# HNC Aeronautical Engineering Aircraft Aerodynamics Assignment 1 Learning Outcomes: 1 and 2

Answer: The chemical composition of atmospheric air is 78% nitrogen. 0. The atmosphere is made up of four gaseous layers. the layer closest to the earth is the troposphere. 21% oxygen.9% argon. then the stratosphere.05% carbon dioxide and trace elements of other gases. then the ionosphere and finally the exosphere. .Question 1: a (Outcome 1. 0. Performance Criteria: a) Describe the chemical composition of atmospheric air and explain how the earth’s atmosphere is divided into layers (50 words).

and how it is used (50 words). Performance Criteria: b) Explain why we have an International Standard Atmosphere. . even pressure and density do not decrease uniformly. Answer: Atmospheric conditions vary from area to area and are continually changing.Question 1: b (Outcome 1. For this reason ISA is an assumed set figures of pressure and density used for comparing aircraft and engine performances and for calibrating aircraft instruments.

.813kg/m³. Answer At 4000 metres the air density will be 0.Question 2: a (Outcome 1. Performance Criteria: d) Use the section of ISA tables provided to estimate the density of air in ISA conditions at 4000 metres altitude (1 line).

827)(6 lines) Answer My estimated temperature at 4000m is 262. Performance Criteria: d) Estimate valves for temperature and pressure at 4000 metres altitude. and calculate a valve for density using the Equation of State (Gas constant for air .2.Question 2: b (Outcome 1.2K My estimated pressure at 4000m is 612Mb P=ρ RT P ρ = RT 612 =2.872x262.2 =0.813kg/m³ .

Question 2: c (Outcome 1. Performance Criteria: d) Compare your answer for 2a with your calculation for 2b (6 lines) Answer My answer for 2a was 0.813kg/m³ and my answer from my calculations in 2b was 0. .813kg/m³ reinforcing that the density at 4000m is 0.813kg/m³.

98°C per 1000ft or 0. Pressure. Lapse rate. Answer The ISA assumed value for temperature is 288.25Mb. The ISA assumed value for pressure is 1013.2250Kg/m³. . Density.16K. The ISA assumed value for density is 1.65°C per 100 metres. Performance Criteria: c) Give the ISA assumed values of the following parameter (40 words): Temperature. The ISA assumed value for lapse rate is 1.Question 3: a (Outcome 1.

Air density depends upon the atmospheric pressure.Question 3: b (Outcome 1. The gravitational effect decreases as altitude increases meaning the atmospheric pressure also decreases with altitude. Performance Criteria: c) Explain the variation of the following parameters as altitude increases (50 words): Temperature Pressure Density Viscosity Answer As air raises a drop in pressure allows it to expand. temperature and humidity however with an increase in altitude the reduction of atmospheric pressure is the dominant factor and so air density decreases with increased altitude. Viscosity will be greater at higher altitude as there will be less viscous adhesion to the surface of the earth then at lower altitudes. . This expansion allows the air to cool meaning that at greater altitude the temperature will be lower.

outside air temperature. However this is only true at the time the calculation was made. True Airspeed. This is done using a correction card.Question 4 (Outcome 2. Answer Indicated Airspeed is a rough indication of the airspeed taking into account manufacturing tolerances and wear and tear in use which are acceptable if within limits. Equivalent Airspeed. Equivalent Airspeed is the results from wind tunnel experiments which use a standard atmosphere based measure of airspeed. Calibrated Airspeed. This is done by applying a correction factor. . Calibrated Airspeed is the airspeed of the aircraft taking into account that pitot/static sensors may not measure the true pressure values. Performance Criteria: a) Give a definition for each of the following (25 words each): Indicated Airspeed. and height (pressure). True airspeed is calculated using calibrated airspeed.

Question 5 (Outcome 2. Answer . Performance Criteria: a) Draw a flow diagram to show how Indicated Airspeed is converted into True Airspeed. showing all corrections and procedures.

This will cause the separation point to be closer to the leading edge then in lower angles of attack. turbulent flow. Show by the use of streamlines. Performance Criteria: b) Sketch a typical aerofoil section at an angle of attack of approximately 8°. and in particular the separation point if the angle of attack is increased to 12° (25 words).Question 6: a (Outcome 2. Explain the effect on the airflow. .-laminar flow. transition point and separation point. Answer As the airflow encounters the aerofoil at 12° the air will flow quicker on the under surface of the aerofoil then on the upper surface.

If the aerofoil is smooth the separation point will be further back from the leading edge because the velocity and therefore kinetic energy in the boundary layer will not be reduced. .Question 6: b (Outcome 2. Performance Criteria: b) How does the smoothness of an aerofoil surface lift and drag (40 words)? Answer The smoother an aerofoil the less surface friction will cause drag and so generate more lift.

. When calculating the performance of an aerofoil Reynolds Number indicates what speeds and pressures the scale model aircraft is subjected to to ensure structural security in a actual size aircraft.Question 7 (Outcome 2. Because of this every wind tunnel test has a Reynolds Number which is published with the test results. Performance Criteria: c) What is Reynolds Number and what effect does it have on the calculated performance of an aerofoil (60 words)? Answer Reynolds Number is a measure of the ratio between the viscous forces and the inertial forces of fluids.