2102-487 Industrial Electronics

Transducers

Industrial Measurement Environment
Field

•-40oC to + 85oC •Humidity •Hazardous environment

Control Room

Indicator

M
Sensors Signal conditioning Transmitter Signal conditioning
Operator/ Computing Interface

DCS Controller

Control Room Noise Source

Records

•Air Conditioned Space
Interference

Motor/Power

Arcing

Lighting

Objectives
• Able to read and interpret the manufacturer’s specifications • Understand the physical principles of various sensors • Able to design a simple measurement system from specifications:
– Selection of Sensors – Design signal conditioners and transmitters

Actuator (output transducer) a device converts the modified electrical signal into a nonelectrical signal. Sensor (input transducer) a device converts the physical or non-physical signal which is to be measured into an electrical signal which can be processed or transmitted electronically. supplies energy in the same form or in another form to a second system. . when actuated by energy in one system.Definition Transducer a device which.

etc.Lists of Energy Forms Atomic energy Related to the force between nuclei and electrons Is described by Einstein as part of his relativity theory. Is related to electromagnetic radio waves. displacement. force. Related to the gravitational attraction between a mass and earth Related to the motion. Deals with magnetic field etc. microwaves. ultraviolet. infrared. visible light. X-rays. current. voltage etc. and gamma rays Related to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules Chemical Mass energy Molecular energy Nuclear energy Mechanical Electrical energy Gravitational energy Mechanical energy Magnetic energy Radiant energy Thermal energy . Is the binding energy in molecules Is the binding energy between nuclei E = mc2 Related to electric field.

acoustic wavelength and intensity Temperature. pH. heat flow. entropy.charge. (specific) heat. mass flow. concentration. volume. frequency. reflectance. polarization. oxidation/reduction potential Thermal Electrical Magnetic Radiant Chemical . phase. permeability Intensify. area. magnetic moment. wavelength. current. dielectric constant. dipole moment Field intensity.Signal domains with examples Mechanical Length. electric field. capacitance. pressure. state of matter Voltage. all time derivatives such as linear/angular velocity/acceleration. polarization. refractive index Composition. flux density. transmittance. force . torque. reaction rate. resistance. inductance.

Ettingshausen Effect Bolometer Thermopile Thermomagnetic Effects: e.g. Resonant Frequency) Radiometer Effect (Light Mill) Electron kinetic and Electromechanical Effects: eg. Ettinghausen-Nerst Effect Galvanomagnetic Effects: e. Thermal Dissociation Electrical Joule (Resistive) Heating Peltier Effect Charge Collectors Langmuir Probe Biot-Savart’s Law Electrooptical Effects: eg. Magnetoresistance Photoelectirc Effects: e.: Diaphragm Gravity balance. Echo sounder Thermal Expansion (Bimetallic Strip..g. Amperometry Flame Ionization Volta Effect Gas Sensitive Field Effect Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Magnetooptical Effects: eg.g. Liquid-in–Glass and Gas Thermometers. Thermal Flow meter) Electrical Piezoelectricity Piezoresistivity Resistive. Piezomagnetic Effect Radiant Photoelastic Systems (Stress-induced Birefringence) Interferometers Sagnac Effect Doppler Effect Thermooptical Effects (e. Faraday Effect Cotton-Mouton Effect Radiant Radiation Pressure Photorefractive Effects Optical Bistability Photosynthesis Photodissociation Chemical Hygrometer Electrodeposition cell Photoacoustic Effect Calorimeter Thermal Conductivity Cell (Emission and Absorption) Spectroscopy Chemoluminescence . Conductimetry. in Liquid Crystals) Radiant Emission Chemical Thermal Seebeck Effects Thermoresistance Pyroelecricity Thermal (Johnson) Noise Reaction Activation eg. Capacitive.g. Piezoelectircity Electrometer Ampere’s Law Magnetomechanical Effects: eg.Output Input Mechanical Mechanical (Fluid) Mechanical and Acoustic Effects: e. Magnetostriction Magnetometer Thermal Friction Effects (e.g. Friction Calorimeter) Cooling Effects (e. Righi-Leduc Effect Galvanomagnetic Effects: eg. and Inductive effects Magnetic Magnetomechanical Effects: e. Photovoltaic Effect Photoconductive Effect Potentiometry. Kerr Effect Pockels Effect Electroluminescence Electrolysis Electromigration Magnetic Thermomagnetic Effects: eg.g.g. Hall Effect.g.

Transduction Principles: Physic + Chemistry Output Mechanical Mechanical Thermal Electrical Magnetic Radiant Chemical Thermal Electrical Magnetic Radiant Chemical Primary input sensor Classification of Sensors actuator transducer modifier .

Ta Ta Temp. Td Error signal Heater Td . sensor Room Room Temperatrue. Ta A simple closed-loop control system Dummy driver .Sensor Applications Monitoring of processes and operations Control of processes and operations Experimental engineering analysis Environment and safety measurement Reference value.

– Static Specifications • Accuracy • Resolution • Linearity • Repeatability • Linearity • etc.Transducer Specifications • Transducer specifications or characteristics give the information of how well and how quick … the transducer converts what is measuring into electrical signal. – Dynamic Specifications • Rise time • Time constant • Cut off frequency • Dead time or Time delay • Settling time • etc. .

Static Characteristics: Static Calibration •Static calibration: A test in which known values of the measurand (input) are applied to a sensor (measurement system) for the purpose of observing the sensor (system) output. the operator might feel confident that error is within certain bounds. from the results of a calibration. . The input-output relation is socalled “Calibration curve”. However. • Unless specifically indicated. • In any measurement. calibration is static. the error can not be known exactly since the true value (input) is not known. An input is applied and the output monitored until it has stopped changing. a plus or minus range of the indicated reading.

• uncontrolled inputs affect the instrument in random nature V C Measurement Method Measurand Effect of uncontrolled input on calibration . T.) Measuring instrument • Certain inputs which are largely contributed to the overall error must be kept constant.Static Calibration: Statistical Control Measurement process Environment (P. rh etc.

S= ∆y ∆x . operating range. It is normally given in decibels (dB).Static Characteristics Measurand range. span: the range of input variable (xmax – xmin) that produces a meaningful output. with zero measurand applied. Dynamic range is defined as the ratio of the largest to the smallest input that instrument will faithfully measure. Full scale output (FSO): Difference between the end points of the output. Sensitivity: Incremental ratio of the output electrical signal (y) to the desired input signal (x). under room temperature condition unless otherwise specified. full-scale range. The upper limit of output over the measurand range is called the full scale (FS) Offset: The output of a transducer.

Static Characteristics full scale output (FSO) full scale S= ∆y ∆x offset measurand range Linear case: Nonlinear case: y = Sx + offset y = S ( x) x + offset .

it is quoted in as a fractional of the full scale output. Normally. Percentage of reading ε a (%) = ( ym − yt ) ×100 yt Percentage of full scale ε f (%) = ( ym − yt ) × 100 yFSO Absolute error: expressed in the units of the input parameter .Static Characteristics Accuracy: the difference between the true (expected) and measured values from the measurement system or sensor.

It is expressed in the percentage of the measurand range ∆x Resolution (%) = ×100 xmax − xmin If the input is increased from zero. So. there will be some minimum value below which no output change can be detected. this encoder has a 90oC resolution. Each time the shaft rotates ¼ of a revolution. a pulse will be generated. This minimum value defines the Threshold of the instrument. Simple optical encoder .Static Characteristics Resolution: the smallest increment in the value of the measurand that results in a detectable increment in the output.

5 V Output = 0 .95oC/bit Temp.5 mV/bit Input = 0 .Static Characteristics Example: A temperature transducer that outputs 10 mV/oC is used to measure the temperature in a chamber that goes from 0 to 100oC. So for 5-V full-scale input. Can 8 bit A/D converter with a 5-V full-scale input be used to produce a 1oC resolution? Solution: An 8-bit A/D converter has a resolution of 1 part in 28. Overall resolution = 1. = 19. It appears that the converter does not enough resolution. = ∞ Input = 0 – 100oC Output = 0 -1V A/D Res. each bit is worth 5V = 19. sensor S = 10 mV/oC Res.5 mV 256 A 1oC causes only a 10-mV input change.255 .

255 S = 50 mV/oC .Static Characteristics Overall resolution = 1.39oC/bit Temp.95oC/bit Temp. = 19.5 V Output = 0 .255 Overall resolution = 0.1 V Output = 0 .5 V A/D Res. Gain = 5 Input = 0 .5 mV/bit Input = 0 . sensor S = 10 mV/oC Res.5 V Output = 0 . sensor S = 10 mV/oC Res. = ∞ Input = 0 -100oC Output = 0 -1V Amp.5 mV/bit Input = 0 . = ∞ Input = 0 – 100oC Output = 0 -1V A/D Res. = 19.

Precision: how exactly and reproducibly an unknown value is measured. Or the ability of an instrument to reproduce a certain set of reading within a given accuracy. repeatability = maximum − minimum ×100% full scale repeatability = largest deviation − average × 100% full scale How about: a transducer that is repeatable but not overly accurate .Static Characteristics Repeatability: a measure of how well the output returns to a given value when the same precise input is applied several times.

02 9.02 10.96 11.08 9.32 11.Static Characteristics Example: Three load cells are tested for repeatability. A C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Maximum Average Minimum 10.92 10. The same 50-kg weight is placed on each load cell 10 times.47 11.00 9.58 11.20 9.50 11.08 10.51 11.50 11. The resulting data are given in the following table.20 10.92 .03 10.43 11. Discuss the repeatability and accuracy of each transducer.50 10.49 11.52 11.93 9.00 10.42 11.39 10.08 9.42 10. If the full scale output of these load cells is 20 mV.99 9.48 11.53 11.47 10.58 11.01 10.09 9.97 9.02 9. Load cell output (mV) B Trail no.98 10.02 11.94 9.

x x x x x x x 7 x 9 10 9.6 9.2 x x x x x x x x x Min Min.6 9.4 9.6 10.4 11.6 11. 6 7 8 9 10 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 Trial no.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Trial no. 6 Ave. Load cell B • Not accurate but repeatable Max.4 10.0 10.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Trial no.Static Characteristics Load cell A • Global accurate but not repeatable 11.8 9. x x x x x x Output (mV) 11.2 11.4 11.0 9.8 9.6 10.0 10.2 11.0 9.0 10.4 11. 6 7 8 9 10 measured value random error measured average systematic error true or expected output Trail no.2 9. Load cell C •Accurate and repeatable x 11.6 11.2 9.4 9. .2 10.4 9.2 9.8 10.8 Output (mV) 10.6 10.4 10. Max.6 11.0 Max.6 x Expected output x x x x x Min.8 Output (mV) 10. 11.2 10.8 9.0 9.2 10.4 10.

when x is increased and decreased or vice versa.Static Characteristics Hysteresis: Difference in the output of the sensors for a given input value x. (expressed in % of FSO) (indication of reproducibility) 100 maximum hysteresis output (%FSO) 0 0 measurand (% range) 100 .

(1) best-fit straight line (2) terminal-based straight line (3) independent straight line 100 output (%FSO) output (%FSO) output (%FSO) maximum nonlinearity 100 maximum nonlinearity maximum 100 nonlinearity best-fit line 0 terminal-base line 0 independent line 0 0 100 measurand (% range) 0 100 measurand (% range) 0 100 measurand (% range) . which is usually descried in terms of the percentage of FSO.Static Characteristics Linearity: (also called Nonlinearity) A measure of deviation from linear of the sensor.

94 13.01 12.86 14.70 19.88 2.18 5.51 20.40 13.85 11.04 7.80 12.50 6. Determine (a) accuracy.32 14.02 1.53 7.71 2.64 8. A calibration record table is given below.48 5.02 8.43 4.93 Decreasing 0.02 20 15 Output (mV) Decreasing 10 Increasing 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Load (kg) . Output (mV) Load (kg) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Increasing 0.90 19.Static Characteristics Example: A load cell is a transducer used to measure weight.06 0.92 18.66 18.13 6. (b) hysteresis and (c) linearity of the transducer.06 9.52 11.40 16.04 3.48 17.70 9.45 1.10 4.35 15.71 16.82 15.35 10.84 17. If we assume that the true output has a linear relationship with the input.55 3.08 0.

43 4.13 4.75 4.85% at 25 kg increasing %reading = 55% at 5 kg increasing .45 1.10 -0.04 0.48 5.25 7.57 1.90 6.88 0.Static Characteristics (a) Accuracy Load (kg) 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 True Output Actual (mV) Output (mV) Error (mV) 0 0.50 %FSO -0.55 2 3 4 5 6 7 1.18 3.00 49.71 2.06 -0.50 -3.40 2.55 3.60 -0.00 36.29 1.65 -0.52 1.30 a -2.50 -0.60 -4.02 1.00 %FSO 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 %reading Load (kg) Accuracy: %FSO = 7.85 7.50 %reading a 55.00 43.12 -0.45 7.43 10 Increasing … 5 4 3 2 1 0 … … … … 25 20 15 10 5 0 … -0.2mV/kg x load 15 Output (mV) Decreasing 31.98 1.60 7.00 12.10 2.33 -2.45 0.33 21.13 -0.04 0.20 0.50 0.06 5 5.08 5 1 0.25 20 Desired output = 0.90 -0.18 -0.08 -0.40 25.

80 12.95 8.55 3.75%FSO 20 mV 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Load (kg) Hysteresis = 9.90 19.94 13.20 3.65 8.93 Decreasing 0.53 7.35 15.04 3.75 9.10 2.80 mV − 9.71 16.04 7.71 2.51 20.06 0.88 2.64 8.80 7.50 6.50 7.52 11.43 4.48 17.80 7.20 7.20 5.82 15.10 6.15 5.02 8.32 14.13 6.86 14.35 10.18 5.50 6.40 16.75 %FSO at 55 kg .60 7.08 0.10 4.05 0.40 13.02 Hysteresis (%FSO) 0.06 9.70 19.Static Characteristics (b) Hysteresis Output (mV) Load (kg) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Increasing 0.84 17.01 12.70 9.92 18.55 9.45 1.65 7.66 18.10 9.45 20 15 Output (mV) 10 11.15 8.48 5.30 7.85 mV × 100% = 9.85 11.02 1.

94 mV ×100% = −4.52 9.85 7.04 5.30 -0.88 0.20 0.71 2.86 12.00 -2.18 3.70%FSO 20 mV … … … 0 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 … 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 8 13.20 -0.90 6.75 4.60 -0.70 %FSO at 60 kg .00 mV − 12.50 6 3 Linearity (%FSO) -0.90 -0.25 7.85 %FSO 20 mV 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 endpoint Load (kg) Linearity = 7.50 -0.06 7.45 1.00 mV − 3 .02 1.13 4.50 3 20 endpoint 15 Output (mV) 10 12.94 11.40 2.06 0 -4.30 5 5 .48 5.35 8.10 2.75 -0.43 mV × 100 % = 7 .45 7.60 7.85 %FSO at 25 kg =-4.55 3.30 -4.08 0.65 -0.70 -4.10 -0.04 0.Static Characteristics (c) Linearity: Terminal-based straight line (endpoint straight line) Load (kg) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Endpoint line (mV) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Actual Output (mV) 0.02 6.43 4.80 10.60 -1.

48 mV × 100 % = 5 .85 %FSO at 30 kg =-5.20 %FSO at 60 kg .90 mV − 12.94 mV ×100% = −5.20%FSO 20 mV 5 5 .85 %FSO 20 mV 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Load (kg) Linearity = 5.Static Characteristics (c) Linearity: Independent straight line 20 15 Output (mV) 10 11.65 mV − 4 .

Here.Static Characteristics (c) Linearity: Best-fit straight line Least square method: minimizes the sum of the square of the vertical deviations of the data points from the fitted line. we will estimate y by y = mx + b m= N ∑ xy − ∑ x ∑ y 2 N ∑ x 2 − (∑ x ) ∑y ∑x −m b= N N N = Total number of data points .

00 1225.06 7.00 25.45 1.6 46.00 2025.4 245.5 261.00 1600. of Data N = 42 xy 0 2.04 0.75 134.25 10.64 x2 0.2079 mV/kg x -0.00 0.18 3.45 .35 8.06 2025.00 100.02 6.00 625.2079 mV/kg b = -0.4 192.00 25.00 m = 0.2 128.00 1225.00 225.00 625.00 225.88 0.13 4.7 181.00 400.00 1600.Static Characteristics x = Load (kg) y = Load cell output (mV) x 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Here No.4 0 28499.53 7.04 5.5 20.6368 mV Obtained eq. y = 0.02 1.50 6.25 83.00 143500 420.6368 mV … … … ∑ 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2100 409.75 322.08 0.71 2.48 5.65 51 85.2 343.55 3.00 100.43 4.00 400.00 900.89 … 9.8 y 0.00 900.10 2.4 4.2 25.

48 1.15 mV 6.89 -1.60 4.97 -2.52 4.48 3.70%FSO 20.94 mV − 11.60 6.70 5.13 4.46 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Load (kg) Linearity = 5.76 10 80 Actual Output (mV) 0.88 -5.55 3.64 0.53 mV − 7.84 10.72 7.40 1.40 -0.86 mV × 100% = 5.48 5.61 5.71 2.Static Characteristics (c) Linearity: Best-fit straight line Load (kg) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 0 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 best-fit line (mV) -0.06 9 -4.56 3.70 %FSO at 40 kg =-5.04 5.47 %FSO at 60 kg .02 1.97 -3.88 0.44 0.37 -3.72 9.52 9.88 11.64 5.35 5.80 10.02 6.82 5.53 7.27 -3.64 8 13.45 1.47%FSO 20.50 6.68 8.04 0.70 9 85 Linearity (%FSO) -3.84 mV ×100% = −5.18 -2.78 -3.43 4.76 8.83 4.18 3.06 7.68 6.25 4 70 20 15 Output (mV) 10 12.35 8.47 -4.08 0.64 8.10 3.56 5.44 2.86 12.56 -0.52 2.56 5.10 2.23 2.15 mV … … … … 39 12.13 -1.66 5.94 11.07 -2.89 -2.80 9.64 7.83 -3.

These include temperature. corrosive materials. Temperature zero drift: the change in the output level of a transducer due to temperature variation when the input is set to zero. vibration. pressure. Sensitivity drift 100 output (%FSO) output (%FSO) 100 Temperature change Temperature span error 100 output (%FSO) Nominal desired temp. shock. Total error Temperature zero error 0 0 100 measurand (% range) 0 0 100 measurand (% range) 0 0 100 measurand (% range) Zero drift . Temperature sensitivity drift: the change in the output level of a transducer due to temperature when the input is set to the specific range.Static Characteristics Operating conditions: Ambient conditions may have profound effects on sensor operation. acceleration. moisture. and electromagnetic field.

Static Characteristics Overall Performance: An estimate of the overall sensor error is made based on all known errors.5%FSO Less than ±0.02%/oC FSO from 25oC Worst case error ec = eL + eh + eS + eST + eZT Root of sum square error 2 2 2 2 2 erss = eL + eh + eS + eST + eZT .15%FSO ±0.02%/oC of reading from 25oC 0.25%of reading 0. An estimate is computed from The worst case approach: ec = e1 + e2 + e3 + L + en The root of sum square approach: 2 2 2 erss = e12 + e2 + e3 + L en Specifications: Typical Pressure Transducer Operation Input range Excitation Output range Temperature range Performance Linearity error eL Hystersis error eh Sensitivity error eS Thermal sensitivity error eST Thermal zero drift eZT 0-1000 cm H2O ±15 V dc 0-5 V 0-50oC nominal at 25oC ±0.

15%FSO ±0.25%of reading 0.02%/oC of reading from 25oC 0.02%/oC FSO from 25oC The transducer is used to measure a pressure of 500 cm H2O the ambient temperature is expected to vary between 18oC and 25oC .Specifications: Typical Pressure Transducer Operation Input range Excitation Output range Temperature range Performance Linearity error eL Hystersis error eh Sensitivity error eS Thermal sensitivity error eST Thermal zero drift eZT 0-1000 cm H2O ±15 V dc 0-5 V 0-50oC nominal at 25oC ±0.5%FSO Less than ±0. Estimate the magnitude of each elemental error affecting the measured pressure Tamb 18-25oC 500 cm H2O Vout Pressure .

7 cm H2O +1.99 %FSO = 1.98 %reading Root of sum square error 2 2 2 2 2 erss = eL + eh + eS + eST + eZT = 252 + 7.52 + 7 2 = ±27.52 + 6.56 %FSO = ±1.95 mV = 0.Error budget calculation of a pressure transducer Performance Linearity error eL Hystersis error eh Sensitivity error eS Thermal sensitivity error eST Thermal zero drift eZT Worst case error Root square error Absolute error output ± 25 mV ± 7.5 mV ± 6.9 cm H2O ± 5.0 mV ± 49.95 mV = ±0.5 cm H2O ± 1.252 + 3.25 mV = 0.5 ± 7 = ±49.6 cm H2O Worst case error ec = eL + eh + eS + eST + eZT = ±25 ± 7.5 ± 6.99 %FSO ± 27.56 %FSO Absolute error transfer to input ± 5 cm H2O ± 1.25 mV + 3.4 cm H2O ± 9.5 mV + 7.25 ± 3.25 cm H2O +0.12 %reading .25 mV = 0.

Output Confidential band Basic specifications • Input range • Output range • Offset • Sensitivity Performance specifications • Accuracy • Resolution • Repeatability • Hysteresis • Linearity • environmental parameter Input Input Sensor Output .