flJrJlJi~ l.linl'''~ .l.1 I Thi~ l>.1 I .'i1[.... u .r/n ...~._lIo per roches aut r .ll rO!2f.hJ.!.1.J 'i.. l.'1lrll~n I<j' Mat 'I ra. "I r/'.

tip tlu:r.ism 'be:oam(l(\~iCr more sbarply de:fi:ru::lC!'I.~ tb.g <lQmp(m~nts.he Foundingi!'! ~7~" of d!!) E.~ is Charle$ Gatnier'sP:arr.!.f!l.r led tli hi. Ecol".. tll:e perslJcOa1 II)' and i:n.l:!n.1QrePoM'gehnlqll~.denl...r~ House.ditioJi!~a d~'I~Il)pm.erucss:" 3:rchit:ccll.ese [nclu:d. A:t:!'h~8<!ml). II:!!thc: cigil')(Ie!1i'h il~tYIy progress{"d.y a (1. haek to I['he tenets of VilfUVll!1S.teentililc~entllry hal~r:n . gitin. !he l:Jichumrny within cDIIssic.£ the: scheme.~~Frillmn.cilP':d~xif>.(l p'<ltce8 (dl'Slrlbuti(i:lli) OilIer I~:l' (If:ltl~C S \'oIIYm~ inil.e. O. t:halt ef t!he par!i. ei!!I1{)d from V:i:truxius uaderwent many modiiii:cati:oJil's. eompetitions .g: the Ans:.aiJ form 0.cn~urics Ihal: foUow~ ed.is ()JiPc.$.lshr. It relates to [he main isl'1apc:: or Olllff." IlO make 3.I)'rflof bnys :)rll!!J ~ymmc<rFJI..! arli3ngl'8 rb.rules I) f classical ()c~lnposiJtion thit.\c.llllan is org.Iy Im.urud..in i:l'le L'{l.2. ::u:hiel'e:di by dilddin:gllnd.clearly .f of dl~ Semi]~lZpaft'mem.: wO'!'ik.!)d fn)tn VjtrU\rju~ \i1Gorll used to ~h'"1!Be~u~-A~~f')th~ idc<li~.*.s. these Material proteqldo por derechos de autor .'edl Ir0:ml!iThe French ej.ingile crui:IY.llJ~'S f s:rmmllc(rical . "fl) do $.amp en thi.QisB1omd:dl {I 6rl. 1:1:1 185.i:gne. P.~ d~~ign.dson designers. house.(::eofdan"!)wi~h~~:i) cl.(Jpil '~iglhl'!)t).l:s(.ctl. Thi".i.Il'C.1.i..Iribn.eldleo design . no illonger . :!.~l(Js QfB~o~-Ans arcllit:~.g \\~as IIW"~IJI a qlUJ:csti. The sheer' scope an.ntfuOl!~tI. root the present cruu!Vt.farns I.c! the divine and futl.lfatll discourse ill I!he seeend half (!If the nineteenrh CCtiUtrj1 .~d ~n.ibite'~I!1.tirm !m. Thl} aim {Jf the AC'.r 4.l!!.and smits in r~lil{l!il$~ mth~ l!l.. SUp'parF for rhese mndimca!tton. T~esc shiEts \!IJ'I'mm the d:tliska] !>!i'»tem m~e: ('bc :Eco]e des &i"!.m~1).1: Ih\.tSS~rc:l1pnt.:rb: .' a romptt~t~on.regarded 0:righ~.(l Rr~~.PJies~~ion «'pl'en dre parti.ion Onc of rduri:ngm(\ Ibe ~ending <"f\.tirlll with Us.rii'l.~· Dcri. 'com~!:Sing\\l:i~h.g:has allthe typical. ~llool g.-1686) 10fi1:J!ld.l.'er~~ m(ld(!.~ new ropera..sscd .(j. certain ""~iPccts(lif the Pr'~'. .I£companjvd hy ::Ii I'n:~Ww~ly of d'esigning .of the ffp:uial o(Jmpos!tiQrl...'iynal ~!.'i'ttuhaveheen respected . od:)~w wH~ :I.d!1).:e: of tltis MCOl\'\"IIS .'! Jrcan Ni(:ho~iliSl. I.-atbcr than pJ!OIycd down tbci_nl'rulXlmces 0:( lecbn01~g.alil.l"'(tilsing compl~~h~(lit .!l'ing the t. This fact is made evident if we c~rls~...irng Iberrc~gn of LllIlis XIV in 167 I.~I1l)fS W".rl)n(lW a~ lil(l dmCl.ig.'qr1!J.t:rd Panlltcling ~he rise ef theeuncept of cO!TIPQ~iti<!Jn is.rs mset their pllf. manifest by (. Jat. nm:r!l..enls.rnte likilllX- d.n~ Ule cdti:cs (If ~b..]. its dilroctOJi.r'IiiIUOC r!he~ d!i"¢1'gi!l!gQpini~!:!sl!. Th~ new br:lc£s im'ol"lng htrger :md[X!rdc!!!r"'~b mere £.j Baron Geo~g{'$Hallssmii!!iJjn" Garnier's win!liifig design was built jn ~874' :Sl"oodly speaking.g IS. hliMidin.~. a the classieal Sjffl(~m seems ~:i lir. dil!Oi.olil.er. OfighlaUy ihc lItodO:l:Is of (J~.dcrtb<lt th~ mfl:l~}! :rchif!ccrurnl. (A:m:!lb~!l.:_IJcl!(17(!Q-r834). ru!llltl[l\illliruth rcentnriilS '(.e:ts.dil1ldu:llity of the designer took an .l. A~llbm.l~inllli~f:!)~tiQg~ubj\X"t fur :n::~aF<ih.(jmp.lllictuft:l sehools j~EIlf.f!lruam rrnillnrs in:IiJiChJrnctlllr. If dcsigl"l1(i\ ln iJleR0Ilai'!igll"ill'>"(t[l~ ordered 1:0'fefrc.nC{.f(lW ~ut il'f lillie ACOIdlhn..cal pl"Og.()$#ifj~derll'i.<!)mpll)l.G'n of rdi"i.. rhe Ratl.cJo:it. :tn J.fldldle prdi.iS'TiIJIiYftbe Bcam.rCIkl<l!i!xA:rts id.:f N:ilpoJl~o.OCt-S~.t1u. Composi£iJo:ll The ~. dl. : air the E(xlle P![}I¥lttaniqij)e •1 in rChaptJ!.n~ti!)t:s TISCldi iif! that end.res:s ~see Cb3!pler 4).t~r·follows the Wsto:ry of ~.()ui:l Du. a pr-lm.fi III Ol.(J[![[ marlS ij. a'! pan rof tLhe u"nsr~rmati~n pf.r hG<ld 0n the des:ig:rl di\...1 shift f~om r!:liS!:ril>udofi 'i0 r(:l)mp(~!ti!)f!.c(]lne~pw.ts: who !l'1:re.eemcrgem. l1Iine.~eil as an asscmhbge 'Or "comp~i6oll" of massesand ~~p<lc:e:sTiki! main slilape of a b~ilding w:as. OP(l ~f its pci~cip. p.~nwr~ the archiu.l~ 'f1i1.ding up '~.:-tlUrlli brougiht J shift in the o w:'. l'~e~I~l)n~t ~ shlfr In..d ri:mnp.curm o main sltaf'C of J.'. nl::ul!c new dJem'.ubdivid:ing a."i!.!1 t(r.esting' 0:1:1et.Howevcr'. On~ of !'h~ r~!iJn:l!. which t~~gen!!l'...a:ni1J~d .o.omdists.e a:rchil:ec:. 47 Lh~E. DurIng thl: r~xi~t~n~ (If tlh() At'ad~mie iCnd 'h~ Ii!t~r ~y~e alollig iI.1 Di:<l. 1):111 lldc.. U1"1111 rncnGOtllSLfUl:t1I:1.cWil'S to t:eae!ar a "tim.in..emarl tfUtrl1lS there wC.lUiY" l!s.JoJe des Ile!lltix-Arts in P:n[s.!.1g1~ the hiJdldin.!i!:io:nal s.co!l.i1i Op~ra HOlIS(: 'W(l.iild~~lgs hejng de'. 11:'.yITue modiem. tim:e.'t'fu.ld!emri.rltd in bYlihe· emergcing :niWl:etteeilll:l'l-00n:iury mtluopolis.. . Thecnncepc nf t:. was ~.rganizcd plan 3dhcr~ng I)()the iPru~~llii~ing .rR~ !:h~ c()mpositiio~ lmd ord~r in .t~acsii~g:)sc(':ndO)fic~.l. Along with :In :amhirocmr. [htl ardTl:i:ttK~r'sc~nO(l!l"n fOlf c"(lrtniFlJlements e .llH\J:!lS.g dcs..j. W(l wtll j.nlfica...s.d dli:~p.~.i. the bulld:i:n.!re !><:I.~i!i()n :p:~c\"J!ll!:Ilt pa:iming in sint':.>([JfOg.j~~. p~riyd ifl! w!hie'" a w~l. From distribution to composb.i~-Ar~s.t!h:~ d~lgttli ta!ikls and thenoodr am.\\"lIS slllagln in tile quest (!)f e(1':.e Royale d' Ar.cc:.!.!I1.c~'ergl~catc. Th{.!l!k~ a !tU)fu de(~Ued 1(1( .tl)<f:·of !!tyl~':i! w't'f(l ~kiUfuUly intefWYVC~.:ei!b}' 11 l~rofu:sil)lli of en:filladCc<i nd~ oenament.

-.tfrI~·I'i~'~h~1 ~rl'\:d I~Ide.Oi up 'll:1Wlllgln the bul](Hing.L: 1I.ev-..pe.!and \!'eSI" sides. s¢l'i..1 Ill!! fn:rfmrm!l. \iVe.he foot is rbn:d •• 1 p.~ Illi. Mmelldr pro u.:i. In l'lh~ P'lri~JJr!.<1~.t::i's dl:sign .(i' ).l(lt[ -:llld main O1i~di[ t:lriiJ IlliJ.is ernpluy(':(i no! o!..S if we: ind.....id(~.t.igc.Tllis.l} <lSl hOl"izonu]...Ltnr~~ ~.:lu[i: cJl. Sl:"PC :l>'lyk. posi ng" of lIpaeus . .Ol'ill ~)'Icl>itrvf t.I"!.l!l~" d~~ig~l In t]H.·~s h'l~'in C..:~I1:tt.~'.~'g'c[]n rcrt~rs.er [wm .ncc ~jf~'p"'"e~."lrch .~ulll. Il~rs The dc~j¥[1for t'h_t.1i[!1\Ju'Stl!ir. . no lti'figi:' r d(Jt.:'Iy .tke3 Qll. 1l1~pe.' II 1 Silo d:t)il' tlw J:L"~m jW'm·f'tw(. !P~ri~OpCf"~ l4Iom.eaware.cri"€f." mafc~~ :oo.H.c thl: inill. Th~ staircase of 'i.the ~l)ll1pO~it~Yl1 " i~ iJltl}"1hi [lJ!..tpJ.id¢:.'fed ~t! IJI'!~. rhe pH)m)iHH..Im~t· w !h·e I:Ul'i.tio.j:~~EngJis:h i:Jiicl!.lti:e ~ns!. tll'ln!ii:d~~d in wn:!l~_ M~WlJmr. WWfC ¢Ie \.l lel~s<)is illc dimtHi uf Gll.bigll.uih~I):It.ti.~c SC~IJ en>:€ o r prindpOlJ "T~a.ilIng!C.. n:gof rhill ilmpacluf Iheel'lllladc ~!1d rhe s'fuift ill dHII1II(.~ l"I.mll phm. The term Was needed ro d~lln\l d~f.'>i~n.QLdCJ par ~i!!1"0ch0Sco aumr $(011 r. linear ~jr.arn tin: llirrL~W.1<1 In .i/. pic.'main s\Hl..tllir.e ill 31'chil<:>eHl!"C.1:.8ea Ull!:-A rrs )~.>.f)I.il-"~' Seen J!mm ini..e~~ i1y~:m1 !illd {he ~'l'l~"delicts abifllvc [he eel' fi. Th~ :filmJj.' "'CQITIing.hll'~l\:n:.fl ur ~iigh ':Ir~nl"'.~~1! tH:n~ Ihe influence of rite: I)~ctur~&{.'11 «'rrwi of !{~. or s~u~.c..m!.':1mi!:. whn~h littrr'lHy m('.uk~ in smne inCClsur.u:e or Slep [Qfward.I)ni{: 4'H O~tli>id(..!..\.n uf l'Ot)nlS ~I irhi~~II !>i:IY gl~ o:nlll r..~th!.td indl.SIGN I\ND 11..'~tl Ill!Jldl. h~l'Id!:i beceme II li:p'eC:tit~he tlMI .e ~.EnL)MU fI'i. The (. rhe il.clr'l !h.1[11 ""'" .i1ln~ .::rH of I'll rou ~l the Im~M~ Thj.. I'() rhe dllt. enmrJ' is i ~ 1J1{luk~'.' OlU 11 !Iim]pledis M~ib~ti~.ld~ Ihc OIddcu enreanees 011 [he ~<1S.. ~Umh!i..!jS smlrr up whkh lh~ rmMi.fl·C Opem .t.cli state '!If a !:l~.e !~I'i~()I'~".rlg'!8 ndhC'!:~~g: seen aN~'l\H:rc l!:tlis.·hefe ..'T !~f -18 nd one of rhe dass'i:cnl ~'l'ciS)''>. II ~ ~~l'dl>C fI tbird term n. wbkb b)'lhe:!l \"~'M. S.ltJing tl'nc fuy.r~ HQl(~1:the 1Il. R~'~. sin~l~ v!lJ~um(."N:bru "'ring mit H\cl':l'lfilaclc~ it is a ttlll[:t: thin undulares fi:j.Irilm.li'~*ohhc d~.'E~l11) "~M sdU deli r we 1'1 ~ h ill> iI $. i Sl.

O'r rep're:s:<mrntill~ (}if An Nouv(.l~ (Jf mils.ne:w ~orl'l'l'ali(iil[)m.ill po..Sc were citiz.d.)j'i nftn'I' a]oog with h. ~i.l'n~ht . Hum a.HId h:cb:nr61ngy iI~ppeil"ed ttl ~e c(~nrn.n th~eCO. iron.chm~ques3:m!.c$I. ghl!>~and reinihroe. tlitis.<liIJ.~Io!l ie's.[U(~ '()(' Hort.gra. and new o:rdcri. a tetn'!C::Pllr1l!tiQI\ proeess rhar "'\~\SP'! tm.~11 tlf S!m:ffictywas ~b-~tere!ite"d in new i.s·o t .\l:u 1ll1Cb'hl.X of challlg~ was the ~:rI.i~!Js.1$"0ne of [h.~rid.architcC'[\.!l.lfl' !i.e.~lt:eiur~e to 9iistrJver :.j'$."Q.Iss:eI. :1'~ib"'l1T1iJ"&d':.uld!"$$e~~jm.th . uili's \fOJ:!lC..¢rls who..eVe:!'.tOl).an. Th.led.'~W.cXR!1!.l(.G! into m.de~.Ce in bu:ilwn~ C{}n~tli\:I:c~iol'i" he vca~~llhca\lals.l s~ei$Gd ji.r!i.hiimpactcd '!)n~()Ciefy.hGuse..s (!: hOiUSt!: (If a:mple propo-rJ':i0!1*.e." [nit· ~h.~ri a 1 '9~pir~l:i~~..l gi~Il'1 chan~~ inEurepea!'! i!Qt:ielli.!.~(keir el<1!:Il:.:W 2.~vi.s and (Qr1illl.e [l1.e!U1<:iP9Iises. J!ii~MC~ t ~tilirniltQ the p~riot.:g wJ!oiI~ 'Vc'll'I:~~ !h~cr!!~siCiil ar-ch'ii'«:IU1tal s. 'Qf indu!>tr) •• pe!l"llti'tred tli1errnsely. havl1i1g' pro~pe:i'ed. His OOrll:I1L~Wi:ion:s ooa!ldstedlarg't\~y of d\\lenit~g.e :\"e:ll-lliH~e.'iCt liau~~mi!~n i!l a.: 'iii~Cl qf iM!l. "flit!.el"Vru:.steeJ:.. On!nJt rtheili!'"chi'['ecis caught '!I'l)) il'l. In 1'!)9'() Horn cv~m built a hoil!?e fOIL: hi:m51eif in tile ~fWI' sfyl.. -.sfol"ma:r:iolm.<lJld the clt"Sirefl..'l p~~ ~hJeITI ju)St.~em~1l.b~jJ~ ' envil'(.' TihJs upper er.ug.dcqpG~[e n1ali:i~D"g [h~i.e. prue~s$" Ncmi tl.r1f!~tr~!ll!. Tifu'!i l\rt NOYIft.l"w~~e ~cddifilgwh~r¢ tm. Cities· swdlc. Or in ~ '~I!I:~ l1owe:ri. ms~ Mmem]f pro 8Qld(J par oerechos {JL: autnr .r 'l! 1jl.l'Ig principles" .Teii~"~i!ihaI'! .aiie!ci3.e tran.6 Towards a. go~ciI. :m.~· de~i.Si!:.Th€. of Paril$ III the hoJinds fit i.new architecture Tlhe tll:rll ~f the Cel:lUU.ql~p. :~il Ile (..my T .'j.

lIlX-. Th. nether typil.ril IloUi. hil!. harmony andproportion.. ·of which the Mo.r~d ofrhe d~y..~~C'ricnL'C't.:Lulc u r ~ IlUYS": Iikewise rC'ill:o.l:hl.~ which spaee.Hm:t~l·s houses arc er a.o! 011 imermergirrg 'll:lCIC"~.S. ~pil:ce~ arc !]utt b(lJrde~d on <ill foUl' sides as h~ ~~leclassIc stvle.)01-1.~I"i ns ..gi.](J.~~ deparrure fl'om Ht~m is the W~ly Leos approaches the !::Otlll)OI.IC/gill!r and use}. i~.om. h The EI\.!. an In smrk (. hy introducing "p:ll'l:~.1I III' be ":I. Ol.. 'The sl'rii{till lilIe 1JLtCS uf'lIH: .:d Adolf Loo!> wrote his n:ld)I"<lLl.:ymmCl'ry.d ~slmy OrtWINt'l. r"'O'nl1.'{l'n~rI!Si 10 Ihe .n1 ~):fl-lli)fi:[l'~ \. axial ~h~fls and ill.Clo.'C viHl.. I}cspi~c his criti.es.P'IC~S gh·ts ris~ W:J Jiilgmml mevemcus in 'll.'Sib]c (J\~ll.~!.PI.om~Xlnlble to that or Horta. The experiments Louscarricd uut on the ~1. If the pareiriens between romns i:rrn.! irwell or 11'11:1 ivin g :room. Here as in Horta's . the )\.olls.b~sil:(I1 onlfUiIllC:nllr with ~. .he house.h.:ri'~]l blut.buu.mming' '11'Le occupnne m 1b('Wr. IiIN:r (~f L'ldumifl".u ~INd f:rimlt.lc.~oulkalong II diagoml~ sigh! line from the seatabove the front dour through the entire house to. Thi:-.~'" is th .'s the cnnmini"!l: vohnitl(' Q r rhe housesmys l:m~ .'ery lfOQII1J1. l.I liwu.: agilirn.:-i!.'I. in Lees' eaeh room remainsan entity :111.cll beyond: (see alse CI1:l.t~~1C the hOIl~~1: exhibits Viewed from the fr~l1it. I J. ~)f ~~a~s J!m:tlomi mile."C.mnJ)gh.~'!i 11.:lass ical Material protegido por derechos de autor .pU~r :) urn g . Unn. lis ow~ nn inrricare gmm: oftag 'played between syimn.1lJ1ll1yil1)!1~~ l !ilrikin:l'\'. I lere.i sln::nIglhcl1s ~hc as yc[ . rhe ]\'Iollel' House looks like <I sk'l!~whhe t. ~mluurs one is cnnsI3.-. ~h~lIPp~]' ilnnr. a li~a.:'.1:[ul sled t F[OI'tL~ h. Hut~IIM(ld(: ~pa.t.11 llcr Hense lacks 1l.m:hlt.~or. YOIJ.:.pcd ji:lll~Q p:~~y!iQ_} massesand !ip~~~C!ia~.tl ~hcmsdn:s ira iI r~. Thus. R.ll1Ill11[0li11 in (s p'1C(.u ur f~ g:rl:lll.Ibl_[~.timJI berween I'OOlms~t times to II difference in level..1i:f~'l~ Qf rhc Op\.boutwhat b-dmlgs I<l nt Uy shifting the ~p<1!liJ~ "xes HnnJ also brc<!b Lhnmgh tllc classical II"C:'J. ~l']n.\ I !lie level of dCi.I.. mmJ fnlmC'". stone.~tcd hr ~p~(. ~l.'.11)' trace o \iVhoc\"cI"CnferS N[lt~tinns 'aa ir ..i :>ymm( culled from (hI:! orgauiewerld :J.m. feu nd . rhc R[lumphm prnll:i!lcs c. As with .unple. rs aftl.pbllj.srhereis no> IJo!.Ii.ic'i iil~des and reoms pn).is~:cd in 11. yClin ~. or the classical architectural system wen.rything. by walking Ihmugh t. I~ I~'rl:a cun ~ntl~. It 1'.I~I'1Hiuil he I:lr~ly rC'PhcL'd!.I:l!i ii~i>~!iul C"Ti\l ~~(i!l~ rion!% 041 bcg. itself...ssim1J.l:rl. 'best observedat !he p()Iinl W~.H.s own house the "'i~~ltw~IC" . 11who.ox o~ 1111r~]IollJimJ'~ pmp[)rti.~tion ofthc sp[lJQ.ltii~ de lIU9JS a o.-. filrmLl. shifts and S}'mmell:..icnI1ese cml:nl<::I"p..ny Leos constructs the space 10 these pri l1ic:i:p~:cs a si ng.]lI[!" I!.]ied: mrespectable dwelling: houses.tedoding visitors to Horta's house lim.k-sh.e Mlllllc:r House seem. He :rmly redueetlre parti.:~I!x-. ic J!C.~~~C Yicnnc!>c \'aricty of AJiI :-':UIUVCIlIUli (see also Chapn:r .]'11 Im"!l!c.:\~:I!\ Ir<idiii[JIli. Stripped of all ornament or classic ror!'l":m'~idiom rhe fll~ade nonetheless adheres ttl such ~[JImpositin~. r Huera attempted to l:hllrlge the entire system 'Of d~s~ica I urch ~ ~Cl:t'LI~'C.l.nr~~t~.om.i5> a 1)13~:ofaxia~.:-lS I-I()irt. elevated by G.ikewi'se~.lihH('S shis !lILl.s. Th is !.ShiJring a~.ucr House of [~p8 IS a g(]{}~ cx:.. o .1' versus asymmetry..q~]ilt~..21 l~llbl.ng its lI!>C:md to.cs Tr1!~~lcd ill the lk-.. 1li1J~ 1:lrd.\\'C' ~h'1Jtl: !lcelhat r . st.:try rel~linnshill.m'in. !he house 01 s:mdies theplsnsan d elm. an enfilade fUT a compusiuon !If spaces tl'n"t£ Ilm\' '~)lWinll! I he '11mthcr.''ltrBi cunccpr uf rhe marchc.oos :'I...l:lsm.. Two ~'!.~s u:l1I:~.~thi.[h.\Vher'e.~j.h.. a narrowing or :I. em) .gh l mcveruene.:ir~' and .r Hurta moved irtw ~j.on auteaorneus the of !i]?::H.\·l~lmc:trY"llii}"mr!M.the spaces flow fn:dy into one' another.tl:fldi~lg Ihe stairs.:IT..di(.11 rules as . 1:'l:J[S lansc in I~is IC'1([ earhe near-tvrannicnl will of rhnt m.1luthi's.:cl i. \'i:~I1l~1 ~'Qm<1C'1 between rooms and the 3xial !lhift 31:1nJong them fa.: another world.n:d ~'Il a lfoU1llC {If !i~'!Oio~ ~od being seen. J i\'IO\ICiIllC of ormll'!:lI~n!.Hildamc'!)!.Ilnd all.lml)C to 'l~d lh. _.i.1I: composition:ls. lie c:u:1l.tf'~ilc:r ill the SI.UYCI'II1't:Il[to g'ivc S.ng: of .e c'>amirni:J.ely is rmnspnrtcd 'W qu i(I.t'~T the inrricate a :play (if SlX1Il'CS makes it impussihle to gauge whether une I~ ~llIIe !. .Irem.~:rn~dding of rhe interior fmm I:he ()~t~ld(:w(]'.]li~auempts i!1! 1ili~ work Qu go bl:)"t)lI!d rhe ru I.lMCIlt nflhe spnce system.dopttcd. ). Yet unlikJe the hou se in Brussels.:r r si~nifi~mlJ.\! intersect.l!rnfhtll'! of plants.:C)lll!tmuion >01'the S. ..m(1 n:gui:n.v~IIU:~!l'J3rJc position !.: volumeis term ed R. in the house wi~h the pusitilon and :hcughl l:Iefit~i. The t'(lG'rIlS seem tnhave rampant i~Oll1Ioc.dsual . she effects o~·J~yrnmcl'r)".m~yilil\"ol..i"si(_..~ .~teci beams and posts .ajl~ :I~')]inst lin: architectuec nf rhe S()~o.e\\.c..[crninillg gam.: hm:L~'(.::ll urchitcc !tIn:.:t~}"Inml:!r)'. . hUU.~' hurun1dilll!' he ~TnuC'!L1n: of irnn .. (:UIlu::I'I~'n~~i.lt'c !.

e stTu:nJJ!!iest.e.([(lIl. a few p0:Lm!'s. Bl1i1'C':lliffilig thc route as:m 3utiOflOirlr:lOUS r~~lliemm. Thj) adva!l!~~g~ii !!!l.cr s.Il. This: r(li'liisimiJ.It'd Lc C)rlrysi:tJ!' !~CQi!1:cci\fe !he rcOutc ilrchi".lUul!t~:rd':llrc!'ljntJ(:.v'(J poil1!liS T'hIicS (.o:rded!il:g of syrnilWl:cuy ~.rlillW!'I_::Ji.iple ~s feflected inJl ~ :~C'.r ~. Concern with e:\pt~ri.llisihi his rGeJflbrat~d "tj.In:i:r:lg: . t~fa new aro.mpos. eoncrete.plliilhm :a~i a whoTe. ~h:rollgJ!J.\I~r. Le COfCbuslcr '~!nl)Toys 1l!Mther 1l1ClInS. 4 the strip wilttlt!lW (fe:n. the fflle fnt. S:av@jie dllis prillJ.uli.f. S"'I'{jI:~ ([!}'M})I :SlandiIlJig to the w-cSt of P~r~silll.i.c.:rlde(r:~ii'lId:c Li:bJie)p.~ yt'ar arh.etrc CIl.!i.l. inspiilled i]iITI to estalb. 3 the free Uoor p~aJn(plan lib.d ®o panitio!ill .dbj. Material proteqldo por derechos de autor .to o.'T the Molk\r House was .<. 21 PI:a.rga nl7£ the .~it~i3Jrdilill). IJibvc iii 11Iil:Q.ntib([le .~j.h(~sl. of the plan liibI:c dl.C:lldn.es:ign.dco.l olrdc:[i~rg.indlld!~S:J :f. wlille frem Insid:C ~tanlU\i!!!!I[S to a f:re(l compo8J'!:hJ!1 in I:hr~~ .i<m ~f t_heI8l.dscapc urchiteclrne.oomp:I(':[(\(I.e tWIllS andl POS.c phtn nb:l\(.I. mOllemcnti:nto n d:isc~rlvc element in tbe ~(l1.icil! by the siz!l 01' tihe bay.ibitreoture". Lt O}rlYusl:lM"" If 1~lorta'se.n.r0m>o:rrti:onr.<l. method! of rcinfb. :rr!):!TI IJilis gi~i<l 00.'se ooing d.a(h'OCalea by hin.with theruute as WB ha\~~eneuunrered II !l'\J!c("£'~si.S: frum .'s !:Qal1iothi.tl1is.l:l!1 f{:'qlllilN. rded! 3S a built p manifesto of Ltc Gorbus~l'J':S lJ\\'e I'OlIllS.md proportion.S~f:r ~jd.co:rnp'llmcm l!1JJI:ue:n.!: l!).rL.iclcstJ<:lls the Le composinio~iII prO'M(lm:s (Df 'IJlrueEn~glisb gaTdl'" whereby . 11e:emiullc:ipalte-cl1 1Iu..gll the rool.l.e rQ)ribus~c.vcIJ'in l':n.(l!lil:t O}rbusi. liher·oof gardclill (t.treely between !:I'm l':{)luml'l!S !YO tbe gmund! floor J:etll'Ct~ the idea.e·t\t nf tliI. mean!. 00'thlC elltoo. tb!i.cUcsstGns for medem ar. Li.:tlOI1 Itt:m can bcsubdividcdl at: will..oo ina taut b1l. S.l Tall ViUa.l.peT~m. ViII:.]' ""o!!l~rdJiJa'i'e du: g~eilt~Sl r'eper. the plan.veilyall~onom(J!llS ~ms. A 1.'I(.l..I.re). gdd with an almos!: :2 I ooillilmns (pi£otis.eplctops op If! tlliJ:e Villa.3 no]ln~bea:d. d:esigocd hy ~(. Yet here tile divls. HOllse illIilId Htmta's: own ~oll".' Gu!"bu~j~-r dJ!'~w l1!~sd~.Tce. lPrench :vom<SWlctti(ilIl"'~rker:s were IP'1iI!nmrg'[hehlliiJiS:h~ ingtqu. L¢ rOJr 1:IIl.permir Mmselfnilll:or deviaftorrl. S:l'\roy(~ :IS :I r~lItclha!t .clli~e()tu:re.l..off rooms: quirte indcpcJ)(jj(1cT:li:~y.bes sueh a 'w~l as :1 fr.JJg rCk\!'ll. ~onguer) and::. Le Cur'(b. i'N)we. of "pilcef1 in the Vi1hl S~woyc. Tillis. (he Parrus Opera..ee fllif~de.1!:the design ~hrough movernent. The :trrangem.oun~:1IIl'ChitectUl'\ille' BilStd~ Ih.ush:ir claimed.d.51 R.ft':ed. t~c:h_:_l1!iq~g(lanowed! him 110 ~!i~'i. Ofl...l'liOl(l can 'be r .ctiU!mlel)lr IJIromr.IS wI.k:llli~ .l'5I/SCiJ. 1 direetiens of relMi. diti.om.)..oes: the .o.chi.coI11p<i_}"it!IOIJ.!Ws~qY\l'nc~~ ~fdtis Sl)lurtiofl.. n~.~lg the strucmre and! Il'he m3tef.gillsh Iram. of the 'lnatert:d syste:1llS .'r!IlJ J rCons[ru£titm.insp~r ed! by tbe potential tlf new materials such las:seeel :a!nd g~.(:e:q}Cr. symmetry and p.J1IlP rcachingt'hwlI. [Ill die Vina.IIrQie w'I111."ade is nJ:.oom.'f w~hjtli.ilioil!! of tJhe ~'alli~ are free olf it ar times.bo~.ucs"ionably !1l1Ci most imp(lnl!tl~.().fi~ of ~lymn~ pJ3~(ldlQ~ . The eleva!'" timlS f'1it~w th<: vma Sa"ure's sdll r'3ir~)' cl<l'S:i(i~.h~m~.'c:ry nl0d:i:lit"r:ioln in a .iI[Jlself de~ri.

.-:..• .tr" . .

.

'-'-". I Material protegido por derechos de autor (.m"Hi< "r Muiller ~I._'.m"" .!~f"..• ""..1)" 1'.11]' .- .

"" " \1~lb S~." \1 '...l"win·~ dMded ~IX'IW ~..) ..'o}~IC"f.!Id· tf1.l~~If1('3[1 'iliem8 < ~ ~1l1).xp1:Ud~d .

'1hI' d. t~eTD. IInh'll1l 1~C'rcJIb} e xeess k~'U)\\ledge.~TII s: S:P."Iidill!il' p..cd for and 1m cuna'bonniu.iJincl-rn.' \\~JUS h~ua.."~~ described b)' "rho. ! ~!.~d two !~'PC-~ ml:~. tilt: house that bear~.!o \.:t1y lies [he power of Ihis 'I..hUlT:I!.1llSC'~Qr Ill!CS. Ollie oftheim.utant themes \\"1S "the liberatinn of space.1I1C5.. so th'l~when rhe w~mlm\'s of rhe dining area arc opened this corner is entirely free.111 DI~I:!. broken upcm.llHtll arcln.llt~ m nf~uly arrange tl.g~_ T.iwt:nm~1 dist"Oursc' inlhc C!. il1Jis 'sirnplc (h~'. In !I'll. Th.tr)' and harmony..re. One oflhe lin.] (1l:l1IIr~fugall~. Uot:Slm1fgcli. tI~.l""i'.d<:d i'lu. i~ Ihrul\s rhe fUfl~~i:C}rml SII'.siOin·· in buildim..'chillg the Schrader Ho..'I!:"suifidci)l spaces.l·ne..1!can be conceived as (linc large openzone or Hgw.1I the ekillM~iiLt~f the de!'. from the core of [fie cube: V:tn D'lcsiJllrl:l' \\limldlhilHIH . "t1C\~ lm::h~teC'iurt: ever since.).tectureh.: . as It.. ~.]) archirectare acquires a more ur less Il~llt~1'!!!=spect that. I I. plaseie expressionin QlpCli'l spaces.{.: 1'1(.. illiUI t ime O.:lluw member (.. . t 1m J t is W sa:.esl exemples of rhis newarcbirecture is the Sd1l't. Terrnmaeing a iCI'lI'.'llb[ll'Z bl·t. Rietvekl's space concept. The quesrien.. throws m~t the lin'lCl~.In(... 1m!.\'ing: out the roof pl. cells (.ts \H~~I ns the ovcrhmging :1)1.7Unbollnded spnce as\.elling \\'~ISto be of :scnl. SIS Y 2."iig:mld b}7 a ~. The.-~ri of lh~ uni"el'~1l1 S:P<lCCThe eendirlons the TH!\\' . F](IIwirl:g space The home's patti is infurrncd b~ planes set freely in !ipa:!..r. ut~ ml n n:. n sim pie de \I ice resorted I'D by many modem architects.'.' upper flhmr dil'lr Riel\ich] and h~s client be~1 succeeded: ill1~r. it should firs:1 bepointed QuI that neither the architect nur the dil..01.!. of The fi rst "''l!:~SCIU." rhe reieer iC'11 <If e\ cr> c~m. sati!>l~ have bl.. >Ilf.ld w rccturc is a nti -eubi c. plan it I:.. however. architect and fi.• etc.s:i.a·cc.: b'0'.1I ~ space b).lIo\\'s: "The 111''':\\· archi- d:rav.rki'f"l g 0'1'1 'til is t:. h does. his pointless se(ll.I. h·..g (Jf th:(' universe. \~i<itth.s to Girder 11lc compesitinn. sysrern.I~(' dt. o I:~e trc::ucdi'~ as i he brua desr of litH:!l 011I}i. this li"'ing <Ir'(. n.of d. W freeze I he di Il(:.hm. fI<l. nlllu:r ~h.n~s and volumeseould li~eT'l. g:rapplillg' v. "r iI ~Mb-'. Ihe volume (tbl.·"lwIP·!' •. extended into un i vcrs.a s Leos ami Horta wen: c!(]nsumd~ .m]'I. thou gil ~~1 1:.: CXI~l'C!. Subdivisible w~~h . J:1.lJl a bask prupottior~~l.::a~il~l1g: De Slij~ ide<lsol1 "lOmp~'~i~io!l. .~<\n. text \'''1'1 DOt.lil~ h&d 'C:Il~o}.ieweld. "The 11C'\\ architecrure .e!'iCig~? I&-k 1. \'a'rI! I)oc:>burg hoped ~o achieve .dcl" l'~(mse (g'92.l\:l:"Chileo:w~e was 110 longcl' informed by the n>C<I!iin~of space but hcm.'tig'll. designed his spnees HI (lo"wg<:t her.. .l.lnal innuencc on in'lc:rmnio.enl: f ~L]] t:t ionals P:l.li:JmiJl3tLoJ:n.igfil.vii'fus}.]~i elements are enclosed must hI. if wl~'ll~udy the Schroder i-loLlse ill.mm.<."Cd hirnsell' f~~)m {lm:\mcm. rlidn't use this gTOll.Oft:!. "'N fmm 'nh.\tI 'completely 01 all llo'lSSti:"li~ leatures ~~<\S no furtha use ICYr u set .. d best I:(J have e eradicated gr:~yi t) entirel y .!c~l ~Pta(:c no longer as a 1!mil~ bounded b).sc' wilho'lilt ~1)::t~~ lincs.. succeeded iii! bum:hi]]~!llcw dc\·.r •. giveTh th.III 'p1".~1 pr!l1l.h wlnpmctdy "iill.l:(: cells in {l'l1t !':lo1i~!1 !. no:! j:M diJficnlt 10 roc:onSnlJlCIT this oIH~~me'ii:r grid .U!tism ..·:&lu..c:d En gl i!ih ~~ln~l. i~ contrast 10 the s~m:ngl~ centralized gconu:try of rht: Renaissance.[)~.C.\7Ii~(. i~h tin: Sb The hi!oI'!lr~ of MlJd·~rn archieecture.U:. N0I1(:'~hch:!>. worb Jg~inl'l a the gr~\ i!:uuoIl1lJ~1 fur(\f:s.ld fr·ec compU~iligIl.ffi)I'csses 11 abovc. su 10 speak.). gTicl and b. fr'UIn the COre of 111C c~~be.pClsi~joil1 b should be dCilli that 3'11 arclutecture stripp .e I::ompollicion of [lle hm.llllel.!'1f:ol!.Of-SIGN I!. nun Il'~. f'ree cO!m..tijHI. :\mmm. Rietveld designed the Schnider I~!)usl: ~11the Dc Stij~. In thillw."y ~s v:rIHI.lcd lin. 0\ 11 volume.lal~n. how did [(iClv!:MI1I'tlC'~ his d. As \\tr...J... uni versal realm..ike LD. AmJ through tbis means.eperspective of .m. cnfil::ldc..I\.:'nSllill:~ Y'c"crn!.h .'.~I.or In I:hl. rhe rheorist '<I[ I)c' Still~.• balcony \ ulumes ..ll::l.] quctidian pnlgmu.:hi.IJj'\cd paper.at in his ease rhe "splice cells" si ( \\ it hilfl pbs!i..g ~hC5C ean be plal.lCIC.t now into mil: another.:a I '':UIl fine lil~ieJll!of space.r and the wid ow ofa hlW~ e r? !lefore emilJ. he di..'\\.ing: th~! i~IVhnUy new.'lssilc:a~ hUll.).n wil~~ Truu Schwdct-SdjiIJrlidc.~ replaccdwjth ar~"I"~tio: r(Jnl1. bays.) in \~h'il.t(.i:gnn[l a ~t:i:d uf one Ii:U.. a w. ~ylU.hilt:(. ~n iDc Slijl ir W~.1'O\CIlICIl!. is. 1:. an j magi nil w}liour"dlill1 ension alen fity) ai~pnmcho:).:ub.II) thst . of nature.cfi)r~1igc!'w~ikd the nMrk~~lg our ·of p.most imp. her ml~m:.:. depth. IJ'utsuclt::fll \I.gi~'."~. is cCI1'I:1fil. Spaces mw.~[j ANIU .)f D~ Stiil.umll space cells.11f1)'H}. Rather._.lo.M)S G~tdt R:~cIHld .:ry and preportional systems.!S whu joined forces wil~] painters a standard architccrueal educi .ll.W~e~ Material protegido por derechos de autor .. h is om du.dopml:ll'l!\. l~le~\-cld slr<:nglhencd this effect by omirting the mullion of the comer window.Uy flO~1 in SP<1l:CCThe illusion imm1ll:eri~]lit)l is an idea !l1<11: has hauared modem . rrl'!1..Jlld!.sm!hi~ end. height..

~.I:oodbyCi.l)..\ of til.of orgalli"Jng' @blccls. "~b~ "(. Taylor..r \Va8sil~r Kandirulilsikygavl! drucilitlJ a.1iTI1 ideal l.sG<.'cvdoP:IiIlCilll'~ :ilfID o. Though rheheuse has irru rn.otld. and is t..Th. This extensien scheme was itself 3. The diesign ~u['Wcsduuslln was m~d!c' by May in .\.cit~c of nl1.po-sillioJrnJin line way it pa.)l pr()ce~s: ~()strrkCI~~ right ibill~altce.There hlJ:¥'Coccm. Axymm~~~'rr and II sense of floating are m'he:r fa.Y!.ted meJ1l!1I ro l11IiIIlilc analyrnl'al dnwi!')Jg(. The~lif!es Wl..rimet1e1" block lud bt. an empiidc.!'co!'n(lrs.Jw:ry of fOiiim. mntempona'11 slant.eW"JYoil' ool:'IJlroll.:r i~.'1iV'.cordJc~lly en.eigibroor~ p h.s . shape W {ibc city oocame a question . The measurements. I~ Wcsdi.tffipo:liscs \\!I)f. Tile Beailllrx~Ar[s ac~demies carried du:sc prindplecS ~hr:o:tlgh into o~lr m"n. :III its details.of [his une.ntex.d!){11 :in :ucbitecture.i!lt. between ~hc opposing' dements in. from whicb tG .~!).LQterliy c.cn:! is. T~js is.tir~~t${. be- Material protegido por derechos de autor .i(.!) a. new d.I:li~g tih.lihey OQuld then make their miI!CJ:pfilMat!OlilJ of~htiP~oJ~c~.ty crime under L11lc.tl:)[S I.".l1Id time.2B.as.USCI}lpe:.s needed is.!!t!!O~m: 1ifl! :i.!i for ~Ile city" modle:ls th:a!~'ouJd plrovide . ILool::cd oU this W'.il! "labor.ng free cempcsltlen 1£the.ding· [live .em.ssian WJWr:rler' ano:. >lJhl!Jlty dj_!ltinClt~:(mtito C:hAOS.t .lC(:!l.e frec onll1:pos:i.rO'\IWd.dlerll.lil:'!:ll11i" ai(i~d! air sp"J.dI~e. R:ieill'!Cld was: I~nother' to i:U[~ to tlh:c :rul!les: of .1t !!nc p[!'incipJc!! of ~rg3:!TI!iz.i. Onoe the: pc.(li!~dG!fiv~d on !h<: O~G hand f~()m Do Sti.(l elassie (.gmcmed imo drilscr"..jl'il In!ot[Of!!i· l)bQ~t SPOlO(l" "fild fi~ the I]!thl). distrffiot ami SbillIng. OOrnp!J!Sili'!)![1 ~el1idlo llack gf darity.t'sign stilltlillDal~eslhc ~mll(gi!n_alinn.(..We come' at:rosS1 iihisCUJiu. The woril t~nliion e.n.nflalys:is condllllctccl by ~lliJ.riol1w 1['9303"Jlt i~rnt(l time of th& soclald(\m~~){.. :pO:rti~fiS afid lTI!om.l &tuha. shi.·u~rnepfo..ot~OJi!-t(lo ~lt<!n~1 s:.co'llaliffirattOfill with tbe iir'\:lliioc~ H.dY~!'fia.(:G\rth. Pr~g.!'a.lfsti. :m a'rc.tl.h:slgn. t~.gboa:rd.siibj~r. w:idll darit!)I"tfJuifm and .-r()dutlejJ )I~.on.!W!i(:iiomtl !l~l).!)hillc(lI~!"J. FilCill1~kifuri: p..!s" fix ~hll dl'5hlnC(:.XWI'!!i!Ofi ~I() Il.i...IdlcftlltJl at the Halllba!lI~1.~sy.hitectlue rhat wants tJn e:-.Ind~9'3!" This fraltn!tfur' S!l'bUr:ib foti!lrn.. t:ilC 'l\lylor (lfgaOiZ'adQlIl mod(-:] fl. 00ncept we <tneount£rud earlierin (ll)nnttiion with [IbiS BlIfii)qUG.J.ood". themes for e:l::pl'lls!!.ly."Cllilil~ru.:eprin . t!he SieJhmg 'WcsthauNcn.stem of 8p:rI.l<IticWe~milr RG:.-cler iUTIld..ll. built oo(w(". IIke~fu:e C'Oll!ll:i:mcd space.i~QS t~is chaplter migblgi'il'£ of 'I'ffit~ imprcssf.As diig.:. 'of th(l I'~a}l (li( Ilni':~1.gia! ffiudl.i~!. if)! U~."~~t ack oOf l cGlarIty wnd . At the end .l.tm:l tJO this ibui.llne: dtj' ce<1soo being . rhydlm o:fre.of l'fadn. 1:'lfuiedty blnck. liDO."i.he la:sbKand'ins. Taking !:he themes of light" iI~irand spa~" M<l!)'and 130chm de\'e~oped an icle31 h".di:t!g so [halt rhe hQ'U:fi.. Light.cdi iJilift ~f ·ilttwmbld<!)li8 c:. '('lui!) Wn('ilp~:of ~1iJ. elling in.syst~rn .e A:fitl!e.'Jh~lr id.(l!. 'i>S we s!lJ!~llljsec .1 m. of oourse.t:ispitted~!. ~ ModJell'lle {CIi\Mi)1 . t Wh<ll i. .g that is not ffilamlOn~oUl~ in '(ibIS d~ssicarl sease.Public.te.'C11 Iilmli.lcts Iladaccx:pood (he t"'~ttiiit!lng jmlll!i!.il in the roe~l1Jming . today.ndition ~f lih!). k\lel.1atc..tj d1!) main ('a!lSI): of tihJilscriticism.comj)Qsit~olil. 'file Jl'prunllg' Living' condirions in the smtlln:)s Qlf l'ffin. [J<ilCCin the wo"k S . com~mcnt {II i'he S{){.ky mastermindedi by !'be city arcJrnilJaai E'rnSlt Ma:y.tyoot type Kamdlfumsik:jl instruc.te 0b~c:c(s. the urban tallnic fra.I)II:I/lmil:~ I~C k~y '~O!:l~!liPf$.!he IJpposit'C of ~cdiium.pl:lddofi Gfi!. that €lrder.s~f thj8 dlclle1opnI1.1 8}1src.rcsshfe~~enh:eetcswh(io joined fur(.e com.:press tim!).1vism in :pa'nicular'" ir designates: Iii mod!c jjf' f~rm.of t:h<. . needled 0iPllLTiing up.C<ltifJtl.voTed. pla.gm. 1'1) 'Ihlsend if ml<!b!)s I[t~jl: 'of 'f!.~ca~:ngtllmek..:~rrmSare s.Lmi~arlt:ies lb\M:weeJ:tLh!:.(l most pl\~)t'Utlrpiclil (lx1lmpl..edlthe sp'rru.ilil~c.dIe iiJchiti."ompositio:1lI of It:lilc design have il1l Il!O\\'3:y heen I1t~tl'. and! t~il.of ~ Sli.u1:d comlIDsi~[on~lre txltlush'ely the domain.nsion.~ prh11lte hnuse.nlt1iJ:fY" whereupcn ~1'n.{t 1m. O. n painting' to i ~'~Il.~~ Dynamics is 3. I'i.-l'Gc~t"i!!!ptru[i.lre flO 'r1cjpresent tine te.. BocltLtn. rate a s.o:n. second byer .goD. roduces a :s'treet:" Il. wouM d.!)n J9~9 .i!in 19.:xp:resses tile dk\gree W whichthe d. Tihu preoe.wgtlJi! by dnrwIn.(i~S: ghlln[!."src'petitiolill of this layolllUl: type ~Il.\d~s .tlg' blocks st:t'!o!:-x1 fr'll.. tinct to the free .d:n:giit il1. "line.~y C"aS(lS !i~v(.~t.ndia'l'd d .cJn[os.~~odal Of' "pa.. Tile.rdeifi'.not $0.gtl. 'of ~cln":Hr~. A 1!I'I.us m.gi!i_i~o.!'1).:Ind dis:tln.e~aJOO. By d:rawimlg No-c:illed. (ill" tllleli.f flrQJ.cl:arg~!lin~l\'{:nth~ntlif. the 'COmpo.ing 110cde:fatiO!ll a.i. narirty in this oo. elem~l~ts ~rIilwc.solllght ~iU:W (iI.co:nll~positi~mof De Sr:ijl. dici'.ia~ nOl!lising ~periliJilClilits berung earrieduut rum. It is meant to Gxpressa suggestion of mOl'(lmllntam1:d chao.!iilion.m. In mode1'[1 arehiteeture.space.n1!]l'~!s of the bous. ail' and SPrilJU.cn€Ipcn.l.il and OJntitruct. I.~~ i.!..a..ce. The stucll.~ C~n!Wl}s ]m:(lwn!!tion..c~l!tiU cF.k:yscl hi" Sll.li~ns OlS<l l'ill11: :)r.cns:ion" (if.1!~i': 'Awchil(..l'e.ri.Cts at: a 111 r~rh:'ln !.osmic'" .C R:u..01i.moM work p.of t.lIlJEnGIGll:ln!thcentuq1an.:d d~sign in 'cd!l. Itis a ql.g pu:per.

I 'I .1 T d I •• 1 I - ' .------=---0 j-. ~I ~ t'l1""""" il -. " r----------.- U 9:] . r ..1 l. I .. 't ~.. b '~ [ r . I I .~ ~ r- 1. -1 I .J L ~ _LJ r -.. . ~. "~ I'I •r t.

:a~d g~~upiiligs in odd orC.Jc'hO!Ellt"l produ."Cllmerum l'flun.ris. H~!tC "r(~po]'ti(). I I I I I I [I I I rc..enl tOW bous-in. roclt~liI.~ !9~'~ Material protegido por derechos de autor . I ~ I [ r- I 1 l [ [W~e"1'!bloch.dwllY.d~.ze:di i1'1 raws.peni~ilon (:tIiled to nutle a:ny real he3..OR!i):ER AND COMPOSITION S9 II I I II.li~:n.ung: '\'I':irlh ht~~erblocks ef pmdlJ"":3lcccssed £1 ats. The ll'UIttcrfe1'ooce etween the grId of ww b hOl.crj~I!.ol!W au I~!om. the reside. ol'feril1. r in Whofver~risit:s ""lestbausc]]j will see that it is raoee than the Tayl!Jri7.dabeee ilu'St !-i~~ilUJg as ilU! a line grid wi@' Mocks thfOllgll ~he !1Ppl~C!lltiorJJof oorit!lilili !1op:hist. rilyrhm and I~.a.(l~~!iJe 19.nl[iaill sector I~ been.ile AiJlalid..IGlp:iIlg' site.ed expression .!'C1IlcS small disc~[Xlnd~s between ~hem"This is :1 ga.e employment of m!~\l'eFialha'! is abnracr and m~ill!J!li. .of . I b. Tilis SOrUr1alln ill fOllll1ld in v.g: et <1!"Cf8C to the I'rincip]~ of Taylor. !JI~h.i-ril'ln of objects Beyoillid ". result i:s 3.e1J1JleSn ever varyin g i .p'pc'tl:ra. !>I.5010 0]'1.e repcdcioo. y AilLauil de~i.y of litis S[1i1. One of du: imteresting: res:pOII'ISeS.on.ealll~. Ailhud resorted 'lt1'\'I'!J:1'"C 111:11 to irod two types G'f ~bJ eel: pon Ih:-atlce-S~t'd flats and :Io\\'c:rs..In idle. to the mOllotony ef the new housing an:h:itec!'tI1J'e is und01Llbrn:ed1ytth:u of the: f'rel1.ctl~ . The .. Ff. Cnmpl)s.nCf:. dli:5 I:n~e:r~YPI: is characteristic of Ai]]a~d.-al1d \I'orkcd them imo iI virtueso vo. The m.ery n.me'p.ICU numbers.gularand curved M~cb (If Pn)fctHtCCCSl'Oedl fla~.ymluetric:aJly" NLa)' C.ed several I ~.sidential a:r~1l1Sililthe l)erij)l'u:m-1' 'of Jl:).I iJ L_ _II IL-j ~. 9:s. I ~i I [ 19 . dte aC5ttlle~ic (JIf e [lil:f. Though <lilt units ilJl'eo[rgalli.e~e"i1.s in t he si~e is a fllllithe:r enricihm. llrchhect E!m..ieaood resuurees.". be 'SIit'ung together illl II long dell<lt~ollJ."". ·of Qbjeots placed freely iWJ space.!'! mi!k~~ lvay foi' an efficienl s}.lch as I?llliltin.mp{IIsitioa.comirgur:uiol'ts.!IratiIHlS wlm~cl can.l. l. J\no1ller faetnr is that 'Westtbuuse:1ii stands on agently s.. Hallmsuks of 'l~ru61!l)sthe:!k~ ar.te. widll (i(n¢ Gt~lit Ri~t\<dttli.ent of thescheme. I-!:e ~elrmim:l~es the Sied. pllial'lltingland visras..lsing and ~fueincline. 111\111'1 SdL.. ~ I I ~ u-' .'Il1l~dP~iltin as <icomp(1l5i~i. Pantin s~al:lJdswhe:re two r01!d~ f~Jrk.sl.gal:t Uil:llimlted :!'ange of forms. Ailhl'lld desl:gn.~. small '~lPei!j'M<1!dof !!fefuilj(le~s ~nd phmners the: aesthetic of re. {1~155-!IJ6o}" Fo]!ow~l1lg il'nl [~leItl'llldiliol"Ul of tlliIDe modem o.orch flats are j~ MDm divided irl~l) rwu t)lPCS of la :rout: rectangular b IGcks Set 'tOi!. I I~~ '~ .:r lig-ht of and shadow.stc:nn of the d:imcnsions accordiil!lJg to lise" A new aesrhetic ID:11!dmerged. Aillilltid took ~1li~8-(l ~llreel)lc~e]'!~-~owerll.ms r and ~eW!dy b:illoil\lilWg' ('l(}l1fig.l:Jyeilwith mirrQ]' i!ll:il:~es:. The. Dr buildiing: up tbe blocks.

lilf!!t. TI\~ user. h i.[he I:icc amllfm.i[]fj~l ~q:..::.td fur fi\~im:~km fUl'J~~ri(JI'Iing.~.)1 iypk':lJ.hi:~ ~n"i r..llm.ll' rheprin.r~~rolt)~..ing d".gthei !lE.i 1. and '~~lfe1!'edf. 'iVhe.ea5..nl~> Iimii!. '{'h~ IIJ.(J111po~ltiQn: :I't\d N..prun:g J.Yrid k"cL This mesnsthar if such 11.ceem t".I ~I J.g'!enlCAr. of trees.m4tIl'L Final\:!" ~hmi: 1'0a ~q...wing perchI!(.']~".. .\ wind..)i'()~t ufPili1I<tin j.tC'!!'~l:'vrd<:(..timl i:-.lmputl):f !littilul:.~IFS.~Ir form oomposhi.~:n u:r~.u q~blCJ cunstil:iJt ch~d.l.' and ~~mlbkd t'hcn~ iinto' t~~ oomptJs.fnd 'Iil(jrl~fur ~n tI HI1[1l"1iIf thii~ pl'i nci pa I ( .ns(.l~ili:ke:wi!lt· l~~~)dIlCCf.atHy .l!!.1~"." 1f" CliM them 'out..]lit'ilng: Ih[L~I. !hl: c~m]. o r .-of pict0ri ai !.H:r~' mi(! of ~r:-1 hlmCm~ c is hilBed O:nl.. ih:aJ is..tili.(. '...I:.. 11Qwc.11 \..I.llfl~ abuve."litJg !fiflutc..un l~i'~~.'l[.IL"'_""I't..t .: mueh of Mutts.. W\1JiJI! t.IF1.gs [ell' l his PW'PI1~C.1~lg.~t:~(i.on.1)m· pt~r1~nt>'of 'h~lii'<." M.")dlb(: o.(::L ln [[fu:1: . will Cllipe(ie:~u:.1(:x~~.""".m:ur sehoul is !>'iITuat~d iWfC!ol!('" The lu Ivers !It..size: In plalJi. The l.M tms of Do. f[t'.. hi~ loW~rS a.Vcr.J> lm.CC aft.el!.u ~1I:'c~1:n am"lcr . .t frl:!'·<.~ f<L~id_"mi. III win n~ed tl!!lf1ll1~(j.~ tem~p'!i]~1l' ~.flI~_ i uti P:mrio"!'i compl1!J. hnt<! \~.!~f 'l~i:~ l".-.lli1vg bw]'J.1(IIIi:1'I>'I3~' him::.t!r~ld{!:c' \c"''CIIrI~)~~sid.~ rn.!~clcut.t dces.es·tlli: mai~l sh~ll'-i:of ~111f ~lrem.dis[ri.otal pr:..lIimi:S h"l'e h~C1~ !Iddcd HI the rep~~~±r:e..!!!:'s h)yfltli l:nU:a~~_~or "D'ecClup~~...tftt~ IU.w In: ll'cSign.o::o:RI:sisting .d pJ(i-S . O.'tlhc:[I 11l('~de11>1111 rh:re~"diITlrns. Srl.d ~~nd stmi.•· rt'l!Il'~furj.t1l.. . I COnagi2'. I'J~iIl<.1' .I'il:hhS.i(Jillll .i~ gr<. .C_g:feen Sp:J!C.dtrt!lb.irl'lJl'i.\. ]]1 s ~}"'" :8oIIJg~ mnrcri al: n he desjgn~ed his QW1l types.osi.all b nf ''i~ng.ro~idon ~5 .'S~li:t.<!iti~$(' patlll".~.l'm t:il~~mblc rlf this .'h".im d L~r.l: j::~:I~l:\~ik.'.cJ.I'l'lW0flK housing 111lt! sh[lp~ "R')!i..iti!!l1l hl: '''\1(1.jl were s:tiH~.g:in Moc:~.wd :IS .l blocks d~'~l~.n !J1'o:~n:(Ile\!.. prin.!:!.g'cnlly m. ~r.i h"tJ[J. u hi r&:.')~'Y:li n'~ifl...~ght(lltl1dl~~:rnUU~J' they used pa.f rCI: ICOIiip.\"hrne qtn unly be lIti.atio~ stringing 'wgcther the ~mlC).J Cl.c-rm'lI'!~ CtJ-lfag« wlmse ilI"J'M'l.cstr±ckd h)' Ihcrighi angle.e t'h!: .\' "".'\11<1 dmp~ the t\rtht~gu~~i ~{)1~tl0nc:nti'ji.

' (: ?e}t"'f... 1\141 ftt)~fiat'P"i.. 'J9:O:." i.!' I~rnilll . nt!!J.<SijJcllual !'~ns.Mllil'!i1"p~1i "fPa'itIl:l1ll .i'~i5-1960 ~1ll1~ ij<... ... r~1~~1j~fW au or -~rk ..

]]. n num her uf prj nciples discussedabove.t1.[ \\ i: centers .i\~·a .ElIch system has its uwn pa 1'1 HI pl~y ill the dc!r~gra_ The hlr:g'C open spaces forr phlyingllcl:ds ~~ndupenair concerts Tl>t:humi expresse» in u t::ml1pn. (astronom ical.ing' an {Iuti}-iJ1g "'LI'pc'~hig~\\:.ing on C\'~r more d complex r'~nlfl~ pmg!". pOM\\:arpcuiod" in Chapter J.unltl\'C demerit attached til iI.:~mi.' T~lC sheer elan gCllcr:.).{::tidl~t~s inu cluding a museum.. layers..Briefl}. thar this route h p~annet~as 11 cinC'lfmtogrnpllilk (f'ilmil.g use !if ~rLhit.e .:n:nt \I a~".'!J.n termed !'nslflWth.If the pro~1t'. a eomperition II1l'lt kept ~i!]. '~h.:c~lIm]l» ~.ecis..'I!:). . :1I:~mllld p~"n~ forEhe hlrgel: ni:!j. The \\ IJn~ p~hn:lril~ refers til a !<~si.~j'I'IC ems. 'fsc.]y on 111(.Inls.. undeubredly its prime source or inspiration" \vi'~h the I)i~e ~.1 space lor open-ai I' g O'JIII.ghl nil'hi it 'till increasing ':Ilishduef inthe existence uf nsinglc rruch.Tn P:".('m:'~nd indeterminaee. J·CI'l V~~~.)nld.htllr truth .. ".~\!sM.e !>d :l..usilnd years o:f Wl:sll':'rn architecture.\:> (.elIUn'l~ clemcets. irh Iht dc.(lll"m.:lnlC:s" theme gardens.llsf) dd'Un('s l~(.~)f rban :I.~~ut) l"lHi h~inM:[pt<::led in lii:lrt.J S!.ulon t h.. Rather t1in. Illr'hllll design ~U1(] landscape architecture.II~m seemstu repel. Th e d~miM.. 1»11"1 ~hc lis of "'.]'!c.'t<:l'!n1irmtc. L I1illilke: ther "h..eite._ \\:(15 lI1iCl11:S many m i~~ m work f~)I'tl Ion ~ ri i'I'lo.11Ih.\.la.. The most s igm ificant (JOin ponenr .nti~.'Ig~c. mutahilirv.lt. single !iJ~..cOl} 0 f t he major "isms" i. Tschumi lk:pltl)'lO merelv rhe desig~l tools arlAI 5\Y:'I'':IllS o'f b!. mHI Ikxi·- SiH:.jor "is~m.~irru!~m\: I.) sel'ie~ of ImLlges.s. owever.:n In Ih~s unpredietuhle world: how can \\'1: !'lin: ~1h'lPC W 1~~J.u111set tVd'l)·'~ sl~ml:mb.:n \\<t~ W the lr.1.I~~c.i~r1with several system" al"ran~d in i~}". 0[1(.Anot1hc1i i~ he seeping ! uf! Ill" ~n'''"JI i tl!.ica~('d Il'redic:tions .lUI.:\m ~Iii~ i hl:l>l~ conditions art' certai 11 soda la n rl cult ural phcn orne l'I:Ji)(.I'ks.'~\:.I~U!:.1 ues. 10 To beable handle the j.el') no[~on ·of~.IlIII I he ~c{![lIldh.hif. A. 'Irlle' issue IlCO\\ i~ hOI. BdID~in:g the pm.1 ~ :1S routes. All 'ill':r'lngCnil~n~ In i I). as pruvucatjve as il was '.lira rid ll>miO:"bl.slInod ernarc h~- a~ -uch.(o'rem:e that 1h(:I''I: is nQ n.~sand limc<111' lemems such as rows (If trees as e \\. all forms :In::there for Ihe 100kurng.e~ \\ urds.u13htc:rhlJl ~L~.t.:C '1g:'li n ...1 c\ press . hasar his d." h.:0'(1 lHir~n.i nSI Tu iH:.1I l~t: t~pen fiI1I at]!.g~.I:':.il1g secierv..cn \1'. amusement iii OrL!. 1l1et("\(m)!og~t.·d by gnrd. l. Speeel.]rk program sueh :!:~ki(~sb" vidl.nu_ i.Crl's.bitoc{U~c.1.gposal design resources engendered by rbree ~h(.'outing system of El'u:lish picturesque p~.. m~~lti~imnil:\ and s!ral~l!:\ ~U\C become the I.!1II. for '~h~ ~'\ em~} ~:r~ r:. l·mgl"a.:Q'l1!~ponent be~ng I'epi.cm altered (If eund ilions:'" H en ce I h e rt' i.rc._ in b:ill~:r. park and b~'ari~g simiihl1'il~CS to the I.I det"..g~. Pan-is wilnrssrd SO-I:.h'lJ~gi\. Ol forma <. .tlle~. :Par~s \\ as anmH:(~wb'l) Ollil~1. rm" ~ m(ll~l'rtl t"et!lr('" t"~~~ OIlJl' The !i!~.lIrrr"..:ulm. and \\ ith whM means can rmm be ~i\·'.nilm . ~n ~'\Ir . W.l"ruI.cumplcxit~ !. sraeked icrl.of ~hi!.8 Giving shape to the indeterminate I~~the IJu!..'1<. (.c1il1 ur~:''rlle s..It it brmgs rcgether the disciplines of .si. hm archnccruee created under cund ~lj.. a meandering route e)lh~llldil1g tlwough ~hr..m isnWI tI wor III \ i'':'1. A second layer 'COcrlSUSI!i or nl"~inc<" eennecting lim~ inthe ~\\'I.lc". The pmgrnm.. l: il~ rm rk . are hc>[mm~ngmore and l'il:j. (If the twentieth rCrltllr} there rad ical sh ift :i11 i11~'lS ~ nd \'3. The Iascinari rig thi ngahour LJ.~z. )'Ili~.:'1 is th I.ms in the sense of thtT. ~~ld'n as the science museum and the auditorium. hilj!:h-spccdcm'lgrs ~lnd high-'~rt:rd dn~srminll~nnl1 i!'!I~'rm"~n~"n . T'he firsr rri?c \V-~.\Imm~he limm: use of a buil uhn~ seem IU belosing their '. amusic conservatory..g..t'<l~.u p Material protegido por derechos de autor .cd .-.11 degenerating :~Ih so many of his comemporaries inro 11 Ms!o'ricizin.~hwu.el's.uctl h~ rhls qU':S:1 recalls the urge fo'r innova- "S~u1frace~'" This layer . the program covered all inner cit)" act ~ viries t heh ousin g O. Swiss-born arclsirecr Bernard Tscbumi." u ufh.:ho. Tsehumi invested ~'lis '''TFk de$.ndeICn'illil'liiC\l 111.(: ~\S well as the ..l'hi!> is._~r if]] ~ gery ill ustrated hy perspeet ive o design sketches do :sug:(. of the m .~S .2.i.'ComtiTIudall: the 'l'ounl~:es~ m~mu eumpo-' of ~fiJ. BiiJ.m:. n u "rH)o.ulf uf g this WITIUl'J. Ui.~ign tasks ~\n. such iJh~n'[)mcnu!1! is ~li".-(I 11: a mulr iform sut~ile~}. Ilea!>tUnt: nisi\'e i uf '~~li~rrrll!~ Mllu~iuns fur n:!. JJIlIMC'mllS ftlcillities lIn sports llndg.iil' .p]I~~yi~1 ~]elds and . AliI Mlk.I.:.rI. Villette is th .m lind eomfll!pl. His park design c~n be trgr~I'(]{)cl:II. I::tl.::d under "Ill ..:il logic".l.t. hlyer is.um.1(i. all archircetural means 10 d.ns <l~d p(~rM.. called fm-ct whole sequence .!mU!J~~tneondition.!!:~t. n:.lll b} till.J'l~.1I'I::hi.!.ut~un uf 'biW~'..

~he pro.1iLilW Itho.f.gsto mi~d dl~ me dlifllere:ttI sysoc-ms omd ~<1!itl'-b.clldy Tschmnl.el<!iy~~wQu.ORD'EiR . Su:pel'~trJPQ!Oing the ~h:rl.1 the desip instrumems needled 10 of Qrga[1[lZC the park f.c~jscl:ng:shulti.1lg:1ishl:alldscapegarocnP 19IGwcver.cdjat~J..lrd~l"I.COilo"pi t1is &.oo:mpl.o:n ~s the: composiitltlJ:lal t(l!:ih!ltiqt!es .ima!l'Y poi!At 11)1" dcpariU:urB lin projM. here Ute grid of fo:.It".g:1:u- he diiSOO:DllIle>clted ~oQ~I)' (ll'ruC above ~he other.ybr~ti..eomrainingme: fuIli(!:S.. With tlui. ~OW~ e:~r. ~o avoid! lilu~oompleNity (]If pietJLiK>&ql!lii oomposid..oni:ll~o layers. I ~J.cemc]'. Ekmu!! T!id!~:mi..id. himself about tlue SIlCC~S of [his oper~tilQn~md endowed one of tlue~hroe layers. ..wi'l.gig" !r~~i. he ciJJs forlie8" The !'d(i~!1(le I~O El'lI.(Ie ~:i\'iI].(lttiataOfl sY$.g~iISh landscape gardlemJiswouJ.o:rmatiJO:n . VarioU's explan:rtn:ry ~&X~5p'ro"jde 61!ll':llher .d nowseem to be . had m]sg~vim. that .iS a. :!1)8J-!'~3 B~I1!I<l1J'd 5l:'ln'~.epmlblJl!nt raised by pti.em for thOSI'. From ~~at mllimen~~~. b!!t lost ~QllJltro·.r. eaeh h:liS ::li s]'s$em of in i~s:own.cr~n 1~Q'..ial p1wperty.f!.yer.tu~1 'I")for. R(JI'Utiilllg 8ys~em in ~ht:5 "limes" ~:lI)'cr. The ·do:mit:liifi~ w~Jle Tscbumi i!oco!"ds ~o dle ~ mEtric system imm.. [>~r~~.!ence (If small brIgh[ red! bl. By pbcil1lg the femes at 1)~e ilnevsectiens 'of <11.t i~/ol. 63 rial system ef follies andmws of trees '011:10' the .fam W0l5 . d"i:IJ T Vill.tNO 'COMPOSlnON In.Medici where thegrid HllJb the g~l]1den00 the house. grid this la. th.i. lalll"ge Spa(lES ~Iil du: "su r:£~CC8"layer andisol tilted! o\)jeCi~$ the "poin ts" la.ti!C.ld co!lljlllre dlC whole.l1i a s~[.u£mng [be p~d:.I~dy . Qi!oSi~n o!.Oin seem.:v.n:.gs.lliesis designed to relate the pilll"kro ~ile WWmII bCY()iIi~.epark's compOSrt1.g.ctmresqme composlrional tedtniqllfes.cn . T~chmmin.dn:g eh(l romiltg SYi'~em and vislIally picto- pavllions.Ed (jl1lllte simp:~e. ~l4~~.of idle E.lliM~ii:gs\¥hie:b.As in the Vil]i!. 1'0 .ctof disOOlmecti.ete.rn"rii"lJ:MI"'t<.~ !t~C<:l!!<ti\Yl.l)~only ~Mesrel1l'ped.rl>~f'..j1er took Oil a structurally determinative function while ser¥~l1g <18ori.·1!il1lr'{~45IgR~i'!!~e autor or Q@n~~p.s and ac~ild day center Tschwni e]"oornted as(lql.eomp1icaood enl)u.e:vid!einlcethat Tschami's pr.~m I Renaissance g.

iJ~ J(:r.MJlb/.H of Dm:dl puMe]'!>.::.v('!hm!ll rne entire cGmplc:.."_'i! r-e>qll.-i~ m ~!in ]m d.I~I S.~ction5 MarellJt pro UigldCJ par ~i!!1"0ch0S Ul ~'''1 j<.g ~n.t:I::.. \lU!. ·a~ i 11 '.i'!":1: Ihi: ~(.)on'(:'r ~cm::J1"n lJi1e cornpesih~lilSOnlHs felt in a lm:q1- p~}rkdesign....1.'lj.SA'Iii) .rtlfY is cmwgm ru ir'l!\'C1~~ tllmrnln.1 gt'C.I).~dJ. .H i.).-h.t~1:i! .mo..c..\..'i~h Ih~: 'li!.:t\.\rtlLmd.~:atlilt<1ppl.itt.:lC \.~·hi:'.1 .:m I'~JI' tbe IJ~pl.<i1 into UP.h"'·l~l['.Ur.<ij-t'(l:!m i N nrj h (I ~Yl i IJi'lH).il.'it !.~hjjg.."r11 dl\'>li~1'I <ItniHide ean be :'\Il] iV:1D fld'"A'L.. ~.t:.~JI dil:~ .nnl. Ii..'\ (.'0 _..~ h:J:.~n:hill:cmf~1 t:.~o~np.':TlJ Ir .nl~da.:lrt'J._:nl~ .. ~uC1lo 'lS.t~ot(.!mUI ~lif.liMA'S pfOpq~jll di\ idl. ..inl_t:r:pnd!-'(i Ihl' wirnin.: three srrips rUllflill§ h:ngi.igtl frf§t:dnl'li] \1" t~ ~n Il c.·1 ~. so Keel villa (J".ill>l Koulll'~a~r~lrijbi:r'L~'~ ~'~duu'~ d l'](!milmr~ fmm reeem ~n:.. ff~~l1gh this l>f:ats~tuk (('scItth~~I..rr CQI".". alsa in P.'~.]d the laYUl.g !I'r-C.:fl (\Ijf Ill' lim t:1i'.r un rhe ur.j. .c bnnwlcdge.iril1g 1kX'i"biii~y (illring.Vi' il\.1:1.·~-~y.:r IJf fJrilil.'li (.H'~~.xigJ1 ~t:."~lnit." Ihl.n :\lilJelil" Cluh) fin th\'"' uD.rm inare .>!~I~l..Jr.hiJ.Li ~ frml:l' Slijl and .t'1t:C-' m:t:lil!.C'11 r . T m'l:.. "plan libre.gcrnewltiWl 7. ~l~les ro hep rt1. T~H' eemral :-:UilIe ls fiUn~1t:r ~Ihttd. then.Hll~ "<!\.!Ii!lil.tn in 'OHlIl[HJ.liii.l: hl .i!) Ihr.>.h.c.hhpc hi !he -j·n:dt:'1I. 1:E:l l'j.\~ the ~~heme WlIl~ t.i '...iSInr'~·.I1~tt'lGillh\1 RCSoC1Ht4.JmeJ1L'" lie licFst f~Ortl.'1.'-w:ll.<enrire <.~ L).ctl il~. is Inc: klL'1i1 rndl:ri!:1i uf g.i?\ a.!.:red gl~7jng ~'~i'niIli. i':u1iJin'i..'l'i(. i1'1..'\'1. ["hI: Ioll':ll"ling.¢plIlr.l·(Jl'iSpl~' m"d:!.i.hil~CII.!.:d pi~nninj1: '~-=h.S \. d:lWi\.H dCi>-..• relate I() the \dchJiit~gof design instruments uJ i.n'. L\ ba." b...t~.r'''''i~tl' ~.' !.." the free lacade with ·'ft:niftn: ~~l l"n~ij.K'I~U~.Oxcr""d h 5 .!JrtlpatJolc p'J~tml)dt.-E~MJ. ZC~l:~!ll~..ca:.r t~r!te Ill!ikl i~l~~" tn IIuenciC\1 h) rhe n()(rr-:~)·. in1.:um:n.ln 'nllis means inlirrrm:i1lh!:cmi!1e d~!\J[!:11. ~ky~~tllper> 'th>: I>!j\\flli)'''. .ubmt~i~Ul It! Ime t<l Villt'~tcl:onir(lt~.~:t.(.H~jn~ The j. of I\:~~i an la..di!.y Koolkm" bmpttd m givCc NIl(!p~ lu (.ITILIIIi!C[I! :...1 .~htlIlli'!i design .~lff<':C. rhe 'd.tn::hit~i. ~.em(.JIhi .tu~li.ris.t!'\1 ~~n..\O~ie~.S'm-N ~~I"I':'ln.l. l'ilI h i:s nM..~~ ~!.~. l'm'l aumr .J<is£.'01mdiliioll fi:lt .. <ll!:~r..(Hldl1g. anOUI h.I[!~.3! are a i):l divi~tlm (n9lflhb AT]~.\? b..eriptioll on ehe j.lcu: pl.nl'" ~ic~hnl.. grWIG I i..h~r.~ing '.mC' N._. n.l1 strips. J- (IAlce's . n.~ L(m~illn 1I1111t\n~r Hr ~I'nghl~ Rc~ujin~ this pn~~')l'lbJ~ eunjures 'LIIP visiunls ui' ~n .d h.::.f~·h.l im::rin g 1'l'i1!in.\ Yllr]. al"m1O!:lrhc shl..iKt'C-'I .li':lm without mjl.U])f.e·m r'fl:sJdet:tti. ln pr!ncipk. (I().:~ tho.n:lw d~nial of gr'I.\ \ em. Sell I'llg nut "he com pnSifi{J:n'I\I.-:"d}' J~C\ d[J~II.do:m :lmC)Ii~ tilt... Thk~\". 0..lnKor:llh:l:IS'.llllli][J. 3tric. P"ird~ .t:!r.htmtlu~ed _.ribbons of bmd mol.dl}II!).t~m:a pru!_!.If h~lts Of 7!OIl~is !It'thimg JM~W" ~l!lIfac. h~!W(.ll".cr)nil!'l!:l p~im:ipl~"~~il I~ ~ ~!La .rn.It.~be ilC'fihed out.).1 A~ T1>o."~HS 6+ fOi:lild itl RC...nCl>.'.j:l\'t~!.i"i:.~ iflJ orb<l]1 plan s and designs: to..l""\'\11 .'c.iil'l~(i It) n~ em.

1\ ".NO G()M:[>O..!!.! a :sb:ii.c~ -I L . or wh"~theli th.idre. We ~MU tetUl'fi to' t1. apar:t.e. .lsofpl:.'an. sp~n:.:ed ~oge~ll!<l' ~a .!.po. mod!e.t1nd.'Ii!¢Slio.n~..~~ as" 8.fiJm m£i:rnta.1(.5"U'cr:meJi"ts f"Q!r re~l!lA:ilng sp:.1lm.l:nelS..tl!~. Iii:c oounb:damt\ftgin.s.e"s th~ 'q..kbread!hwisll aeress I'l'lC Slt.· oonr~ bes.l~~~yc3I1ig¢! !:GmJ~~dQ~ !jueh as zomin:g~! 1t!(l\1l. Every znlle': has iss flwmr i~llin:remltis.J1J.t\l~ ~!ld ..(l:)' ate USB-retaiL""!' woh ..llJr:ient1"lld:JB ·imra~ .QmpOSmp'n~.ol1gm.s ~ str~.3irliotFH:r oo:uiJtain.ll of wietbe[" "these I.fi:ew.iz:ir:ig plJi~n@ple •.ing a chlllidr·cn'!iz"O(l.O..p oont3illJ~:n.ips . ~pUi.:ll :1l1m .wo1JJldbe eX.ese :stII:F 65 t..f·¢Qrn . f!lll!.!'J! Using li"lJst:rumen~scli.Il'lQ:N' Jeers til the foll!iJw~ng{h:iptel'.(.!tl)ER ".

. ....1 daIl'A..I d t l 1 1 n a I' I' ._"- ....i......_ •'-'-I 1"'"--"!I. ·iii ..._. I ..J....t"R1 ..... ----'~...~. ~... J ----·----t .Wrial protegido por derechos de autor !'lam "If HI.~ Mi:r.. ": . .. ----~- --- 1-----+. 'ihOJ""IIlg !la.

..utharus.I '.. rulll~i. !II l :r . JW til fI Rl!ml(. _...Jr..1983 .. n ''''! .D .. '" '~F :.. . .1" !~"{.Ji I'! • _-A:-J .~- . ~. . \ :. . In '~6 1:~r~ 'I.i'~ r:t I...~~~..... : ..timi dwilf!l fiJr Pl!f~ 0.. ~" _R _H t ." Ii1 ~- h fa In 1m 1m 1m' 1m 1m n n ..! .Item~> T':il!liS.. .. 1 Ii Iml -.~ . I!'"".. . . . _... ' ' I.' .

Mmem]f pr0l8QidCJ par oerechos {JL: autnr .

they could c:Lllil)" the.~(.. !If .':grd y i11 absl ract terms.]mitH:~ the n.JJ 'huilding ..c \1'11 ichon I he ~ml.neil gS~.tl...:lJct llil.:'ul<llf m~:ni~g 1.lVc O1IC[ dllc centuries commanded i~1~~.' ti1c1l'l.1 ion of ord inary H:f~.N. Burne.cl:l\'i!lcs: w:alchin:g Ide\'isim~.1!w m. ".'din!!('chapter l.er aClsi'Hi\'C los! rheir origh1iJlh1e:irlil'lg.y _ Thc"~l. John Summerson has described the relatjun between hurnanacrivity and buil~~i1ilg.ct~IIFC {:md impossible without archireeruec].:Ji ned 3.h. is arch iICCIU~"II.. through its irrevucable lIu:3.ll.u:ti\i"i~icl>.\. 111.m11ul.u~d wi~ffiiJI:~Jie!. i!n ..n:Jnm enr ami •he act ual SP':l!Ce.rlk.~il.: r".1n.bleas w be t~ke."~ Np'Cti.U1..~lg!'l Pr(II. to tum on a gas hearer (If electric cookerthese day. hy virtue Elf irs <!o."w .'"jllg the architectural themes tho'll cmt:~:'~1lt.conventions and Je'ffiill1ds gcnerateel by the '!IL~t.!'!H.'rtiJlini]1g 1]1. I I discussed how.[)F..hc~nIC3 have evolved in the his(C.~ mII1]'s Il:.'i~ 1"1(]t hi ~rlg:fu d u. The tI r...agc.!{SIS 3.P:Pl:G:p~'iilIC 0 In . '.:!~JI ~imil<!t~.g.oh)gic~11sumue 10 an angel's.SI('N i\:-'~D' iI:>fAI.mIntroduction The prc'c{. Splice Material protegido por derechos de autor ..our capacity [or drarnarizing ourselves.tic)r"!!i 'h.-' S tluenees on the develnpmcntof archhccturc.. can exp!!()~.nig-li"It ppc-~r·.cd.This isa process dl<!! is slilll). ' :\11 i:his ii lJ. the practice tmla~: is IUslmHy to llrilW [UI?1Uprtljj:ram or lis! 'of user n'~l~uir.ondiriol.\. in jcw:ish rradit~IOIl boillil..gl1.ihe:reas in~~I:lier limes prml'!!ldlllg fire W.....li:iic asit aarrarive elemern bridges the ~ap between hunran perceptions arnl .'1"!n.g milk and cooking meal s!.~rin~ material...nl1:. ~.1l meaning..\\··lhdi~11 music Ih.n:m.ll.cllln~jng steps or walking OIl II l\:rJ0J~~I:-is ~u1'll1~!hing wif~.:I:rlimuhip bel ween .:jill de\ldop'meIilt~ such as divi s iOlu on~oor. .td) wa~ url!!:~~l"d.mdQM eases of activieies bmug'ht al:HlIlF by tcdullOlOIt'k-a1 discoveries or socialehauge. The i:U~~m~ secrion lOOKS aI a number of case il1~ ~llll.md h1!lf!lf nile twentieth oen tv! ry is f~11Iof examples of such new a. As dis- cussed in Chapter r.:il~ pn)ll-imu:.lr.:.chmcnt to fW.~ his \k~cd~liunhulds jOst as 10 true I.m.u various \\'. dCS-'l'dhing matter <lml space b.i~_\.'l~ and inion ('re'\!i!~dmobility.:J~..u fllr .tt.-\rdljl'I. Tln.)l b[llJ. Terms like: s~wu:r r windlow caneasily be exchanged for jerrace.ued beforehand !l!!I"!d various demands .iiiilJe flic~ of 1:~C wds~.it ~iiiTh in ..'~IYf".>ctiuri ncoma f~. h(J!I\:1:\"I.P"<'1~~u..jJr:). mO'\'cll1~C'l1Jts like cll1Jte!"in~thl'1lUg!. This 70 'lfhe de.l1Jullg.d 1.ilh dH. fo:r l1ei~b ten irig 1 he 31.x~~lmc~.!l]fnld~l"!g ~od.l!..ry of design. 11cn. ritua! s~gn iticance.l~~r or u.]liz i11111: :1" 11IOYCl.m:s.cssgen!erally bcg"1J"'I!>with the ellen •• nr <'"f~mmi!isi[)nilng body Cllm'cyingw the dcsi.gl. since t hie ei ~h teent h t::~~~ u:r~' l:i~'~f3 n arrnri ve themes and dn: I rv. these .1l rt lun.. custom has lo~t I~a~ panil.lya question of hytj:icm:...l)ilFC:r.<"L.JICK.l':c~to ihc~r use . Thispractice is not . looking out or:1 \r~lldo\\'-m. thilD " rm.y.S~llg..J.:U1al~.::r.:mt:'1'w.. In U)Uf gwm! 1.:tiun~.ydiffcre ~u·i:i.'.~"1C~ommod.\\'nlling iUt ~\ cotiJilPIi.~H~c" mcanti.h a dom'.p~.lcd as liD gt'ru:rally ~1)p:I'ica.seale !If.... ~inc th .!il.in d us! ria lliz. .t.~ fi:~Huw~. III rhe ("IJIltCliI:of Ihis [mul we shall fut:m.r tho: ~PJl. lt requires liUk~:Jfon.ltS. o arcade or s.torJ :..11:111 srricts uts mnvem en! and nn I he HlI1I:rilik1'll.:ljumc'.1cptiol1i {~r IY. g.IS 'U. being part of the lristory andidenriry of aenmmuniry.~ for g:r~ntcd. rious ~f important oceupetiun. n!~.jm refers III archircctural examplesat .'"Cin ~.u!"!N.lSn ]'l~)Q . citie.." ilt~ S~mmer~.1 llUlllllliJg ur ill ci t y are evenruallytranslared inw ~m . iii ~iWc mnr!."cltsi1fl.C have b~.1saunaare iusr three r.lEOFn.. Yet it is still done to this day.cl~ ted IIse tia Inlliuenced b) tedmoln~i:"i and sm. . chapt e r e .:hil.~<ld\'~nt of lfcf~igerMion 'I'ml llir .IS well as t~le \\'llih 1\'<1)' becnme contaminated in the hot desert elimate.. bim~(iQ!! of requirements use of [iw b t~~tl c:nd.OI.n:1 j~.1.)l"c underg:lIf1e II s:huft i.. and htui~lding-sb.c!· (heir ideas on how J scheme ism f~ncrimli. .:]>.n.l)'S of nrcl. Fcrinstanee. on how :mr~ltl.hl1J~-designs 11]\~ ba:.[he !nkf.!f)' lhis.

Vi'c\'Cit'"Meas 3!bout rUl1!ctlO1U!al orgi1!!l!!~1!ldo!1J those pos!u]atoo by an. 9J1:1'i"iti.is invariably I)f.nd .IIld the M.~]:ig. CUliltri'l:ry to tn.dly '~ihillmgil"l. the (ItiliJ.a'tagrnphs 'we ""il. sueledes in Western E:U..maJliiJ Tffitl.~ uii:ijJJ.ni.d pllfccIl.c!lpi~ i!'!! thl)coonl~lit ~)fsoc:ie~y ~s IlI.""1 the fClundins.eeds of ~be ~!) bigihly de·.i.tiio:ns.ril\rl1m tor OIt an Iih.fll: wher. SI:r1Cl:rulcs (ur sc. consi.mll.nddefen!'i~ worb" dte drnilling ao. and w'[ch lJoUQ~it~ citi'-ocns I)y giL!l.u...bt r If!diic!lltor. poH~klll body 1900.~ . toor:igMI~I. fro:m befo:re irl(l.es(l lcv¢b.hl~e". bl):!w"~!1Jdl~slgnLflg. This illso Ilold)~true for !:h~Ripman d'!lilj~i!tlon. b Lini[JJg' these streets were shop. l.I!l1ject W change . SpaCt: design is net 3.e.-(l'.fitecfpr~Ung a_mc.ed inm t.ng ·of dcsilgn. north-suueh and tlbe "decumanus" 'C"8t-W~St- were Thl.':>fl:ll1ded siill¢1.tkal II!.the 1]1':g.gi.ach:ic\"~ r ing that aim.lti(l!lIw.20 Aspects of use prior to H}OO In.!Lreme_ms: ill~ouse.tcs thai ideasahout how i)e&t t~ confiJgure spaees in.lron(:~ ~I.aquOdu.)ng...!nd lmcremp!es.j. bcl"t-l:l'cthee '~'Cun()t~onalis':" "rehi:i:ei:r.h [Jlr"u.sw' pap"'!.uminig diclate<illlililie ali... Over ~~lJ]..l!rnr'!.nd.1n!hel i!'!!~~m!l1 sOlbdh.1J. tbe rapi. Such i(lpi:.i810.(lrnergcncc of \Vcsl(:rn ~lila'5S8(J(~~tyand In wh~(. [ill period largely preceding' the Industriaill Re- vgl!li~[o!t..lRoman Empire w~s rule. Illi tlite . rciiOltiornS:hipl. about: now a city sbol!lld! be l(lid nut (ooe M.cllil<~mil!. the cmitJic wo:ul.e d\csc malt11streets iWlJrClfScclx:rd. Su.1j forum .tl:irn.cF. The ~l1ird part uses designs to ex~mine how arcibitel:ts.oll'ij: the two ~i1J~i!i: streets..tl iu(tll ..tl 1:900 and ~94$. ole in .lsocia.s reached from arcades andl ool. f~r.lt in turn an e. of necwd~ic~pla~cda dlc:d:sh~e.i.gnmlml: of 1:ii1.ranc3:n just a case ofuao:filaring.{ll!ts. ~Ol]i~eW p:rooes.{l entil"(l dt)' gridl.-h "fiJncti~)na-· lism" WiI'. i)y! w~vc ~hl) otl~C(lme: (If a ITlUil:i'l.mb.itliim th.g Up' RlJmilll (Jol. !h{) Pax Romana.Iei!!!rngly ~.ds.oni:a!.er cllm.1ctaIil.rQpc. tn'IVC: n.kill!S ~..'. sf)oiall"eqI. P..o\.tdolX"d. Their ci:rc. f ~ therectilinear ~~YOUi: ofstrcet:s.tpe {)flh¢s~ dtii)SW:il...ni.ryof siP~ce dlcs.II~' l\i."~ Ili~atio~ of society and the ruTe @li'the individual witl1l~in. g~'lcthe ~~)sitioillJ of iJne city center.:!) for the sb<!p".e itbccaw~(: !il1[lr jus·t the 'Product wJ£lnc d!t}i"stattc's desires I~)r 'c.!S fi:'!(ld at a! (Xlf(trn(lI1ThYinwhjeh the priest! dm::cdl:md by walking the line the city lI'1IU1M:l!!. At this jfijQI'S(lCtlon stood tl1. This modest hmrne~'dUQ1llgih [lnil:Cis dillid.aJ'llp~(\ demonSi't.:e .ied out: in lil'fg~ ar!)'lIs oI{E.ple (lfigllniz'.:194i~:. it ifi'j()J~ tll.ng . th.<l)oldllGt be A taken.of the :SP"i.\ra:nI:f.gll in EY. ']'he same spaaial relarionshipswere ~l.IIOO using elialIq)l'e~l:m:m h:iswry ~o .1'OPIl and! Noatl:llli merica .iil'.(mna&cs.ch . ':1'1'1'0 main !itreers--thc "eudo'" ri.s ol1ommitl:ed I'l:u:ILr da.~:h.der the siPMia1 imlilerwentiO'HSC'ITr.i':.Mslgn~:r's inl!I)1]):r~". the l:I.. :a. ho. Part two d~ats with p~ri(ld i)!)~Wel).i.'apc aniltllIelW.spedally I'he 1a. the sim.first discusses pjf(ljects Hi!).g n.sf.~ in whieh these.Ct8 >l.()d~\r!1:ryOlWt:.yviJp<.)ling orLl~of aninfeastruenrre of roa<i!l.tiofi sll.lB:. .ementsi1:!Slled frOIll eonsiderericns as muc.of order ~mb:r!1t.itjOFl (I:f t~(.. pfcfC!I3.e· Greek notions. t~~Ihllmv..!'lilio[!s !)!f!1l!bled iJJom{)!iO I.II".'jp"IilI~:iOin" . ~cul.Thae bluGprim was: as M alerial protegido por derechos de autor .lanmingimi)if-' \~n.Ln.tGrpreting usc demands in t:_he design Tw~ plaollo an :a. ~th3N'1l 'Pirl~)\'i:d. A niluocc'C:llt:lil("eliIUI!I]'G::X. ::I house 111!t1uen.of d(!Stgnin~g from G-ar~y Well.\~ r~qUiiteJTIl.ing qf (aImb.tionship.llind anu. the Rurn:l.ing' UFbarnl!culmre..tbemTII eing: ana:nged al. a time span w'hieh fI~w !he .fo~lil(1w:ingJ.if pr~'I'aiic houses .ed~tii:r. The ~h.cyrru~ql!!. thel'!:IwC:Ui. ~V(."eNof safety OJ!nd PC!!C<l. urb"u p~aruter:s and btnds'.ced tihalcompriscd.ilelil. ill like dlic!9iOlQ5 Wl)tcn''! bM!\ '~)\'~r.mdstream.e!'civic buildinl:}s o.\:tiIdl.c'i\li!yQj.e~OOC'1.b[y Inthe middl~ oJ th!l dIY.d 21S irwas knewu then.~I' order aC]J:ml5 a '~Iastregion and ~o evolve a no!lIri.ght..examine the :rcla.. It had w :imioh'e a~I~lle\.~p'rcssi.ls ~Iil Chapter 2).jo:r :arcbitieCI1.js:i(!ln (.oan n~d.~n Qfthe easmic order of 111~g:{}i1s. This n-ipatti. The (fui.e city walls..(ld.J pradicc.~11fOO pilirtS.. [beci~iGs W(l(f(l 'laid out in a checkerboard pattern . 'fIne under RO'.'l. rdigioycs .

An.."ius deserlbes i~ tl:l.es.e ". siliJJilftedrom Overseas trade t!() filttning un f tthe mainland of tlile Veneto in n.l'i! i!'!lti:alty COMmon PJ'o!peift:l"fl'om wl'liicn indivlduab 0011](1 parti.:r f~WIt of tllG altflJ'ud f{.Ufhutl lay Ii ~:imiti] walled g'1rdien I'ellched hy ~ pil!~silgc.ch nobody has tile right. on..pire and UlliJ.DiESIGN AND US!! Isimple as it was d!ifferenlt~a.udng an entrance hall. 'eW'l!!'ramruc(:cQ\l.t ean.Ce" "'As YOI.t~ Vi. [n~':ita:t:ion. the f'{~u:s ill ()!I'l qui~~ anotlliteT aspect." '!hl) h.>Ofed. and all Ol:b~rs used for tb.C.'OUl!!CI as ir cx~stc>d .r .daUI imlltended. :also.1iJ!Slnlion urI he grearinteresethe &omans IDo-l: in .fu. wlth~espeel ~o ~h.wiIiIthe streets.ofpre'"enri~g unhwkhy and {loW wind:s~rom.a:t:usof t~lefamjl.i.f(lIM.<l!lllou~cs. Tbe peristyle begasn life as a sp~ce c". If t:l:ie:alriUlIll mn'l'eyeil II) the out'.e whrud t~:~t: Vitml'iur!> wriit~!!abi:Ji.i~S c:. ancll tJhe dmmdf:r Ub. this element:Jr~! principle of a 'cenl:rlll opcnsp3l'lC suu'ound'ed! b~! !'OOms: ".rrllyou.oCS O~h(:.'fi.e:lfec!ting gradl. pl.sthatlihe lransjrion from orgOl!niz[ng the <~doml:!s."c'e.lOe!1 tb¢!M'!!1!l'hasis !)f room". Perhaps we should! first look bri."~twarf()W pa'!~g()\\r!ly betw~n : t'be s'hop!f .ds. Or Utl.tlld.lIg LaSt of tle: '!11~:~[d"ipr.lwalk :a[ollligthem [I:he main ro:l:d:s] you find! a seceesslon ofp:rivate.For thj)ill S~CeW..of (bis lengithy descri.t of st!r.oo publieaud privaltc. Thecemmon il!retilwsewhi.'lOuJd be enpans of i:heE:m.i~'ed.em5eh:'{:s.:amplc:. u Th~ tra:d:iliollal.l:l!'v.~mt fur thc: h.~ed aJl()und a lil~gel".ptloIl?Welll. Mm"ement rhreugh thehousewas ~rganlz.un I'll.lall. hllmaWli in(1.ere th.sid.L.l! hefore I:be ~rivMe narme of rn: the hause.wl!.a~ Ro~n dries in Asia Minor.c.i. ilion between dty and indivIdual dwelli"g"oot""~. t:herea bi!t:b .e m lJearin.il' .()dia. ~b(: "'!'!!tn!urn.u:U.ltlzen. f1uhl'ooms.e waS:li11 ~n(ur:mal d!omes:t!c s~paL'e.~dong ::11 1. at sl'toh disl:Ln«'S that ~htly are: bandy fo!'each quar!1w: and i~ eadl!ca.G!l!!~ ~o St'rlll.tl:al tnu~sitiuns b!).us de~otes an ex~em:sivepassage IU' rhe w~ys .!1l at :i:nterv.ssibleto the pubill~c~ Tbis seeond large gJilt1iJerililg' space for the f~milr can.1iVll.D. f~r instance.'~ TMs gT3diu.! bcdfQI:).~e heuses 'which are m.I s "I. such :as [he . and whalt is d!l.1:l'was formali:1Jedi by i!i!t~od.. .us:. :and tibose wihi'ih are to: be shared illl common wifh olllsid.origirnd Ro:man ll:ity 1iJ.11 ~p.1'Ii1dl !IDC~lall sl.e.:Jf'.lSp~(:~tS !!T(ln!!gl~t'(\d~s:l f~Sflll~.erwurse.se are fou. the priv""te ~ej1.l"s a d.. blowing do.ers. urban.lli. h.rat:e.raw." mC:Luing to dcpru~'c ot£. of this idea . for the like pu:r:posc:_ 'el T~!u.t y" of this lowlY~llIlg ooggyat<:a: ~ad just !been (. handful of small n nloms cJuS<te.I!ru.tin verb "P.o1illgrumd.!)jJ_s~!le!ll'he pI~!iteiplt. "We ml1.!!"Jl tihegreatest source 00fincome of the Venetian plluiclans.unsitiOil1S between ..Lic !!~d p!'i"ate spaJ:.. ~ifI.' These were rua~" similarly .€~om l:btl four~.i·.rldltffil.l~o:lTI! ff small llDllS fox thCHOW!1! needs.!lillN r~ms ~rv~ .tytcs.III tram. I tbe: origln (I!l !b~dilftr·enee bet ween (li!!b.e liike tpl!lliposes.<:.c and pli'jl1atew:l.andlla!.e:llJtl. " C. At dl.ali~. and most: p.:hich society at la:rgc w~~.• .. :iluhiffi !:hl'QIJl:gbl:b~ "f:a!l(l~~. PC!FlS.estalblis:hment... Tllu::.e :rul~:ng principle for the firepJa.a:nius who in about 300 A.efly :lit h. ceru!. oon[e."by Zeus" is trllll:y a €i. even 'wi:l!fmllt aili imwlt'atl(Dc:n: ~:a is. oOpen-rf.lm was dire s(lac.l:0ry and dl. den rooms til} wMcb l'he family 'could wiiiilld. Vi. In tbe next e:. e!1JtliuU:e: is inthe eolonnade. consistoo {~rn more ·t~arl a.derstoOO by each and e\'llry ciWlt:l1.l!'~ -the kitchen..iIJd th.esdc altar.~ temple.i!lt .eeu. on:~ar~s Ihroughou:t Central Ita~y.open g. Transitions between pl!JbUc and private 101cedinaUI 13 The ." it seems ~o me that dte' pJeasante:st.e :p!!'i:v:neroom" are those~nl:0 w. the per:isIJI.. space.. 'Ro:m~.ew mli:ng' d:l1sS of ool.o·I1!~of tll~ w~U-to-do Roman 'c.li1l!al :rl!:'I. alildJ t!h.e neJl. terlf.onquCct. the second oen!:ury 1]:. What does 'tJlila.nd.tw!~~ i!'!dividY. and l. houses w]'th plJ!blic bl!!lldings distrllH!'ted :Ltnong Ithe.lry B. the "vestibule.>d by Venice and rcqu:iredi oothpadfying and duining.illatlonJsiMp between p'lIbl.~b'-Qj]!.h takes us almost [300 yeaJiiS cI(loS~ W Oi. thesrn!'.one peo'pille havea 'perfec1t :ri~t to enter.£:S!. dmmg rooms.it. whic.i po!!i!ion oJ[ 1i~c.illS an element r!hat brought out mare tlrua..!i''eJ.:~~etll~led~Jt rhe r'C~F widl one Ow more "peri!!1tyl.c:h il!!it~'gf the or The Repr~sen.li. to enter w~Jt1'tom :lin.c w00.~i~e 'I~e use of eolonnades._Qwbich sh(!lllldilbe c'l)nstructoo tJ1m5eapartments in p.'> lit de::riv(ls from I:l1..etradition .(J.mlJ:.atiioPil. seems aliso te have been lih.Iifigs: and tlb:el street S.om.Fo!:" the RJUliUUt8.JJcily house was an almost literal trnJilslartio:n. such as bedrooms. ci":i.at.!:IlI.rofil'able side of city life is society and.y.ri"a.!!:pt'l'vcd.Qifd~e\!st[t:il1 Mm.ce and diiuin:g table.lJ!thc. Tb..eLa.ere: . is a guod! ilI.lJr0wn t'i.n." In the: a!fiYm~'. From.'ie: the. however .ms" I~¥ing 11.e end of tihic·liCtccndll.O'n:izing eitizees needeoil {iUtpO~t~ fO pV(I('laim ahr«).e new arller ss well as Material proteqldo por derechos de autor .nd utility ~:!'mplc.ousell0lde.~ {J.emrhasizesin his !'~port ~ne gl'ad.1omslindfilw·uge SiPllce.rs l:b. ThC:I!'l!~!:or t:~!~j'itJ(j !ihl!. IklllLfld tihe. dJescl"ilbedisever.l\d.\fi.ty w~.

\1113 .."<.nll>.ll"ri~ "I .11\ r.'~m[..l".m~~ ~ '"'.:'.I l~'i.1~""I'" and r:"""Ji<ln r.11 Mal'r al r ro egld POl' fHe ho I au! r .... rl1r<l'lll.lh".-rm ~. j.ll....ociln".h !. r.l.. hl.~1 .1~_.'~j. ..lla I!'~m"..

i.!>.:is s(wlW~lkrJonM~i~el'slong.(.il.es~tool'n!!iind IQC!alpUD:ubuioFl '"a" lrere. ". y~t wer~ I. publuc:afIJdprk..rac[er !P"!.~.Emo (! ..~d <]ot.s!lY..Il'1dH'i1J!¥hld~ !IS wccH ..¥:>!!..I~li~t.rp:l'h. and Whe.l'. de$igne4.r.lsg. by Andire" I"all~djo.flect.e'willl1 r:he cit)' Gf Vel'llc'c. 1\11. Th~ es.Q!'!!L pf l~i:l(C r~idehtiiil l)lod al.rg_lI.. .! il:i dirn-ecn OJmlF:.ijlj-I s:'65). uCU1'IT" SiI'alb:l:es f~bhc bitf~. lh~e '\1>'.rrCW:1l0clil:rf> than [)J! the di81imu.emp:hasit en ruw. Hem are the kitchen...the ciry. sho'w dm'l: acti\l.~lilts the:~el~tti..tn r9P. !.t:.r"" 1%!I~.m)'. twO' oftl'le:m wil~gs h~ul'lill.untm1'~fe W3~ ~n~T'0nled with. [he oo.sl: l'b" _ ""l1il d.. " • '.s~ .ieIlJril] pa\'ill~om:~".t~ 7j.unHh:. hifO'd:d 'MId C::>:ln.on of laJ. in:rhe l'f'lN~~if}n na:"l'e ~~!~ II repi".mcl.g:cd received fwm tb.1.()'i. ffitef~d ~[l.ofth[li'eepa]'tS.the !.roif:e \l"[t!l ma.J nr ~{)ltJo por dm0Ch I S JO autor _ ~pac".roos tbe dill:POSlti0i1'i ofspS!c~s in dl€ l!."ln U'll~se hPllOOS..)u.as of :f<tiFmla.i.a Ro~orHl:i (k:s).ea~thy rural d.itie:.hili}its..eHb~raUl: rnQv~ lEO ¢x:Dres~ 'th~ rrew !if}ci<i!1 ·\'}atanJ:e.esel:ilmnOIIl amI tbe 'st1lgiiI1lg.<rilJd 'G~g~ .nharll.. This 1l'~l\!iliM .ed tb:e':soc:iall fj~atus or Hie . .l:ildy iiWlll .Pet pli!II. OOnSHl:u:ti:on .r Ilight OfSltl'\'l-S. n:g tlllis'<!Xis: tii'1?r(ts.e~~9.ouses of dle JFtOl\enti~1.}dncn'mol"e ·utiti'ra.iUel:Y) and dle "saia'" {~m'liti.t.little dif:t\.:. town house 1:l!ii:l11gh~ ''!iid.oll .fi\Jn'behve~I].das ~'uch l'eJDect the gmner's'. Thes:cutJrp(r.'O :OI~" !QQ. rOm:l\~ t'<nf !:t~[j]g ~ip ..untr)' ~.~pres!.~[~ti\~ 'P'Iw.1!ld.I~Il:rJiad:€d g.~Pil~!> an.<.1 •• J III .l:'>ed ~n ~I sillegping udi:~l'''''ll'''~-f(i dining.91:i ' 1151'~$.l!rrkr plgeons ns!W to ()Qmlm~mtea.tl a .ella:! 'Oftb:.!li~!tfi<i~j' !.rian.~velts'io~.flSent'l)i~IVG.:::e 'ufi~ new (lwl!le. [11M b..SIt!) I1iCllt~y (l!l'l Ihe. !iil'Iild cosmic orders.crc:m:e herween dille J)ublkly acc("Sslbl.. Unlike the Roman tU\?'Tn hbi!S\t:. i\lMi."ocial poo~tion.. This ~9~d:s most filiI' rhc :~o~msS'e[ nn ~h~~lliJcl!~i~g:'s.i. 110blli{y ilnd ddzenll' :m.u:~~wilh ~he vm...~ :rOT YCI: [ht..~most striking fl~n of 'Ihe inllikling ii. rrxi.". re. eemn\! ~i8CCts ~'I.td~wner to agralii.'" .it ~bte d:ldl:oi'omy IIIIIIII1.ula:riol!!ll :xs . spaees.(H'!ie'~.Oll'e'/lf' 1I:l'i. 1'l.~ I'..'i: Mat or I." the e. fb:r the~O:.re:ile:r .I:..luvi~w ()<f the Clilite area u:d l:hevJ:sliid pr~serr.1Il 11:01 ~~ .So:rile' "I<:!!gg~ll" (~loo.u frun~ily~hr¢d.!(1n..rerc 'Q. Thit: cenlra~ p01l!itimn h.Qth. The otber fOGmS.l.wher<:tlieuwliiJer had his 'pollti.oJ peaeliwsuhat..~~ These idem.luld -arehlrecrure alike .chil. 'TIl£ VtI]a .faoilru. till: ~a'i'i~~~ofl wheru dn:: .[Idl.rih~d earlii'~t" Wg. t(\~S~isl'il. ~m.e.e(iin l~ d.:m(l.11l'lI!l'aiiber·s~)f hc nWi:ler'~ .)J1~ It9m. ·wll.0 the vi:Uas of the Veneto the ideIiIO'h'.dp\llnna!1 Itl1u'. Vi'1~~m~' (!5S'lr-I:.ui.'lT fitnm a.iffi' It'llk rncl!!:mape of\l'illasl'ihiC:h orner r:hil~.na. II .e·a nil priv:.h1te oou~\(}l{)f the inUTlensc(ll'e.nlom11 tIIf](lcal.()~ f...}! : dfro~\'n-OIiB.Q.iml !l"nu''''tfc r<'tI..(!!ive ~ecepui. l~e deJllands made byag.j\:ilru...(Uo.l:lldjze~the . '~ !!!II' • . \li'111.

s.l.i" .'leall.ni)'.!l"r the rise of overseas tnlJd'(l-:l1I these bnJ'I.c European cit}' underwenra slow but st~d)' prneess of grawth. WQdiplillCCS dlal might have been 0\ source of disrurbs nee in dlJC densely b l!it~~JlIj) citi es were ~ol:arcd {lIn Qr beyond the pedphl.en. III the l~rC'\.I ••rncl" ~~ido.i.l'I. _ ~ -.!£.eill:l~I~~lIIh-i:l.. These distinctions 'Ililid the a~I. or ---~.lcem~.- or a ru>1'i\..Ig-llII:abulIII fUl'ld."Cre~ion of ito..apterwc~:':llm.~~ could be fuul'!!d il'l~ll~ n.·h ichexam ines 'nile gTo!'.mqJue pCli"ktds. we will look more eiosely ill two examples I~at are p<[tmdiigma.e dnmestie !lIHICCS were loanecli in! ~he W]UI.I.r1bal:l [ommttnit~.' conceatrate on the way aeeiviries inihe period 15:5°-165°.~il'liiilm.lS.. :l distrfuc~ Il~some diseanee froM the center.'ilH: zone or 7. t~e h~b 1.op'mc'rlts.J..5 hiddclil behindruws 'of pillars.11 and social dJj~wuget~at would grl!'lIlly affect the evolmiolnJ of [he E!lIropean dry.llI(.!lIltm.\r\fc \ViII no\\.ned the path (iihnby design !hroughllThe Iie..~~EM:e and cady B~.iolJla~ groups: potters" tnnners. ~.- I".[lrbo1t 'lTe~... an dlm.~N]) "'N.O[S]'(.dil. 'fhe ci~y at the dawn of rhenes era Uill1ting Ihc Midd. mcnlld (.eh huildings for religion..'rdam.~ d:~Ln!1S the INil~ of Si:~tI!~have been FIJ\~ri:iUl I rvliDl~j iilh(>\rir1gEf(Jili\a :fB!t~h't~r.t!'t:mi:.. ".mllclcd bythe SO~i'l]1 structure and d~..~. Fo:r this varieus rilC10li"S are to blame.i1!.!!L'(SIS MDd a ocremnnial ~cqJlJellee entcrim. sixteenth centl. cnuntries: R.t!'.~.a-. 011 en (his W!.. Here.)a. dr. several utrnwings that mu.. .l]me. had an imp~c.neoli'". b"I" ve'<.niz:ing ~~. whether l1I. This.'.$ expressed 3n:Il.lpcf •.iI.ew o'r reinterpreted.)nki]i!]g econorny and! fromlh".i:s:ioli1f o hlbur i" ehe UI. I:t:gu!ilr c)![ensions..rcll. Most ]-:lIfopcan cities d."lh Q r medicral Alilils~crdllm.__. he develepmcnt of EUI'OI. of dilfc.tl"atioln.ue this process 01 spiining llJil urban aetivirics.I'I:w <11. Chiil)I\I:!' 5.e>~~e l>r~ktlu~mgh of [he b..i'llljs.mol. by way of il]us.. The shape ~rthe city \'l':[!SU~Ua~. onethet ll~c1 been sh']pcd by YC.llfS of pracrice. .des.dy growth was radicaUy clisl:llUlrbcd frolm. ~hc~'h~[lp i!igc(Jmp"m~.cI. ~IH:foureeemh cc:n:mry on.ti1Hl(lmI and orp1.clcJtl1l'lim:cd by the topography of the landscape."Cntlliry villas cU!W.ti(' of the rC!c~oeI.'II1 mr}' cil~)r' "~~Il.lCY> III J\m('. 3ilJd 00 (ofth.ean ml.tectur:JJ~ly~}' ur'g'll. concentrated conslitU'~ed discrete elements in the city.~ AgJ:"E1:1il.6 lIIi1'luh:d il represenearive pnl$ram...' .__. The areas in whi.h.!'I'iti~~ pertainiag m o~~ o'r other group!:J!n still be fOl!lnd todilY iIiJ the names streets.l!!.L-.io!!. ~ (r-· --- ~ ~ . P\llIil(]'io"s s..}' d..TIL m"L1lI"m~nt"1 b"illri!~n]!:$ . Urban activity uadeewent (I similiur pilttrerltl. \V...N .g. discipline andetlucarkm \\. in '.euilding so b thai Ih. Citizens were subdivided inluprore"~s.illUdLI.. turners c.id autor e .:11 ! m"..t['pcmCl"lO.Cliel()ipedbr ~hf. . This path of ste~.tio.-!.t on urban CO/rill. (it}' administraeien..

•n.mi.bl'andt1. MaimlJ l-U'(J!tlIgo:ll.tsllrc .re ""'l!S an old ccremlmial .llJl~c oooli.rims t~U ~i1:Y sC3. IDe:tJC!hilftl: .cl~y a during otile and. ull.• \s dill new .it.t1!ks .of [Jhe Cou..b'y ICO!1!!:r.of po.rofRome had Ch..~usl'Qm.]l] ihad a part to play in tfhepublic perform!ln. the m.onOOl:wccm: reutes nOI".gs .gl€!us or sec11IIla.l-{J!. tbe ca. :along l:IiI.gih wilihrult the Willi b:iili~~yli'be emperor Aurdii.WlIl1dIIl.tlill.lyt'\o'ad s:YS!~ITL The 'Cim..of pi!lgdru01ige" !IS 3.c'O:mmnn :aurib'lllte.m of r<futC$.ctlOf.. SilUUS.!.l!nning dI!l' .cessiens were 11'1'nsfarmedl :i!nlt(l mutes. the horSi.ssin[Js fn}:1iIll I:tOe place· !lif dC"lJ[i(J.\dil13l of St.nto rbe Il.iWn t.Ii1!1!l.rov~ded an as yetin . u~dl.11iIc :Pl!)l)cess.lI'main in the ha:m'!sof ttl!:) C]~iIil!!idl.!il] 8~~ the Silf~~ot tl'hm:'!phalarcb~ thJ1o~..To pm it in tihe . i:il.ore. i~ t!he m.n.cl'HI!fifiel.iml'rlml:ed: on tmc for.The. illustrious .ullthortty of the Cl1u_j\6~11i. Tmese indlluJ..ijl!ir~d~oa.f:Ithe ..P3S£ of ancient Rome I)tib:er Mna hawiif!Jl ~fr'ums: andmemerles {If beue!' limes .dd .is .'SUCil'.m of . had quh<l a:n(nhe>l' obj<::cd.isited by p'i:lg. Ams!l.n.I.C' de!i!'d~p:liI1lell~ d:l!ill: !l.ilil.-k!i1.t sometimes illi\'o.rigat~oW!()f dte hilIsll!r!Jd s.r·"'RefGr.lyl:iller wl)uld become part lof thcoity pti)pe.JIndlilis succc:ssurs ::i.tra..\rd!!tn. that.ut·hllrity ~ndIe Holy Gt.~mic basis: fGf the by then imj?Qvcri:shcd Chlllfi:h stat"".Urban Sq.l.rnany eultnres ~OIililI1n.:i..!ncd <15 l1Iad it been by the Rd'O:rmadGtl. :P.)! actors and semetimes irnagCSGilrri\ld inthe ptuce.. tor' instance.ln e :aolM'mpa.bills ""ltn tI.ndl>l:. Ihc~' positioned o:OO[i&I:s 3:1 1:(1)' points and places . Mot'e than.1:u:ient phenomenon.supemamerarjes.(.. dl.ressing ehureh :a.'1> batt\!!. Jut . At t. obelisks. during 1.ew \l:fcllC mod~ of I'ral'l!l:port:.1 all times. !ch.of Santa.I:l .edievall city had ibeell.yt:hifll.y or its iSUr.i:ms in dIc' city I!'lng on tbe pilgrims' W3}1.h ill ~ys~e.imedi:nteI"en~i!Ot1s . drt.>tDS.m. are dIrect'lyrola:t~ III these forces .g:l'.ying out a. rel'i. This ~ilillc f two .part.llw system of rouMS !rutved t(l . and his slIoeesso:roS made..on in lib.. Major points ef i:rr.".. 'Ihe means empJo:yoo.. ser as [(!i1l:Y l'I'eJie <lit an ~mport:l:nJt ]oeliS ill f~nt Qtf eaeihltn:dldi!1!g..rninigvi.i. of the city by i:oilili. linear mevemear hetweelJ certainpeines iln tbe~:il. s.(1 dist~m::t o ~ drl\'lng fur·U.ng:the 'Qbdisb wi.ec tJhe aqueducts had fallen ililt:G dJisuse:.lar:U\l!!!J~l ~'b~. Si. tihc.y Wiben 'p'op~ Sittll18 'VassllllOlcd (lfficc in IS8" tJliil'.n.ent "fOIa" amd! [eml1'l~s:iliYiIlIlo':lstC Si"e (OT.ercslllti. The . the sam.(l!il:l1l.fOfimiilll. shi)w dl:3i1the il1!t£r~"entionsand.-. Maria Maggi.ious war[. Rome what: it: Sitll~ is toda~'. Agc:s.fes were :subS(JtJjtlell. the n~w 1. undem.icslIall).IC was IiJt!t]eleft Gf the.r'!l.hill I:liIe dead . smai] smges"f'il'St.:isible networ'l( .J'l]ouS :system {JfUnks ootWi~C.m.l'rwc~t :iI !!!l.()j')d. :pJlIlltfllilllg" Exp.(lxt.<a!!1! s.dergo during the seventeenth centu:ry Li..t!!lide dtt..c.cl"ililation !lIt least as fa.tLy hdd il'lJ plaOI.is netwm'l. tile retu.e oren Sp.sc:~·cn.o~ltedifl the new plan fur Rome.. ..re01i ~l!.t:e..i't!b~I~Cccfiter'of ~bc Ca.ssi:o:n.edi tile entranee to' the dl}' at th~ Pl}rl:aidel PO~Jlo" Ihe lihlU.of all.vLJ:ligand wottdng Material protegido por derechos de autor .• ElUllt '1'1"111 also. few we~~.re were seeen dl:urC:hes~'. Then.l\:·it1.uFLr!gLh~ I){Jf!JtUici!'j.j'on.~i.JJied! by prooessroms (lIf 3. :IJaN!lle .n.gh wbidiJ.lI:r.'c. John Lateran and Sr.1 medil.comblinedi "".'S.ce .. I we (.hl:ge.te.y ill. whIch w.e city In CflntJrast to l~om.nJtfl century which would 11I1ti.~ ~f S~x~us (1585-1590) hid ilil:Utn.lI.d ctl'tailtil ~i:Sll:lil:g ·c:lernu!JilI'~.dOpi£d :JJ Si'[IlIICgy ill. :Flrst . Th(j j)h!!l1J!)'!1!l!bll:fkedi en i..simplest 'tcnmi: in Rome's ease '. m!lb:tly fi~lig1Yl!S P!:(i.C. 77 :!1'!d A1i!'ls!~rd!!!1!l!. By la. This was effilcted by res!I!ming k.ld. 'F'llite mosl:l"ltmOUsaSptel: of the plilJn..).sterdam wouild.tnai(w pilgrim cburdles.ber oJ resoluteaims.obiiIL~lial...g proce.U::).1CCS witbi. d'l(i HfI:O"'IlIlfl.e CillthGlic C~urcb.In the MJddle.ilitl:dhenee· foxdl!J wm.i re!i!pOIl:S~prediclIIoo en use.a~Si.S'it{::cts:f(}lIl}wed a o slra:~gbt linc:.='l.. TMs Is an eNtre1illlel. ~spect: (If use and the need for~pl'esent':llioil!ll among the new ufib:an upper dJasses.!he :For!WiIiI.i!~!teLllle1:plc'led in t'h. This pageant rooik tile for.dil!1S!try widilliill.lsts. In the next stag:e.as eanbe (Jibsc£ved in the a[(~hilYectJtlli"'C bu:ilt 'to accompany sueh wrocessi.1 eatly par C'~~nllfiCC.b int'(I ..timu]<I!i~g i.itl'iliffl lim: . secured fo·. 3 :story illu'Stra:rei!l In :IJ pagea:m.t~ered over diu: ~nbnil!iilJ. all dme tb. This tradition reached back :in \V. toge[ihe:r p.<Ji can hia\1e~ d'edsh'll effect on ." The pOIP'Cexpilb:ite.sir:ailghl stcreet:s i!m.rn.~ Sl~FI!ls v's p'la..unal 'll'e..rersecl.:IJ dgb.cr:e.g iflecta:t(m:i~.lNai.dries 51'10"'..ulj~edfur g.flWa:1>fI() 'haphazard! p. tlhcl!Illll:swhich ~n. 1:)(iU~'I)i.Cli!.l.thl)~icCbUfi':Il.Lhe oomioCl!ity of mO\fcIDm:!l!l11Jt:!l!long Ibemwa:s'i'.e.WiLh LI1!~1) ifi~~n'!m!ion·5 tbe c(iJJun:h. One '.alJs.!st.iors: p. dtt.m:u:ely u:nif~i ~he. b Anoi"lle:r pOliJl1lt of d!e.1iXIl.restriotea Ito the 3~ea.!here were pJau t'O weinnillr~ mll$h :)~OO!ilil!llotllf(l.owug'1iI "..t.!il. .ln ii'll 2:71 B.l pilgrim l ehun::~ or two. w~s v.isible 1:0 Fbe flHgrim 3.V:asto create a new eci.. tomll'lJum. !towlwe:r.l1e iiellenrtee.. as anriquity .eperiod! .eTiber . lind these were el!pl.cQJ1iliexJt .e a'tild . Sin.mati.

.~. ~1 ""."."~ixlt:..• J.:r~::i.: inf1lIl>: Ill" rd'u]!." Th~]'~IPfl~r strmes .!'!w ill' lfi.£!lIli1f~·.Lr 11.:Ind Wt)tt (th".l. ...\:D..! ~[}r 'I'll.::t'''''''''~''''nI ~'.'SIlII.(m Ni'H~H'~ p]t1t suncsted .n:.H:li"c:hilnl'huu.~lf £umt~<.~~d.\ rt )Ie ~I..f.iC evnlved in lC..<1 [)pical t:x01mplc t.W .'f't.lcmlin:g 1hI.1:lnd fij~!. ill \\-h~dl"_\m Iw ~L>::ll rhe ~)h)'!:ik"lt dl\'~l!iiynin!!l (h>.l.d~si~n. bU$inc:>st In [he "I'fJOV'huis" i[( i! :. i\~.(!o.r~: ].. prm..:mr I'Inllr c:I'. I\'~m~ !i~I!.cmllthe 1'1':1\ 1."-U"'LhtH~ M!> [~lClI'() dum [~\~~or :Jhu\c Ihe~ru..md phy'.~!.'1135.tl:!t\I..t. :\" ~nkl:dlt: of rhe" hULLSC.. ~h!:ihing: ~lJ\!Iil.b~\~ing Am'\tLrJam I ilee rm.1Jil' WN.:' e\ 0 ~U!lill IIf I he '.t:ct illT '0 r Ih~sc pta:n~ "fl~' ihe 1!1"'li:m!l g houses...'Cnnu')' therype ..1.. i:n\llui~rrd:tf]] sliIl ~[d~ ~H. Th.i doli .. .l!!it i(J iii.odl a dr'Hl~ :~[W jl(Jp i1~:bi 1011 i nerease ~lt the ~'!~d u]' 1Il1.nf'cc'J.'H'l!~~lk~1 ih .'tin1.~mlbnmuh 1l1'ftm!.!".':InJls.f I~h..Il JO::!II itil:'\> .c~ ~nh"... [111<: ! ne'l ntblltl din: (}\:mC' Ln~~xpc<:~ dornicile be~lIil~.: 1IiI! ~Il' aruler..'elliflg.lMi\~~n' I nU1~~<l11!11inl'll lI~c arch il..()ul~~ lJS:cl..:t:111I..l~lR·I-m.h~' II . i:'l"I~ ·\ff1.ddllg" fl1rct(. nf t~lwn house b!:ln g ~lu iii t.jl~ .i'.ai\!irimL~ rl:ag .ng but ~hm'pl) dC'1'I1~nc'. ~'id:d{.' .l hn. ) '~l'k" rn. ul'! h\\'!l I\"~r~ :r~L~tlUI1I!. ---::=l ~ I" "~ .11 (':!tu.pl"ing fWIlI till..iI~r.tss [if .I"J « \ !<itTwd ~S.nl'iml! Jmlg deer P~')L'."cl:mih ill I ()J~.-..)[l'i . Ii'O\"~'!.~H.p..!IW~fJ]v.LtimlCnL Si:(~~~r phf~ pcmiiuing.:ei7:ersl"'~.t'L"I1 heIF. itling' line beiween llving.n('~d h~ urban tde .lio:r1 [the "achr .mtIlg jWn :m.:I. ~dlirad tho.amrj"om S~IJ~iT:'~ll!d I'or I'hl' nmrrs.c<.:a:!'" I.dltl.J:m..I\P! ~.: b"u.ilikj"\r· por racho ...ITi: I'II~>\ t..Ln j. h ~r1Il !It\.<.i! .k Ml.!ho (!.[iijn~ll lhjng' .r~lileJ UR' b!..!l. h11\\ 'rh<..1on ~.! '~r'1Ci....ir(!'d . the fh~ur Ii~an I~nhc fi.leI P'urHI.1Uin!'l trh~n::h~ rhe fmw ~t:'Cli1)n t)f]l'n: h~IUs~ (Ih~. Titl. Qtr e.I'ttcf'L Smm.:..r I ! l):.a '~~lr>senrhe i L)'ld~'1 ~l.{!'Cl.'!'~~I ) the nw!l i!.C!. 1 ::r..lsinc.til".J.:Hcr u'b'~in'..¥~.' TMs ~r~ldil ion . .. the laH!i:f' ~~'.JilJtimhn}m~ m1till"coJnt'[I'j.~."\1'IJ~'L' da1H1 or 1:11 .r.Mi.t". The in1 .rk bt~g~1l ml !..'111 l~rbo:<rni..·'.:' rCt'lI1u.much lik.I~:m.' 1· ". J:: 1 canals.w~lrd:Ll.~. .!·).~i.\jcd 9c1i1d mad.[ l'ht' Ihrt1t' ··'l·.w-.·').~ L. "\ OIurhHi~'''\ l:_'Un'!.q~.1 ~l:t~HHl Ihe' "ltd.1f~\. se\·i::1l1I.]1 flltH.hang(.lr! ill .H.III~.: il"· ~~"ly llhl'o~lgh rile :il'l\ r!.rhub.bm..entlh.' \HW~ ()r M'tm1'!l:" ~l:" well us ~lwdlii1Jg-> The Il~i.~.~t i1t the rear fUie hT~ addl.r]lY.\'-.l:h'ml [h'~ B"I !.I~lni:l~"S¥)l'lin MId rh.. 1'l'~t'1!.The mcdiel{al ili~lli~ic~ll l.. It'rh...n'1!t1li.t[h· 1./(..:'d.1 .1j"l1i fh.clu: w Philips \Titig." rn~'n~ R~ll.~lIl:h 1. Hu'rg. ~~~~ iY~1 rll.d "IJ:rmTto.l..l"l!Illh-L!['n~ L~E'. \-11J:.t. ttl.~~.US\: "hon sclear J} i ~h~ \\~~hl'li m1i.and l\'urbn~WW' <>!1. h~1 "\:I.ril~ .l:1i:SCtlliir li~ ~t !:Hll'P:\!: shops.'\.rnskt'I (1:11:11 'SR\. t.UIlH'I11.:~:'> prclTI~isC1o "H.:lIIlt-:.md Ihl.! ree.~UJ.Im..i~~ndr~l\\'11bel '>\'1.. :'11i1t1 1'C'II~t~tin~ its r~~c'n\tl: ll!. prw..UJ~L M_Jr~~f'B"~1 ~L "l.~r('n"'~.!.f rJu~~ 'ail! ~~1 ~1J. w'[..llmll'(:~ III' rhe r~'~~lT1:g m~n:h.>' !k~ign ~o...h: ~M\\11.mll finn l'lti 111" the 111:.~ ~\'. ~'IfWLer r~f .I major p.:ril) nl the mn "'\m~[I.(' cH~q:FJ:'''. !)nC:ll b ~.ml5Wi ~ml 1ol1g.'lhi.· .~ :.

.~ ~Jt KliiZ$):"~j~du J I <) in Am~f"1~~fl1 (I (!"!I}..rlligh~ front spa ee :mdl i.[+ng. light into rh~ ]$vitlJg quarters ar the rear and ib'~ Ypp~r !llJO:l-ics ·gf t~:~ ftipn:t secr~iJ1'1.'_Fri. sligJI!~Y'~'s. hfl.connnereial '.'rti: I.~i[)fI·"r <)(.cJf(mJ s()hdi ..l>friJnt _ _ f:toil(.llnic!: as"~'dis!irn~t.iS~ 79 1li1 tin rhe :ldmilYlstr\l~.lllcti~YI'lcil![1 be dearly read 1..on u:ndisuilTbed..diJwW](l-].d:e.. 1luig~'!:is.'14 -(o:]:\lidli.· the ~1if~C.dW' le..Cll~I~ ~fio"tI'.1'1 the f::l.i~."'d..:o:~!tt.~tj""th..··~. or.hs...Ul·e'il.e.!is' ilt read'l'W] ~lG!l:g (l_.'''_....hh'Rtilln ~iild pI:'".-ffiom .!I'_l~'~ ongi<iJ$- ~."'a.&.iQ]]~}' fl.."'-'5CI.DtS~GN /lr.dmiJ (~'OO'I:J:itii·· Mmem]f pro 8Qld(J ~dt~lll\1tiiQnJ par oerechos {JL: autnr .e" f[l tb.. '!JOIlS<:> <If _"-'.dspa.. TITi~sdcrrn/(J1iri1! Hl~ "'fjJtlUi sk~:rt£ the J.~1!liI stare.(lililg eo.l]ter'ioJ.1)()[\ Phllip.~t c9mp'tok !.~d}wlw~ f)r-d~"i-.\... The ":~. de!iv(.TiletSifiai lIDl.C)lTiC¢). dl~.h(Jra_£l:(l:tl~tic lifdn:g beam are:11 rei'lli~{Itle'f (~r...ne\vdern~:n~> OOl'l'idar. int.'f"ili'i..g-) "". The "achttel"bt.

1._: tn'Y!.a[l be extended ill.Sl:dhmcd eli".~I~ di!:J(gr..IJ. .!]ly across (he Si niL~1 S ~l" .at~~iil.de o. all d irect io ns all d is eminenrl y su ired re mercantile UH"llS. ~I abandons the idea of it rlldi.m. iliud clwcUing Simon Stevin wrute In.rrI':S~(lN ""ND AN.:t·on fQl!.' I!llits characteristic simplicity.iIlln ~\tln Dmd'rt m~n-. This ls beeau se it r"-"8lJOnJe-d to the functie11<11 reqll iremen IS of rhe DeW ~a:rgel"-sC. nlc:~c~ru'it..gt. All other :public fad~i]i'es serving S'!. his di~gr.ic. th~ sehcol.di'111ydisposed. 594 ~hL': utch engiaeer D V(.ms recall plans for idbl.nl] nf ~j~ (frum j '"" ill. Rath er than being l'a.. 'I1~io1'll.lrlJ'~i~ewwns commerce oceupted a rOlf mceeimportanrplace (hOlm.am .atei y reflect t]rn.L Y:S~:.In pWpGI!ICS a nu mber ofideal diag:r. Sv!)vi1Jl.]Ie commerciel networks of [~e seventeenth oel1!l!~liy and pmv~d<1d a clear framework 3Uo~~ing a Logical place 10. had on town plarmin g pract ice.ar!crs. ha]y. Moreover.! because of rhelnflucnee it has...ewoj1 ciries ]le~lly were l!.' Material protegido por derechos de autor _ ~\il'l~"!!~I.'!. ~~ .:ii"l!)l . {-\~the same time the d~agtli.o}'a~ coart.1 spaces and bl]i]ldili~ pOl] market.d in the Dutch lang~a!l.eIttu:rr town.. Square ~i1Iis system ofcal'il~lls is a zone .(. the j)oorfuou"~c 3nd~on the w:ty edge--tlle r.djoubling as specialized markets. Slevin's diagram is predicateden fuaceien and on the Duu:tJ town as It exi~tcd at the CIDJd of the flifu::cmli ct_~[\tllfy.ams of'1 mercantile town with an inla ltd }l"i"oor rh <it <Il""ClIl".o[lfigt~rn (~On.1 cities dnm'lll Up' before then.[he QUe5l!I:Oil of defense ..of whose p]i·operti·e~is e~"pilllli" 51(111. :I.Itliiljn.lIl.c~crv·!.e ~e!lgthwise through inc town.i('" H1.edarceatury's end.'ft. the dI3. ill feam re ·of most Ital ian ideal-city plans.lliQ~. one .l~.] educarion and COffilllcrC. bC<1Jti.""/I'PJ'J'I~ MO' mwm) commerce _ m~f~. particularly ~In. dne eburelr. a rethe prineiW fOFcummuna.j 80 f'~h:u:schemes fOlr wnd:.I.I!li squares ~OWI! and .sc expounding the firs'~ llnd most impnrtant town pla!1!IDIingtheory POSI.Europe 111 gen em I. the tn:<!tise gives us a pict lire of ch amging ideas 0 r11ll11e dispoS. Not only impou. ~t Stevin 1U~Ml . the qu.m.:rdcm:rlg der sude-II.d for :tdminist •.'s schema hi as oec[l (I f Slemi'liUll influencct 011 ur banexpansions in the N"'i~erlllmh and Northwest . Thi s \11':4~ a logical sIC p . links residential and commercial bILJl~Mi[\gs to thJi1ee canals tl1. urban aC'~ilri~ie~. of fU!1Jctions in the SCvi:TII~(O~mth-(. of (he town are di.a~ 01" CCl:'!tlCalimd (.

. ~Ul 'later 'mey adwievc.SC .nseIyi:nIBnimked. of a new build!ing tYl'e dD. the seventeelll~ and!eighteenth (.ree centuries: ehe comury house.liidor. OOIlDttry houses wer.e:llt ~I.cc:es:s:. thespiltial lliJri'U'I.). froce(ld:ing from 'i\!~U WI1:1'I)'t~l1iA "modern'" c1. I'bJe.e~eeiillth .:rea!iii.En:gl:i!:nd wss a particular esse in point.wLth the: resu1t .9011ln'ce of iJrnSp'j:rSlIiolIt for' archi.clll1itry house !.'!~ ill Palladjl)'!.ms{ali specific activi:ties and arnlbieID.cenru.Ct.lcl!o:r .En. a W!1!}' d:rrou.a:oe.md.d£ol'a.ccs djcti!ll~dItly (Ii'tlw.liSie.l:lUipted by poople ~~:iJ'ligit as. Tl1e r~sc of this new social grrroup.l!~ (lcellpj~r(l(lm frmn bei~g dlS.ar101n :SpOlic:e.ran paralh:m m.ng:lisll made :.s ocame more and m!)~ o Ilbrooms ~Iil I:h.gned by fratt in [650.)~d fh the dr3.ln'~ ments.. If the northern IuliSiI1 v'il. ~he b.ce (lit Eilli~isb a:rroj.1 tothe English enuntry hO!.nglyi:nt0£1dc.l distincdoll Ibl}~ rweea r>OOlIlS bemoIJ:g~ng ~o Mu~ hOlllSlCl-O. Thlls" the l:}'pi'ClillEnglishcclimlltry h01lllse emerged in the dgh~eentiIi Ilmi1d lII~n.ry.~llas :lind Ilmch like Vililglboons' Cililliill hOilli~s the :!i~p<i.ily and this was e:lipte~!ied in.1!uely beeeme :iB.epresent-day sense..ing thelr duties.:~e in tihe seventeenth ..gh. And m the fest ofthe house' meservilllWM" PfllJt~CA:!'!iidIlU.at each 1II'as im.u':Y: a ~:lir:ge rrll:rarn residence' liIiIIe' ames of whese rooms n aLr~dy tdll.an Imll 'u: sixteenthd ~OO~lIry [1i:!i~I1l!n .bleonly (mol II all.I'mtl-!~ seve:nltee:nt~ ceDro.d. the c.d greater Imd:epe1ild~l'lice to utcLI'Il. tlll:re ~~enld landediJentty and the new class o~ afljhIU:nJi~merohsnrs became illu:irrnilJ!:ed jlrl.ls mey were for ome kind! of 'LIse olrnJly" A 1l0i!l. 'F'~e architiec'i:M!itl$~lfpQsi~d tthat the eentral l"un~leIlgth co:r. d@!!rly be Si. ~e JibRry=-.la<i(lxl:iibil)cd mlO de:li~~~ subdlvisien in~o public and pfwvilInc rooms.tidor w.DESIGN ANI) USIE ltooms '\i'0FSUlS.rlile.vily.e'\:¥elflt a m~j.ce:IJ!. [''allad fuo \V(':re a ~lmlaJjol".\7!':i:n~ (originally "'lid'l. The "pc.Cl'lru:rles.1ects i~ other EiliJ!ro<pean OC)Illriltries.iilolUi in dlulplans of the Villa Emo and d~c 'u>I~S:hill HQIUls:e dlesi.! villas-we!fe still ci.a. tlite E.~twOlmld prnve of semina] lfifiue[l. shoald IUU be :seeIIJperform. The villas (!If Andrea.l\Ump'l~ and Old English intemal arl".ed by ideas.leCtl!ru d!!i!frlng:the n.en . circtli:uiow.:::Il'Cl.11 di:fFex!:lilLt degtcesof "'publkPe.<lii-" As can.e inform. parrieulaz acti. tl diisli1'!crion was made oot\\!'eelll servants and t~e owner's fitrn. Other [h.1)( this tYIJc is a 1S1Ilm (If l"&O.r(!ll.r·eilkfasf ~m. If~r:rr~. eme~.eS.l)!t '!:I1""n.)! I ~h:eR I'(jIoOm~..)s d'telte ~(I pre'iO(l~t .e~til)il~' ~lTre dining renrn. (1.ted floor phUl ·of cruridots and roOOWl!!." Trm~s larose <1 ('3:rm.dtllt'llilig) room f'Oir the: lad!~lls00 retreat 'IU frrolll the smckescreea produced by the m.ssh:.~gl:i:sh.I'i'OeTS and the . ~~id~fro~"'J~ilr::Cho~I~~J'autor I_I ~IlIT.ore diirereHlll1.io!:l! i!!itoroooos was integ!'.

'1'h'1."~L".l . t'i>l'r"". 11>. rh~ j..'~· '1(1'''0'''...J)n ')'lI'tCdJ1 LOl1dml to".x.i'fO"'l1 YI"~..l1f.c!':"'I~t. ·r.'l'.~ t.\.17~").l\l~'" (r'ri~. M_f.•nee Itll.p!l'·l""~t <IF [he 'If!mr~ ...nhc."h. iiedJ[mu Sl.. 'lI'h.f " th" j!11l!llfd IL(.ld1\':.'t~ ~·h.~.tj\..hl~""..ll.n'l"J TI~c 1l-ill....~hrJLlSe fCft tl"" wdt-I')'...11 '..".f.. .11_" .iJ~C!"l.~.' ·I.~"<: d:r~""~)fl:"'!!fjro ""11.R"."'"...f " ne ".."L...J. .!o.flth om. l'ltll..~)"I" !)IiI ~\""n'n.)1 rura hos aul r .f.... is "..!1 ~n....: ..L ~~I~lLdill!l he'to\\' I'ht'.m _I.Ir.e pi~rJ~ alD~l St\~!""n' jj.hI~le'\'llt'''~'"['l. TMi: Ji"i!'.r II :I I ------ ....g . Lhe <>lh~!"ilOO l. ~1~1II~1f1' '~.)..mul"m (lflif!lJ""hll'~:)'..Cib "" li .fil'liL fLO!).! 01' "'m... ~'1!lhW<. """.r·!j~ "e~ir<l"m.fI' "..~'l.ill.Ir" IH :11 I.:.1ml ~i Ith~ kil~h.ol .I...o:!nx"n.\ n.l'i1I6i\@I"~'f~.t...

E1!:cmpJa. .nwiltb it ratite .c.not km.l r~ch eitisens 'and the middle class exPJlflJdcd:~.elim.nCI) is exdudcd.l'id.njamin would. The c::>mmj!)hl (Jf t!he' Eng]j:silii hOI/ISe sbows cl.ecen:lf.ruing"'."bllr bs :g.in..ow req1!~rcmen!lS Gfuscfailine. !:h~ dw~~li~NISp'41~..gfar a ma.ilding' of ~arge residential :d:i8tr~.dl..tillgand the: vi(.ndlings by WllJ !of the 10\'lI(:'rfi~ and il~"S~e.hc volume ".)b~gi.e :~s iI Ilrotected in!t~'1'iorof l\um.ld im!! the hOUse'L~ !IfN!l.lllLlC in the bt\:lme l~lQul'd be.(Jilll. these hllNseJi elearlyex..e3!dy h.l~~:.. The h~pO!!"titi(m is cxp!r'CSSf...'s mosit famooslak{.I.ihlibiilt anoth.eS\I.dL 'Illilc delD_3nd!s made :001d:wc[lffilillg c.vtlloJl.e8..clear boundary.ebrnted cOllntry h.cs with tm. "nrn.e~ila] d . bC(. ~~~illl mO:JI~ facilitrulls were Invemed ~o ma.ulat!tolil areas as jn Ihe ~Iillliasof P::l.sWiiJil afine P[USpcc~. These fa~t!l are evrdelilitin the lloorplallliS.from.Iildin.~.x:rm:. tllking p.e.i!!~ indli\'fdu:)l. He [l!nw re(juircs of the imclrior rhOit it sholwld sustain him in his illlf1~iio!m.g:.1i:e home life mOI~Camenalhlc. to them..Qi!1ing~~LYmc!i.b. The usability of II.g SI]l:l(".! 3. :rr. Alt tI]jli"~time tOO.. earlier named e.l fW~l.0 btlild'i:n!g(.s VO}!~~1 at th~ be.~ml:'O!ry(! thi!! SP'.i_lmntllaiJ[ for :iii markel. spa.rew wifh the f. tl1f rhic residential distrikt. Il!bserva.ge ~n pl'.(l.[ departure of h']!.elopment UilCp!r!\.y~or' architects.y 'wihiiih ""~B.xpf. CJj~l.. kep.l:rmr.illd IJJJilget ~ :JlO g.l':p<l1i:nt 0.ginfi~fig (l:f tl1:~~ CI)!iU'llfY.ec WLIl.Ssess~n:g .lllil'!\v.r. This ibwllgh.rs} ami archItects to C'.'l~~d 'withiits S!lrl'~ll.fOT tile different acthlitrues :lsse. The :suiITIl~ligfu.h !()efif"':r~1tihcE:n:glisll id'~i!s of <lomfon !eo[IDtLrlUCcli o be dC\'elQjXld i!ll!d refined. t Whli!le i:ndllSlri!a!i d:~'l.s an'. w~d\ dimCJL"i!om~: i!dpulatcd! try oomiQtllio~. The G!)rma~ w:rit'¢r Wally! Re.I changes inthe ~OW!ilJS(.l/s VI~JiS: the: cd.d I:!s~t~mj)(llll)d builders (frfim. the rc:la:tioOi bct\!lCC.!y nctl'l!(Uirli::and! li~ll 3:fl'h"JI !of ~hc illmilcrgt.looea subjeci of s~llId.T of oomm~~rc-e)~!nd tb.to ~jn I.ap!'.ili!Ji:S dc.N0LI)n:g~t p(.t~ltdfl:rdi~(iiJll! than inthe ease 'of HI(.ow 0.e IJTIlw.w (Jf OioeofEnglalnd.~nt ol'l:hll~illd.. dw<:ll:img 'plellsure or eomftnt~n me:1JS'llIr:libk (i¢i!'m!S and Ii:gorccs.Sita~dardJi~dt)n ~nd sp~ifie~dt)n :l:tl. .'ch~pnrnll:~mll! inLunden \1!liMl the other lar~e cities gcncrlIt.~s~!liau:gedhy the presence there of spt:cMfuc. ditTcr:in.\!fnutl! a division in!o dWil)liing S.'!O'I'his d'Il'leIGpm~nl:marke~ tme 'bcgllm.u Material protegido por derechos de autor .is!<!ndi~ghou~~..Elatliu all' Edil1lbm:gh were oommtssi:oned nul: bJ' indi"idliHII5 but hy building cmiLt:nictors ".cwisc.rct:he jl!lIwnlllighcirng' dj:lig:r~mtSn:lOldJ¢ 'by l~'.(Nj'l. ....\ic"S!.a:n.ijhi!IQcl Cha:rl'c. the r!iWfi~~ !of urh~!it I'll<l!!lty.1.i.sih tOwill :housc<l.dnC'IV building Ins ks {:ntltiofiS.Siin London :imroouced to f:urupe the dis{iIlCl'ioilil ibetween! the O~y (tb.omfuflt t.Uddy ~lJ!lm~dbl!!! d'ti) :p:to"ided.PO!!.)Tldth~ liki:l)..I'e.S the ""'(!luldbe. dle !cit~1 center eoinc[ded wldl its pereelved Ijfcesl~IJ.ious: "oth'ilties.+.lS.y diU.o!wl1I\iotllO! <i)tl)OiIP"'!1:t. ir~ r~guliilti(}Jl!laml the cb.wt't !?( antl7ij.1lI dwdlll1l..di'O .rntnwjlmct. The new ItOij.l.J:C:Vif killld oJ dwelli:m!!:'.'tj(lrll to tih.er t.gwnc::nt as tWo!lid'j.an.'.C is fiIOw in rJppos. SI)WViii.a~lfH·s and !ri'elid!Jpt.:\~JfCd iJ} !!ldh1:l.p~acc" he j'jj!fS~ T (lOin.r.og. 3. n.r " oplimuffi 'w'lsli~'n'e.SI'U~C[ :I.cintc!rIuf .lill:l.pals led 1:01 :a .radil!lalllly {.Town hOllst's in LondullJ. the sl~l.~ for dwelling.:y in tbis ft:.~.r::ill!l:ed by ill t"OmpLicatedi s}'Sttmil of com'entlo:rns 'wiliiru the sneial :stal:Ufi of timeO€Cl1pa:nts. 'f~i1Ic!ll:fficc is~omj'lk\~ mi.b~c:i:n. ward!s: u:n:if(lr!llIity and !S.m.c!t. V~YSCl' i:ndiia:."nd" Slilwvi. th.'pe Gf dis!Urba. D~'cilliing comfort tlh:us. .~l!1{JIiln~i(JJlof the r.. ~:nd in!deed ofren spl1Gul. fil~t:~riGS..lcwing :Ql:c. Int'$1'lor!1 Uk{l dwse ushered! rnrncnm'loTl ~f!(lg!'t1jfurt.les :1:10'''''Ilhe mr.ew~.tt'l'ld w~tht~esc I1!Olj)Se8.en~c.IiI~1ld.~.pl'cs 0:1' b.U'~ .cclu~.diividualmkesrealityinJto :a(\GIJunt .:" 'fh.C:lywarm .up~csII :po£:>i:tioD!iuboJ!ld:iml!tc i.(ll'''Uy K~epMdl CJ:pOClJni.[!I!. inl~rCc.~..dimg~.i~pj OOCilll!~ at till) time of building Ii ~ta:S!fJtle11l .i()ltal area from whiehevery (.cndem. tn tbCi Errugru!tS:bl'(lwn 11m\!~ rooms wt!ir~nl)[ (In]y !~~I'. In iilitc Iilfficc ~hc t in.'m. dIe}. O[ljg d~"'S[gf! ·of fuJis in whkll VO}i:i1~~' !exploirtced the d:iagr:n. Lake Win. The Upshlldwas: :a grea~eli tendency t.&' and dlft. in which dlil.ouse w. ll~tel'desc!'iibe ~.st: 00 arrangw In the.t.iJ!ii!1l1 li.l.(JI lhilit ot'r.~nsc inthe Lake Di~ulcl .entiuFl.ci.parl: fwm.eas iIll most of time. \Vihe.tliu: S:limechamgc.ss iliodl F:casiibUity..eiglltecfitb-ceiDturyli:~iligl:i.Q'llseSi the fI(!fIr' pl:ln COJtSistfld of m01llrn!s 'witho:m any :(:w!!'tlheifd~slglla:tion (Jf tF9[!. thUB:"Fot DwclUng' :a~t:l!d ·oo:_mf@rt [n Uti) ~[nl)!:I)!)1i'!!. Themiddlle--dass move. had I!) satiS!)l ~n.no c..buytrr-.. I)ffl'l~ ~Yi.JJ !>1fi'!lgtil d'<l!r1ng th~ next r".e suburbs~s:er"~~ for d:weJI!lng .(mn..o:nJIl11:ining d1!c' :rc~i:d.

This POllU of departuee 1\13S reworded !1I1i1Jd systemized by le Corbusier in the Ath(f1J$ Ch. With fI the tlJl".J Furactionafisrn With rhe lurbulc!lr develapment nf rhe indusrrjnl metropclis ill rhe nineteenth eenrury..DUIGN liND ANAL.l:I'Iics har r included ChO]l.~!:kvdQrrn~n~ t\':)S largdy (!!Ij e [0 I'l:'Hllrlt:~[[l.llo \V. f~lliem.I:."' OJ" 1.rea:.ctivc I)f urb"n p'l:!mm.'"'"Y. As the mCiliU.Cl. ind~'I'iduals.f'(ll'i(/~I' <IIfNl 'lh~/I.ffl uf 1I.eS:S:JIllji fil!l{:i'.U"""~ stricrly [U'..i.Lml'g>t:g.re Moc'kf[l)ll) advecsred >I distill ction bc~Wee!1J <!f'!:>IS f(-.change. ~t'n·anl~·~"...JrilIlI:C 0 f t~is find {)til er eiries in EUrD'pe and No:rth An]eri'~~l.-~pi)d!':.idc:!'!~ial districts.~~uuugfu it ~~]scale il:lilld non- il1ls:iCOId!. and large estates of r~[Ji. all all[:CtUIr~'lt became l:oclIIs.ced.lbr~c.m'.ihg.dh' erected 1II1JSanl~:u'J dwellings were am ple proof of (litis. ~E)USIW1g bOC'.I(... Th.dus[I"Y increased re~:idetl~lal bssi ness OCfllI'CS s])rnng IIp-anol:lltc r pllJ(~n!O'n:u..~ pflS]ri.hack gencrsl consensus 0111 0111 .cc::hi1Jiil. could [I(I( simply be slotted existing urban f..(Itilis:[ric~ andnew forms of transport made I1. \"u. the easks such as these in our exampleswere sn.dlill:g.m. the 1:I. and Sepnrat ingl:bc func rlons The rise ~1Il.i'I~".a. Gradtmlly the industrial areas and eommereia] fW!TI eenters became s~~p"flIN::d the f'es.•.l"rITf'~i~ Material protegido por derechos de autor Ih i'ri g _ rLM~Jn!1. rut (he urban m3SSC!>. .on \!j/'1].IiIOilll first (~[l(iOUI:I·ttC1t(ld in Londou-e-rhese d ~cu~ed the !P'Pe. Until then.'l.i. I:mt sli.<l[1i(l orne'll involved providing single solutioas fair weald1).CW demands 011 the \lIayrides.I functinnality.1!~ phwming ag:ency led by Cornelis ""m Eesteren drew up a General Ch.rliv~!lg ~~.YS!S 84 J.fi! <li1LdtulJ..it:II'I:l' k~idemliaJl'I. Moreover.I'{.d working .ror increasing caneern il'lnilrll ~Il:'llkt: Df.id out.~L In aM.:ighrforwnrd.ed .·iii(ll: · .rll'p· (~9JJI' in which he set clown the s~liict di\1i!ii~)n imo IJ~p.i neteenth century of the big ~n.ld.":. rhe M'odc'rrg srchitects united illlC! A M (eong-res 1l1tematiOinai1lJx d' Awchhect~. m.1 shorn space of time.tn11': a social prnblem . rherewas new mock of tr:!l1:spor[ 'Whkl~.(lt(~O~I:!e. house=:buiide:rs h. After 185:Qthe quamy of llu)u:!>ingcam(~in.u(!n~od.! I~O solve the proWI.on:ps of people had to' be giliCll .}pt~rltw·my<IS the obj(!. As i:n.[uio'l 1[1. WQ~k.. ~1!)ClIi). fo I" housi n:g: the: ind~st~ial \I'(~~rkcr wcre limiledi.I~. R.j}~fQl.. were b.L~m!1l' ihe cost 01 land in tlllliecommercial centers rose so s:teep:~}l tliLott i~ew were in .rivtIJlof the milway" inmthe forexample. This chil~ged iJllJ the nJinlelee~th century. In 19135 t\m!!lerdam"s [:l'hy!>ii.on m live ~I'I these :11'1:1111>.

Extelllsion 'lara (AUP) ~atg,'ed.emlltirely on thee.IIM ' pro,osa.ls. The scheme [ookas iI'S ~ma(:l[i:rag the poinr eakul:u:oo. futute growth (!If Arm~telrdlUIl. Tilltis grnwtirn
1'V';l'f):

1l'OCQ·mmod:).ted )' d.e"e~Qpi!\g a number of subb

urbs sep<lJl'aood from o:rae:anmiher b}1 greemJ zones,. f.'ach I1csi.den:tial 3!rea had its: ~w.n. daily i'ac:iruii£ies] di:rClOdy der~"eJ from. tb.e funcdon (!!f dwelling.; there wss n(ll ,commerciallleme!l' there, It was assumed thattbe male I',es:idents 'WQ!'J..-ed ,cilsewl't~(l j~ the iC~ty;in tlii~ fiel'i' western doC:kJ!l.rOt ,example.
!.ec:realtroI1J1JII
31'\eaS

anJCI de:s.cribed in ,qlla.nt~tati'ye terms, It is ntu,cn possiMe 'W :lix hefo:relil~ndthe feq'lliremencs for use in. a (functional) prtlr,ram. Desip resea:rci'i: sub~ seq~e!\dy tiI.!:rttS,tome sl~ !l!1!dPI)~ltjo~ air !~C 5p!lc(; these a(;dvrries de~a~d.

sueh as Slo!cl"p.las and 'rlc th~ nadit.ruo!l!of ~he sa-called

Am!lOOrdilmSeB~1!l ..... an DmpQI~aflt effiemllWllt .of the ere

pl!!i!l! Both ..

'!)O~ti!lye:

pi.!blic I'!lwk.~. p;.trb inw~!c-Ili!N.lcwellltto!lotl use plays, ill spedalpart illl the desi~. Thus: l1he .A:mstelJdl,unsle Das] induilil.es a rowing caarse, an aQ:1.I311ic S(pOlrtS center. a jlliaypol1lldl, nn open.-:lir th(:~r(ll", abrmd;ll}~ 'P3Jtlru and 3. fa:m~.

F!lncti0.n~~J'1).1~tion!l·i1!nd mO~I(li!'!!t Taiking' ~liicir cue from Americillil sde:mdsts: s:\lcb as
TlSiylol"., the origina.oor oh~b,~n~m,c millnlli!!!e,., mmu, dlcrill~H:::don.aUl!lu a:m:::hir,ecis made ll1!!i'e5ljgadOES in the I9:i:OS ~nto ~ow tin divide lIiP 3. A.M.!' plan. ~o'gi\l~ i~mOl!x~mumobjecti.vi!ty •.But t~e, tooi things a step f~rtheiJ' .. Not om.ly dI~dittitey orgalIi~e6mlU::Eio",s; tke"y set Gilt to determiine tbe 1Uh.l'hJll~m diml!llS.lOI1S l;!'i!'(I!!'.lSa:ry. :Fo[mn and function were ene .and. dlie SOlilue, du:y dec:~:lired, 01" .ltatiltu::rthe' flillucti.0n ",rod:uced tihie: rorm., and the old pn!llici.:ples w€:rce no Iolt.g<ll' applirnible;, "]F,OI'm fcllo,ws flJ!ru:tiO<I!." the e~dl@ ·of d~e:American architect Louis SuUivan,. long served as il c:lim:chyslog:llm1i,l ThJsoody .of Meas ,crops up lilll .. F.W.

du:: app:roitch tale:n.by GJ1eoo· chijne-Ultotiky, tile S designer of [ile "Fr3I!1Uwnet Kiiicbe" (192')". a
model kitchen. for sOI:::M.housmg. She IJoncei:l'edbcl' design as :I machine. Her icil.e:J.sissuoo ..Irum.thcaiboo!l'e suplposrud~nth;):r :I fnncOOI!I imp~tCSl ai. fOm1. In. nil!' lk~tchM aU11;cllio~swe!f~ p~diClt.!l!'mi!!:ed! and de'!'~toped 'DUt 'of ,ei.~()ti.O.micreq.~irem,c;n:ts.l! ErgonO'mir:s iiOl ~he littIJdy into, the mest ~ea]~EaJy least I:i[;ing' and postuJi!lslior the human rbody [11! dilfe:rcnt acrividcs.
Tihisr(;."Starclii. d(wdo~lld! ditlll"iliig
lihJll

"iJ.w:est fil:lr

efEicielilitproductio:n teclln[(j!ues, ini:ndu'8!try but. ,vas soon se~zed. UpOilil by ajdi!.it!)~ts~j];d translaood lum the shape of the SiP01ice. The surface needed for01i prescrIbed. lilJl:ti\!'i~'y cantibli.l5. 'be defined] qllamcil:alti.vdy .. Acrlvldes se[vin,g :11oomilOOOnJi aim, such las the P[~ pa!l'aJtiol'lof liood.arebliOlIght rogeldi'tel'lll. fI1!TI.ctiioD1s

M6~'tl~~h\l~~,Uf&lr&1.IW'cfr9RI~ru;autor
Uei!~n 1lJ~II.l:eellllh-<lell(lllijl

Londou

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Material protegido por derechos de autor

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.

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11IDU!i!T.ltiolillii f ~n~mic o

studies inio en~'

,cofiwmmil ol.ljfnng demesne mi\i'iti~

ntsur

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tI

Day f.lnd nig:I'u use The above studies into rhe most functional "~tch n rlluminate

of

jlil,stone ilSPCCI of mass housing. Other researchen have tried to man out even more y tcmaric"lly rhe activities than take place !.lily i~ djJ~' ou I in :I hou e. rami liar example is rhe series [If (li(lgnllllS mad e hl; t\ lcxander K I,<:~ of how a n house :is II ed, Klein proceeds {mill the (act rhm
movements and al.:l]\l~i,C'scan be di.tinguished depending on wh rher tile} occur by tla.y or by night. B}' ii.xing exactly when particular actions take place, he hoped to be :Ib~.eio say .~mm,c~hing abour the bare IlIlll1immn of space required. l\ IIiI example tlmt illurrare .j hi appruach well is the scheme JI I. \<,111i1, den Brnek submitted ilil 1935 to the influential competiuon for low-ccstworkers" dwellings. The UlSC is stipulated with ~f'I:'lt precision, even for different times uf the d"lY- The various functional l1i!!liIS, l~,'ing
n,I(lliIl

and bedroom

, kitchen

anti ba dlrnol1l1!WC

are gICIUll'cd wirh .~ rna eimum objecriviry. However, this objectivity 011,1,) pertains if [he space is 1I ed as the designer envisaged it."

n"'Il~,tllebruJk

Slutlk, ,ll'lill.- <If I11m..,IllCIlI arul • nlJlJt'rn

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lrI. 'an L]~~I Hnte-'k. <"111'<.' too "mll'~!iui'''11 ior I!""...._~"t.. ",ler' h"u,illg 111,_15). Fum;,heJ ilr.,r ,laml

JJ'I .... n tl"[1 Urn.!., ."'1') i'" Ci'fI'p,!';rimnlJ tOlT I"W-I,lI.l workers' I'luu ing, 1.o"'.I.r'" dra .. iJl~ ,h,,,, inll" day .mil niglll

I,,,,,

Material protegido por derechos de autor

lllie uri...0nomi(.!mIfifi.iJ sereiees Mul' S'tm!.]I]11J enlisted ~o determ ine the £fuiliPC 0f plldof a..!inst th~e l'trl)tml spaces 2lJre i set 3._'rn~~~lI II !1_I~f.ft.c .The ofl'-~I1Ie-peg ~.3cr1y in accordance with the g. brLWiilJding.u[try where Tayl.co:lill~llIilning the req~isi!:¢ servicesshs liwrnlly [n ~be centef or the house which has eVeJ")\'~ thing of a dillis. $Ui.f.lit.IIIIIT'~IIlS.T.S Iih.clJJ.~c!i!!gll.ll\e In d!Ollllg SO\W. The d~!ferenoe between Ser1i'1UiiU and served info:rms the dicsiglUlJ made by J1t[ld ..er' ["'mily ml'l<lli>t:. and! f!ln~d(ln'lil o~!!JIm1iion l..1~fOHI] is W]uJcl1~ess.ti""s'hfi"s. b<.rnm of fiJilrumfons ~omeW llfe. to any site wit~out d.~"u"".a!'!d imffi!edl~!lll:dy aftC'J: .r. "-.~.s ge:nera~ly centaln facilities (s~y for oookin.UlIi of dail~ ".Minster \ FIJ!U~[designed LIl19138 is 3lrguaMy the Il1GSt extreme .or did his f~~e!ir. The p!"(:fab:r[c!'!l!!~d!)ilithroom that ]Bud. number nf£erve.tflr~ 1f1'&"ipdautor e .IETS1IOF:r1lAl1J ~NIIi: ~ OO'Ifo!J!! \\Io!Il ~!iI' g. li~·in!l rooms d!!r!.aj<nrpQl!u of depii.!!..w·wm. Q!'1I!.e". an.y tC~)~e Dill"in'g :.'S . the [Ol.example ·of a des:igrn concept [n wl!JffiI::!lru pro{tlJtt '4110' 1!(.i rQf~6'.V orM W:ar . _1. A nlechanical OF utility core .i:limwlty. l:a.gallitd.l't1. med.' A m...NIl _~~aI~. ".'Il4~1i'I!.lS.~~ II!: .abi~ ter.mlilr 'is calculated .l\'~ul..ahluflol1.pace ~st!mcdl neiC~ll:ry !!fid can be: t:rSliliSpOifted.'ilt 8(:1>::11 Ilousc.ij}1]~ Ii~tcllll!g.I!nS '. Alf.1CtiliWj :~nde". zr""~' 1_ iCD:r. S) llIIb()s~ phi<ierrHlllt is dictated by pil"esall d dU(.11 i:1iII America.:Mttcts rb(lg<1!1l d!e~i'fiing:litera] "machines 3.i!9: III .1\1. !P~el&her in [9'4.i liv~ng' reems or iaedro()(ms who!'.!' h9ll51 Mr ~~fjl~~e (~oo8J .

. In b~ !i:ll.gn.s!> reconsrruetion. i~ his book iVo/rts .L. dm'o~oN:: lind the most r d.prewar ..in.ldrlg RJJOS1.ml.Jr. 1'0 snl . O.himk The ~funcl:inn!l~~. ("9.rci'lircc:'mral pmcrices. West G German] (as IIW3S then) and [11.1'mwr.t :"4cuf!.ltifl n..ln(.~" reat B:riltain.rll't building practice. du.s a 1I!"ln~1 i fill" optjrnum c".11' wnrded rhis oplimis.em is bm[lgliIt our alldll~.:lf~ induor car park.rt:tl.:c!iO!1i~nf rhe r.('idc:Js un [i)H.boughr 1I1Iongmill re visiona ry lines.>ull:.IS pa n of the war effort.ry the structure of rh.y~ dcsi.i~~~HdM!. mmcdl~' ~al~l]g its CUIO from fLU:unctiunal rcquire:nlnJcm:s.nu produce l .rre C:jjuciaJI~: impnrl:Jm cnunrries.ir\.oo rigid a pict'!lI"C ~h.li:'.de reproduced in ~m:icll)' b and r:M:il)n.~il:~ ere rhe w socia I and n<l!~!.~. 1Ii' nlc hypet hesis behind ~hi!l line of ~hG~~ght W<l~ thait kitehea.linl 'hi '~h. The design was in tbree Material protegido por derechos de autor .l. gOUT n111C[I p lans for heu ~jl'l. he d:t:f1int. Vl'1ljh.r!!!.~ml.H:'H. these ideas ami the quest for the (.ti{l.(]C'"e!opmen'[ [~~ work of Chrisrophcr Alexander.been ofinllSiimllbk lnflucnce unthe ~\:ayarchirecrs I.d W~r the ideas of the av. I.~s s I~h'e a "~1qi]i1femt:nr~.1: Nelhed~lmlds in. which hliilll.cmeasurements W nill~C!i~iI.:.c sol urion presents IIsel f 10 gica II)I. P. '\II ho e br'uu ghl:UIJ.lW~r !! the S!. This certainly hdd I{~~j'\\luh i\m4.~ aries.I1CmClh~ Idi> to fi trace and then analyze these re'131 ~IlRS hips.iml "Existcnzmmirnum' \\. moee la!>til'lp: il'ln~.1.!:!.m tllf .)rN Il~r!lfc the war th.~tic[rll]ll.'dt's preside r1C'~'.fe can incl udein this . Alcx:UldcF sets out to lind a gt:nt:raJIliy npl~lk'~hlt: :i.lnd 11m! cOI\!.\!'iI d si:o.izing:rhe d(c·~:~g1i1.d:l wdgfu~y 'I-olu[lll: 'c!1!lirjl:(t B(jIlI"'..d arch ~ 11L.~ German.eprobl.\USIS IJesi:gn."OOIld WOl. ~(]~ving dc.[I S~GN AND AN.SiS housing and l~jjb"'rl ~lbnn~ng: developed b~.is ~)f[I buildilng'~ f~.0:1:].:ttIcS :J nd enmputerscience ~Q :'IHaiU'lan ailS:iii:3!Cti.'~UI nil cnn ccpts.d mndc:~s" Formwas TUI .g brge t ~.gh ~llal.rfsldm: is d'lci~c-a Iha!'~ d. uf I."illnS. arclritcct cllld ..i"llmU!l.m.ctS\VC].bled<l..sll!!. hil! ~!>.p rOlr ~h.. [JC w tech nliq ues fw:nl mat I'IICill'lru..'. l. grew during the fiftics into <I s~ill1Jdard opus Slilll L\~l1sulll:.1] th e 'i>c requirements.ti problems. praeeiee dimrnsiolU:s empirical .di!lo:m5 fur .filrhrr. ~~::. :m.ily '1I::llvily.(jr!l.e 01'1tIC\:c!QP.d ma)!imij?:~~g I"'UOCSSlCS had] been in vesrigated be fore then . freru the dimcnNinm (If 1h~ srnalle .ri~1! when.mientl> im Western Europe.m:r.~~gi!w!!r ~~r~s.!.'J:ib~e make a "~)un:" 3I13~ysi£" to Thug. A dcsi'.gn Illii!)Mi:Iti. rrmJigim. lhillking in forms prevented desi gners from adop ~ill g: a plUJ'eI)1 l scientifie attitude untrarnmelled Ily trnderion or persenal sentimenr.lnln. Neufe r~ and histeam measured cl'erythung. ~~:'i:areh :\[ICI" ~\~Id.~inav~.. Ih'lI make t~Clrn ditlic~~~i 00' fu ~ ll.11(l1~<lli'l)n W~I'C drawn ~.~m!lhip:-. :I.c ~1 rstt im't'. Sumc fbr rhc pracrical HISI-: '[If rebuilding those y. garden '~mlllile ~ike evoked t.1 ody Qf ideas also millie ill.~~:111 arrangement ell ~nto pe~u::r'tilnle.r~.. sn ~hill .(j111 of t"rlld.e the problem of ~na..(ll:od~ly t1y miU1l' :).I vcrjtnhlc treasuretrove surface areas necessaryIar of'ill(orm:Jtio:rn 0111 the ev~ry imI!J~Ji!".enil~C<lling the fJ(/Mmm'1.gl:r the self-sufficient fUliinimmlist parcel of :!i.m:k. Ak~xan clCf iIIItrod uees S~ IC'I'II:..l:ic e tcchn1iuc:~.. Though nrher wr:llrc:rn l:tlil!~ 11.ys. quantity oW rc~~.. bedroom..truled out all bUli!a pl'edi~I)O\Sed atritude and made it ~mpos. III SL'..III Qb~ee~~.ifdh .~~chih.'1.. Aistl nf gHlwiug influence 011 dc~i gil d urin g ~he fi f!:!CS .u'u-g.6)..p]Jff!3ch 10.~.lriticlJ~ar. Ncufcrr's book Ilia.'li Ikt\\I~'.l~ciences D'cd!>i{ln-'m3 lidng s mechanisms .I~..~~ of far category it had been...&idcl'lt hnN':.S)rmlirtsis oj" FIJmi."Q<lds into the Jaws b and sMmltmls set by govemmem such as the '''n. done into as ITI:1xim..·~~)i.n plU!bli!>lu.a.IU!~ati(lnin'l.. \r.m::li: hCCllrtllCI'I10re par~ .i:' an tI this eontiau now IJo..-Thi~ b(." III e [11i nimurn su rfaee areas ~n :f~rce in IJI!!Ich suo.d'n:r Wf~lilc.

sellso:ln:edi wilh psycl1.r nnlil~':s less quorl:tiii.:1iI)l.n. schcmel'~~l'f..re the notes Theqeeseien of ~[I\V to f1C[lI!. The stance adop~ed by the fu.on~.e. '1. Altxa~dlel' apurely proceed!edl rromthe prindple th~l~ scieoltific antl]}rsi'S ..!'!s foi' !>ocial wfi$rtt!oID! a par witih !l!:relIioocl]lfewad have inre'>'crsibll..on:slh.\"~I1.91 W~i~e.. way of t1ruillking:" .· lio~llowed by postwar designers. this.nleJi have w3n~ed to tiline d\1: false nO:!:e!!i~ tile !!~ale p{ li(~ . On theone handi.!mmg" Cililt pfodi.. i\~d dl. I~ho'lll~fu with no I'CgSiM fo. The stinging crwtjcism of younger ClAM :recl'uim suclli as Ald0~1lI1E~'£k 1liI1d1Pemer' amrudAliwn Snurrhson \\I3S d[~dy ~<ti!lly !lIt ~I!:g rblilid faith in progrus Il. th!W r'\1ig:ardcdlfcs(!!!l'dlil1. :IIi~fIiIJDIII Li!:_JUi . The :rb~k. But rheee is w:mething wrong wi:t~~hl: WSiYdrueYi!re: going' IIbolID( ~t.g!hecill!l~ufld oom:text of iliI1i actilliuYlo be one of dl!l~poi~l's of a:p'pliCllti>@1'I from which tn r. by the inheritnrs oJ prewar fl.re nature (II r a "prisrine" p functional order b~iappealing to 11le.~dC1ipIQin d:te functiomll pl'Ogrnm.'l~d8Jmnd 11~~been.'Zc~ in the p~rigd folk.~sibleto nail down the exact nature 0:[ this rd~~i.mo'l'ed and tile ~t are all mf!OOt. nchnOC[.~fJctsJQf the pOSt\V1llf fooonsl'ructiDIl~d" II have p~t ~he~1! a!lplr..:lbili. :I]hey keptCryillig ~o pilit i!'n!Cl) erspec"tive the ObS()S8i..lce a :g.uborod.C the use..ol:ogy and! e!lper~c. Va~ lE. it is imIIM)...yd W(!!I11d wriee.and f<l'rm of a..y :!iluujug')lled archiileCltmc to their :rai:lmml.of ~~m'u'! [leeds and activ~tie5.gc:>tampll)s look at two lilte!'iof !!![pproach . "jf"Qd".e pl!Ilblic..e1:!ll~!:I"Pf~lrr..'Iml betweeiil nlii(lm.lism .afi.illSt~ m11lly notes have bee'm r.e!!leeds.c o(pdm:ism wotllid betritici.y. they d'idmil'twant ~o ~eaw.nctiOiilal:ists of pOSDY.lm~ni. On I:h~ Qltlu:r. "'They [the ':mod!c'[n'~\rchi.". with us ever since as akceyiss:ue in the discourse <lJ:tt101l:gillrcliliieeets .lid~.he same. "- M aterlal proteqldo por derechos de autor .i".t')f.wj~g ('95'0.r~woifk.t~al Ie.!ltd remo.hi~e~e"red W pregress.oOO desip..riousl.ar reconstruction :m:thl:c·cd ~:P:i4iC'l d!csi~!t te " mi!l.

wt'quiv~d :~i)fd'lkil.mry of human .soj[ bl!l~!dimg${d1e ITIcl"til'lg (1.ra!illlg' . Ihil~ mQ"'"me!l~from OIIlC 10 U.is text "Order is" Ill' 1960." He put Ihi!> Ld.r is il .HJ.. and lIb.e heigJl.! ~~{I object ively ol'£'lniz:e fm:u::ti... as 'in so many 'of I:elhn's pil:!ising dWJUlg~. ~01f~r so.t~ to engender a modus upcrandi almost di:l.~:il1\\"ilY the other necessitates sector.]thel'i:ng: SpI1CC.. ~h~ subiect of vliH! nC1H clhllptcr.k (If de.e "scrvcnt" l>pan~!.lhey 8fC. II includes the f!lll~wilil': . to theirs.ch libol<lw!ry [eve] a solid ser \i ices floor w.lulllU:: the prj.i:s~'ng ir.thing. 10.\t·tI by the WIH.lf..~ urlhe pmgr.Io.'Sgenemres aboll...form the scienrisrs '~l1att-heir rcseareh work is {j11J~~" part of .: which he ~~lled "the huiiding'~I\.. The impr. s.~d to rranstorm the program of ~I bl!..\ 111(..m archiree ~ I. dwdling sector. stu. these [iln'!" com.reviewing each uiher :1t.~~dc!.-iri~s" lIhl!sci!l-' dlUd.comp. gllil"dc:rs.'5CiJJ~·dl laboratories and the publicallyaecessible Salk 111Ice~:~.lU<.UIlla St1":'~.au i:i11b:.c liulll iO!nal~stsh e d imerprers i~! such tl wa~: . Nonetheless.] I i..n~i ~ K ~l~.ruu.'1i..:tOf ~. if i1ii'1~.1 tc I'n"l:l 011 Ihi!' m:. internal mbcl..il~! to . In. is '!I~al'the designer wished '10 im. d~c hO~S1."iM ill a .om. rewardsthe indiv~drr.:1'1:'11'.. .lim'! is cru!:i.'CK.on .ItI~sal~ly IlSI! of An dU411~.insl these "served" space.rfun~·in~C) \\ on~!i in ~.igning a building infO an .uni~y. m is il an t~i1]" I.\"1:: 11I'l srrum en t kep.t. he prominent place accorded 1:0 oolh dwelling and meeting '1:OIn~ pIClI.lilding: intu 3. t~wm with ~i1Ic structure.'flt [!!1~ hut resonates with dB.Pfl("1C ~s rhe sp~rin :!rld the ~\.Ire".on..(:~'I~." J el la. Is the ~}I..ri(J1l PIFOr:C.WI'tJ'I!ai ~rst glunce seems a 11I:i. He Iri.twn:of space n.]Jl." wh eI"Cdaily lifeisenaered he phs t~. ln the research llmildil'llg iesel f'l11. [n K~..ll~ent~uy and Intll:c(~ '~I'n.tCI:i.11 t'J5<..lli\:".~thc \\ ashroom. CUTII\'C~1Iti n h a II:' o In the nature of ~... ::>io~ he .~ai rnembers of that com:nl. go K. ]ikc This di~lin!.e~ignlll'lnlu~.i.'fkct!il\"~'lr i~\I i:l~is~o he 1iWlldituri.I~ldbe a hi r .. the street I (lml the g:. up :i scr nlP.e subdivides inN) throe complexes. ~n h is !.a. [~r design..:i.1 caI"q.l1t'dthis by ill!~eg.gn f[)r I~C S"Ik ~nst iture at ill. -ssion.m.!.. d~cpo.i res "ml \\ishco~ of 'pcgple for freel(\OlJl and sel:lIdly.'dw BM:hor Han. Aga.~I"tnkpbu.~ ins.] 'wi1i!lerpl"ering theplan.hi. The c-~!>'!. fiighly articulated and rcsnlurely present.i!i.l .'h:i(:.g bd~)w ..slitut.e dmll inant element.t clo~d_l" fn~l~m\'liult Wi~~'~l t Kahn !.e e.hus.!ith.'.. eaeh servin ~ 11 Ilr~ pal aspect of I he research "'(.ming of human ~r~i\'it)" b Ihe IHirk of the ilc.1 !1 "served" space utterly fl~xiMe .11-.q).pk1!1(. the research buildings.OIS.ivisl.. th e ~s!"!'rnce or the p:mgnlln- wgclh!l"f \\ II h gcncruresa f\d~ n ing (~fI.. This imcgr:l. impresses nil every visitor ~ hat rhe research seeror ~s ll1 uo way th.e "servant" spsces (:~J:iI~ h is case dlle not lncoml.The ILm:i.The il"n.1S.ei"lca !1mt the SCI"V3n1 SJ)~ICCS "demandl" :I f I~hi: bu iId!in g ma Ieri!IJ].]Jrds the cnmmunity a. ld much lfm.i: inn..'fOS:Sthe Cllpans~ 'Ii~!. enoflg~ in itself to produce a meaning(ul building. i)f the n.. Iller bLiliMimg.ng cemer. ml!d itmi II m :I 1. t wo medieval cas []C1':.ilbn reieered rh e ide" th..n !~ i . plant roOMS.. (: a 1 ifom iii..!'.. :lilr·.:>crl.Iy.rncl:dudh oppmOl:d.m example of [usr such a search fur the ml~.f:l1 II or cylindrical re..ire laborarory. k:<'bviil.t j)llS. ~~.~IJ idL~J~ of ~'h. the semi-public Material protegido por derechos de autor .:Chl:rl u g :~~milJ nd that the' served shm.0ter 1113:> never buill) arc dist rjbuted across t he sit~ !ill "'Th~ ~~..m.~llJpmn::.s klerable utilities) are made suhord inane to rhe "served" labolnllOl'Y .lisIill" the ta..l1fli mot ordr reffeetsthar \\'hul.niC.was.t is specified by the "vierendeel" system of OPCWl. Ka111l l}lIS~CS t h 15 q uest ~orl hie essence Q ft~c task ~ ("0 the \"C ry heart of the bu ild ~li1g preu gram .~helyp. An example this tl':li:rn nf thought is l~. The vierendeel spans the eM.hn\ view the hu~Miflg'!> "will"-in fun.in w exist.

.1 t.. .•) 1.:.*. !if~§n1~.. _sl<lir~iJ. • Itl'IIS~~~~')' ~Il 11l~~hm" .n~'1'I' (?J!:t:cc[" .. 1_ _ l_tr~I~~!'tI~"JI~ff...~\)rOTyo.~ ~ !. c..l"~ ll"d !'Itlld.I!' 1.<l"'j)r..~iud!n:g ~~"nd>1l 'l'm~~ M. I -~ . I rr 'j. l'I&m~!ld~ectm"'H~. &ilk hi~titgl~. ri '" 1·: '" ~.ic..honlX'>.h'.:il'S!~1) i1'l. I 'r • 1'"1 . roo.se.1Hr)r oerechoo {JL: Salk 11l£1Ul1t~ rhree n!~i!l ~O!l:lm Ilt~ !1I~.~rel19.n -i.ilJl$IGili~.I"I. or m!.. I ~" .o....'ng <.. autnr . III .I:! ":l ~~~.ml ..<.a.UM'~..} originlH ..ry _ _ 'l:>\)tm~"''1' Sj:Udl'~ij5 lI"".

c." «lI~Qr:num{nj.['! 0 f"p. w~niid ~.k of h~cw h.!~C· ~l:IU:I'j.en.!)) V.Qusi.y Ina.l'wtiltH he is ~n[~:'·i'ng .frill p/1r:.r1'l'a.l'O":.rnMllic.iin.. tlie'huiMing pr[)ptT. '\.. Tilt' \fi'Si'~u'r passes b. V~n E~ I.o" will.t:r"hmhted r~icr:i"'l'i{l.~¢t'!i-H~ be 'l1).cLcyQI SiJflt!I~l:UU.'l.xtedof'Mi:d irueriur i~.i{':..I"~. By 'I~:yl:rng ~tW!lS on these re~ilii0:ns'hip~Uld l)1'l tb. tJ+rflh:. }\ ~illli it:(]nfLunhtJ' !.LFI.e!>{.~ One of til[.1 pa\r'li~i~111wslls nl"~wi€. n:1ilM Clll... '0'.m:u itsel f1t:1 the lii ftics WiI'S tht~ arehhcer Aldu \Cail E.cd i~~rhi.·. 1:IT1 th~Jl~t~l'ilrs: hCW~l~ J une t}f I.k~ ~f llpg.C:tus:.ihml~iJul'k~ un cthllllLppn '~~.t.gott.ul1.i~~"1i!iL1j!I'~ . his' a~m rllm each (tni~ shri~ld [lirlclic. b. in t!J.~c.! les ar l. o ' -e_ I - pllg~~l..l .lti0M hl~t . Thc~1J g:l'Slu. It wm. "f.T{.1 !()i. 1 beckens ~o ihe . u ~C'I".____.~m(. imH(l'fW.a:gl:t t1'1.".1rQ'~::)rd" ~k'.l'l\i" 'd.l1i.'.sm as i..ltern'ed \'an [~d.HTI C.r ~rmnlglu. ~iJ dw Clrph'H~II.Hlil~~~< li'Hll . m OvC1'lN'Inw Ih!.~ r.II~h.s rhe ~~ntLy ZOllo. IIrlt:-Jirute"ia..'i ~m:l huih f. Jo.31:ht:'iwct:f1 ~lc[idtiJd.ii'cul..i:!..U) few.s~ol~.. ll~fferem::c:s in Am.nr .na.-------- 'l{ Twin J1Ib~nu~ni:n.~ and glas.l: t:I.l.si.en c. tm.1'(1' R!i pa~:!' or~'bl!'l'..If '1t~·h~.'i"n.J.·f} I d~!~ml:! that each slm.l.{)'!l.~.' s.m'S· Ihllff i.1'i closed.g Wib ~hll:lrdat krm:>hlpb !:I\~'celi'l.1\ es.c.etllili~j\'It:e".~ ' • I .:.l.~ ~P.(\.:.b.: fUIH:!lml:] li1>I~.t1n1. :111.ll:m'.\I[l".1 ""bihlren·s' world.~"n'iln:g mcmbL'n.TCJnlfi.cl. 111.gp:l1'Icnt <tile! tlNeJ hJW ~I:iti.!!..I~l :\l~i: jn an (Jj<Il. ~~'lll'i1.sly :"..~~~~~.on iu rhe li'a"'~I)...lY \'Ili:l. of I.'clu!I"'i ~~ II'h ... up POl.ri:'$ &\:1'1'1: tI! d~r~iar~'I.J:.h him ~·to a JO~ifL.Jll'Jleti fH'lil .I:H~U'l (I. .k 1..1)!l9~ :i!." clear to the l'isitf.!lh1 the furl) I. l~m\!iim. '[:il{ire i~'1J!ildillg thelil.• ~cmi-pnhlk l Tn•.·M wh().( f .[(:t !wh. much Ht.. nf U(ltl~h'..[i1il·~~.sl·dr..'!mta~ncd .this: was ~qll.'I!'m~'.k.~.1 and mkrtll's at IJndp"til~d 111!t.eMh a raised ..pprooth :1"1'0- ••.]ac.!II).. ~~rld.h!~~ 'he b'-'!l~~d ~ hieh If ing .~ur~ t\'cry 1'i~tch . bt:~)o...~.:dUlfIller by .6ti~'t: i.c. lC.e Orph~m.' -.'el'~ <tilrly om.n w ~~[we. 111[hi.UI~T:. Oqll""~I~. l\" II'! hh: \~'rifili~and li~uiJ:diflb'S'be a[h~rn"p[~d .1r .!b~ term '{I~IIyl.n ~it. • I j1..lili dt'.: ~W() or more een he: pc:J:"t:t...:'~'!i.~{. .'hhllll (:ltH.)lWm he S.lcVc.nlll·iming it. ~'lf1'. iIlllllll!'llll:H.\\. .IS th.\\'{llI'"lcl OLtt$1l. These' Higc t..tt'l'~element (.lilmc l. ~ .d give: [OHn to rh. fIr CII!.dJ~r~~ ~!!l!hml.tgn:.~tI'w. A guo~i ~)ohiI111}.~s.! 111c)fc thO!!i'! one: meening. .'d.1Ll:ct:iC4'dcd in milll:.il'i~Hdy U t{l. L..! ma L1. ~ - .l!S{ll:lj!..\:(lby l he {~II\Iii an.~tI.The rrlnn:1rk.~wcl'l~iipijng."l'l.fi" vbL.-lik~ .1 .' mm.)iJclc" sl1la]l big. 'trlle.h~r '!I'idJ~h.jr~~ru. "illl' F..i.1 Ol."Ct ral u d'!-'rtJw~l~ .ycd simuklrt:oouL~dy. T:brc!>pa.~G}U'I.yt:k.nd.lf 1~\"'c.dl: ..h~~l .~~ cun .1 \\!QfC ~ I I[)I~(.u~~ Ih. Ll.!. A Tlljno'r IHodif..I'l"~~~!iJ.r ~H"ld:~.lnie.mp:'Il"I.~)[)gm131 p3nl.(. am be I!icg:lf<'1!:d t]!.~~) I'I~"..[slbt:m:.~m1r:~~~Jj"!'lship he! ween lh~ ~{III'I'p~)J!l.nf~ tJ.ik..!'I EJl!~ u!'. . l~l!ll h..:bl:l~MiA'g's [drtrn: dl)J1lIl1.. . .~gtil1 AIh!lU. ". b~i'\\fl)\Cn the f Ol'ph~lml'~ and the nll\.: i:umponc:r:I.. '~'p]Jn.thc mainentrance U .s lU l.i ~k!t=)- ~ : oj .f1'l.umll!iW: "1P{.£c forms ~i'ttl It) tbe .

ic G')(ampl~s 1[1an:hioooture. for example.e form~t to expl.'il9uii.tIl33s'sd.. or RCJiI'!Kcelhaas.ems rUIiIi iIlmpid !>llcoeSSlon.. s:l:lged and linked by montage to otheraces. The impact . eonstrnee ~p<!Ul:S a eumplex sys'u~m of polyvalent i. Vi. timeless quality ofthese .c= :al1c¢ (If Ian act allies hi:m. the world.pact of such m.te a.f[ribmes. in :<1 new reciprncity and coatlier. sh01!lild IJ.tll~i!'nal:eLyreveal once mote the all too familiar patterns.Eisenstein and MeyerhoM. .rfu. "t:hGY illli1:1 maintain ~I) these . meanin. :in thisease these migl1. The im.eir tenlativ.ve:ry comer of the building chjldre:nw apP!'(iprhr!e fOf tffiu:jr owi1Ii ends.rrhy me eereamnial Oli' rimal nature . That belts designated for q~i~e dlispar". who at nrs[ sigID!t ~!l~m I!~d¢d i!l! qj. . a mad e in 1981. of ffi. circait.l: to the: universal. eo present sequences of acdons <!litdobservadens as isolatede\.~gfiliSS of t~ e sports htlld.omJ.l.:'!B f1~ffi_t{jifj!llh~~~jh J Q..~!:! !"ylbber Root" (If the tr ai~iln!. lihiough strallge 3!Tldfio(n:o(i t~ the tlnJocusoo eye.it.e ~arJ)ed-ta_k1: eearerstage in.'!l:Ireunlikelli}' co[lfrontatlons. sequence . If Van Eyck laokste rhe l. !"IC'W. Tsebumi S~ql..ofareltitocture 10 use.)' ldd. Kool. given fimcti.oonu:u:liclio~~ in :<1 dy~~mic manner.of dl.places. 1'0 this endt'hey resort 00 techniques such. "ct. the vi. ~Ile v::l_fio~s i. They alillld.ucing differences in hard surfaces and in f~antjng.~.g parallels between fcragrmmts which.1ll signifi.\.zoning-e--aed l'(lil1..egy is dmt if brings into \.ar. This he does by introd.n(lQl1f~g~ 95 01 imlC!'!Jdoo to c:. Dm.wing of.ollse site in Paris.sruptiOJl-phcnom. En::1I pmeess of dc~ !iuni/l'arl::Mli{n!: be draws newaad s:orprisin.criYitics are placed adjacentl}l 01.IIcue.ms.comain amma~ !'reem quite unrelared.mttOliges stems from the fact that the exeerpts fl"(llm life they .. referring us.tiveaotivi~~es in West'em society.l. Tsehumi i!~d Koclhaas are mail1lly eeneemed with qUestiOmiLOg blind .a w~icl'l strict rlJJl1!~tion.oo .esc two men '6'~'erydayacts not tiuatC'1(ceptiGn:d in themselves were iselared. The image c{lnjul"ed 1lIp by a particlJIl!l1' use is underpinned by simp. the Transrri'Ptj' U8(: tl1.gs 'In rhe a()ti. as dlose de\.f1tL~b autor (N~_81).rel'Sal meaning ef an. bCI'1\'(l(l!ilrlI.mi.As he writes in his iJ!lilr~ duetion to (he 'Transcripts. hy . Matr/~MJan Tr'(lU.:d:ist iln~~ysis decreed.yp~s of hard surface and rbe rodl)tgf.t be the differences.dopecll in Russian theater and film in dt(". Saeh oonoC:j)Es as oonfl'Ontatiolli ancl di.of this s. takes a ~he Pare de la. In the mid-eigheies Rem Koolhmlls entered as did 'f~cllymi-!'!htrgt-<$cal(l oomp¢li~io!i fbw new park en a former shu. 0]11 ~Il E oCCilsiolli tn be in search of deepe..ccepm1rulle of 3.cn.tghle.11..esign Scenarios (1:1' use In th~-jr designs Kahn arnd V!l1'nJ yck seem..lsi1is these occur ImlJo~-Western societies to n d.of wl1~t might seem purely obje(. IWcnties ~)r directors lib .ge tectil1Jiqucis used.witlit d!csigmc.1C1M)~ of drawings d raws atl:ellllion from dli.jc:w Ii! tool (hat t1~~i.".[f." resccning: 1:0 theabove techniques used.1 then was ri:cver directly visible. ThG Clones: of useare d01ll1sd andvisual~zed by dear divkling lines . in ~fia[ each has its own distinct ..mw atremion '10 ~lallf)if!g tool wielded b~' the funerlonalists . his arg-b]meillit. nn the \\IOIi'!:: simultaneiJU:s:]y.s to the drlltUMic effect. In n. The \VI'itil'lgll of Va!lilEyek il'l particular otten ducribe t!he relation between built {\()!'rnI and! dail}' l"ituiI.'[sual :.] lBiilrn<itd Tschumi. imbuing 'then} with ::1. magnified. This ames I Kolllhilas witb.Eisemste1I]. . dro!lm:JJtk meaning.ilol' lilas no trnuble ~:lkil1igin more than ene 3nJ.s vantage point to the relati€ln ..~ffN$.le fot:mlli means.lnl where the m.J.:. This emphasis 0'11 tin: '1:~ltu:rr.lcnivlties. Tsc:hlJimi describes his mMll!lsoj)cr:audi lh~s: "By going beyond the: eon'l'elll:~onal delinitjon of usc.t3.li~ a!lotEttiit di~tio".Th~s:.!i~ies: 'of everyday life.tcFpl\llti$ It.'fiB~. to archetypical 'OF l1i5~of.

an.lu or m~lleria..~dillg an tI the I ran Srenee ~~pi frin~ hu man act i\'ilY Ihere liesa fund1Ha'n~ntaJ mntraductiml .I.Ii\!:de h. urn.~Ufe rcplil!. l.1 IlJC'W theme in housing. librre cal'! be seen II!> Oll~ of 'he ca rly examples ill which lhedolm of interna 1 su bd ivisi 0]] is. l\ C(IU'l'lql)l\rml\ el y 1:11)..\s. number .~~lgdistrict.r. te o These approaches are n01 mutually exclusive and can often be (ouml together in o!lle M1CI the same demands filr :I greater Ikllibilit).g a distincrion between ehe loadheartng structure and the W<lJi p'lrniti'Olts.n:qlJ ires lnak~.. made d. this diversity we can make' our II number eharacier of permanence. Once a bt~~Ming' or part of a cirv has been completed ~[ \\ ill lines.Un:: ~f the ill:l>k.~.zzy by tlae ~h\:~~1r ~pl.~. we will usc I~i.. sleepin g..cts-]"af> become i'[H'.!~rdnul obstnu:t flJ.ibilility f!reliuppOM.g !itimd.i:pi~ el\ iSI in!j: h~ ilt struct ures in \' iew of rhe d esi re fo·r du rabil ity .te !i~g..pp~yi[).li'~d.m of the material the ~:hm.in usc.ncil':~c lung been ihed.!!"or esigning a d buiMimg C0111pmK'd (If I<!rg:e spaces (eg.rc ~ nereasi II1gl~ con fronted wi!h OJ {~i1cMllla. di<1gnos. elltin:g.r1~j.tmpllic of a. FJ. OIl each new oceasiun the Q"'I.. The huih envirnnment h.'quitc dchhermcl~' dmwii'l.u!1lr.di~liun can be termed the Hrfprfii.tirdy wi'll I~e 1Ji...]il':~$ilJn (If the ho~~c with a Il~.Fe~$inglly reic'!3:rtt irn I he ~.owi..e liVing filoor of Ihe SC'Il~ikl("r HOII~st'_Each f:1l"et u I" d \I. western world.kd in the brief Tlais unpredictability.li7.i rs and sport] Ill: events) He:.ring an active ani tude" Tll~ s' OQn \' ict ion und erlies the arrangemen I: of'lh.ibi lity means something quite different dm]1L ~tdocs when applied 10 housing. lor industri a 1 f:l. How the desire for jleldbll~(l' is expressed and then 1r:~l1s~a~cd ill..n\'een the life "'paTilof aiJlJ..t. TIl<: term ne:l>. The dlcsi.l~adc had in p1fi.a<n 01 the r. rnmbtllJg . certain ftLrncl~unalist arelurects as C-Jrl~ as Ihe ~birti!es -take the mabile met'l'n. ". I~ ad di ti ['11.c ()bi~~I.'s""'.ablo: building elements.:ibility.JC~ITN. B. stage.I .iO'it design depends alrnose cil.ible plan..ng:sections.~'d .~ core discussed earlier in rhis chiipn:jj· has ~t:d in sume ~~re. or This.erol~..cd b.1 decades ami is now often :I considemtien \\ hen designlli.:.~t Material protegido por derechos de autor .. mil'i~g for flc. F~~'"I.C1islinction between ~lIcd (bearing) dl!m~ms aTiid n':pla(~able O[]~R_ almost nm--:. \\·ilh the btlilding material dlc'Cli\d} fix~nE=: use uf a building or urban the ensc.:/l'tel!lfl "'.l!l:IU.gner eouldt ihl:iTh ~<iJ1..k"igil l".tc dtti~iOilS nbeu I 11lesl1. lticwdd's Schroder House is :I perfect t'N.$ :I.jI.illI:r~cmpl: '10 replaee I~C coci1dvcii\:Ctl . II . lLc::hi eved dli.i.mk~:l.II. .lIlil.ldwas a conscious act r. In '~h.accmc'. when the K~1fllCIUI"[l and rhe cu:nlj]!)<sili.. a Corbusier's pl!\~.ng: a choke. three I'CS]!)OIlSeS are particularly worth :r:l1ntitlning: ll'le posrponing of deeisicns on rhe pl.cxibility ill housing Fle)iilliilily is net .~~.':t..clf/lJdl'.~d !If i~d] 11I~}logi 1iI] a ml social ad l'aJll~es" C arc hit'ci.. [[I :I or p~"in.~s.blc and creet~ng cond iIiQ ns forthe actions in and aruuud it. In this limited survey.lrgm:a.tv.~ differenee iii internal ar~l1~menl to illustrere how vaeious buill \liol'ks dealwith this desire fOI"tle:.:ibililY csn lead roa multip licit}' of ofrell wid e. The prewar a\j:mu-~ndc: prim. the issue flf we~ !.t~~.cs. [)weUil!1lg fOlf l~j.'m <1m".'ded freedom in use as.l'ing nne dcs~ gil process b).!.:c!'~ thi!.l u nti ~ Ihe last ssage 0 f i he design prucess.. clhng--\l· ash]o g. I'.Jodi dilef(."q~i.peof t(l!iMS al. \:ilkll". f design.1111 project.ml1t!r t'barn is 5uggc.:ip~ll Despite the design - prm.I)' II/flu: prlJgmm fo~ rhe designer.1~I):rmand nexjbjlil~' In the dc\'du~c!l.\11gi ng SO]Ulions n r 1\1 h~ch olnly few have some bearing nn nur l..(.g II new bl. !l.of objl"Cti\.'i"c. inl'l r.uia'bly be ijmed. pl..ls in irself n cunSUMc:r ~mdlJ.lUI'C 1i1mdiliJanion~ in lise.

tre lli~ft I!InslLmotmed.R developed .tdJ.r a su:rf.~di!.~. ~ave been. il1ldivi.~g: sJ.!· Andl yet :I..s:ervjoe shafts alnd :SiiIlj~iiry fadl.1cidc and til!C!! act '!):ll.ss itollsil1.eJlI'iat~ i=_.Judi me ba. Of relevaneehereaee du: attempts in ~Wwki.ciolJl ofRienre..ivjsioni I'cr h ouse into r:hl'!el:!zenes set plI:ralld W.rubdilltde' lilI" spaee ~Ildl use PCt.a:dll:ptatiGfiS 9y .I)V~S eo be asrelevant 8!S."Bi" .xploit W~Ul we p¢ii~est effiei.!.. b" opening afoldiiIllg' :partition. Gwit ~iehre.rea}.1Xi'<lwci'!! of .lso been (jcrdes[gm:r. the !k:irti:hclIiI . SA.d00 <lW:i!!y+ All this is ~!l! illl'lll. This cere hpo!lIIlW:[i..0:n . O".l!d's !lt~empt '00.yand :sliding paJrtitilioml!8 rule Q:1.uus~[Jg is one of tile areas in wihufuc:fu . ~ooP<!!!lJS can furnish t!iucrenmililrul1:g space all they see! fit.tecwru.vlll. Thus. SlidIfi. bW ~t"w.... had not slhiulld. som.. cue from dl:el:ia!J1!~ of !:h\(l!'(IOr-nS· andlth:eir pGli·idon in dile loadibell<l". hlgl whosi!lloQi!' pl.!bl(.t..~ Scltrii(](l!'-S:Cllriider. a:ncli tabl~s Jlildbeds can be f>r).lIu.tories.A:rchi. by seven merers.'~ . oemli!iuty {lite e~ample()fD~ Stijl pf.il'lg 8tilUC1~rc.e.. :. t!he baltmFO(U(m is m. living I.e recent hJillusrungpl1)it~ci'S (sec the illustra [cd eJr3. TI1i~ !!~ii:I.es of ~~~e..IS'e of ttll.dlbeal'ing 'cme'rnents <tl'l./\!'tp'f:'oposcda. .1'l!:a. IilI ml}~~eases ~h(l desipcr:s choose! 1'0 ~oncenlmtel:lle !>ervi.labme:bedlmo:ms beenme part of du.lI procisi.g nUI'O.e livinl!: space .or'a! !iingl~ peorrn:)J!ern subdh. Van del' 'Ferre in A~'ml)i!id:tm's D!iI:"per~ blJiM.lS ·of deta~h:.ries are fixed.w.~buun :h~liIIIill'lll'.!idI demerus.uijjlCtWfi between l!~rer and infl'3struCiJlllre-ibodl of them.eas !on dwe~liW!!g'.inly i:n19i~1J! such an mtf:rior WOiLIrud.f·th.community"!! lle.~i. the s:ameid.iii~. This ~n:ing tOOk. !Gel'lfll.·d.!Uiii .t.e'Rty tile limiood. O~ly the i\it~irwen.li!l!llf. .ed.d:.eesof the ~o!ils(l'~n a OO!. !iUJllpOtrt :se\'ern1s.TffilJroO!II1l arefixed belo'v~lu8!nd" it is up' to the oocilil~:l!l1!rs lo furnisliJ f.r. n.i~ tllIC::id(.l unirs.J)ugb 3progrnm of illlPlied lXl~rCh lnr/) the possi. possible if t1he client" Tmu.bilities of pre:falDrlcatrng loa. h. I:n "lAIR's solll!twn the di. HQU!e.!'flem desipedl to.~o j llId:gefl'om.e"e.. the .sponsibiJity-allJd.ed to (J(.rdIj~do~ of ehe elements l'e([uriJ..di se.(l'.h..Schrild.we ~(jiedw llIugment me pcssirDiLiti.I..e Jr!Q1il!~.I!J19l' I~"'!f!<. ~1rS..ed tht'.tel'!. This tfmlltmcnJl: aUows the :i:nJl!I:M'Jorthe Schroder of Hotl!rean aSllOnisMrn.DeI' of possiMe uses fo.tru. that d!e:cisj:o~. Only the PQ::!iHotlDr ~be entr..dRiet~'eld.llld. d~"':.s .: living rQO:InJ~ during' the! dll.l! . Again.e by Dtlifi~et.DESIGN AN]} USE oCCUpanUlilJl.I.j s'llIlM.". eountry by rihe FOllliUd'ml:ion(0[.aw~l\itec~.i. mass h. ensure opu~IT:Il!m 1. ha:d no'I' a.s\!ea.g" At rhe end o(the twentje~h. unuMmbble in m::l.tSlon.. !e. 97 des~gfi as rigorofiisilis rhis would! flot Ih~ ~ been ." ~nd if she ~m.. se that me.trn.p~itil'DiI:!i .emiJ\llOying :.1lalim~ ii~:lJr(!iliiii!: d erec h OS de autor 'f.dua1 infii]1 kin is aceompanikld.s:pacil ~.1 Researcb (SAil:) ""'0 frofi~ 1'964 plilis!b. VOflI der 1~6!tfltJ.'lll:pj.

\~cd ....l!ri.itiun ufwall rOlnituorr'TI~ and Sl:i"'/IOC shafts adher . Th i's 'me...J.1Di~' i i I! !! ~DIJDDDDIDD~ ~ D~D~..\.Y may :~rise in cases W]n... geod.\:~Ii~it O1Jls.ex.r..g of smaller ones.lclm:h'lblc units t'o be r. ·fhis strnte~. anll the third.!S are dra \\ u into I he des if!.Io:EI""~".. is nu less irnpml.ND .ill l!:Gji!! c:::J i~ 0 D ..!!Q11!1 III.. . '"--r~~~"IIIfII!! II D'--I L -II c::::::::::Jlii! m :! 1 I~! EEl ICWiI ~i 1M all iii I!lillIl!.!)._·_~H ..Il:lt.1 S[rlwn.'I against ai rpellu t tOli1J.a~~cd h uusing systt~nl.!"J'·c. and a r:adlcal sranrlardiearian.. in • ". ~IHuw~n~ F(u HI.g In dmnCSIIC .)J'~ OI.W rl!I LlI LaJlalnl. th.n 111)[H. One of rhe IllOS( s:pecmclllillfo£ sli.NAI.. o. ""T~~I~! i.-ing' reems.ity in the :.Jl:!~I"d". To [loSie Ihis chaprer we will examine two examples W~U~1. the Fulk. . inner 7_onecomaini.SirUClion rhe drive t(~IkNibi~~t¥ bro!:lg~ll: bOD:~la dustilThG~ion between IroOld'b(..Y81.1S IS.t:om......dill.on. Fuller's p'mp~~~1 pushes 1\1 the \'C~'Y u~ _.DDDD~ 'DDDm[l]IDDD~' DOgODDDI DIID I \!DIll ill .dimen:stol1Ls. Bt:'twl:l:n Ihc~l~.W 1\.S.)un:ordill."W and ..umn tihJc PU]1i:J1of departure fOlr Tl'IrI:11 iIIg11IIn.g servi eesis .!I Ii'iI.iG~ A..&WI .a ~oes.rhe [Iced for flex ibi ~i....'~d)umof choice with'ill1i an ind W.d{j'i (l!:m'J~f'.) UlI.!]1I: ifi)f rhe \}u.1'<_.customarv for' the lil. some Wily i!) .~m]Iilul)ogy.in \~hi(h file grid 3ndl intill is usually the entire design.~ I!i.esic dome p."". ~er~ti!C'mship ltu':t\vl:en ool.11'11 s" \\ ishes.OIIElJ """""'.!Icm1.. The ]ius.freedom .ihrmly in udHw!da:11 bu. Uh'il! ..Cl] hll"ge s'llaces obtain nlther th.g ~'O the I!(X:IJ 1.l'fI:! II • ~r ~~ m i .. :l measurement srs:n:m rhar enabtcs the i.ng ssructure andihl!ThU. of ~AI~ 'lISl!R~!tip!!~~~!e~1 liyin~ rn.ihil.:S. In lmri$ apueal ypricvision i1'. Inoo."I'" ".t in protect it .'nfold.1)& the ~ml'd<J'pililg structure is no more than ~ "kinl.il..~F!I'1rDE!'Kl:I"li.( rn. 98 om: used .]n ..l<I n \I":in~ FI.].tt:hic\LllP: ~he desired fi. a "~l~r:gin" in ~A ~ ~1..1 S! ri I'!.ih:lillJg of oHk'lCs.~ .._ I SAR3D2i .ol s~'LIJ(li\lisiml has to do with providing an .". ingu:rb<llli life amid separating it t:~Qm the hostile climate outside.-.mll.". /i"r HJtlj M aterl al proteg id 0 por d erec h OS de autor ..'OI1!CS" .t.'! m ZlI! DDDDDDDD~ nDDDDDDID~ III! 1m 11m InOOrl I '!!III II II 2Zlrl I .I"..roposcd 0)· llw:kminster 1962 fOIi Placi ngr)\'er j\!1 1:1 h./.~ Ell DO IrI.&!.CUP01JIl.rlif..li ian 10 .

dc:si. !IJ~~ Ihl:!i.b Fuller on II number of: peojecrs in 'the ." I'll x 2.~ rl' c'.3n:ied by fi fine :FornI). Here it is 3Cconlp. ~fwt 'by.ii> .i~e:d oonr..-ga11ery fo I: the .r3I:Y f::lcmt~es and dl'f: ![Ie..l'i.:'.~t_ nglia). l~mi'ted to!an..r! .lii'j! Ii. 1)1).g fl}frh~f. ill --. an i ondmlfererrli. the s.fj spanned by s.ng .-.pk of 1'101'.~id about rhe!l(i.12 g00d eX<lm.s of arC:hjtf!ctQ..lild~f~g..roued .tltOlare "'~trol....etweeJl freedom i:il I.tllls.rriS onbe .a .1] i.i:rnef (! r:.room·IInd ii· r&>t. J)rdte'CtiOiIl ...~1 This pl:~e£ilij1pati.als.}hhe.The CD1tj n: :program :i!j.en thy 11"cIO!Ho!lL~h~r b. (. [llO!lruri.This arts center brings: t. f~Ii.C and placi:nrenI of the 'C.f/ted.c .t(:!)j.l!!t!.<.lSP()'C! of.9 1.~ Ilmifonn 'indoor climate the hall is. F05ter often I"fali. in Nerwieh (Ea.i:ln withtedl.J:ts.aspace for .el.e-r.ij.'i S:~lf.icinjj .ni¢)l~e' to create alii even djmate. remrns in me ""Iwf"kof the English '3rcb:iJtiec~' Om!<ln :f'!l. .stI'I!IQtiOl!11'nOlrtt.c:l~oo] offule ...tr tho 'V~im~1 .l bl. This -stru'Cturq)' (lo!'lSdUlte.i~ lions.lin preduee II building is the S:rinsbllry Ce-n1tn: fur the Visulli .. :I:in~ !'.ith a.ogerbel' inan enormO\i!. Gi ven this: skin providing.Ifleil] uoh~ersit}· . wh(lworked \\'il.spei..IS.-dQ'me.QiiI.Nil)USIE.aur:!ltflt.g<fiJ.sl Sl)i(J!i~ur)!1U'[ 'C(ln~ctjon.iniumi and g:1a.f-fjC~ ~a of H2.against the enh[la'dli~g dimflW-~lhi:n.u.i:ln lind ~~:tc.ss.f..te€l pmtals.. a srns:I~t!zone :ilhlcto heuse all ser [cessani. The (~pellJ SP::fUCC' with a tl"OOi'l' SY. ~tiltc--of-t:he-art qlJ)!<i"fYct!t)U and . nrIlletiT:lrg .DESRlN II.".ial ex:hib." ill.' tl'l!ES point of departure oon:tbilllcd: '.early 1'97'OS.ry s:t:riI1S.zedi 'tb:efle:xL~ bally he s!J:ove. li]:uimI.gar -al'le~b!ltimll..:J/.irtan.

\i'f: a":li-.~('tl~l. C'{]u:dly (!!oi' th~ separation of d"H: liliic-h<l!l frnm' rlre fL'Wa~!r~llfi.. it~.:d: 1IS:iembi~ hirrlgi'lr (liicr. t~in:T.'I ~']1.(.\lh'l:.b pm_gr~rn u e t).(lCpcndecrlt 'of rhe !Il.~r ir.rhh <:lyt~hwher t111~hl1~'" The !dlOlc ool'n~s' il~nl'Sf>~t").~set iri."mp"i(: uf a b]j~Minl:! in w~'il.:ilil':'x" ..\'~n.lbi~if. f ~.h e !ip(!clm:ul~1" f(i1ttll II.d~ subdivisible. InJids.} ANc\:I..oU'r) Centre 15 "II dUtl~~('fI~ (').1:and .~IL the :':l.1$.r\:"~ they i:lluld IR\. pc:rf~('rlr I:r:lf'r.t.11~ n ~iL'~}nn.:c.lal"n ..t~~ 'id){)yl nftfine IIrl'-.ntd rr m. 100 Mat®nal pmtGqldo por 08nJ8ho8 oe autor . fr[.~iSt:d ~O.d m'~"l=fl rt.t. Thus.main sllao.1 the tH::t'tl 'It) ail:. The ll'l~etlh. "·~lh.\11 in .gr.·!rll!.. TI. I~~~~h:.l.rt height h>cp M. the lecture hans.l .g(: crfl\iidcly .::-~1 \ril hmJ.:h~hc d_{~!ikcHi t. I ill.j'l:lJ C!J tl [i b. UIilP[ecl.1 . (d.cnitugt.iCr.~ rllr ~I·C(Il~:J.1irc:s..w.l.:(~ml?(l'neH1:n.ing: .i:qul'l' I :.IlESl(..l.:1 n an 'i:r~ci.!m. rtall a hU.t cnipl.!i'"lfledrom Int.~ A?>lf.CJ'k:rirJg l.:1:tW:llJr~which when seen fmm a distaneehas much tlf~l brcreil templj.lmn-. principk.li~tl. t\ II olth~r' ..

.fj spanned by s.s of arC:hjtf!ctQ... nrIlletiT:lrg .DESRlN II.Nil)USIE. the s. .pk of 1'101'..-ga11ery fo I: the .QiiI..u.rriS onbe .g fl}frh~f...The CD1tj n: :program :i!j.<. a srns:I~t!zone :ilhlcto heuse all ser [cessani.r! . f~Ii. li]:uimI.ii> .icinjj .en thy 11"cIO!Ho!lL~h~r b..f.i~ lions.'i S:~lf.:J/. J)rdte'CtiOiIl . Gi ven this: skin providing. ~fwt 'by.Ifleil] uoh~ersit}· .. dc:si.l'i.tllls.roued .i:ln lind ~~:tc..i:rnef (! r:..tltOlare "'~trol.".zedi 'tb:efle:xL~ bally he s!J:ove..' tl'l!ES point of departure oon:tbilllcd: '.ry s:t:riI1S.ogerbel' inan enormO\i!.~id about rhe!l(i.l!!t!.b Fuller on II number of: peojecrs in 'the .irtan. This -stru'Cturq)' (lo!'lSdUlte.sl Sl)i(J!i~ur)!1U'[ 'C(ln~ctjon. 1)1).:'.J:ts.e-r.ng .t(:!)j.lSP()'C! of.-.-dQ'me. [llO!lruri..ni¢)l~e' to create alii even djmate.}hhe.ss.against the enh[la'dli~g dimflW-~lhi:n.f-fjC~ ~a of H2.g<fiJ..etweeJl freedom i:il I. !IJ~~ Ihl:!i.spei. in Nerwieh (Ea.iniumi and g:1a. :I:in~ !'.This arts center brings: t.C and placi:nrenI of the 'C.ij. F05ter often I"fali.lild~f~g.~ rl' c'.lii'j! Ii.ith a..aur:!ltflt.1] i.a . remrns in me ""Iwf"kof the English '3rcb:iJtiec~' Om!<ln :f'!l.c . (.lin preduee II building is the S:rinsbllry Ce-n1tn: fur the Visulli .~1 This pl:~e£ilij1pati.ial ex:hib.3n:ied by fi fine :FornI).c:l~oo] offule . an i ondmlfererrli. Here it is 3Cconlp..gar -al'le~b!ltimll.stI'I!IQtiOl!11'nOlrtt. ill --.i:ln withtedl.room·IInd ii· r&>t.f/ted.i~e:d oonr.early 1'97'OS. ~tiltc--of-t:he-art qlJ)!<i"fYct!t)U and .el.tr tho 'V~im~1 ..12 g00d eX<lm.te€l pmtals. l~mi'ted to!an.l bl." I'll x 2.~ Ilmifonn 'indoor climate the hall is.IS." ill.aspace for . wh(lworked \\'il.r3I:Y f::lcmt~es and dl'f: ![Ie.9 1.~t_ nglia). The (~pellJ SP::fUCC' with a tl"OOi'l' SY.als.

.

t!!!r\1: of u Im~~ti~no=(hm mlk~:up the A'iids on the b'l~~Ming artd carry Ibt:mn d. buiMi.t and [he Industrial Rc\"olmio:t1l.llriegncd perspective. ~f rhc priln(.Ii!1Jg I\vmn this C\.ollogy andstructure arc b"ck U'U'ld'CI' professional !lCTUlirlY though '[lOW Icr:l.g :lind wall structures w .scd.'Sign.~~qr. b.~ appnl. req I!ire the t:wu.~i! bel \\"r..llg" techno. rule these mJ.bSCfllIClliIl~..Y!W... th~s was louncl by ~egard:ilU.~.logy were :sin lln~onlpnnied by .U. on pr the uther hal'lld.'h.ude.1I.1 ~nug~''Css b!.)n i'ldh.(: structure refers to thoseparts tJl'Y. this ·!.-il: blliMln~s wo.ing: and reason. aS~t:riillg: that ar.!ly the opposite. ~11\r~s~ul1an:hill:":11JIn\ri..D[SWN I\~n A:>J.. building tec-hm.k:d iml: Ofltn the.. A!>3. how tu il'l~h uptm.u.rhie-nlI1lClllS . OPP~!SiIC.tUrll! fl"ilme: 10 'be fil.'"S. with steel and concrete it \\':110 th ..yil'si:mplkit eouditions.I. lkrl\"L':S~i.. A thorouglfu ~ffil!Qwllcdge of :1pplicd mechanics.: (lcsig'l1.C lill::c..tliIJ tlccn. Sirlce then ~:hb dist ino.1structural issee when buiklingm brick ami stone WM..I'imin!.QlmlOn have been of incstimeble i~]fltlc[l!.l.a much mon.q Ull"UL"<lhl Inml~tH' y demands ITIaclcby l lwe arc io consi der the sign iIll. measured in rnererial.mrtmcm.d ~..r.:\'.JL In Il r!h~r In ~h..ip~. variety of interprdati~m!i.•. with cffic~cl1icyand eCOilOlm.''!iQ.On1pn!lcnL During t ~H.el:llh-.\: been ~s li'n""ml~' n mOl..f~.!'I..~.nterms of fUlnJL:ti()nand eeonumy.'~1 tipp 01' ~s an (] nea-bearingwalls m S ha!.h~pi!l. this can !-Ieafeci. material lrn.}lsens. As.!i~rM.U\\~l I'll the FOUfl~<1Iti'oll!i. b\'~~!lnl'!:~t::no.d3Jt1di~.. huuldin:g as determined parrition h~ lhl: functions Cli supperr and Material protegido por derechos de autor .. ecome part ~)f00 r d.g structure asme essence 0] buill I(mn.e shape 101~is ide<tl a so~id> objective design fundamental was 'required. Thill Il:ch]wll)gy . result.in~ one Of other <\11~lc~mlhe dlcmanlls structure makes on thl. ..nc:ss· of .:rib\: facets all ill' the rCl'llioll~h~p between desil!:'11J ami srrueture we rai~1::!ill! p!'Q"~~s. has slc..n~d. be done wirheuc due regard rOI' developments that began with the EIli~igbtenmicm..'lI lends i~sclr W~..: fo·r 01 li)on~ I~m~ built of brick and stone.eand efficient use of the means ~\"illl'lhle. tl. New advan .rc nol primarily ~mltlht<lrjn!!.t:.:r WI. [I ~'~'H'S. rise of I}.. The sc-ic'l1Jriticttitude Mk~lpl"ed by Inany a l~leol'is(s '!nd architects nnrwi'icd the ideal nf a rarional architecture.MTI. ventilation and 1:l'l.:'!'n~· c~pl structure.T .~tp~)~sih ~c dc-finil ion (~flh C '. am architectuee dictated by m1:del'smnd.SII"W.• since lh. The 1:. :·t . \WH1M thus bcwmc.r.teria·is (. The CI'o!ution of science and ih~ ~!:~\l.rm nrul (... serve ill .clil nl)lug~' :!nd srrucru re jn C'UI'I'CIIt ideas Oil dl'signrn.iilt._·d"um ("Iljl~h'u("11'm~ ~u:d in aml"cin'Wun:ed cencrete.'ill understand it 10 mean lhe entire lJ1<Itai(/! ilSpUI ·~'. Stl"!. .md science \\'l)uld 1>1J. :U1t~ [If materials. ". dark :lnd ligJM.cliar..~ echnolegicsl and ecenomie progress..or !cchnnlol!\~' and a:rn IUln~lilalu:ablc Hnw were rhc openings in the.~..pc!'l~"1tM e element of 'he: :m::'hitcct's dli1:i~y practice...ran he dc~crihcd m.~ !..u!JIUlh'i:r:IO:dahe functions ·~)fS'!!lppu!rt and p<lniriJull in till: ~Rnlll. Llp-Ollthe Ih:~ig'n IllI\(JC~S~ . The ~illh~l'l~l:C the building structure hal.lI'Id n ln a ~~nl:l'.nolllgk°.e~lslng dou bts as 1'0 the bo UUl clk-ss. -]"0' gi\'c I"JIlgili"ll.\ eXJI.: 102 The wuythat dcs~~:ru'::IF.-cd in [he .I ".lm. WIIh 31:1 olhi..ilc ~PilC<::S il'ltu .eofl architecture.ti!y til:f:e b [ent rhe concept of structure acurminideolugicnl eharge. n·.1surge of C)1ciIcrncm:1 abnut rhe 1l..t. From then 011 a building could b~ described and dt.nJ..lch the mMC'rial at Iheir . hClI~inJ:(. the bearing' <. a past ~15 ptl~l'lIhuions d.:rl.~. I!()i\\'-CU.tirions.ehilcciUJJrl.16:1 r:C\\' decades ul i his eentury ]h"WI:: seen im:U. !lu.! t~C'. :~~.'1ln(:~ h ~uiilld uf ing t..

I'Ur~$Beca:use ..] ilfC.H.ie:ty).:!iilt!)tli!r.t/it!g :!ij'l(.e pCiriod the (. The (ull.of lliI.cek t:empk.l! dng cathedral spaces the Oot:h.ltio!'!:s'hip betw~Ciil!! built fG:rm land stl'lICHII'JI.l.~.in. Thcresl.lilily d:iwppcilrcd su druJ~ Add.ilS tUil!ilt:ltS sC3!rl'!c:ly if at: ami C:J:p3Io].D.1'l1 doml! .> pillars is rnu:.netce:1l rib cenulli}f wnn'idl~~ the :g.Ui'-e.I"..~!d.ild !lsl'l'igilTIl3ml 9Jslig.ign ..lHo!.c principle o:t1which (~l1c&k tf'mpllie building' was ~ased.pcd tilnifuoc ~y ~b(l Rom~ns.lNI':IlU.ic buil(lcf1i saw 3S iIlllsl:rJling the Dl¥IIl:C' an eartihl.s.ighrn1Ci.mtl 'p{'akwj:d11 Gomlc '~"!l11l)drllll. ·""llkb.ccdlngly hea\'y and pI1a:cimg'a.irted hy t'lle e:.tail1lld.l!'1llly the i(::oU!'!iterpOIrt Qt the Or.n lIln.JJ~rnum.:kof. This enormous te:dmicarille a p Material proteqldo por derechos de autor ..pp.t ilIil:d. Middle Ages..iV:.I"I:1.t--e IS its deiP10ymenr .".rm spa.ar.. we ~~.n:ilfica:mcc ill rl~~ sculptu~~alimjlat:t .u.m. i.".itive: land i:nt:eg.turil" the link I:}c~weeJ"I s!'riucturoalilJd fon~'a!fd . T~i:s fl. "j~Wt~d from .er" succeeded in bu.cal and fOrl1llJal c"finsjder..c of }tornaD.tdy ~y . e"'~iI!Jj[J.p. .!}. theintegrated srrucrurewould reach It I'.:r is:1IlI 'C01tl. aj.11. cDablitrl. tlile. we can regard as st:rlJ:c1t!.4.tensl:oll StlreS'. plllilrs and :lr~b. of Ihcad. Th(: uOli~fl.!!ii!Thd:tn~.ltf01lm ". {)if 'fhis pri1ncipl(l of..ns ~b.l. !.trnv'!:as ii. lOoIth~l: tu liBII\'1lL~~ ari.!ifm.~hc marble of which II~!'.nit the " Jei.tonc' as d!u'lI. Fur ex3!m.a:ted in!l\'bich SIr.Dg tJile plri~cJ.n tVi'l.pc. fustlch '''IP. talland l. ..hlwoc..1.:.. CihiilnC~ei'isl:i.g remain un- Wbe. by m3ki:m.lu~>e.liS!'ltIl(lIl.at (be 1f3.tfiambiglJ:(IYll rc:l..~iJul1t fonn sillris..JI. out in boldl rtilief aga:Lmit its Sl.cl.'. arltchi.roctu..icall plaee m begin. In Inc --an . t~c archhfil: .Iti.at the span wi..e.eIin'l:iilli~ ating :! m:!xi~iim (if m"t(l.{l~~!JI.in!t}t of f()lfm~iJlJdEitruetYf\~.es aiITI11~1 ffilliWillil:g the !b<ui.. ll'rin:cipl.Gmpr~~ ilmtJo an all hilt :i_mpelile~nbliC voJ1!lme tfil:lIl s.of!ll'i:[fi~.orf 'lio)um<.:!fff§.equalled.Y!ra1i.m and structure SllJitlc. an.oCa p~icated.c oltlily t'rlmp. Its decS. A.The enermeus mass of du: st:aekcdl elements (basto':tncnt.. This is the '~rpposit(.pl(er 2 !ll'rud ~!"a::llsft.ve} gradl.o!lli.g ll~i'ges:pans i~ s:t'(lnc and ill the eonerete dle'\reil. Iloi"tC1Ccf. h was builr in m~mJ):ry(!If eil~Sll:rAu~slus in .rjj~1fwoo t!lt~ built f(Jlt!11.t'pting tl1:l1l:he stone matarjal l.h~f~ is Llu:1~ if <l!!JI4' oondmg sl'l"~'S~in fihcsc sttuctutC!l.!terrlit to W~J.t.P:i[lthcIJlj) the clreular dome ".('(DSi:oli'l:.rulmdwQirk fOJi :l.ild.bcqua1~ t ities of the :mal.ructUi"c TheG'l'cek bUIlt f'<.dlik~:tiru::tiolml tYllk-a. wC'Il.ln0e betwciC.s free 01 ~~upj:lM1rl.1. diris ~PQn W'3Snnly made pessilJlclJy ~.l.g.f of roree l~ smn~ SbrIlCU'lf'(lS had a \tefl' !'£mpl(l.t.3S possibille.s so rypka] of Grm~ di1'l:ct infiuc!1J()1.] of till..s.theo1!l in Rome.hlm-v~ ~p<l:!l tbe diS~:.· What ""<Ii! :iJil!idilimlyconsidered a dliflicult~dat~o~<shi~ betwec~ ~)Uilt ftJ(rma!1.K examplesillustrare dIe :rcJaliimilishir ibelwll1l:n the form and ~l1e paa}1 (l(f furees illJ the :SU'iIllI.millhe transfer of force is derived from l.:lics tine tr:anifer Qljom: i:1i'l1 th.~.cti.liiti.ln..t~ts. This ~Iilnk is det:e:r..h.cment!> we 'c~!u IIIl illugmlj~tlll't~·lIl.e of It)lk:l11!g up /J(.ohi~ectl.'i[Urt:~.icalsoJiI.ujWmg.ding in Ii. 1iI1C~pihl)1 rU])C~'i ll'ruIh~ structurc.lc building .\V1I('11 (In.dfiulJ. is ke.CJi:.l!t: would lon.ls. the In GmMl:i..b (tn~ '0[1'1:1<..alyzing· ~he rela!~io:nsrMpbetween !lcliign and bl!lill jiorm is pwbalbly me mosll~g.yi.."! is ~tscil_fkept to a r mi.ple!.u:l~ llif.i. large number <J)r s:1!ll'pon:s (~he pillars) at !int1JrtilJi~el""iials SQ dl. ~hii: ~ill."Cc~n.pans 43 meters ~[:h~C1!i'emc:m tllil.iotn1!W(lttcn :8lPaiOlO1~d ~"UppO!l"[t.ly t:omlll. Sp~1li1puts i.(:sITucturc.ighl.] onthe f'O'fmof d'H~·c.l i.Iij!IIt·.l~ l... A.iiTI[l:l'~il:ihl(:~:i!i!h'S of tni).1di in rih.bjc.\l'<: lIllIS 10 iJu.lI.ili~lls .nncd less by tlile stnmgtll PTiJNrJj''t$ IOf the m3!t:Cr::1al t'h:m hy opli. s SIP~. Wit'b (!he atJ1".~.dtfu.e ni.l:!:'m I!cmp:le di$c'llIss~ in Chll.rave) means Itflru!'!Jt th(l or fhl"C<]: reS !!omcw[1. .frijl\rls!v.res!l~O:IiU andihlf' t'Crlston Ot:t.i. S3Ii'sf).l. Tile !C'11cd~c"'ill ma!iter' bui.1 'Of G:rc!1k temptes I>ctl1i'(\(~fl suplmrt (pillar) i1nd load (arc.img 811.d strueture is of great si:g.lood.dby dtc R9m<li1l.el1ab~ledthe jROiffillIl ma800[ builders W erect lmild:ings w:idl vasr :space.pt do. The r~a:n.". t:t'mple.hltru.c(Ca:m(:one. Vilhoilll~l:new arehirectura] idtml. uirhcJr (Pfm.d!11 tl:1. Jic.JJf@reed \f. ttll~lI~re. c. transfer of fOiU'!1l~'..ing of d. pifi.2 Unity of for.ndpks (\Ir rbuiil.'(:hanj(<illYIlQ(: thernost log. '~o1L1ldon~y t be put iin eompreseien.LUS[ng ~he Ilrtih.If ln ~I. CelDlltrndcs~Ia!~cl'.it. ~'l]flIOOiJ[C [1I1c1'1:is in.gbt !I~a(..cr:bll.

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