PHARMACOLOGY

1. What is neuroleptanaesthesia. What are the drugs used to produce it. Discuss the pharmacology in brief. 2. Compare and contrast NMBDs Vecuronium Bromide versus Atracurium Besylate. 3. Describe the regulation of blood pressure in body. Discuss the antihypertensive drugs in relation with anaesthesia. 4. Describe the pharmacological effects of pancuronium. Compare advantages and disadvantages of Atracurium with pancuronium. 5. Describe briefly the mechanism of action of local anaesthetic agents. How would you manage local anaesthesia toxicity. 6. Discuss the various antihypertensive drugs used to control hypertension preoperatively. 7. Classify various i.v anaesthetic agents used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, write in details the pharmacology, indications and contraindications of ketamine. 8. Discuss chronic exposure to trace concentrations of anesthetic agents. 9. Discuss post operative analgesia methods in details. 10. Describe the uptake and distribution of inhalational anesthetic agents. Describe the merits demerits of Isoflurane. 11. Classify the muscle relaxants. Describe the characteristics of depolarizing and nondepolarizing group. Describe clinical use of neostigmine and signs of adequate relaxant reversal. 12. Describe ischemia during operation. Describe uses of any two vasodilators during operations. 13. Describe nitrous oxide in relation to---1) clinical features of impurities 2) side effects and complications in patient. 14. Classify local anesthetic drugs. How will you diagnose and treat lignocaine toxicity. 15. Describe pharmacology of Propofol and compare it with sodium pentothal.

16. Describe the physiology of neuromuscular junction with reference to blocking agents. 17. Describe the properties of ideal anesthetic agent for day care surgery. Discuss the merits and demerits of different intravenous anesthetic agents for outpatient anaesthesia. 18. Describe ideal anesthetic agent. Discuss the factors affecting the induction dose. 19. Describe in brief factors affecting uptake, distribution and elimination of inhaled anaesthetic agents. 20. Discuss the role of opiods in anaesthesia. 21. Classify muscle relaxants. Write in details about depolarizing muscle relaxants. 22. Describe the pharmacology of Vecuronium. Compare its advantages with newer muscle relaxants. 23. Discuss the adverse effects of nitrous oxide. 24. Discuss Pathophysiology of hypersensitive reaction with special reference to anaesthetic drugs. How will you combat the problem. 25. Describe pharmacology of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Discuss the causes and mechanism of altered responses during anesthesia. 26. Discuss the pharmacology of vasoactive drugs. 27. Describe pharmacology of newer inhalational anesthetic agents and compare them in relation to clinical use. 28. Classify and enumerate sympathomimetics. Discuss the pharmacological action and side effects of natural catecholamine (epinephrine, nor epinephrine, dopamine). 29. Discuss the current position of TIVA (total intravenous anaesthesia). 30. Compare pharmacokinetics of Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, and halothane. 31. Discuss role of inotropic support in critical ill patients. 32. Describe opiods receptors. Discuss pharmacology of synthetic opiods agonists. 33. Describe properties of ideal muscle relaxants. Discuss pharmacology of rocuronium and Vecuronium. Mention various factors affecting nondepolarizing neuromuscular block.

34. What are the factors affecting neuromuscular blockage. Discuss various methods to monitor neuromuscular blockade. 35. Clinical features and management of toxicity of lignocaine. 36. Classify sympathomimetics, enumerate use of natural catecholamines.

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