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(Captain) Kavya Sreevalsan Kevin Rush Zi-Qi Liew
and measured with least deviation. and finding an angle at which a block will begin to slide. but to our best ability we minimized bumping or shaking table. and the multi surface area block. For P5 we measured the surface area of the four-sided block then repeated the test on each side to investigate how surface area affected the trials. . Lastly for each type of surface we stabilized the block and slowly raised the angle at which the carts stood. With each trial we added weights to the carts till they became stationary. Then we repeated this with the other surfaces. plastic. This allowed us to record the angle at which static friction released its hold. Experiment 6 involved the ability to calculate the static friction coefficient between a variety of surfaces and surface areas by means of two methods: finding the amount of force needed to slide a block across a smooth surface. We began by measuring the mass of each cart used: felt. Error will always be present. This information allowed us to calculate the static friction coefficients. We then took one surface and repeated step P2 with five new masses to investigate normal contact force on friction. We then calculated the static friction using = W . We then took each weight cart and attached a string that ran down a pulley across the flat surface. (max)= n.Introduction. cork. We then slowly added weight on the string after the pulley till the cart would slide.
Derivation of the coefficient of friction with tension and flat surface. FN FTFFs FT Fg1 =m1g Just before the cart begins moving Fg2=m2g F=ma FT=Fg2=m2g Fx=ma=0 FT=FFs m2g = sFN m2g = sm1g Fy=ma=0 FN=Fg1=m1g (m2g)/(m1g) = (m2)/(m1) = s s Derivation of the coefficient of friction with an inclined plane. Fy=ma=0 FN=Fgy=mgcos Fx=ma=0 FFs=Fgx=mgsin sFN = mgsin s= (mgsin )/(mgcos ) s= tan FFs Fgx=mgcos 2 +y FN Fgy= mgsin Fg=mg +x Just before the box begins slipping .Derivations.
028 0.078 0.2358 0.28 0.43 0.099 0. The following shows the data and calculations for when just enough mass was placed in the cart and weight hanger for the cart (felt.2058 0.06 0.09680 Cork 0.08580 kg Mass of Added Total Mass of Cart Weight to Cart (kg) (kg) (m1) Trial 1 0.089 0. Calculations are shown underneath each table respectively.28 0. Mass of Cart: 0.078 0.3858 Mass Placed on Weight Hanger (kg) (m2) 0.48 Felt 0. (Note: Significant figures will only be applied to the final calculation for accuracy.053 0.035 Total Mass of Cart (kg) (m1) 0. cork) to start slipping.289 0.158 Coefficient of Static Friction ( s) 0.054/0.1638 Trial 4 0.27 0.47 The following tables show the data for five different masses in the cart.1238= s s= 0. Mass Placed on Weight Hanger (kg) (m2) 0.228 0.038 0.189 0.) Type of Cart Mass of Cart (kg) Mass of Added Weight to Cart (kg) 0.055/0.2858 0.08580 Plastic 0.47 0.058 0.44 0.08 Coefficient of Static Friction ( s) 0.055 0.09680 kg Mass of Added Total Mass of Cart Weight to Cart (kg) (kg) (m1) 0.1238 Trial 2 0.50 Plastic.2138 Trial 5 0. This is an investigation of the normal contact force on the force of friction.048 0.12975 Mass Placed on Weight Hanger (kg) (m2) 0.1138= s s= 0. Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Mass of Cart: 0.45 0.44 Felt.072 0.092 0.139 0.109 0.057 0.1858 0.1958 0.054 0.3138 Sample Calculation: (m2)/(m1) = s 0.1338 Trial 3 0.29 0.066 0.062 Coefficient of Static Friction ( s) 0.29 0.Data.128 0.21 . plastic.09475 Sample Calculation: (m2)/(m1) = s 0.1138 0.44 0.
2308 .159 Coefficient of Static Friction ( s) 0. Mass of Cart: 0.1958= s s= 0.46 0.25 14r 52.5 0.32975 Sample Calculation: (m2)/(m1) = s 0.5 0.49 0.0 0.20 0.045 0.0 0.50 0.29 Cork.09475 kg Mass of Added Total Mass of Cart Weight to Cart (kg) (kg) (m1) Trial 1 0.235 0.0 0.135 0.13975= s s= 0.155 0.653 52.0 0.20 0.14975 Trial 3 0.Sample Calculation: (m2)/(m1) = s 0.25 14r 26.075 0.055 0.085 0.23 13r 39.155/0.653 Sample Calculation: (m2)/(m1) = s 0.130 0.24 0.130 0.134 0.653 26.0 0.49 Mass Placed on Weight Hanger (kg) (m2) 0.068 0.17975 Trial 4 0.0 0.48 The following table contains data for the block with surfaces of varying areas.068/0.23 13r Sample Calculation: s= tan s= tan13 s= 0.653= s s= 0.22975 Trial 5 0. Surface Area (cm2) Angle Measured from Coefficient of Static the Horizontal (degrees) Friction ( s) 114.21 The following table contains the data for the block as it started to slip from the incline.24 Coefficient of Static Friction ( s) 0. Surface Area (cm2) Mass Placed on Weight Mass of Block (kg) (m1) Hanger (kg) (m2) 114.13975 Trial 2 0.653 39.057/0.083 0.53 0.121 0.
25. and finding an angle at which a block will begin to slide. as the surface area decreased from 114.23 and 0. it was 0. averaged. It is independent of the area of contact. the coefficient of static friction was 0. However. we cannot draw a comparison about the precision of the two methods. the tension method. Using the first method. Also. as they slide against each other with little effort. the coefficient of static friction between the two is very low.5 cm to 52 cm . Plastic has a very uniform composition. Therefore. cork and felt do not have a uniform composition. as does the metal ramp.27.24.Analysis. There may have been human error in this experiment. but had to make modifications to the second method because of a lack of materials.49. as there were times when we needed smaller increments to create a more precise value. meaning there are protrusions from their surfaces against the metal ramp. the box did not behave the same way on the metal ramp during each trial. The average value was 0. 2 2 .45. The value of coefficient of static friction did not increase or decrease with a pattern. The purpose of the experiment was to find the coefficient of static friction using two techniques: finding the amount of force needed to slide a block across a smooth surface. the coefficients of static friction varied between 0. we can make conclusions about surface area and its effect on coefficients of static friction. This may have been caused by people accidentally shaking the table or moving the box. as long as there is some contact between two surfaces. The reason for the differences in coefficients of static friction is due to interactions on a molecular level. However. on average. Even though we used the same amount of weight. there may have been human error in measuring the angle of the ramp in the second method. Based on our data. We performed the first half of the experiment as written in the lab book. More effort is required for these two surfaces to slide against the metal ramp. the coefficient of static friction we calculated for felt was 0. the availability of weights was a problem. Therefore. This shows that surface area has no effect on the coefficient of static friction. Additionally. For plastic. For cork.