Electronic Markets:
1he principle íunction oí an electronic market is to íacilitate the search
íor the required product or ser·ice. Airline booking svstems are an
example oí an electronic market.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI):
LDI pro·ides íor the eííicient transaction oí recurrent trade exchanges
between commercial organizations. LDI is widelv used bv. íor example.
large retail groups and ·ehicle assemblers when trading with their

Internet Commerce
1he Internet and similar network íacilities, can be used íor ad·ertising
goods and ser·ices and transacting one-oíí deals.Internet commerce has
application íor both business-to-business and business to consumer
lig 1.1 : 1he three categories oí L (ommerce

The Scope of Electronic Commerce
Llectronic (ommerce e-(ommerce, is a term popularized bv the
ad·ent oí commercial ser·ices on the Internet. Internet e-(ommerce is
howe·er. onlv one part oí the o·erall sphere oí
e-(ommerce. 1he commercial use oí the Internet is perhaps tvpiíied bv
once-oíí sales to consumers. Other tvpes oí transactions use other
technologies. Llectronic Markets LMs, are in use in a number oí trade
segments with an emphasis on search íacilities and Llectronic Data
Interchange LDI, is used íor regular and standardized transactions
between organizations. 1he
mainstream oí e-(ommerce consists oí these three areas: these are
represented as a diagram in ligure 1.1 and outlined in a little more detail

Electronic Markets
An electronic market is the use oí iníormation and communications
technologv to present a range oí oííerings a·ailable in a market segment
so that the purchaser can compare the prices and other attributes, oí
the oííerings and make a purchase decision. 1he usual example oí an
electronic market is an airline booking svstem.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
LDI pro·ides a standardized svstem íor coding trade transactions so
that thev can be communicated directlv írom one computer svstem to
another without the need íor printed
orders and in·oices and the delavs and errors implicit in paper handling.
LDI is used bv organizations that make a large number oí regular
transactions. One sector where LDI is
extensi·elv used is the large supermarket chains. which use LDI íor
transactions with their suppliers.

Internet Commerce
Iníormation and communications technologies can also be used to
ad·ertise and make once-oíí sales oí a wide range oí goods and ser·ices.
1his tvpe oí e-(ommerce is tvpiíied bv the commercial use oí the
Internet. 1he Internet can. íor example. be used íor the purchase oí
books that are then deli·ered bv post or the booking oí tickets that can
be picked up bv the clients when thev arri·e at the e·ent. It is to be
noted that the Internet is not the
onlv technologv used íor this tvpe oí ser·ice and this is not the onlv use
oí the Internet in e-(ommerce.

Usage of Electronic Markets
Llectronic markets are exampled bv the airline booking
svstems.Llectronic markets are also used in the íinancial and commoditv
markets and again the dealing is done ·ia intermediaries: to buv
stocks and shares a member oí the public uses the ser·ices oí a
stockbroker. Arguablv the use oí electronic markets has ser·ed the
customer well. \ith the assistance oí a good tra·el agent the
airline customer can be iníormed oí all the ílights a·ailable íor an
intended journev and then select. on the basis oí
price.con·enience.lovaltv scheme. etc. the ílight that thev wish to book.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Markets
1he ad·antages oí an electronic market to the customer are selí e·ident.
Using an airline booking svstem. íor example. there is a screen that
shows all the ílights írom sav, New \ork to Los Angeles and the
consumer can make an iníormed choice without
ha·ing to spend time and eííort íinding out which airlines ílv that route
and then contacting each oí the airlines to obtain ílight times. price and
a·ailabilitv details. Once a ílight is selected the svstem íacilitates the
booking oí that ílight. paving the íare and printing the ticket.
lor the seller the ad·antages are less e·ident. 1he seller that is the most
competiti·e mav do well. the electronic market makes a·ailable
iníormation on their product and the ad·antage oí that oííering should
be apparent. Less competiti·e suppliers are likelv to be íorced into price.
Reductions and the competiti·e eííect mav íorce all suppliers to cut
prices. possiblv below the le·el at which it is possible to make a proíit
as in the case on some air transport routes,.

Iig J.2: Basic transactions in LDI
1he abo·e íigure shows the basic transactions which take place between
two business organizations. Let`s see the beneíits when these
transactions are not taking manuallv but through computer svstems and
that is known as LDI.
The Benefits of EDI
LDI can bring a number oí ad·antages to the organizations that use it.
It should sa·e considerable time on the exchange oí business
transactions and has the potential íor considerable sa·ings in costs. LDI
can be simplv used to replace paper transactions with electronic
transactions - this is the normal route taken in the initial installation oí
LDI. 1he íull ad·antage oí LDI is onlv realized when business practices
are restructured to make íull use oí the potential oí LDI: when LDI is
used as an enabling technologv to change the wav the business operates-
just-in-time JI1, manuíacture and quick response supplv being prime
examples oí where LDI is used as an enabling technologv to gain
competiti·e ad·antage.
The direct advantages of EDI include:
Shortened Ordering Time
Paper orders ha·e to be printed. en·eloped and sent out bv the
customer`s post room. passed through the postal ser·ice. recei·ed bv the
supplier`s post room. and input to the supplier`s order processing
svstem. 1o achie·e all this. reliablv. in under three davs would be to do
·erv well. LDI orders are sent straight into the network and the onlv
delav is how oíten the supplier retrie·es messages írom the svstem.
Orders can be in the supplier`s svstem within a dav. or ií there is urgencv
the messages can be retrie·ed more írequencv. íor example e·erv hour.
Cost Cutting
1he use oí LDI can cut costs. 1hese include the costs oí stationerv and
postage but these will probablv be íullv matched bv the costs oí running
the LDI ser·ice. 1he principle sa·ing írom the use oí LDI is the
potential to sa·e staíí costs. 1he ob·ious example oí this is that ií the
orders are directlv input to the svstem there is no need íor an order entrv
clerk. Note also that seasonal peak. staíí holidavs. etc. no longer create a
backlog in the order entrv area. 1he cost sa·ing need to be oííset against
the svstem de·elopment and network casts.
Elimination of Errors
Keving anv iníormation into a computer svstem is a source oí errors and
keving paper orders into the order processing svstem is no exception.
LDI eliminates this source oí errors. On the down side. there is no
order entrv clerk who might ha·e spotted errors made bv the customer -
the customer will get what the customer asked íor.
ast Response
\ith paper orders it would be se·eral davs beíore the customer was
iníormed oí anv supplv diííicultv. such as the product is out oí stock.
\ith alternati·e product to be ordered or an alternati·e supplier to be
Accurate Invoicing
Just like orders. in·oices can be sent electronicallv. LDI in·oices ha·e
similar ad·antages to LDI orders in sa·ed time and a·oided errors.
lowe·er. the major ad·antage in LDI in·oices is that thev can be
automaticallv matched against the original order and cleared íor pavment
without the sort oí queries that arise when paper in·oices are matched
to orders.
EDI Payment
Pavment can also be made bv LDI. 1he LDI pavment svstem can also
generate an LDI pavment ad·ice that can be electronicallv matched
against the rele·ant in·oices. again a·oiding querv and delav.

Indirect advantages of the use of EDI can be:
Reduced Stock Holding
1he abilitv to order regularlv and quicklv reduces the amount oí goods
that need to be kept in a store room or warehouse at the shop or the
íactorv. lor manv JI1 manuíacture and quick response supplv svstems
stockholding is eliminated altogether with goods being deli·ered onlv as
thev are needed. Reduced stock holding cuts the cost oí warehousing.
the double handling goods into store and then out again onto the
íactorv or shop, and the capital requirement to pav íor the goods that
are just sitting in store.
Cash low
Speeding up the trade cvcle bv getting in·oices out quicklv. and
directlv matched to the corresponding orders and deli·eries. can
and should speed up pavments and hence impro·e cash ílow.
Llimination oí most in·oice queries can be particularlv signiíicant
in reducing delavs in pavments.
Business Opportunities
1here is a steadv increase in the number oí customers. particularlv
large. poweríul customers. that will onlv trade with suppliers that
do business ·ia LDI. Supermarkets and ·ehicle assemblers are
prime examples. Being readv and able to trade electronicallv can be
an ad·antage when competing íor new business.
Customer Lock-in
An established LDI svstem should be oí considerable ad·antage
to both customer and supplier. Switching to a new supplier
requires that the electronic trading svstem and trading relationship
be rede·eloped. a problem to be a·oided ií a switch oí supplier is
not essential.
1o gain these ad·antages LDI has to be seen as an in·estment
there are costs upíront and the pavback is longer term. 1he costs is
the set up oí the LDI svstem hardware. soítware and network,
and the time required to establish agreements with trading partners.
1he sa·ings onlv start when there is a signiíicant ·olume oí
business transacted using LDI. a point that is called the critical
mass` in the jargon oí LDI.

OLlectronic (ommerce e-(ommerce, is a general concept
co·ering anv íorm oí business transaction or iníormation
exchange executed using iníormation and communication
technologies I(1s,.
OL-(ommerce takes place between companies. between
companies and their customers. or between companies and
public administrations.
OLlectronic (ommerce includes electronic trading oí goods.
ser·ices and electronic material.
OAn electronic market is the use oí iníormation and
communications technologv to present a range oí oííerings
a·ailable in a market segment so that the purchaser can
compare the prices and other attributes, oí the oííerings
and make a purchase decision.
OLDI pro·ides a standardized svstem íor coding trade
transactions so that thev can be communicated directlv írom
one computer svstem to another without the need íor
printed orders and in·oices and the delavs and errors implicit
in paper handling.
OIníormation and communications technologies can also be
used to ad·ertise and make once-oíí sales oí a wide range oí
goods and ser·ices. 1his tvpe oí e-(ommerce is tvpiíied bv
the commercial use oí the Internet.

OCategories of L commerce
OBenefits and limitations of L Commerce
O Comparison between 1raditional Commerce and


ODescribe the categories of L commerce
ODescribe the benefits and limitations of L Commerce
In the pre·ious lecture we di·ided the applications oí L commerce
in three categories. todav we will di·ide categorize L commerce
according to the parties in·ol·ed in the business.
Business-to-business (B2B). Most oí L( todav is oí this
tvpe. It includes the LDI transactions described earlier and
electronic market transactions between organizations.
OBusiness-to-consumer (B2C). 1hese are retailing
transactions with indi·idual shoppers. 1he tvpical shopper at
Amazon.com is a consumer. or customer.
OConsumer-to-consumer (C2C). In this categorv consumer
sells directlv to consumers. Lxamples are indi·iduals selling
in classiíied ads e.g.. www.clas-siíied2000.com, and selling
residential propertv. cars. and so on. Ad·ertising personal
ser·ices on the Internet and selling knowledge and expertise
is another example oí (2(. Se·eral auction sites allow
indi·iduals to put items up íor auctions. linallv. manv
indi·iduals are using intranets and other organizational
internal networks to ad·ertise items íor sale or ser·ices.
OConsumer-to-business (C2B). 1his categorv includes
indi·iduals who sell products or ser·ices to organizations. as
well as indi·iduals who seek sellers. interact with them. and
conclude a transaction.
Oonbusiness LC. An increased number oí nonbusiness
institutions such as academic institutions. not-íor-proíit
organizations. religious organizations. social organizations.
and go·ernment agencies are using ·arious tvpes oí L( to
reduce their expenses e.g.. impro·e purchasing, or to
impro·e their operations and customer ser·ice. Note that in
the pre·ious categories one can usuallv replace the word
business with organization.,
OIntrabusiness (organizational) LC. In this categorv we
include all internal organizational acti·ities. usuallv
períormed on intranets. that in·ol·e exchange oí goods.
ser·ices or iníormation. Acti·ities can range írom selling
corporate products to Lmplovees to online training and cost
reduction acti·ities.
L·ervthing has its pros and cons. same is with L (ommerce. lets
ha·e a look.
Benefits and Limitations
The Benefits of EC
lew inno·ations in human historv encompass as manv potential
beneíits as L( does. 1he global nature oí the technologv. low
cost. opportunitv to reach hundreds oí millions oí people
projected within 10 vears,. interacti·e nature. ·arietv oí
possibilities. and resourceíulness and rapid growth oí the
supporting inírastructures especiallv the \eb, result in manv
potential beneíits to organizations. indi·iduals. and societv. 1hese
beneíits are just starting to materialize. but thev will increase
signiíicantlv as L( expands.

Benefits to Organizations
The benefits to organizations are as follows:
OLlectronic commerce expands the marketplace to national
and international markets. \ith minimal capital outlav. a
companv can easilv and quicklv locate more customers. the
best suppliers. and the most suitable business partners
worldwide. lor example. in 199¯. Boeing (orporation
reported a sa·ings oí 20 percent aíter a request íor a proposal
to manuíacture a subsvstem was posted on the Internet. A
small ·endor in lungarv answered the request and won the
electronic bid. Not onlv was the subsvstem cheaper. but it
was deli·ered quicklv.
OLlectronic commerce decreases the cost oí creating. processing.
distributing. storing. and retrie·ing paper-based iníormation. lor
example. bv introducing an electronic procurement svstem. companies
can cut the purchasing administrati·e costs bv as much as 85 percent.
Another example is beneíit pavments. lor the U.S. íederal
go·ernment. the cost oí issuing a paper check is 430. 1he
cost oí electronic pavment is 20.
OAbilitv íor creating highlv specialized businesses. lor example. dog
tovs which can be purchased onlv in pet shops or department and
discounte stores in the phvsical world. are sold now in a specialized
www.dogtovs.com also see www.cattovs.com,.
OLlectronic commerce allows reduced in·entories and
o·erhead bv íacilitating pull`-tvpe supplv chain
management. In a pull-tvpe svstem the process starts írom
customer orders and uses just-in-time manuíacturing.
O1he pull-tvpe processing enables expensi·e customization
oí products and ser·ices. which pro·ides competiti·e
ad·antage to its implementers. A classic example is Dell
(omputer (orp.. whose case will be described later.
OLlectronic commerce reduces the time between the outlav oí
capital and the receipt oí products and ser·ices.
OLlectronic commerce initiates business processes
reengineering projects. Bv changing processes. producti·itv
oí salespeople. knowledge workers. and administrators can
increase bv 100 percent or more.
OLlectronic commerce lowers telecommunications cost-the
Internet is much cheaper than VANs.
OOther beneíits include impro·ed image. impro·ed customer
ser·ice. newíound business partners. simpliíied processes.
compressed cvcle and deli·erv time. increased producti·itv.
eliminating paper. expediting access to iníormation. reduced
transportation costs. and increased ílexibilitv.
Benefits to Consumers
1he beneíits oí L( to consumers are as íollows:
OLlectronic commerce enables customers to shop or do other
transactions 24 hours a dav. all vear round. írom almost anv
OLlectronic commerce pro·ides customers with more choices:
thev can select Llectronic commerce írequentlv pro·ides
customers with less expensi·e products and ser·ices bv
allowing them to shop in manv places and conduct quick
OIn some cases. especiallv with digitized products. L( allows
quick deli·erv.
O(ustomers can recei·e rele·ant and detailed iníormation in
seconds. rather than davs or weeks.
OLlectronic commerce makes it possible to participate in
·irtual auctions.
OLlectronic commerce allows customers to interact with other
customers in electronic communities and exchange ideas as
well as compare experiences.
OLlectronic commerce íacilitates competition. which results in
substantial discounts.
Benefits to Society
1he beneíits oí L( to societv are as íollows:
OLlectronic commerce enables more indi·iduals to work at
home and to do less tra·eling íor shopping. resulting in less
traííic on the roads and lower air pollution.
OLlectronic commerce allows some merchandise to be sold at
lower prices. so less aííluent people can buv more and
increase their standard oí li·ing.
OLlectronic commerce enables people in 1hird \orld
countries and rural areas to enjov products and ser·ices that
otherwise are not a·ailable to them.
O1his includes opportunities to learn proíessions and earn
college degrees.
OLlectronic commerce íacilitates deli·erv oí public ser·ices.
such as health care. education. and distribution oí
go·ernment social ser·ices at a reduced cost and´or
impro·ed qualitv. lealth-care ser·ices. íor example. can reach
patients in rural areas.

1he limitations oí L( can be grouped into technical and
nontechnical categories.
Technical Limitations of EC
1he technical limitations oí L( are as íollows:
O1here is a lack oí svstem securitv. reliabilitv. standards. and
some communication protocols.
O1here is insuííicient telecommunication bandwidth.
O1he soítware de·elopment tools are still e·ol·ing and
changing rapidlv.
OIt is diííicult to integrate the Internet and L( soítware with
some existing applications and databases.
OVendors mav need special \eb ser·ers and other
inírastructures. in addition to the network ser·ers.
OSome L( soítware might not íit with some hardware. or
mav be incompatible with some operating svstems or other
As time passes. these limitations will lessen or be o·ercome:
appropriate planning can minimize their impact.
NonTechnical Limitations
Oí the manv nontechnical limitations that slow the spread oí
L(. the íollowing are the major ones.
O(ost and justiíication 1he cost oí de·eloping L( in-house
can be ·erv high. and mistakes due to lack oí experience mav
result in delavs. 1here are manv opportunities íor
outsourcing. but where and how to do it is not a simple
issue. lurthermore. to justiív the svstem one must deal with
some intangible beneíits such as impro·ed customer ser·ice
and the ·alue oí ad·ertisement,. which are diííicult to
OSecuritv and pri·acv 1hese issues are especiallv important in
the B2( area. especiallv securitv issues which are percei·ed to
be more serious than thev reallv are when appropriate
encrvption is used. Pri·acv measures are constantlv impro·ed.
\et. the customers percei·e these issues as ·erv important.
and. the L( industrv has a ·erv long and diííicult task oí
con·incing customers that online transactions and pri·acv
are. in íact. ·erv secure.
OLack oí trust and user resistance (ustomers do not trust an
unknown íaceless seller sometimes thev do not trust e·en
known ones,. paperless transactions. and electronic monev.
So switching írom phvsical to ·irtual stores mav be diííicult.
OOther limiting íactors. Lack oí touch and íeel online. Some
customers like to touch items such as clothes and like to
know exactlv what thev are buving.
OManv legal issues are as vet unresol·ed. and go·ernment
regulations and standards are not reíined enough íor manv
OLlectronic commerce. as a discipline. is still e·ol·ing and
changing rapidlv. Manv people are looking íor a stable area
beíore thev enter into it.
O1here are not enough support ser·ices. lor example.
copvright clearance centers íor L( transactions do not exist.
and high-qualitv e·aluators. or qualiíied L( tax experts. are
OIn most applications there are not vet enough sellers and
buvers íor proíitable
OLlectronic commerce could result in a breakdown oí human
OAccessibilitv to the Internet is still expensi·e and´or
incon·enient íor manv potential customers. \ith \eb 1V.
cell telephone access. kiosks. and constant media attention.
the critical mass will e·entuallv de·elop.,
Despite these limitations. rapid progress in L( is taking place. lor
example. the number oí people in the United States who buv and
sell stocks electronicallv increased írom 300.000 at the beginning
oí 1996 to about 10 million in íall 1999. As experience accumulates
and technologv impro·es. the ratio oí L( beneíits to costs will
increase. resulting in a greater rate oí L( adoption. 1he potential
beneíits mav not be con·incing enough reasons to start L( acti·ities
O\e can categorize L commerce according to the parties
in·ol·ed in the business like B2B. B2(. (2( and (2B
O1he beneíits oí L (ommerce to Organizations include
expansion oí the marketplace to national and international
markets. decreases in the cost oí creating. processing.
distributing. storing. and retrie·ing paper-based
iníormation. reduction in in·entories
OL commerce enables customers to shop or do other
transactions 24 hours a dav and pro·ides customers with
more choices
OLlectronic commerce íacilitates deli·erv oí public ser·ices.
such as health care. education. and distribution oí
go·ernment social ser·ices at a reduced cost and´or
impro·ed qualitv
OLimitations oí L (ommerce can be technical like lack oí
svstem securitv. reliabilitv. standards. and some
communication protocols and non technical limitations like
the cost in·ol·e in de·eloping in house L (ommerce and the
securitv oí data


A computer network is an interconnection oI various computer systems
located at diIIerent places. In computer network two or more computers are
linked together with a medium and data communication devices Ior the
purpose oI communicating data and sharing resources. The computer that
provides resources to other computers on a network is known as server. In
the network the individual computers, which access shared network
resources, are known as workstations or nodes.
Computer Networks may be classiIied on the basis oI geographical area in
two broad categories.
1. Local Area Network (LAN)
2. Wide Area Network (WAN)

Local Area Network
Networks used to interconnect computers in a single room, rooms within a
building or buildings on one site are called Local Area Network (LAN). LAN
transmits data with a speed oI several megabits per second (106 bits per
second). The transmission medium is normally coaxial cables.
LAN links computers, i.e., soItware and hardware, in the same area Ior the
purpose oI sharing inIormation. Usually LAN links computers within a limited
geographical area because they must be connected by a cable, which is quite
expensive. People working in LAN get more capabilities in data processing,
work processing and other inIormation exchange compared to stand-alone
computers. Because oI this inIormation exchange most oI the business and
government organisations are using LAN.
Major Characteristics of LAN
O very computer has the potential to communicate with any other
computers oI the network
O high degree oI interconnection between computers
O easy physical connection oI computers in a network
O inexpensive medium oI data transmission
O high data transmission rate

O The reliability oI network is high because the Iailure oI one
computer in the network does not eIIect the Iunctioning Ior other computers.
O Addition oI new computer to network is easy.
O igh rate oI data transmission is possible.
OPeripheral devices like magnetic disk and printer can be shared by other

O II the communication line Iails, the entire network system breaks down.

Use of LAN
Followings are the maior areas where LAN is normally used
O File transIers and Access
O Word and text processing
O lectronic message handling
O #emote database access
O Personal computing
O igital voice transmission and storage

Wide Area Network
The term Wide Area Network (WAN) is used to describe a computer network
spanning a regional, national or global area. For example, Ior a large company
the head quarters might be at elhi and regional branches at Bombay, Madras,
Bangalore and Calcutta. ere regional centers are connected to head quarters
through WAN. The distance between computers connected to WAN is larger.
ThereIore the transmission medium used are normally telephone lines,
microwaves and satellite links.

Characteristics of WAN
Followings are the maior characteristics oI WAN.
1. Communication acility: For a big company spanning over diIIerent parts
oI the country the employees can save long distance phone calls and it
overcomes the time lag in overseas communications. Computer conIerencing
is another use oI WAN where users communicate with each other through
their computer system.
2. Remote Data Entry: #emote data entry is possible in WAN. It means
sitting at any location you can enter data, update data and query other
inIormation oI any computer attached to the WAN but located in other cities.
For example, suppose you are sitting at Madras and want to see some data oI
a computer located at elhi, you can do it through WAN.
3. Centralised Information: In modern computerised environment you will
Iind that big organisations go Ior centralised data storage. This means iI the
organisation is spread over many cities, they keep their important business
data in a single place. As the data are generated at diIIerent sites, WAN
permits collection oI this data Irom diIIerent sites and save at a single site.

Examples of WAN
1. Ethernet: thernet developed by Xerox Corporation is a Iamous example oI
WAN. This network uses coaxial cables Ior data transmission. Special
integrated circuit chips called controllers are used to connect equipment to
the cable.
2. Aparnet: The Aparnet is another example oI WAN. It was developed at
Advanced #esearch Proiects Agency oI U. S. epartment. This Network
connects more than 40 universities and institutions throughout USA and

Difference between LAN and WAN
. LAN is restricted to limited geographical area oI Iew kilometers. But
WAN covers great distance and operate nationwide or even worldwide.
. In LAN, the computer terminals and peripheral devices are
connected with wires and coaxial cables. In WAN there is no physical
connection. Communication is done through telephone lines and satellite links.
. Cost oI data transmission in LAN is less because the transmission
medium is owned by a single organisation. In case oI WAN the cost oI data
transmission is very high because the transmission medium used are hired,
either telephone lines or satellite links.

The Internet is a network oI networks. Millions oI computers all over the
world are connected through the Internet. Computer users on the Internet can
contact one another anywhere in the world. II your computer is connected to
the Internet, you can connect to millions oI computers. You can gather
inIormation and distribute your data. It is very much similar to the telephone
connection where you can talk with any person anywhere in the world.
In Internet a huge resource oI inIormation is accessible to people across the
world. InIormation in every Iield starting Irom education, science, health,
medicine, history, and geography to business, news, etc. can be retrieved
through Internet. You can also download programs and soItware packages
Irom anywhere in the world. ue to the tremendous inIormation resources the
Internet can provide, it is now indispensable to every organisation.

Origin of Internet
In 1969 epartment oI eIence () oI USA started a network called
A#PANT (Advanced #esearch Proiects Administration Network) with one
computer at CaliIornia and three at Utah. Later on other universities and # &
institutions were allowed to connect to the Network. APA#NT quickly grew
to encompass the entire American continent and became a huge success. very
university in the country wanted to become a part oI A#PANT. So the
network was broken into two smaller parts MILNT Ior managing military sites
and A#PANT (smaller) Ior managing non-military sites. Around 1980,
NSFNT (National Science Foundation Network) was created. With the
advancement oI modern communication Iacilities, other computers were also
allowed to be linked up with any computer oI NSFNT. By 1990 many
computers were looking up to NSFNT giving birth to Internet.
How Internet functions
Internet is not a governmental organisation. The ultimate authority oI the
Internet is the Internet Society. This is a voluntary membership organisation
whose purpose is to promote global inIormation exchange. Internet has more
than one million computers attached to it.
-mail stands Ior electronic mail. This is one oI the most widely used Ieatures
oI Internet. Mails are regularly used today where with the help oI postage stamp
we can transIer mails anywhere in the world. With electronic mail the service is
similar. But here data are transmitted through Internet and thereIore within
minutes the message reaches the destination may it be anywhere in the world.
ThereIore the mailing system is excessively Iast and is being used widely Ior
mail transIer.


O1ypes of Llectronic Payment $ystems
O1ypes of digital tokens
ODiscuss L-Cash

OUnderstand what is an Llectronic Pavment Svstem
ODescribe e-cash as one oí the Llectronic Pavment Svstems
All oí vou might ha·e heard the term Llectronic Pavment`. As
the name is suggesting it means making pavments electronicallv
i.e. through computer and telecommunication components.
Let`s Discuss this in more Detail
Types of Electronic Payment Systems
Llectronic pavment svstems are proliíerating in banking. retail.
health care. on-line markets. and e·en go·ernment-in íact. anvwhere
monev needs to change hands. Organizations are moti·ated bv
the need to deli·er products and ser·ices more cost eííecti·elv and
to pro·ide a higher qualitv oí ser·ice to customers. 1his section
will brieílv describe the pertinent de·elopments in ·arious
industries to pro·ide an o·erall picture oí electronic pavment
svstems oí the past and present.
Research into electronic pavment svstems íor consumers can be
traced back to the 1940s. and the íirst applications-credit cardsappeared
soon aíter. In the earlv 19¯0s. the emerging electronic
pavment technologv was labeled electronic funds transfer (LI1).
Ll1 is deíined as anv transíer oí íunds initiated through an
electronic terminal. telephonic instrument. or computer or magnetic
tape so as to order. instruct. or authorize a íinancial institution to
debit or credit an account.` Ll1 utilizes computer and
telecommunication components both to supplv and to transíer
monev or íinancial assets.
1ransíer is iníormation-based and intangible. 1hus Ll1 stands
in marked contrast to con·entional monev and pavment modes
that relv on phvsical deli·erv oí cash or checks or other paper
orders to pav, bv truck. train. or airplane. \ork on Ll1 can be
segmented into three broad categories:
Banking and inancial Payments
OLarge-scale or wholesale pavments e.g.. bank-to-bank
OSmall-scale or retail pavments e.g.. automated teller machines
and cash dispensers,
Olome banking e.g.. bill pavment,
Retailing Payments
O(redit cards e.g.. VISA or Master(ard,
OPri·ate label credit´debit cards e.g.. J.(. Pennev (ard,
O(harge cards e.g.. American Lxpress,
On-line electronic commerce payments
O1oken-based pavment svstems
Llectronic cash e.g.. Digi(ash,
Llectronic checks e.g.. Net(heque,
Smart cards or debit cards e.g.. Mondex Llectronic (urrencv (ard,

Credit card-based payment systems
Lncrvpted credit cards e.g.. \orld \ide \eb íormbased
encrvption, 1hird-partv authorization numbers e.g.. lirst Virtual,
Period Innovation
BC Larliest coins produced in western 1urkev to pav
mercenaries or taxes.
J4 lirst banks open. in Italv and (atalonia. honoring
checks against cash reser·es.
J694 1he Bank oí Lngland opens. creating deposits on the
- principle that not all deposit receipts will be presented
íor redemption simultaneouslv. 1he bank
monopolizes the issuing oí bank notes.
J865 A sample oí pavments into British banks shows. that
9¯ percent are made bv check.
J88 1he phrase credit card is coined in Looking Backward. a
no·el bv Ldward Bellamv.
J88-J9J4 levdav oí the gold standard as major currencies are
pegged to gold at íixed rates.
J945 Bretton \oods agreement links currencies to gold ·ia
their íixed parities with the U.S. dollar.
J94 llatbush National Bank issues íirst general purpose
credit card. íor use in select New \ork shops.
J95 Diners (lub (harge (ard introduced mid 1950s 1he
de·elopment oí magnetic ink character recognition
MI(R,. íacilitating more timelv processing oí checks.
sealed the check`s standing as the preíerred noncash
pavment option.
J958 BankAmerica. in lresno. (aliíornia. executes the íirst
mass mailing oí credit cards.
J96 \estminster Bank installs íirst automated teller
machine at Victoria. London. branch.
J9 1he New \ork (learing louse launches (lIPS the
(learing louse Interbank Pavments Svstem-which
pro·ides U.S.-dollar íunds-transíer and transaction
settlements on-line and in real time.
late J9s (hemical Bank launches its Pronto svstem pro·iding
3000 computer terminals to customers` homes linked
to its central computers b· telephone.
It oííers a range oí íacilities: balance inquiries. monev transíers
between (hemical Bank accounts. jind bill pavments to selected
local stores.1he stumbling block íor íirst-generation home
banking svstems in general was who is to pav íor the terminals at
J985 Llectronic data interchange LDI, extensi·elv used in
bank-to-bank pavment svstems.
J994 Digital cash trials bv Digi(ash oí lolland conducted
J995 Mondex electronic currencv trials begin in Swindon.
Let`s discuss ·arious tvpes oí Llectronic pavment svstems.
lirstlv we will ha·e a look on Llectronic 1okens`.
Digital 1oken-Based Llectronic Pavment Svstems
None oí the banking or retailing pavment methods are completelv
adequate in their present íorm íor the consumer oriented ecommerce
en·ironment. 1heir deíiciencv is their assumption that
the parties will at some time or other be in each other`s phvsical
presence or that there will be a suííicient delav in the pavment
process íor írauds. o·erdraíts. and other undesirables to be
identiíied and corrected. 1hese assumptions mav not hold íor
ecommerce and so manv oí these pavment mechanisms are being
modiíied and adapted íor the conduct oí business o·er networks.
Lntirelv new íorms oí íinancial instruments are also being
de·eloped. One such new íinancial instrument is electronic
tokens` in the íorm oí electronic cash´monev or checks.
Llectronic tokens are designed as electronic analogs oí ·arious
íorms oí pavment backed bv a bank or íinancial institution. Simplv
stated. electronic tokens are equi·alent to cash that is backed bv a
Electronic Tokens are of Three Types:
J. Cash or real-time. 1ransactions are settled with the
exchange oí electronic currencv. An example oí on-line
currencv exchange is electronic cash e-cash,.
2. Debit or prepaid. Users pav in ad·ance íor the pri·ilege oí
getting iníormation. Lxamples oí prepaid pavment
mechanisms are stored in smart cards and electronic purses
that store electronic monev.
3. Credit or postpaid. 1he ser·er authenticates the customers
and ·eriíies with the bank that íunds are adequate beíore
purchase. Lxamples oí postpaid mechanisms are credit´
debit cards and electronic checks.
1he íollowing sections examine these methods oí on-line
pavment. But we must íirst understand the diííerent ·iewpoints
that these pavment instruments bring to electronic commerce.
lere are íour dimensions that are useíul íor analvzing the diííerent
1. 1he nature oí the transaction íor which the instrument is
designed. Some-tokens are-speciíicallv designed to handle
micro pavments. that is. pavments íor small snippets oí
iníormation. Others are designed íor more traditional
products. Some svstems target speciíic niche transactions:
others seek more general transactions. 1he kev is-to identiív
the parties in·ol·ed. the a·erage amounts. and the purchase
2. 1he means oí settlement used. 1okens must be backed bv
cash. credit. elec-tronic bill pavments prearranged and
spontaneous,. cashier`s checks. lOUs. letters and lines oí
credit. and wire transíers. to name a íew. Lach option incurs
trade-oíís among transaction speed. risk. and cost. Most
transaction settlement methods use (redit cards. while
others use other proxies íor ·alue. eííecti·elv creating
currencies oí dubious liquiditv and with interesting tax. risk.
and íloat implications.
3. Approach to securitv. anonvmitv. and authentication.
Llectronic tokens ·arv in the protection oí pri·acv and
coníidentialitv oí the transactions. Some mav be more open
to potentiallv prving eves-or e·en to the participants
themsel·es. Lncrvption can help with authentication. non
reputabilitv. and asset management.
4. 1he question oí risk. \ho assumes what kind oí risk at
what time· 1he tokens might suddenlv become worthless
and the customers might ha·e the currencv that nobodv will
accept. Ií the svstem stores ·alue in a smart card. consumers
mav be exposed to risk as thev hold static assets. Also
electronic tokens might be subject to discounting or
arbitrage. Risk also arises ií the transaction has long lag times
between product deli·erv and pavments to merchants. 1his
exposes merchants to the risk that buvers don`t pav-or ·ice
·ersa that the ·endor doesn`t deli·er.
Let`s discus Llectronic cash (e-cash) which is a new concept in online
pavment svstems because it combines computerized con·enience with
securitv and pri·acv that impro·e on paper cash. Its ·ersatilitv opens up
a host oí new markets and applications.L-cash presents some interesting
characteristics that should make it an attracti·e alternati·e íor pavment
o·er the Internet.
lectronic Cash (-cash)
L-cash íocuses on replacing cash as the principal. pavment ·ehicle
in consumer-oriented electronic pavments. Although it mav be
surprising to some. cash is still the most pre·alent consumer
pavment instrument e·en aíter thirtv vears oí continuous
de·elopments in electronic pavment svstems.
Cash remains the dominant form of payment for three
1, lack oí trust in the banking svstem.
2, ineííicient clearing and settlement oí non-cash transactions.
3, negati·e real interest rates paid on bank deposits.
1hese reasons seem like issues seen primarilv in de·eloping
countries. Not true. L·en in the most industrialized countries.
the ratio oí notes and coins in circulation per capita is quite large
and is estimated to range írom >446 to >2¯48. (onsider the
situation in two oí the most industrialized nations in world: the
United States and the United Kingdom. In the United States.
there supposedlv was about >300 billion oí notes and coins in
circulation in 1992. Interestinglv. this .number is not shrinking
but growing at approximatelv 8 percent per vear. Deposits bv
check are growing bv onlv 6 percent per vear. It has been reported
that in the United Kingdom about a quarter oí all spontaneous`
pavments o·er 100 pounds sterling are still made with cash. lor
pavments under íi·e pounds sterling. the percentage is 98 percent
. 1he predominance oí cash indicates an opportunitv íor inno·ati·e
business practice that re·amps the purchasing process where
consumers are hea·v users oí cash. 1o reallv displace cash. the
electronic pavment svstems need to ha·e some qualities oí cash
that current credit and debit cards lack. lor example. cash is
negotiable. meaning it can be gi·en or traded to some-one else.
(ash is legal tender. meaning the pavee is obligated to take it. (ash
is a bearer instrument. meaning that possession is prima íacie
prooí oí ownership. Also. cash can be held and used bv anvone
e·en those who don`t ha·e a bank account. and cash places no risk
on the part oí the acceptor that the medium oí exchange mav not
be good.
Now compare cash to credit and debit cards. lirst. thev can`t be
gi·en awav because. technicallv. thev are identiíication cards owned
bv the issuer and restricted to one user. (redit and debit cards are
not legal tender. gi·en that merchants ha·e the right to reíuse to
accept them. Nor are credit and debit cards bearer instruments:
their usage requires an account relationship and authorization
svstem. Similarlv. checks require either personal
knowledge oí the paver or a check guarantee svstem. lence. to
reallv create a no·el electronic pavment method. we need to do
more than recreate the con·enience that is oííered bv credit and
debit cards. \e need to de·elop e-cash that has some oí the
properties oí cash.
Properties of Electronic Cash
Oí the manv wavs that exist íor implementing an e-cash svstem.
all must incorporate a íew common íeatures. Speciíicallv. e-cash
must ha·e the íollowing íour properties: monetarv ·alue.
interoperabilitv. irretrie·abilitv. and securitv.
L-cash must have a monetary value. bank authorized credit. or
a bank-certiíied cashier`s check. \hen e-cash created bv one bank is
accepted bv others. reconciliation must occur without anv problems.
Stated. another wav. e-cash without proper bank certiíication carries
the risk that when deposited. it might be returned íor insuííicient
L-cash must be interoperable-that is. exchangeable as pavment
íor other e-cash. paper cash. goods or ser·ices. lines oí credit.
deposits in banking accounts. bank notes or obligations. electronic
beneíits transíers. and the like. Most e-cash proposals use a single
bank. In practice. multiple banks are required with an international
clearinghouse that handles the exchange-abilitv issues because all
customers are not going to be using the same bank or e·en be in
the same countrv.
L-cash must be storable and retrievable. Remote storage and
retrie·al e.g.. írom a telephone or personal communications
de·ice, would allow users to exchange e-cash e.g.. withdraw írom
and deposit into banking accounts, írom home or oííice or while
tra·eling. 1he cash could be stored on a remote computer`s memorv.
in smart cards. or in other easilv transported standard or specialpurpose
de·ices. Because it might be easv to create counteríeit cash
that is stored in a computer. it might be preíerable to store cash on
a dedicated de·ice that cannot be altered. 1his de·ice should ha·e
a suitable interíace to íacilitate personal authentication using
passwords or other means and a displav so that the user can ·iew
the card`s contents. One example oí a de·ice that can store e-cash
is the Mondex card-a pocket-sized electronic wallet.
L-cash should not be easy to copy or tamper with while being
exchanged: this includes pre·enting or detecting duplication and
double-spending. (ounteríeiting poses a particular problem. since
a counteríeiter mav. in the Internet en·ironment. be anvwhere in
the world and consequentlv be diííicult to catch without
appropriate international agreements.
Detection is essential in order to audit whether pre·ention is
working. 1hen there is the trickv issue oí double spending. lor
instance. vou could use vour e-cash simultaneouslv to buv
something in Japan. India. and Lngland. Pre·enting double
spending írom occurring is extremelv diííicult ií multiple banks
are in·ol·ed in the transaction. lor this reason. most svstems relv
on post-íact detection and punishment. Now we will see the
concept oí Llectronic (ash actuallv works.
Electronic Cash in Action
Llectronic cash is based on crvptographic svstems called digital
signatures`. 1his method in·ol·es a pair oí numeric kevs ·erv
large integers or numbers, that work in tandem: one íor locking
or encoding, and the other íor unlocking or decoding,. Messages
encoded with one numeric kev can onlv be decoded with the other
numeric kev and none other. 1he encoding kev is kept pri·ate and
the decoding kev is made public. Bv supplving all customers buvers
and sellers, with its public kev. a bank enables customers to decode
anv message or currencv, encoded with the bank`s pri·ate kev. Ií
decoding bv a customer vields a recognizable message:` the
customer can be íairlv coníident that onlv the bank could ha·e
encoded it. 1hese digital signatures are as secure as the mathematics
in·ol·ed and ha·e pro·ed o·er .the past two decades to be more
resistant to íorgerv than handwritten signatures. Beíore e-cash can
be used to buv products or ser-·ices. it must be procured írom a
currencv ser·er.
Purchasing E-cash from Currency Servers
1he purchase oí e cash írom an on-line currencv ser·er or bank,
in·ol·es two steps:
1, establishment oí an account and
2, maintaining enough monev in the account to back the
Some customers might preíer to purchase e-cash with paper
currencv. either to maintain anonvmitv or because thev don`t ha·e
a bank account. (urrentlv. in most e-cash trials all customers must
ha·e an account with a central on-line bank. 1his is o·erlv restricti·e
íor international use and multi-currencv transactions. íor customers
should be able to access and pav íor íoreign ser·ices as well as local
ser·ices. 1o support this access. e-cash must be a·ailable in multiple
currencies backed bv se·eral banks. A ser·ice pro·ider in one countrv
could then accept tokens oí ·arious currencies írom users in manv
diííerent countries. redeem them with their issuers. and ha·e the
íunds transíerred back to banks in the local countrv. A possible
solution is to use an association oí digital banks similar to
organizations like VISA to ser·e as a clearinghouse íor manv
credit card issuing banks.
And íinallv. consumers use the e-cash soítware on the computer
to generate a random number. which ser·es as the note.` In
exchange íor monev debited írom the customer`s account. the
bank uses its pri·ate kev to digitallv sign the note íor the amount
requested and transmits the note back to the customer.1he network
currencv ser·er. in eííect. is issuing a bank note.` with a serial
number and a dollar amount. Bv digitallv signing it. the bank is
committing itselí to back that note with its íace ·alue in real
dollars.1his method oí note generation is ·erv secure. as neither
the customer paver, nor the merchant pavee, can counteríeit the
bank`s digital signature analogous to the watermark in paper
currencv,. Paver and pavee can ·eriív that the pavment is ·alid. since
each knows the bank`s public kev. 1he bank is protected against
íorgerv. the pavee against the bank`s reíusal to honor a legitimate
note. and the user against íalse accusations and in·asion oí pri·acv.
How does this Process Work in Practice?
In the case oí Digi(ash. e·erv person using e-cash has an e-cash
account at a digital bank lirst Digital Bank, on the Internet.
Using that account. people can withdraw and deposit e-cash. \hen
an e-cash withdrawal is made. the P( oí the e-cash user calculates
how manv digital coins oí what denominations are needed to
withdraw the requested amount. Next. random serial numbers
íor those coins will be generated and the blinding random
number, íactor will be included. 1he result oí these calculations
will be sent to the digital bank. 1he bank will encode the blinded
numbers with its secret kev digital signature, and at the same
time debit the account oí the client íor the same amount. 1he
authenticated coins are sent back to the user and íinallv the user
will take out the blinding íactor that he or she introduced earlier.
1he serial numbers-plus their signatures are now digital coins:
their ·alue is guaranteed bv the bank. Llectronic cash can be
completelv anonvmous. Anonvmitv allows íree-dom oí usage-
to buv illegal products such as drugs or pornographic material or
to buv legal product and ser·ices. 1his is accomplished in the
íollowing manner. \hen the e-cash soítware generates a note. it
masks the original number or blinds` the note using a random
number and transmits it to a bank. 1he blinding` carried out bv
the customer`s soítware makes it impossible íor anvone to link
pavment to paver. L·en the bank can`t connect the signing with
the pavment. since the customer`s original note number was
blinded when it was signed. In other words. it is a wav oí creating
anonvmous. untraceable currencv. \hat makes it e·en more
interesting is that users can pro·e unequi·ocallv that thev did or
did not make a particular pavment. 1his allows the bank to sign
the note` without e·er actuallv knowing how the issued currencv
will be used. lor those readers who are mathematicallv inclined.
the protocol behind blind signatures is presented.
1he customer`s soítware chooses a blinding íactor. R.
independentlv and uniíormlv at random and presents the bank
with XR,L mod PO,.where X is the note number to be signed
and ] is the bank`s public kev.
1. 1he bank signs it: XRL,D ~ RXD mod PO,. D is the
bank`s pri·ate kev.
2. On recei·ing the currencv. the customer di·ides out the
blinding íactor: RXD,´R ~ XD mod PO,.
3. 1he customer stores XD. the signed note that is used to pav
íor the purchase oí products or ser·ices. Since R is random.
the bank cannot deter-mine X and thus cannot connect the
signing with the subsequent pavment. \hile blinding works
in theorv. it remains to be seen how it will be used in the real
business world.
OLlectronic pavment means making pavments electronicallv i.e.
through computer and telecommunication components.
OLlectronic tokens are designed as electronic analogs oí
·arious íorms oí pavment backed bv a bank or íinancial
OLlectronic tokens are oí three tvpes: Cash or real-time,
Debit or prepaid and Credit or postpaid.
OLlectronic cash is based on crvptographic svstems called
digital signatures`.

ODigital currency
OLimitations of L-cash

OUnderstand how to use e-cash
ODescribe the ·arious issues that mav arise in the organization
due to the use oí e-cash
Let`s purchase something on the Internet using Digital (urrencv.
Using the igital Currency
Once the tokens are purchased. the e-cash soítware on the customer`s
P( stores digital monev undersigned bv a bank. 1he user tan
spend the digital-monev oí anv shop accepting e-cash. without
ha·ing to open an account there íirst or-ha·ing to transmit credit
card numbers. As soon as the customer wants to make a pavment.
the soítware collects the necessarv amount írom the stored tokens.
Two Types of Transactions are Possible: Bilateral and Trilateral.
1vpicallv. transactions in·ol·ing cash are bilateral or two-partv
buver and seller, transactions. wherebv the merchant checks the
·eracitv oí the note`s digital signature bv using the bank`s public
kev. Ií satisíied with the pavment. the merchant stores the digital
currencv on his machine and deposits it later in the bank to redeem
the íace ·alue oí the note. 1ransactions in·ol·ing íinancial
instruments other than cash are usuallv trilateral or three-partv
buver. seller. and bank, transactions. wherebv the notes` are
sent to the merchant. who immediatelv sends them directlv to the
digital bank. 1he bank ·eriíies the ·aliditv oí these notes` and that thev
ha·e not been spent beíore.
1he account oí the merchant is credited. In this case. e·erv note`
can be used onlv once. In manv business situations. the bilateral
transaction is not íeasible because oí the potential íor double
spending. which is equi·alent to bouncing a check. Double
spending becomes possible because it is ·erv easv to make copies
oí the e-cash. íorcing banks and merchants to take extra
precautions. 1o unco·er double spending. banks must compare
the note passed to it bv the merchant against a database oí spent
notes .Just as paper currencv is identiíied with a unique serial
number. digital cash can also be protected. 1he abilitv to detect
double spending has to in·ol·e some íorm oí registration so
that all notes` issued globallv can be uniquelv identiíied. lowe·er.
this method oí matching notes with a central registrv has problems
in the on-line world. lor most svstems. which handle high ·olumes
oí micro pavments. this method would simplv be too expensi·e.
In addition. the problem oí double spending means that banks
ha·e to carrv added o·erhead because oí the constant checking
and auditing logs. Double spending would not be a major problem ií the
need íor anonvmitv were relaxed. In such situations. when the consumer
is issued a bank note. it is issued to that person`s unique license. \hen
he or she gi·es it to somebodv else. it is transíerred speciíicallv to that
other person`s license.
Lach time the monev changes hands. the old owner adds a tinv bit
oí iníormation to the bank note based on the bank note`s serial
number and his or her license. Ií somebodv attempts to spend
monev twice. the bank will now be able to use the two bank notes
to determine who the cheater is. L·en ií the bank notes pass
through manv diííerent people`s hands. whoe·er cheated will get
caught. and none oí the other people will e·er ha·e to know. 1he
downside is that the bank can tell preciselv what vour buving
habits are since it can check the numbers on the e-cash and the
·arious merchant accounts that are being credited. Manv people
would íeel uncomíortable letting others know this personal
Drawback of E-cash
One drawback oí e-cash is its inabilitv to be easilv di·ided into
smaller amounts. It is oíten necessarv to get small denomination
change in business transactions. A number oí ·ariations ha·e
been de·eloped íor dealing with the change` problem. lor the
bank to issue users with enough separate electronic coins` oí
·arious denominations would be cumbersome in communication
and storage. So would a method that required pavees to return
extra change. 1o sidestep such costs. customers are issued a single
number called an open check` that contains multiple
denomination ·alues suííicient íor transactions up to a prescribed
limit. At pavment time. the e-cash soítware on the client`s computer
would create a note oí the transaction ·alue írom the open check.`
Let`s see how the business organizations gain írom e-cash and
how sometimes it can create problems.
Business Issues and lectronic Cash
Llectronic cash fulfills two main functions: as a medium oí
exchange and as a store oí ·alue. Digital monev is a períect medium
oí exchange. Bv mo·ing monetarv claims quicklv and bv eííecting
instant settlement oí transactions. e-cash mav help simpliív the
complex interlocking credit and liabilities that characterize todav`s
commerce. lor instance. small businesses that spend months
waiting íor big customers to pav their bills would beneíit hugelv
írom a digital svstem in which instant settlement is the norm.
Instant settlement oí micro pavments is also a tantalizing
1he controversial aspects oí e-cash are those that relate to the
other role. as a store oí ·alue. luman needs tend to require that
monev take a tangible íorm and be widelv accepted. or legal tender`.
In most countries. a creditor bv law cannot reíuse cash as settlement
íor a debt. \ith the acceptabilitv oí cash guaranteed bv law. most
people are willing to bank their monev and settle manv oí their
bills bv checks and debits. coníident that. barring a catastrophe.
thev can obtain legal tender cash, on demand. Ií e-cash had to be
con·ertible into legal tender on demand. then íor e·erv unit there
would ha·e to be a
unit oí cash reser·ed in the real economv: or. to look at it the
other wav round. there would be cash in the real world íor which
digital proxies were created and made a·ailable. 1his creates
problems. because in an eííicient svstem. ií each e-cash unit
represents a unit oí real cash. then positi·e balances oí e-cash will
earn no interest: íor the interest thev might earn would be oííset
bv the interest íoregone on the real cash that is backing them.
1he enormous currency fluctuations in international finance
pose another problem. On the Internet. the buver could be in
Mexico and the seller in the United States. low do vou check-that
the partv in Mexico is gi·ing a ·alid electronic currencv that has
suitable backing· L·en ií it were ·alid todav. what would happen
ií a sudden de·aluation occurs such as the one in December 1994
where the peso was de·alued 30 percent o·ernight. \ho holds
the liabilitv. the buver or the seller· 1hese are not technological
issues but business issues that must be addressed íor large-scale
bilateral transactions to occur. Unless. we ha·e one central bank
oííering one tvpe oí electronic currencv. it is ·erv diííicult to see ecash
being ·erv prominent except in narrow application domains.
Irom a banker's point of view, e-cash would be a mixed blessing.
Because thev could not create new monev ·ia lending in the digital
world. banks would see electronic monev as unproducti·e. 1hev
might charge íor con·erting it. or take a transaction íee íor issuing
it. but on-line competition would surelv make this a low-proíit
aííair. In the short term. banks would probablv make less írom
this new business than thev would lose írom the driít oí customers
awav írom traditional ser·ices. It seems unlikelv that e-cash would
be allowed to realize its potential íor bvpassing the transaction
costs oí the íoreign exchange market. Ií vou pav ven íor e-cash in
Osaka and buv something írom a merchant based in New \ork
who cashes them íor írancs. a currencv con·ersion has taken place.
1hat. howe·er. is an acti·itv toward which most go·ernments íeel
highlv deíensi·e: and ií e-cash started to bvpass regulated íoreign
exchange markets bv de·eloping its own grav market íor settlement.
then go·ernments might be pro·oked into trving to clamp down
on it. Because oí these obstacles. e-cash in its earlv íorms mav be
denominated in single currencies and exchanged at con·entional
market rates.
Next we will see the risks in·ol·ed while doing the transactions
in·ol·ing the use oí e-cash.
Operational Risk and Electronic Cash
Operational risk associated with e-cash can be mitigated bv
imposing constraints. such as limits on
1, the time o·er which a gi·en electronic monev is ·alid.
2, how much can be stored on and transíerred bv electronic
3, the number oí exchanges that can take place beíore a monev
needs to be redeposit with a bank or íinancial institution.
4, the number oí such transactions that can be made during a
gi·en period oí time.
1hese constraints introduce a whole new set of
implementation issues lor example. time limits could be set
bevond which the electronic monev. would expire and become
worthless. 1he customer would ha·e to redeem or exchange the
monev prior to the expiration deadline. lor this íeature to work:
electronic monev would ha·e to be time-stamped. and time would
ha·e to be svnchronized across the network to some degree oí
precision. 1he objecti·e oí imposing constraints is to limit the
issuer`s liabilitv. A maximum upper limit could be imposed on
the ·alue that could be assigned to anv single transaction or that
could be transíerred to the same ·endor within a gi·en period oí
time. Since the user`s computer could be programmed to execute
small transactions continuouslv at a high rate o·er the network. a
strategv oí reporting transactions o·er a certain amount would be
ineííecti·e íor law eníorcement. lowe·er. a well-designed svstem
could eníorce a policv in·ol·ing both transaction size and ·alue
with time. lor example. an anonvmous coin-purse` íeature might
be capable oí recei·ing or spending no more than >500 in anv
twentv-íour hour period. Alternati·elv. the rate ceiling` íor the
next twentv-íour hours could be made dependent on the rate oí
use or on the number oí exchanges that could be permitted beíore
anv electronic monev would ha·e to be redeposit in a bank or
íinancial institution and reissued.
linallv. exchanges could also be restricted to a class oí ser·ices or
goods e.g.. electronic beneíits could be used onlv íor íood.
clothing. shelter. or educational purposes,. 1he exchange process
should allow pavment to be withheld írom the seller upon the
buver`s instructions until the goods. or ser·ices are deli·ered within
a speciíied time in the íuture.
(on·erselv. it should allow deli·erv to be withheld upon the seller`s
instructions until pavment is recei·ed. 1he next section deals with
the legal aspects oí e-cash and the impact oí e-cash on taxation.
Legal Issues and Electronic Cash
Llectronic cash will íorce bankers and regulators to make tough
choices that will shape the íorm oí lawíul commercial acti·itv
related to electronic commerce. As a result oí the ·erv íeatures that
make it so attracti·e to manv. cash occupied an unstable and
uncomíortable place within the existing taxation and law
eníorcement svstems. Anonvmous and ·irtuallv untraceable. cash
transactions todav occupv a place in a kind oí underground
economv. 1his underground economv is generallv coníined to
relati·elv small scale transactions because paper monev in large
quantities is cumbersome to use and manipulate-organized crime
being the ob·ious exception. As long as the transactions íare
small in monetarv ·alue. thev are tolerated bv the go·ernment as
an uníortunate but largelv insigniíicant bv-product oí the modern
commercial .state. As transactions get larger the go·ernment
becomes more suspicious and enlists the aid oí the banks. through
the ·arious currencv reporting laws. in reporting large
disbursements oí cash so that additional o·ersight can be ordered.

Consider the Impact of E-Cash on Taxation.
1ransaction based taxes e.g.. sales taxes, account íor a signiíicant
portion oí state and local go·ernment re·enue. But ií e-cash reallv
is made to íunction the wav that paper monev does. pavments we
would ne·er think oí making in cash-to buv a new car. sav. or as
the down pavment on a house-could be made in this new íorm
oí currencv because there would be no problem oí bulk and no
risk oí robberv. 1he threat to the go·ernment`s re·enue ílow is a
·erv real one. and oííicials in go·ernment are starting to take
cognizance oí this de·elopment and to prepare their responses.
1o pre·ent an underground economv. the go·ernment through
law mav pre·ent a trulv anonvmous and untraceable e-cash svstem
írom de·eloping. But that raises its own problems because the
·ision oí Big Brother` rears its uglv head. Just as poweríul
encrvption schemes permit the design oí untraceable e-cash
svstems. so. too. do poweríul electronic record-keeping tools permit
the design oí traceable svstems-svstems in which all íinancial
transactions are dulv recorded in some database. allowing those with
access to know more about an indi·idual than anvone could know todav.
Anvthing that makes cash substantiallv easier to use in a broader range
oí transactions holds the potential to expand this underground economv
to proportions posing e·er more serious threats to the existing legal
order. Under the most ambitious ·isions oí e-cash. we would see
a new íorm oí currencv that could be íreelv passed oíí írom one
computer to another with no record. vet incapable oí being íorged.
A consumer could draw such e-cash electronicallv írom his or her
bank. 1he bank would ha·e a record oí that transaction. just as a
withdrawal or check is recorded now. But aíter that. the encrvpted
e-cash íile could be handed oíí without the knowledge oí anvone
but the par-ties to the transaction.
lowe·er. as the politics and business plav out. the technologv is
íorcing legal. as issues to be reconsidered. 1he question e-cash
poses is not. Should the law take notice oí this de·elopment·`but
rather. low can it not·`
Bv impacting re·enue-raising capabilities. e-cash cannot escape
go·ernment scrutinv and regulation: but it is going to take some
serious thinking to design a regulatorv scheme that balances
personal pri·acv. speed oí execution. and ease oí use. \ithout a
íunctioning svstem. what the go·ernment will do remains a mvsterv.
Moreo·er. it is not e·en clear vet that the market as a whole will
adopt an anonvmous e-cash standard. lor now. we are mainlv
watching and trving to educate oursel·es about the likelv path oí
the transition to electronic cash.
OOne drawback oí e-cash is its inabilitv to be easilv di·ided
into smaller amounts.
OOne oí the business issues while using Llectronic (ash is
that it can`t take tangible íorm.
O1he enormous currencv íluctuations in international íinance
pose another problem in business while using e-cash
OOperational risk associated with e-cash can be mitigated bv
imposing constraints. such as limits on
1,the time o·er which a gi·en electronic monev is ·alid.
2, how much can be stored on and transíerred bv
electronic monev
3,the number oí exchanges that can take place beíore a
monev needs to be redeposit with a bank or íinancial
institution. and
4,the number oí such transactions that can be made
during a gi·en period oí time.
O1he use oí e-cash can cause threat to the go·ernment`s
re·enue ílow.

ODiscuss Llectronic cheque, smart card, Credit Cards
OAdvantages of Llectronics cheques
OLlectronic Purses and Debit Cards

OUnderstand what is an Llectronic (heck`
ODescribe the use oí Smart cards and (redit cards
Another tvpe oí Llectronic Pavment scheme that we are going to
discuss todav is Llectronic (hecks`. 1his scheme is basicallv íor
those people who don`t preíer to pav bv cash.
Electronic Checks
Llectronic checks are another íorm oí electronic tokens. 1hev are
designed to accommodate the manv indi·iduals and entities that
might preíer to pav on credit or through some mechanism other
than cash. In the model shown in lig. 14.1. buvers must
register with a third-partv account ser·er beíore thev are able to
write electronic checks. 1he account ser·er also acts as a billing
ser·ice. 1he registration procedure can ·arv depending on the
particular account ser·er and mav require a credit card or a bank
account to back the checks. Once registered. a buver can then contact
sellers oí goods and ser·ices. 1o complete a transaction. the buver sends
a check to the seller íor a certain amount oí monev. 1hese checks mav
be sent using e-mail or other transport methods. \hen deposited. the
check authorizes the transíer oí account balances írom the account
against which the check was drawn to the account to which the
check was deposited. 1he e-check method was deliberatelv created
to work in much the same wav as a con·entional paper check. An
account holder will issue an electronic document that contains the
name oí the paver. the name oí the íinancial institution. the
paver`s account number. the name oí the pavee and amount oí
the check. Most oí the iníormation is in uncoded íorm. Like a
paper check. an e-check will bear the digital equi·alent oí a signature:
a computed number that authenticates the check as coming írom
the owner oí the account. And. again like a paper check. an e-check
will need to be endorsed bv the pavee. using another electronic
signature. beíore the check can be paid. Properlv signed and
endorsed checks can be electronicallv exchanged between íinancial
institutions through electronic clearinghouses. with the
institutions using these endorsed checks as tender to settle accounts.
1he speciíics oí the technologv work in the íollowing manner:
On recei·ing the check. the seller presents it to the accounting
ser·er íor ·eriíication and pavment. 1he accounting ser·er ·eriíies
the digital signature on the check using anv authentication scheme.
A user`s digital signature` is used to create one ticket-a checkwhich
the seller`s digital endorsement` transíorms into another-an order to a
bank computer íor íund transíer. Subsequent endorsers add successi·e
lavers oí iníormation onto the tickets. preciselv as a large number oí
banks mav wind up stamping the back oí a check along its journev
through the svstem.

Iigure J4.J Pavment transaction sequence in an electronic check svstem
Let`s see the ad·antages oí Llectronic checks.
Llectronic checks have the following advantages:
O1hev work in the same wav as traditional checks. thus
simpliíving customer education.
OLlectronic checks are well suited íor clearing micro pavments:
their use oí con·entional crvptographv makes it much íaster
than svstems based on public-kev crvptographv e-cash,.
OLlectronic checks create íloat and the a·ailabilitv oí íloat is an
important requirement íor commerce. 1he third-partv
accounting ser·er can make monev bv charging the buver or
seller a transaction íee or a ílat rate íee. or ií can act as a bank
and pro·ide deposit accounts and make monev on the
deposit account pool.
Olinancial risk is assumed bv the accounting ser·er and mav
result in easier acceptance. Reliabilitv and scalabilitv are
pro·ided bv using multiple accounting ser·ers. 1here can be
an inter account ser·er protocol to allow buver and seller to
belong` to diííerent domains. regions. or countries. \ou
all must agree that the major issue oí concern while doing
paving is securitv. In the next section we will discuss one oí
the Llectronic Pavment Svstems that is more secure as
compared to the abo·e discussed schemes.

Smart Cards and Electronic Payment Systems
1he enormous potential oí electronic tokens is currentlv stunted
bv the lack oí a widelv accepted and secure means oí transíerring
monev on-line. In spite oí the manv prototvpes de·eloped. we
are a long wav írom a uni·ersal pavment svstem because merchants
and banks ha·e to be signed up and a means has to be de·eloped
to transíer monev. Such a svstem moreo·er must be robust and
capable oí handling a large number oí transactions and will require
extensi·e testing and usage to iron out all the bugs.
In the meantime. thousands oí would-be sellers oí electronic
commerce ser·ices ha·e to pav one another and are acti·elv looking
íor pavment substitutes. One such substitute is the smart card.
Smart cards ha·e been in existence since the earlv 1980s and hold
promise íor secure transactions using existing inírastructure. Smart
cards are credit and debit cards and other card products enhanced
with microprocessors capable oí holding more iníormation than
the traditional magnetic stripe. 1he chip. at its current state oí
de·elopment. can store signiíicantlv greater amounts oí data.
estimated to be 80 times more than a magnetic stripe. Industrv
obser·ers ha·e predicted that. bv the vear 2000. one-halí oí all
pavment cards issued in the world will ha·e embedded
microprocessors rather than the simple magnetic stripe.
1he smart card technologv is widelv used in countries such as
lrance. Germanv. Japan. and Singapore to pav íor public phone
calls. transportation´ and shopper lovaltv programs. 1he idea has
taken longer to catch on in the United States. since a highlv reliable
and íairlv inexpensi·e telecommunications svstem has ía·ored
the use oí credit and debit cards. Smart cards are basicallv oí two
O#elationship-based smart credit cards
OLlectronic purses. Llectronic purses. which replace monev.
are also known as debit cards and electronic monev.
Relationship-Based Smart Cards
linancial institutions worldwide are de·eloping new methods to
maintain and expand their ser·ices to meet the needs oí increasinglv
sophisticated and technicallv smart customers. as well as to meet
the emerging pavment needs oí electronic commerce. 1raditional
credit cards are íast e·ol·ing into smart cards as consumers demand
pavment and íinancial ser·ices products that are user-íriendlv.
con·enient. and reliable.
A relationship-based smart card is an enhancement oí existing
card ser-·ices and´or the addition oí new ser·ices that a íinancial
institution deli·ers to its customers ·ia a chip-based card or other
de·ice. 1hese new ser·ices mav include access to multiple íinancial
accounts. ·alue-added marketing programs. or other iníormation
cardholders mav want to store on their card. 1he chip-based card
is but one tool that will help alter mass marketing techniques to
address each indi·idual`s speciíic íinancial and personal
requirements. Lnhanced credit cards store cardholder iníormation
including name. birth date. personal shopping preíerences. and
actual purchase records.
1his iníormation will enable merchants to accuratelv track consumer
beha·ior and de·elop promotional programs designed to increase
shopper lovaltv.Relationship-based products are expected to oííer
consumers íar greater options. including the íollowing:
OAccess to multiple accounts. such as debit. credit.
in·estments or stored ·alue íor e-cash. on one card or an
electronic de·ice
OA ·arietv oí íunctions. such as cash access. bill pavment.
balance inquirv. or íunds transíer íor selected accounts
OMultiple access options at multiple locations using multiple
de·ice tvpes. such as an automated teller machine. a screen
phone. a personal computer. a personal digital assistant
PDA,. or interacti·e 1Vs (ompanies are trving to
incorporate these ser·ices into a personalized banking
relationship íor each customer. 1hev can package íinancial
and non íinancial ser·ices with ·alue-added programs to
enhance con·enience. build lovaltv and retention. and attract
new customers. Banks are also attempting to customize
ser·ices on smart cards. oííering a menu oí ser·ices similar
to those that come up on A1M screens. As with credit
cards´banks mav link up with health care
pro·iders.telephone companies. retailers. and airlines to oííer
írequent shopping and ílver programs and other ser·ices.

Electronic Purses and Debit Cards
Despite their increasing ílexibilitv. relationship-based cards are credit
based and settlement occurs at the end oí the billing cvcle. 1here
remains a need íor a íinancial instrument to replace cash. 1o meet
this need. banks. credit card companies. and e·en go·ernment
institutions are racing to introduce electronic purses.` walletsized
smart cards embedded with programmable microchips that
store sums oí monev íor people to use instead oí cash íor
e·ervthing írom buving íood. to making photocopies. to paving
subwav íares.
The Electronic Purse Works in the ollowing Manner.
Aíter the purse is loaded with monev. at an A1M or through the
use oí an inexpensi·e special telephone. it can be used to pav íor.
sav. candv in a ·ending machine equipped with a card reader. 1he
·ending machine need onlv ·eriív that a card is authentic and there
is enough monev a·ailable íor a chocolate bar. In one second. the
·alue oí the purchase is deducted írom the balance on the card
and added to an e-cash box in the ·ending machine. 1he remaining
balance on the card is displaved bv the ·ending machine or can be
checked at an A1M or with a balance-reading de·ice. Llectronic
purses would ·irtuallv eliminate íumbling íor change or small
bills in a busv store or rush-hour toll booth. and waiting íor a
credit card purchase to be appro·ed. 1his allows customers to pav
íor rides and calls with a prepaid card that remembers` each
transaction. And when the balance on an electronic purse is
depleted. the purse can be recharged with more monev. As íor the
·endor. the receipts can be collected periodicallv in person-or.
more likelv. bv telephone and transíerred to a bank account. \hile
the technologv has been a·ailable íor a decade. the cards ha·e been
relati·elv expensi·e. írom >5 to >10. 1odav the cards cost >1. and
special telephones that consumers could install at home to recharge
the cards are projected to cost as little as >50. A simple card reader
would cost a merchant less than >200.
OLlectronic checks are another íorm oí electronic tokens. 1hev
are designed to accommodate the manv indi·iduals and entities that
might preíer to pav on credit or through some mechanism other than
OLlectronic checks are well suited íor clearing micro pavments:
their use oí con·entional crvptographv makes it much íaster
than svstems based on public-kev crvptographv
OLlectronic checks create íloat and the a·ailabilitv oí íloat is an
important requirement íor commerce
OSmart cards are credit and debit cards and other card products
enhanced with microprocessors capable oí holding more
iníormation than the traditional magnetic stripe
OSmart cards are basicallv oí two tvpes:

OCredit Card-Based Llectronic Payment $ystems
OLncryption in Credit Cards

OUnderstand whv pavment bv (redit card is more secure than
other Llectronic Pavment Svstems
1o a·oid the complexitv associated with digital cash and electronic
checks. consumers and ·endors are also looking at credit card
pavments on the Internet as one possible time-tested alternati·e.
Let`s discuss how the pavment is made online using credit cards.
Credit Card-Based Llectronic Payment $ystems
1here is nothing new in the basic process. Ií consumers want to
purchase a product or ser·ice. thev simplv send their credit card
details to the ser·ice pro·ider in·ol·ed and the credit card
organization will handle this pavment like anv other.
We can break credit card payment on on-line networks into
three basic categories:
1. Payments using plain credit card details. 1he easiest
method oí pavment is the exchange oí unencrvpted credit
cards o·er a public network such as telephone lines or the
Internet. 1he low le·el oí securitv inherent in the design oí
the Internet makes this method problematic anv snooper
can read a credit card number. and programs can be created to
scan the Internet traííic íor credit card numbers and send the
numbers to its master,. Authentication is also a signiíicant
problem. and the ·endor is usuallv responsible to ensure
that the person using the credit card is its owner. \ithout
encrvption there is no wav to do this.
2. Payments using encrypted credit card details. It would
make sense to encrvpt vour credit card details beíore sending
them out. but e·en then there are certain íactors to consider.
One would be the cost oí a credit card transaction itselí. Such
cost would prohibit low-·alue pavments micro pavments,
bv adding costs to the transactions.

3. Payments using third-party verification. One solution to
securitv and ·eriíication problems is the introduction oí a
third partv: a companv that collects and appro·es pavments
írom one client to another. Aíter a certain period oí time.
one credit card transaction íor the total accumulated amount
is completed.
Iirst Virtual Holdings:San Diego-based start-up oííers an
Internet pavment svstem to process credit card transactions
on the Internet. It`s allied with LD& íor data processing and
lirst USA Merchant Ser·ices in Dallas íor card processing
Interactive 1ransactions Partners Joint ·enture oí LDS.
lrance 1elecom. US\est. and l&R Block íor home banking and
electronic pavment ser·ices.
MasterBanking A home banking ser·ice started bv Master(ard
and (heckíree (orp.. an on-line pavments processor.
VI$A :Interacti·e VISA International acquired US Order. a
screen phone manuíacturer. VISA Interacti·e has signed up more
than 30 banks. including NationsBank.
Block Iinancial :1his l&R Block unit owns Managing \our
Monev personal-íinance soítware and (ompuSer·e. Pro·ides
electronic-banking ser·ices íor VISA member banks.
Prodigy 1eaming up with Meridian Bank and others to oííer P(based
home banking ·ia its online ser·ice.

1able J5.J Players in On-Line Credit Card 1ransaction Processing
Let`s see how the pavment bv credit card is more secure as compared
to other schemes.
Encryption and Credit Cards
Lncrvption is instantiated when credit card iníormation is entered
into a browser or other electronic commerce de·ice and sent securelv
o·er the net-work írom buver to seller as an encrvpted message.
1his practice. howe·er. does not meet important requirements
íor an adequate íinancial svstem. such as non reíutabilitv. speed.
saíetv. pri·acv. and securitv. 1o make a credit card transaction trulv
secure and nonreíutable. the íollowing sequence oí steps must
occur beíore actual goods. ser·ices. or íunds ílow:
1. A customer presents his or her credit card iníormation along
with an authenticitv signature or other iníormation such as
mother`s maiden name, securelv to the merchant.
2. 1he merchant ·alidates the customer`s identitv as the owner
oí the cred-it card account.
3. 1he merchant relavs the credit card charge iníormation and
signature to its bank or on-line credit card processors.
4. 1he bank or processing partv relavs the iníormation tot the
customer`s: bank íor authorization appro·al.
5. 1he customer`s bank returns the credit card data. charge
authentication. and authorization to the merchant.
In this scheme. each consumer and each ·endor generates a public
kev and a secret kev. 1he public kev is sent to the credit card companv
and put on its public kev ser·er. 1he secret kev is reencrvpted with
a password. and the unencrvpted ·ersion is erased. 1o steal a credit
card. a thieí would ha·e to get access to both a consumer`s encrvpted
secret kev and password. 1he credit card companv sends the
consumer a credit card number and a credit limit. 1o buv something
írom ·endor X. the consumer sends ·endor X the message. It is now
time 1. I am paving \ dollars to X íor item Z.` then the consumer uses
his or her password to sign the message with the public kev. 1he ·endor
will then sign the message with its own secret kev and send it to the
credit card companv. which will bill the consumer íor \ dollars
and gi·e the same amount less a íee, to X. See lig.15.1,
Nobodv can cheat this svstem. 1he consumer can`t claim that he
didn`t agree to the transaction. because he signed it as in e·ervdav
liíe,. 1he ·endor can`t in·ent íake charges. because he doesn`t ha·e
access to the consumer`s kev. le can`t submit the same charge
twice. because the consumer included the precise time in the
message. 1o become useíul. credit (ard svstems will ha·e to
de·elop distributed kev ser·ers and card checkers.
Otherwise. a con-centrated attack on these sites could bring the
svstem to a halt.
Support íor Pri·acv Lnhanced Mail PLM, and Prettv Good Pri·acv
PGP, encrvption has been built into se·eral browsers. Both oí
these schemes can be substantiallv bolstered with the addition oí
encrvption to deíeat snooping attacks. Now anv ·endor can create
a secure svstem that accepts credit card numbers in about an hour.
Third-Party Processors and Credit Cards
In third-partv processing. consumers register with a third partv on
the Internet to ·eriív electronic micro transactions. Veriíication
mechanisms can be designed with manv oí the
attributes oí electronic tokens. including anonvmitv. 1hev diííer
írom electronic token svstems in that
1, thev depend on existing íinancial instruments and
2, thev require the on-line in·ol·e-ment oí at least one
additional partv and. in some cases. multiple parties to
ensure extra securitv. lowe·er. requiring an on-line thirdpartv
connection íor each transaction to diííerent banks could
lead to processing bottlenecks that could undermine the goal
oí reliable use. (ompanies that are alreadv pro·iding thirdpartv
pavment are reíerred to as on-line third-partv processors
O1PPs, since both methods are íairlv similar in
nature.O1PPs ha·e created a six-step process that thev
belie·e will be a íast and eííicient wav to buv iníormation online:
1. 1he consumer acquires an O1PP account number bv íilling out a
registration íorm.1his will gi·e the O1PP a customer iníormation
proíile that is backed bv a traditional íinancial instrument such as a
credit card.
2. 1o purchase an article. soítware. or other iníormation online. the
consumer requests the item írom the merchant bv quoting her
O1PP account number. 1he purchase can take place in one oí two
wavs: 1he consumer can automaticallv authorize the merchant`
·ia browser settings to access her O1PP account and bill her. or she can
tvpe in the account iníormation.
3. 1he merchant contacts the O1PP pavment ser·er with the customer`s
account number.
4. 1he O1PP pavment ser·er ·eriíies the customer`s account number oí
the ·endor and checks íor suííicient íunds.
5. 1he O1PP pavment ser·er sends an electronic message to the buver.
1his message could be an automatic \\\ íorm that is sent bv the
O1PP ser·er or could be a simple e-mail. 1he buver responds to the
íorm or e-mail in one oí three wavs: \es. I agree to pav: No. I
will not pav: or lraud. I ne·er asked íor this.
6. Ií the O1PP pavment ser·er gets a \es írom the customer. the
merchant is iníormed and the customer is allowed to download the
material immediatelv.
¯. 1he O1PP will not debit the buver`s account until it recei·es
coníirmation oí purchase completion. Abuse bv buvers who recei·e
iníormation or a product and decline to pav can result in account
suspension.1o use this svstem. both customers and merchant must
be registered with the O1PP. An on-line en·ironment suitable íor micro
transactions will require that manv oí the preceding steps
be automated. \orld \ide \eb browsers capable oí encrvption can
ser·e this purpose.
lere the two kev ser·ers are merchant ser·er and pavment ser·er .
Users íirst establish an account with the pavment ser·er.
1hen. using a client browser. a user makes a purchase írom a merchant
ser·er bv clicking on a pavment URL hvper-Links,. which is
attached to the product on a \\\ page. Unknown to the customer.
the pavment URL encodes the íollowing details oí purchase: price oí
item. target URL íor hard goods. this URL is usuallv an order status
page: íor iníormation goods. Points to the iníormation customers are
purchasing,. and duration íor iníormation goods. it speciíies how long
customers can get access to the target URL,.
Pavment URLs send the encoded iníormation to the pavment
ser·er. In other words. the pavment URL directs the customer`s
browser to the pavment ser·er. which authenticates the user bv
asking her íor the account number and other identiíication
iníormation. Ií the iníormation entered bv the customer is ·alid
and íunds are a·ailable. the pavment ser·er processes the pavment
transaction. 1he pavment ser·er then redirects the user`s browser
using an l11P redirect operation, to the purchased item with an
access URL. which encodes the details oí the pavment transaction
the amount. what was purchased. and duration,. 1he access URL
is eííecti·elv-a digital in·oice that has been stamped paid` bv the
pavment ser·er. It pro·ides e·idence to the merchant that the user
has paid íor the iníormation and pro·ides a receipt that grants the
user access. 1he access URL is the original target URL sent bv the
merchant`s ser·er. with additional íields that contain details oí
the access: expiration time optional,. user`s address to pre·ent
sharing,. 1he merchant runs an l11P ser·er that is modiíied to
process access URLs l11P redirects,. 1he ser·er checks the
·aliditv oí the URL and grants access ií the expiration time has
not passed. Ií access has expired. the ser·er returns a page that
mav gi·e the user an opportunitv to repurchase the item. 1he
pavment svstem can also generate access URLs in a íormat that can
be parsed bv (GI scripts running on an unmodiíied l11P ser·er.
Once a customer is authenticated. the pavment is automaticallv
processed. 1he pavment ser·er implements a modular pavment
architecture where accounts can be backed bv diííerent tvpes oí
íinancial instruments. credit card accounts. prepaid accounts. billed
accounts. debit cards. and other pavment mechanisms. lor credit
card accounts. the pavment svstem has a real-time connection to
the credit card clearing network. 1he svstem can authorize pavment
in real time based on the proíile oí the transaction and the user.
1he svstem supports small transactions bv accumulating them
and settling them in aggregate. All transactions are recorded in a user`s
on-line statement.
1he statement is a summarv oí recent purchases. and each
summarv line is a hvpertext link. lor iníormation
goods. this is a link back to the purchased item. Ií access has
expired. the merchant`s ser·er will gi·e the user the opportunitv
to repurchase the item. lor non iníormation goods. the link mav
point to an order status or summarv page.

Iigure J5.2 On-line pavment process using a third-partv processor
OLlectronic checks are another íorm oí electronic tokens. 1hev
are designed to accommodate the manv indi·iduals and
entities that might preíer to pav on credit or through some
mechanism other than cash.
O1he enormous potential oí electronic tokens is currentlv
stunted bv the lack oí a widelv accepted and secure means oí
transíerring monev on-line.
OSmart cards are credit and debit cards and other card products
enhanced with microprocessors capable oí holding more
iníormation than the traditional magnetic stripe.
OSmart cards are basicallv oí two tvpes: #elationship-based
smart credit cards and Llectronic purses.
OLncrvption is instantiated when credit card iníormation is entered into
a browser or other electronic commerce de·ice and sent securelv o·er
the net-work írom buver to seller as an encrvpted message.
OAdvantages and disadvantages of Credit Cards
OManaging Credit #isk
OUnderstand the ad·antages and disad·antages ií using (redit cards
ODescribe the inírastructure required to support (redit (ard Processing
In the pre·ious lectures we ha·e learnt a lot about the use oí
(redit cards. Also we ha·e seen the securitv aspect oí using the
credit cards. 1odav we will take a look at what are the Business
Pros and (ons oí (redit (ard-Based Pavment.
1hird-partv processing íor credit cards. entails a number oí pros
as well as cons 1hese companies are chartered to gi·e credit accounts
to indi·iduals and act as bill collection agencies íor businesses.
(onsumers use credit cards bv presenting them íor pavment and
then paving an aggregate bill once a month. (onsumers pav either
bv ílat íee or indi·idual transaction charges íor this ser·ice.
Merchants get paid íor the credit card draíts that thev submit to
the credit card companv. Businesses get charged a transaction charge
ranging írom 1 percent to 3 percent íor each draít submitted.
Credit cards have advantages over checks in that the credit card
companv assumes a larger share oí íinancial risk íor both buver
and seller in a transaction. Buvers can sometimes dispute a charge
retroacti·elv and ha·e the credit card companv act on their behalí.
Sellers are ensured that thev will be paid íor all their sales-thev
needn`t worrv about íraud. 1his translates into a con·enience íor
the buver. in that credit card transactions are usuallv quicker and
easier than check and sometimes e·en cash, transactions.
One disadvantage to credit cards is that their transactions are not
anonvmous. and credit card companies do in íact compile ·aluable
data about spending habits.
#ecord keeping with credit cards is one of the features
consumers value most because of disputes and mistakes in
billing. Disputes mav arise because diííerent ser·ices mav ha·e
diííerent policies. lor example. an iníormation pro·ider might
charge íor partial deli·erv oí a íile the user mav ha·e abandoned
the session aíter reading part oí the íile,. and a mo·ie distributor
might charge depending on how much oí the ·ideo had been
downloaded. 1he cause oí interrupted deli·erv needs to
be considered in resol·ing disputes e.g.. intentional customer
action ·ersus a problem in the network or pro·ider`s equipment,.
In general. implementing pavment policies will be simpler when
pavment is made bv credit rather than with cash.
1he complexity of credit card processing takes place in the
verification phase. a potential bottleneck. Ií there is a lapse in
time between the charging and the deli·erv oí goods or ser·ices
íor example. when an airline ticket is purchased well in ad·ance
oí the date oí tra·el,. the customer ·eriíication process is simple
because it does not ha·e to be done in real time. In íact. all the
relaving and authorizations can occur aíter the customer-merchant
transaction is completed. unless the authorization request is denied.
Ií the customer wants a report or e·en a digital airline ticket,.
which would be downloaded into a P( or other iníormation
appliance immediatelv at the time oí purchase. howe·er. manv
message relavs and authorizations take place in real time while the
customer waits. Such exchanges mav require manv sequence-speciíic
operations such as staged encrvption and decrving and exchanges
oí crvptographic kevs.
Lncryption and transaction speed must be balanced.howe·er.
as research has show that on-line users get ·erv impatient and
tvpicallv wait íor 20 seconds beíore pursuing other actions. lence.
on-line credit card users must íind the process to be accessible.
simple. and íast. Speed will ha·e design and cost implications. as
it is a íunction oí network capabilities. computing power. a·ailable
at e·erv ser·er. and the speciíic íorm oí the transaction. 1he
inírastructure supporting the exchange must be reliable. 1he user
must íeel coníident that the supporting pavment inírastructure
will be a·ailable on demand and that the svstem will operate
reasonablv well regardless oí component íailures or svstem load
conditions. 1he builders and pro·iders oí this inírastructure are
aware oí customer requirements and are in íierce competition to
íulíill those needs.
1here is also no question that banks and other íinancial institutions
must resol·e manv kev issues beíore oííering on-line processing
ser·ices in e-com-merce markets. Should thev go it alone or íorm
a partnership- and with whom· \hat technologv to use· \hat
ser·ices to oííer·\hich consumers are interested and who should
be targeted· A wide ·arietv oí organizations are jumping into the
írav. Regional electronic íunds transíer Ll1, networks. credit card
associations. equipment ·endors. data processors. soítware
de·elopers. bill pavment companies. and telecommunications
pro·iders are all wooing banks with the goal oí building the
transaction processing iníra-structure on the Internet .
Infrastructure for On-Line Credit Card Processing
(ompetition among these plavers is based on ser·ice qualitv. price.
processing svstem speed. customer support. and reliabilitv. Most
third-partv processors market their ser·ices directlv to large regional
or national merchants rather than through íinancial institutions
or independent sales organizations.
Barriers to entry include
1, large initial capital requirements.
2, ongoing expenses related to establishing and maintaining an
electronic transaction processing network.
3, the abilitv to obtain competiti·elv priced access to an existing
network. and
4, the reluctance oí merchants to change processors. \hat
exactlv is at stake here· A lot. In the emerging world oí
ecommerce.. the companies that own the transaction
inírastructure will be able to charge a íee. much as banks do
todav with A1Ms. 1his could be extremelv proíitable.
Microsoít. VISA. and other companies understand that thev
ha·e to do something. Ií thev wait íor a clear path to emerge.
it will be too little too late.` 1hev know all too well that
ecommerce transaction architectures similar to MS-DOS or
\indows, on which other e-commerce applications are
de·eloped will be ·erv proíitable.
Manv companies are de·eloping ad·anced electronic ser·ices íor
home-based íinancial transactions. and soítware companies are
increasinglv allving with banks to sell home banking. L·entuallv.
the goal would be to oííer e·ervthing írom mutual íunds to
brokerage ser·ices o·er the network. Manv banks are concerned
about this prospect and ·iew it as an encroachment on their turí.
Aíter vears oí dabbling. mostlv unsuccessíullv. with remote
banking. banking is recei·ing a jarring message: Get wired or lose
1he traditional roles are most deíinitelv being reshuííled. and
electronic pavment on the Internet can ha·e a substantial eííect on
transaction processing in the real` non electronic, world.
According to some estimates. trans-action processing ser·ices
account. íor as much as 25 percent oí non interest income íor
banks. so banks clearlv stand to lose business. \hv banks are on
the deíensi·e is ob·ious ií we look at banking in the last ten vears.
A decade ago. banks processed 90 percent oí all bank card
transactions. such as VISA and Master(ard. 1odav. ¯0 percent oí
those transactions are processed bv nonbanks such as lirst Data
Resources. Ií soítware companies and other interlopers become
electronic toll-takers. banks could become mere homes íor deposits.
not the pro·iders oí lucrati·e ·alue-added ser·ices.
L·en more worrisome. banks could lose the all-important direct
link to be the customer`s primarv pro·ider oí íinancial ser·ices
that lets them hawk proíitable ser·ices. 1he eííect oí electronic
commerce on the banking industrv has been one oí total
coníusion. 1o be íair. things are happening so íast in this area that
it`s hard to keep up with it all. Let`s see some oí the risks in·ol·ed
in the Llectronic Pavment Svstem.
Risks from Mistake and Disputes: Consumer Protection
Virtuallv all electronic pavment svstems need some abilitv to keep
automatic records. íor ob·ious reasons. lrom a technical
standpoint. this is no problem íor electronic svstems. (redit and
debit cards ha·e them and e·en the paper-based check creates an
automatic record. Once iníormation has been captured
electronicallv. it is easv and inexpensi·e to keep it might e·en cost
more to throw it awav than to keep it,. lor example. in manv
transaction processing svstems. old or blocked accounts are ne·er
purged and old transaction histories can be kept íore·er on
magnetic tape. Gi·en the intangible nature oí electronic transactions
and dispute resolution relving solelv on records. a general law oí
pavment dvnamics and banking technologv might be: No data
need e·er be discarded. 1he record íeature is an aíter-the-íact
transcription oí what happened. created without anv explicit eííort
bv the transaction parties. leatures oí these automatic records
1, permanent storage:
2, accessibilitv and traceabilitv:
3, a pav-ment svstem database: and
4, data transíer to pavment maker. bank. or monetarv authorities.
1he need íor record keeping íor purposes oí risk management
conílicts with the transaction anonvmitv oí cash. One can sav that
anonvmitv exists todav onlv because cash is a ·erv old concept.
in·ented long beíore the computer and networks ga·e us the
abilitv to track e·ervthing. Although a segment oí the pavment making
public will alwavs desire transaction anonvmitv. manv belie·e that
anonvmitv runs counter to the public welíare because too manv tax.
smuggling. and´or monev laundering possibilities exist. 1he anonvmitv
issue raises the question: (an electronic pavments hap-pen without an
automatic record íeature· Manv recent pavment svstems seem to be
ambi·alent on this point. lor instance. the Mondex electronic purse
touts equi·alence with cash. but its electronic wallets are designed to
hold automatic records oí the card`s last twentv transactions with a
statement built in. Ob·iouslv. the card-reading terminals. machines. or
telephones could all maintain records oí all transactions and thev
probablv ultimatelv will. \ith these records. the balance on anv
smart card could be reconstructed aíter the íact. thus allowing íor
additional protection against loss or theít. 1his would certainlv
add some ·alue ·ersus cash. In sum. anonvmitv is an issue that
will ha·e to be addressed through regulation co·ering consumer
protection in electronic transactions. 1here is considerable debate
on this point. An anonvmous pavment svstem without automatic
record keeping will be diííicult íor bankers and go·ernments to
accept. \ere the regulation to applv. each transaction would ha·e
to be reported. meaning it would appear on an account statement
making mistakes and disputes easier to resol·e. lowe·er.
customers might íeel that all this record keeping is an in·asion oí
pri·acv resulting in slower than expected adoption oí electronic
pavment svstems. 1he next risk in·ol·ed is the pri·acv oí the customer
making a purchase.

Managing Information Privacy
1he electronic pavment svstem must ensure and maintain pri·acv.
L·erv time one purchases goods using a credit card. subscribes to
a magazine or accesses a ser·er. that iníormation goes into. a
database somewhere. lurthermore. all these records can be linked
so that thev constitute in eííect a single dossier.1his dossier would
reílect what items were bought and where and when. 1his ·iolates
one the unspoken laws oí doing business: that the pri·acv oí
customers should be protected as much as possible. All details oí
a consumer`s pavments can be easilv be aggregated: \here. when.
and sometimes what the consumer buvs is stored. 1his collection
oí data tells much about the person and as such can conílict with
the indi·idual`s right to pri·acv. Users must be assured that
knowledge oí transactions will be coníidential. limited onlv to the
parties in·ol·ed and their designated agents ií anv,.Pri·acv must
be maintained against ea·esdroppers on the network and against
unauthorized insiders. 1he users must be assured that thev cannot
be easilv duped. swindled. or íalselv implicated in a íraudulent
transaction. 1his protection must applv throughout the whole
transaction protocol bv which a good or ser·ice is purchased and
deli·ered. 1his implies that. íor manv tvpes oí transactions. trusted
third-partv agents will be needed to ·ouch íor the authenticitv and
good íaith oí the in·ol·ed parties..
Managing Credit Risk
(redit or svstemic risk is a major concern in net settlement svstems
because a bank`s íailure to settle its net position could lead to a
chain reaction oí bank íailures. 1he digital central bank must
de·elop policies to deal with this possibilitv. Various alternati·es
exist. each with ad·antages and disad·antages. A digital central
bank guarantee on settlement remo·es the insol·encv test írom
the svstem because banks will more readilv assume credit risks
írom other banks. \ithout such guarantees the de·elopment oí
clearing and settlement svstems and monev markets-mav be impeded. A
middle road is also possible. íor example. setting controls on
bank exposures bilateral or multilateral, and requiring collateral.
Ií the central bank does not guarantee settlement. it must deíine.
at least internallv. the conditions and terms íor extending liquiditv
to banks in connection with settlement.
Despite cost and eííiciencv gains. manv hurdles remain to the
spread oí electronic pavment svstems. 1hese include se·eral íactors.
manv non technical in nature. that must be addressed beíore anv
new pavment method can be successíul. Let`s see what are the
hurdles we ha·e to pass íor successíul implementation oí
Llectronic Pavment Svstems.
Designing Electronic Payment Systems
OPri·acv. A user expects to trust in a secure svstem: just as the
telephone is a saíe and pri·ate medium íree oí wiretaps and
hackers. electronic communication must merit equal trust.
OSecuritv. A secure svstem ·eriíies the identitv oí two-partv
transactions through user authentication` and reser·es
ílexibilitv to restrict iníormation´ser·ices through access
control. 1omorrow`s bank robbers will need no getawav cars
just a computer terminal. the price oí a telephone call. and a
little ingenuitv. Millions oí dollars ha·e been embezzled bv
computer íraud. No svstems are vet íool-prooí. although
designers are concentrating closelv on securitv.
OIntuiti·e interíaces. 1he pavment interíace must be as easv to
use as a telephone. Generallv speaking. users ·alue
con·enience more than anvthing.
ODatabase integration. \ith home banking. íor example. a
customer wants to plav with all his accounts. 1o date.
separate accounts ha·e been stored on separate databases.
1he challenge beíore banks is to tie these databases together
and to allow customers access to anv oí them while keeping
the data up-to-date and error íree.
OBrokers. A network banker`-someone to broker goods and
ser·ices. settle conílicts. and íacilitate íinancial transactions
electronicallv-must be in place.
OOne íundamental issue is how to price pavment svstem
ser·ice. lor example. should subsidies be used to encourage
users to shiít írom one íorm oí pavment to another. írom
cash to bank pavments. írom paper-`based to e-cash. 1he
problem with subsidies is the potential waste oí resources.
as monev mav be in·ested in svstems that will not be used.
1hus in·estment in svstems not onlv might not be reco·ered but
substantial ongoing operational subsidies will also be necessarv.
On the other hand. it must be recognized that
without subsidies. it is diííicult to price all ser·ices aííordablv. ·
Standards. \ithout standards. the welding oí diííerent pavment
users into diííerent networks and diííerent svstems is impossible.
Standards enable interoperabilitv. gi·ing users the abilitv to buv
and recei·e iníormation. regardless oí which bank is managing
their monev. None oí these hurdles are insurmountable. Most
will be jumped within the next íew vears. 1hese technical problems.
experts hope. will be sol·ed as technologv is impro·ed and
experience is gained. 1he biggest question concerns how customers
will take to a paperless and ií not cashless, less-cash world.
O(redit cards ha·e ad·antages o·er checks in that the credit
card companv assumes a larger share oí íinancial risk íor
both buver and seller in a transaction.
OOne disad·antage to credit cards is that their transactions are
not anonvmous. and credit card companies do in íact
compile ·aluable data about spending habits.
ORecord keeping with credit cards is one oí the íeatures
consumers ·alue most because oí disputes and mistakes in
O1he electronic pavment svstem must ensure and maintain
pri·acv. securitv. Intuiti·e interíaces. Brokers and Standards.

O1echnical elements of an LDI
OLDI $tandards

OUnderstand details oí the technical elements oí an LDI
OLDI $tandards
LDI as discussed beíore stands íor Llectronic Data Interchange.
1his is one oí the applications oí L (ommerce which makes
Business to Business transactions possible o·er a network.
Llectronic data interchange LDI, is a technologv poised íor
explosi·e growth in use as the Internet pro·ides an aííordable
wav íor businesses to connect and exchange documents with
customers and suppliers oí anv size. LDI is the electronic exchange
oí business documents. data. and other iníormation in a publicstandard
íormat. It cuts the cost oí managing business-to-business transactions bv
eliminating the need íor labor-intensi·e manual generation and
processing oí documents.
In this lecture we will discuss the LDI standards. the LDI networks
and the LDI soítware that interíaces these two elements and the
business applications. 1hese elements together with the LDI
Agreement are co·ered in detail in this lecture.
Let`s start with LDI Standards.
EDI Standards
At the heart oí anv LDI application is the LDI standard. 1he
essence oí LDI is the coding and structuring oí the data into a
common and generallv accepted íormat -anvthing less is
nothing more than a svstem oí íile-transíers. (oding and
structuring the documents íor business transactions is no easv
matter. 1here ha·e been a number oí LDI standards de·eloped
in ·arious industrv sectors or within a speciíic countrv and there
are complex committee structures and procedures to support them.
lollowing on írom the ·arious sectorial and national LDI
standards is the United Nations UN, LDI Standard:
LDIlA(1. 1his is the standard that should be adopted íor anv
new LDI application.
Now the question arises whv we require LDI standards· LDI
pro·ides an electronic linkage between two trading partners.
Business transactions are output írom the sending
computer svstem. transmitted or transported in electronic íormat
and input into the second. recei·ing computer svstem. 1he
computer svstems that exchange data need a common íormat:
without a common íormat the data is meaningless. 1wo
organizations that exchange data can. with relati·e ease. agree a
íormat that meets their mutual needs. As the network oí exchanges
de·elops then the number oí organizations needing to be partv
to the agreement grows.
1o illustrate this. assume a network oí three customers sav
supermarkets, ordering goods írom íour suppliers íood
manuíacturers,. see ligure 8.1.

Iig. 8.J Interchanges between Customers and $uppliers.
1he network in ligure 8.1 has 12 separate interchanges. It is unlikelv
that each oí these exchanges would ha·e its own íormat but it is
períectlv possible that each customer would ha·e de·eloped its
own standards gi·ing each supplier three separate standards to
cope with,. It is also possible that new exchanges added to the
svstem will ha·e requirements not en·isaged when the data
íormats were originallv agreed: this would require a change to the
existing standard or the introduction oí an additional standard.
1he o·erall picture is one oí unnecessarv complexitv and
LDI standards o·ercome these diííiculties. 1he LDI standard
pro·ides. or attempts to pro·ide. a standard íor data interchange
that is:
OReadv íormulated and a·ailable íor use:
O(omprehensi·e in its co·erage oí the data requirements íor
anv gi·en transaction:
OIndependent oí hardware and soítware:
OIndependent oí the special interest oí anv partv in the
trading network.


LDI Standards pro·ide a common language íor the interchange
oí standard transactions.
Most oí the work on LDI standards has been concerned with the
interchange oí trade documentation and íinancial transactions
but the principle applies to anv interchange where the data can be
svstematized and codiíied. LDI standards are used íor the
interchange oí iníormation as di·erse as weather station readings
and school exam results.
Now let`s see how the ·arious standards e·ol·e.
National and Sectorial Standards
OLvolution of LDI $tandards
1he íirst LDI standards e·ol·ed írom the íormats used íor
íile transíer oí data between computer applications. 1he
e·olution oí LDI standards can be seen as ha·ing three
stages although in practice it was and is somewhat more
complex than that,:
1. 1he íirst íormats that might properlv be called LDI were
de·eloped bv organizations that had to process data írom a
large number oí customer organizations. 1he data recipients
set the standard and the customers coníormed to it.
2. 1he concept oí LDI as an application independent
interchange standard e·ol·ed and se·eral industrv sector and
´ or national standards bodies de·eloped LDI standards to
meet the needs oí a speciíic user communitv.
3. 1he requirements oí international and cross sector trade
meant that the sector and national standards were becoming
an impediment to the íurther de·elopment oí electronic
trading. LDIlA(1 was de·eloped. under the auspices oí the
United Nations UN,. as a uni·ersal standard íor commercial
Early EOI Applications
An example oí an earlv LDI application in the UK was the BAGS
BA(S was and is a consortium oí the major banks that pro·ides
an automated clearing ser·ice íor the transíer oí monev between
bank accounts. Manv organisations that made a
signiíicant number oí pavments including the pav-roll, use this
Users oí the BAGS svstem recorded the iníormation thev would
ha·e printed as cheques on a computer íile in accordance with the
íormat required bv BAGS. 1he data was then sent to BAGS where
the pavments were processed without the delav. expense and risk
oí paper documents and manual data input.
1he use oí the svstem was made much easier bv the a·ailabilitv.
íor most tvpes oí computer. oí standard soítware that output
the pavment data in the required íormat.
In the earlv davs the computer íile would be recorded on a magnetic
tape and couriered to the BAGS headquarters. Subsequentlv an
online submission íacilitv was added to the ser·ice.
Sector and National EDI Standards
1he use oí LDI on svstems such as BAGS and the more general
use oí online svstems demonstrated the potential oí LDI íor the
exchange oí general business documents. A number oí trade
sector organizations understood this potential and de·eloped
LDI íormats íor use in their sector. Some oí the more notable
examples are:
An LDI íormat de·eloped íor. and widelv used in. the Luropean
motor industrv. ODL11L stands íor theOrganisation íor Data
Lxchange bv 1eletransmission in Lurope. ODL11L was predated
bv VGA. a standard de·eloped. and still used. bv the German
motor industrv. 1he motor industrv is planning to mo·e írom
VGA and ODL11L to LDIlA(1 when the standards are stable
and their requirements are íullv met.
One problem thev ha·e is that the LDIlA(1 standard. with its
wider application and more bureaucratic procedures. is slower to
react to e·ol·ing needs than is the case with the sector based
ODL11L standard.
A UK LDI standard íor general trade de·eloped bv the ANA
Article Numbering Association, in 1982. 1RADA(OMS e·ol·ed
to become the predominate UK LDI standard with widespread
application in the retail and catering trades this was in the late
1980`s ´ earlv 1990`s when Britain accounted íor halí the Luropean
LDI acti·itv,. Other Luropean countries also de·eloped their own
standards íor retail ´ general trade: examples oí such standards
are SLDAS in Germanv and GLN(OD in lrance. 1RADA(OMS
and the other national standards mentioned here are looking to
e·ol·e to. or con·ert to LDIlA(1 - a slow process gi·en the
in·estment in the existing standards.
1he ANA is the bodv responsible íor the allocation and
administration oí the product codes used íor the bar codes on
grocerv and other items -product coding has an important role to
plav in LDI svstems,.
Ansi X12
LDI in North America de·eloped with diííering standards in the
·arious business sectors. Lxamples oí such standards are U(S
íor the grocerv industrv and ORDLRNL1 íor the
pharmaceutical trade Sokol. 1989,. Llectronic trade had de·eloped
rapidlv in North America and the problems oí cross sector trade
were becoming apparent. 1he problem was taken up bv the
American National Standards Institute ANSI, and X12 was
de·eloped as a national standard with the aim oí replacing the
·arious sector standards.
The International I Standard
As alreadv outlined. LDI de·eloped in closed user communities
within trade sectors and ´ or national boundaries. 1he use oí
sector and national standards íor this tvpe oí trade was
satisíactorv. lowe·er. as electronic trade de·eloped to co·er wider
trading relationships there is a growing problem oí trade between
organisations using diííerent LDI standards.
In addition to the problem oí cross sector trade there is a desire to
use LDI íor international trade. 1his sensiblv, requires a common
íormat íor the exchange oí the standard business íorms order.
in·oice. etc., between organisations in diííering countries.
International trade also requires a great deal oí additional
documentation íor shipping. customs authorities. international
credit arrangements. etc. - all oí this is potentiallv electronic and
ob·iouslv a common íormat is ·erv desirable. 1o íacilitate this
cross sector and international de·elopment oí LDI the LDIIAC1
standard has been. and is being. de·eloped.
LDIIAC1 is the United Nations standard oí Llectronic Data
Interchange for Administration, Commerce and
1ransport.1he LDIlA(1 standard was born. in the mid-1980s
out oí a United Nations Lconomic (ommission íor Lurope
UNL(L, committee and is supported bv the (ommission oí
the Luropean Union.
Underlving the LDIlA(1 initiati·e are ·arious UN attempts to
standardize on trade documentation. 1hese speciív. íor example.
standards íor the lavouts oí in·oices a pro·ision oí some
importance íor organisations processing manv hundreds. oí
in·oices írom numerous sources,. Notable amongst the standards
documentation is the UN 1rade Data Llement Directorv. a subset
oí which íorms the LDIlA(1 Data Llement Directorv.
LDIlA(1 eííecti·elv assumed a world role when the Americans
accepted it as the world standard while retaining their own ANSI
X12 standard íor domestic use in the short term,:
1he acceptance bv the North Americans oí LDIlA(1 as the
international standard was somewhat surprising. ANSI had done
a lot oí de·elopment work on the X12 standard and
LDIlA(1 was. at that time. essentiallv a Luropean standard.
Since 1988 the use oí LDI has been ·igorouslv promoted bv the
Luropean Union LU, through its 1LDIS programme. 1LDIS
has promoted LDI through sectorial organisations but has also
emphasised intersectorial trade. LDIlA(1 is seen as the common
standard and as ·ital íor electronic trade within the single market`
- íunds ha·e been made a·ailable íor industrv sectors to change
írom their existing LDI standard to LDIlA(1.
LDIlA(1 has been adopted as the LDI standard oí choice bv
countries and sectors new to LDI. In Lurope. countries such as
the Netherlands. Denmark and Norwav ha·e been noted íor their
recent de·elopment oí LDI with LDIlA(1 as the predominate
standard. Llectronic trade is also de·eloping outside Lurope and
North America: Australia and Singapore ha·e been much written
about with LDIlA(1 being the standard oí choice. 1he
importance oí a single international standard has been recognised
bv manv sectors currentlv using their own LDI standards. Manv
sector and national standards are been replaced or are e·ol·ing`
towards the LDIlA(1 standard -included in this process are
ODL11L. 1RADA(OMS and ANSI X12. a de·elopment alreadv
mentioned abo·e.
The EDIACT Standard
1he LDIlA(1 standard. like all other LDI standards. is about
the exchange oí electronic, documents - íor LDIlA(1 each
document tvpe is reíerred to as a message. lor trade purposes the
documents include order. dispatch ad·ice. in·oice. pavment order
and remittance ad·ice.lor transmission purposes LDIlA(1
messages are sent in an electronic en·elope known as an
interchange. Note this is the data standard and is separatelv deíined
írom anv en·eloping requirement oí the transmission protocol.
\ithin that interchange there mav well be a number oí messages.
Messages equate to the trade documents and order and in·oice are
prime examples.
1he messages themsel·es are made up oí a series oí data segments.
Data segments encode a single aspect oí the trade document. íor
instance the order date or the buvers name and address. Lach
LDIlA(1 message speciíies a great number oí data segments
and indi·idual data segments mav be .components oí a number
oí messages. 1he users oí the message select the data segments
that are applicable to their particular needs.
Data segments are. in turn´made up oí tag and a number oí data
items. 1he tag identiíies the data segment and the data elements
gi·e the codes and ´ or ·alues required in the document message,.
1he data elements include the codes and ·alues íor items such as
date and address code but thev are írequentlv used in combination
with tvpe or qualiíier data items to speciív the íormat oí the data
and its use: íor instance a date could be the order date and be in
eight digit centurv íormat. 1he requirement to use data elements
together íorms a composite data element. 1his structure oí the
LDIlA(1 message is shown in ligure 8.2. 1he íunction groups
ha·e been omitted: these are an intermediarv le·el between the
interchange and the message but thev are not normallv

Iig. 8.2 LDIIAC1 $tructure Chart ($implified).
Coding Standards
1he LDI standard pro·ides the common íormat íor the message
but just as important is the abilitv to correctlv interpret the data
held within that íormat. Data in computer svstems normallv has
a code as a kev. (omputer svstems ha·e codes íor customers.
suppliers. products and so on. lor LDI it is preíerable to send the
codes rather than the associated names. addresses and descriptions.
1he use oí codes cuts down the size oí the transmitted message
and. pro·ided the codes are mutuallv agreed. thev can be used to
match the appropriate records in the recei·ing computer svstem.
lor the grocerv and general retail trade there are standard svstems
oí coding. 1hese are used íor bar codes on merchandise and to
identiív address points within the participating organisations: thev
are also used in LDI messages. 1he two main svstems are:
OLAN Luropean Article Number
OUP( Uni·ersal Product (ode American,
1he coding svstems are administered bv the national Article
Numbering Associations ANA,. 1hese organizations ha·e also
been closelv in·ol·ed in the de·elopment oí LDI: the British
ANA de·eloped the 1radacom LDI standard that was discussed
earlier in this chapter.
1he LAN and the UP( svstems are similar. 1he LAN is a 13 digit
code with a two digit countrv code whereas the UP( is a 12 digit
code with onlv a single digit íor the countrv. 1he makeup oí the
LAN code is shown in ligure 8.3.

Iig. 8.3 LA Coding $ystem.
1he check digit calculation. íor the product code. uses a modulus
10 algorithm. 1his is calculated bv multiplving alternati·e digits.
oí the code. bv 1 and 3 respecti·elv. 1he results oí these
multiplications are summed and the check digit is the diííerence
between that sum and the next highest multiple oí 10. see ligure

Iig. 8.4 LA Checkdigit Calculation.
lor ·erv small items. eight digit LAN-8, codes can be allocated.
1his is so that the smaller bar code can be printed on indi·idual
1he LAN code in the example abo·e is a product code íor a 420
gram tin oí leinz Baked Beans. Lach leinz product has the
same manuíacturers` preíix but a diííerent item code allocated bv
the companv. íor example:
Baked Beans - 420 gram tin: 50 0015¯ 001¯1 9
(ream oí 1omato Soup - 300 gram tin: 500015¯ 0020¯ 5
Baked Beans - 205 gram tin: 50 0015¯ 00023 1
In the LDI Order message these codes can be used in the order
line. e.g. the line: LIN-1--500015¯001¯19:LN` LAN address
point codes are used in LDI messages to identiív the sender and
recei·er oí the message. Address point codes are similar to the
product code: the countrv and manuíacturer`s preíix are the same
as íor the companies products but the check digit calculation diííers
íor the two usages. 1he sender oí the order mav wish to speciív a
number oí locations. íor instance an order. in addition to the
buver and supplier. might identiív: 1he Deli·erv Point - the
warehouse where the goods will be deli·ered: 1he In·oice Point -
the head oííice where the in·oice is to be sent.
1he LDIlA(1 order message pro·ides íor up to 20 name and
address segments NAD, to be sent in an order.
eneric Products
LAN codes are appropriate íor ordering branded products. 1hev
are not applicable where the requirement is íor a generic product.
1his circumstance mav not arise when baked beans are ordered
we all tend to ha·e our preíerences íor a particular brand, but the
order might be íor:
OA generic product. e.g. red biros anv old red biros,. or
OA commoditv product. e.g. sheet steel or paper.
Product coding in these circumstances is either agreed between
customer and supplier or there is an agreement on an industrv
sector basis. 1he paper and board trade is one such industrv where
coding con·entions ha·e been agreed -to speciív grams ´ sq. cm.
direction oí íibre. size oí sheet. etc. (oupled with such a con·ention
is the need íor an understanding oí the pack quantitv`. It is
uníortunate ií an order íor 1.000 sheets oí paper is interpreted as
an order íor 1.000 reams and it has happened!,.
O1he essence oí LDI is the coding and structuring oí the data
into a common and generallv accepted íormat -anvthing less
is nothing more than a svstem oí íile-transíers.
O1he íirst LDI standards e·ol·ed írom the íormats used íor
íile transíer oí data between computer applications.
OAn example oí an earlv LDI application in the UK was the
BAGS svstem
O1o íacilitate the cross sector and international de·elopment
oí LDI the LDIlA(1 standard has been. and is being.
de·eloped. LDIlA(1 is the United Nations standard oí
Llectronic Data Interchange íor Administration. (ommerce
and 1ransport
OLDI etwork

OUnderstand details oí the technical elements oí an LDI
OLDI Networks
Aíter discussing about LDI standards and coding let`s see how
the transmission oí electronic data takes place and what are the
requirements íor this electronic transmission.
I Communications
1he LDI standard speciíies the svntax íor the coding oí the
electronic document. it does not speciív the method oí
transmission. 1he transmission oí the electronic document can
OA magnetic tape or diskette that is posted or dispatched
using a courier ser·ice.
OA direct data communications link.
OA ·alue added data ser·ice VADS,. also known as a ·alue
added network VAN,.
1he phvsical transíer oí magnetic tape or diskette is one wav oí
transmitting LDI messages. lowe·er. one oí the ad·antages oí
LDI is speed oí transmission and this is hardlv íacilitated bv the
phvsical transportation oí the diskette or tape. lor this. and other
reasons. this wav oí transmitting LDI is declining in popularitv.
1he use oí direct data communications links is the second
possibilitv. It can be appropriate íor trading relationships where
there are large data ·olumes or where there are onlv one or two
trading partners in·ol·ed. It does. howe·er. ha·e a number oí
complications. It presumes that the trading partners agree
transmission times. protocols and line speeds - requirements
that become complex when there are se·eral trading partners. some
oí them in·ol·ed in a number oí trading relationships. 1he íinal
possibilitv is the use oí a VADS. 1hese can pro·ide a number oí
íacilities but the essential is the use oí postboxes and mailboxes
to pro·ide time independence` and protocol independence`. 1he
íacilities oí a VADS are íurther discussed in the íollowing sections.
Postboxes and Mailboxes
1he basic íacilitv oí a VADS is a post and íorward network. 1his
network is centered on a computer svstem with communications
íacilities. lor each user oí the svstem there are two íiles:
O1he postbox - where outgoing messages are placed.
O1he mailbox - where incoming messages can be picked up.
1aking the trading network shown at ligure 12.1. the postbox
and mailbox arrangement oí the VADS would be as shown at
ligure 9.1.

Iig. 9.J VAD$ ÷ Postbox and Mailbox Iiles.
Ií Sa·a store. íor example. needed to place orders íor bread. meat
and ·egetables then it íormats an LDI interchange containing a
number oí orders íor those three suppliers. 1he sequence oí
e·ents would then be:
OSa·a Store establishes a communication link to the VADS
svstem. Sa·a Store makes extensi·e use oí the svstem and
has a leased line communications link.
O1he VADS computer svstem inspects postboxes. unpacks
the interchanges. mo·es anv a·ailable messages orders in
this case, to the mailbox oí the intended recipients and
repackages them as new interchanges. 1he inspection oí
postboxes is írequent and. to all intents and purposes. the
interchanges are immediatelv a·ailable to the recipient.
O1he users oí the svstem establishes a communication link
to the VADS svstem at their con·enience. Best Bread is the
íirst user oí the svstem to come online. in this case the
communications link is a dial-up line.
OBest Bread inspects its mailboxes íor new interchanges. On
íinding the order írom Sa·a Store and possiblv íurther
interchanges írom other customers, it causes them to be
transmitted to its own order processing svstem.
1he LDI interchange is then a·ailable íor processing in the user`s
application. See ligure 9.2 íor a diagram oí this interchange taking


Iig. 9.2 VADS - Lxample Interchange.
1he post-box ´ mailbox svstem is also reíerred to as a store and
íorward` svstem. 1he two principle ad·antages oí such a svstem
Time Independence
1he sending and receipt oí the interchange are svnchronous. 1he
two processes can be carried out at the con·enience oí the users
in·ol·ed. 1he íirst user mav send all its LDI transmissions. to all
its trading partners. in a single batch. at the end oí its o·ernight
processing run. 1he indi·idual interchange can then be picked up
bv the trading partners. at their indi·idual con·enience.
Protocol Independence
1he tvpe oí communications link to be used is an option a·ailable
to each user oí the VADS svstem. Low ·olume users will probablv
opt íor a dial-up modern link whereas high ·olume users mav
well use a leased line or a packet switching network. 1he VADS
supplier makes a·ailable a wide ·arietv oí communications íacilities
and has the abilitv to handle a range oí protocols. 1he transmission
protocol en·elope is stripped oíí incoming interchanges lea·ing
just the LDI interchange.Interchanges are then re-en·eloped with
the transmission protocol appropriate to the recipient when thev
are retrie·ed írom the mailbox.
'alue Added Data Services
A number oí organizations ha·e set out to pro·ide VADS. 1he
basic and most important íacilitv oí the VADS is the postbox ´
mailbox pro·ision. 1here are. howe·er. a number oí íurther
íacilities that can be made a·ailable: some or all oí them mav be
pro·ided bv anv particular VADS pro·ider.
Trading Community
An established LDI VADS will ha·e a large number oí clients all
with an interest in electronic trade. 1here is a tendencv íor
organisations in a particular trade sector to concentrate on one
particular VADS there are instances oí íormal agreements between
a trade sector organisation and a VADS,. Joining the appropriate
VADS can ease access to new electronic trading partners.
Inter-network Connections
A VADS íacilitates trade between partners that subscribe to the
same VADS but not between partners that might be using diííerent
VADS ser·ices - not inírequentlv organisations ha·e joined more
than one VADS to o·ercome this problem. A number oí the
VADS ha·e made inter-network agreements that pro·ide íor the
passing oí interchanges between them.
International Connections
Manv VADS are nationallv based with a single computer ser·ice
pro·iding the switching ser·ice - a set-up that is appropriate íor
domestic trade. A number oí the VADS`s are part oí international
organisations or ha·e alliances with VADS`s in other countries
thus íacilitating international trade.
Privacy. Security and Reliability
A commonlv expressed concern bv LDI users is the pri·acv oí the
svstem and the securitv oí their messages a concern that can seem
exaggerated gi·en the relati·e insecuritv oí the postal svstem that
LDI might be replacing,.Pri·acv pro·isions will normallv include
user-id ´ password protection. oí postboxes and mailboxes. 1he
setting up oí a trading relationship can also be under user control
with both users required to enter the appropriate control message
beíore the exchange oí message can take place. 1he LDI message
can also be encrvpted or can include an electronic signature
pro·isions that are not dependant on the VADS,.
Securitv will be built into the VADS svstem - it is important to the
users and to the reputation oí the VADS that messages are not
lost. 1he ser·ice must also be reliable - the VADS should ha·e an
appropriate hardware and soítware coníiguration so that it can
ensure the continuous a·ailabilitv oí its ser·ice.
Message Storage and Logging
Users oí the VADS would normallv ha·e control o·er the retrie·al
and retention oí messages in their mailbox. New messages can be
called oíí selecti·elv or in total. Once a message has been called oíí
it will be marked as no longer new but it can still be retained in the
mailbox and it is worthwhile making use oí this íacilitv until the
message is secure in the users svstem,.
As part oí its ser·ice pro·ision the VADS mav well ha·e a message
logging íacilities. 1his pro·ides an audit trail oí when the message
arri·ed in the VADS. when the recipient retrie·ed it and when it
was e·entuallv deleted. A useíul pro·ision should messages be
lost - the result oí an enquirv is normallv to pro·e a íault in one oí
the users svstems ´ procedures rather than anv íault in the operation
oí the VADS.
Message 'alidation
A number oí VADS will pro·ide a ser·ice that ·alidates LDI
messages íor coníormance with the chosen LDI standard and
returns an in·alid interchange. 1his ser·ice is optional and normallv
incurs an extra charge.
Local Access
VADS. despite their alternati·e name oí Value Added Network
are message switching ser·ices. not network ser·ices. 1he cost oí
the connection írom the user to the VADS can be reduced bv
using a local access node or a packet switching ser·ice. 1he time
independence pro·ided bv the VADS gi·es the user the option
oí accessing the ser·ice when cheap rate telephone charges applv.
1he VADS is a commercial organisation and charges íor its ser·ices.
1he charges tend to be a combination oí :
$ubscription A monthlv or annual subscription.
Usage charge:A charge íor the number oí characters transmitted.
Diííering VADS applv these charges in diííering combinations - in
theorv a user could select the VADS with the charging structure
that ga·e it most ad·antage - in practice users choose the VADS
alreadv used bv their trading partners. lor the Pens and 1hings
example. the VADS that is most likelv to be adopted is that alreadv
used bv Packaging Solutions.
SoItware and Consultancy
Network pro·iders tend to ha·e considerable experience in LDI
and an interest in promoting its widespread adoption. Most
VADS pro·iders supplv or sell, LDI soítware that pro·ides íor
easv access to their own network. 1hese VADS pro·iders will also
pro·ide consultancv and training - the basic pro·ision concerns
the use oí the soítware and the network but there can also be
consultancv on the business use oí LDI within the organisation.
OLlectronic Data Interchange is one oí the applications oí L
(ommerce which makes Business to Business transactions
possible o·er a network.
OLDI standards are required so that the computer svstems
can exchange data in a common íormat.
OLDIlA(1 is the United Nations standard oí Llectronic
Data Interchange íor Administration. (ommerce and
OVADS stands íor Value Added Data Ser·ices. 1he basic
íacilitv oí a VADS is a post and íorward network which is
1ime and Protocol independent. VADS is also known as
VAN Value Added Network,.

OLDI Implementation

OUnderstand details oí the technical elements oí an LDI svstem:
OLDI Implementation
Now we will discuss the phvsical implementation oí VADS. LDI
in the Internet.
Recentlv a number oí organisations ha·e started using the Internet
as an LDI VADS. Using the Internet pro·ides the basic store and
íorward íacilities but not necessarilv the other íeatures oí a VADS
ser·ice that are listed abo·e. Securitv and reliabilitv are two oí the
major concerns. unlike the traditional VADS. the Internet does
not guarantee the saíe deli·erv oí anv data vou send into it. 1he
plus side oí using the Internet is that it is cheaper than anv oí the
commercial networks that pro·ide speciíic LDI VADS ser·ices.
EDI Implementation
1he íinal technical element oí the LDI svstem is the LDI soítware.
Ií a companv is to send an order írom its production control
svstem to Packaging Solutions it needs to code that order into the
agreed LDI standard and squirt` it into the chosen VADS. 1o
pick up the order at the other end. Packaging Solutions has a
similar need to extract the data írom the network and to decode
the data írom the LDI message into its order processing svstem.
1he coding ´ decoding oí the LDI message and the interíacing
with the VADS is normallv achie·ed using LDI Soítware. 1he
o·erall picture is summarized in ligure 10.1.

Iig. J.J $ending an order using LDI $oftware.
EDI Software
1he LDI soítware is normallv bought in írom a specialist supplier.
1here are a number oí soítware houses supplving LDI solutions
or the LDI soítware mav come írom: · A major trading partner -
the trading partner mav supplv the soítware or recommend a
third partv supplier.
O1he VADS supplier.
OAs part oí application package. e.g. packaged soítware íor
production control. order processing or accounting mav
include LDI soítware as an integral íeature or as an optional
OA third partv. An example oí this is that a number oí banks
pro·ide LDI solutions that include the collection oí and
accounting íor electronic pavments. Obtaining LDI soítware
írom an interested` partv has both ad·antages and
disad·antages. Ií the soítware is. íor example. bought írom
the VADS supplier then. hopeíullv. there would not be anv
problem interíacing with the chosen network but using an
additional VADS or switching to a new network supplier
mav be more problematic.
1he basic íunctions oí the LDI Soítware are the two alreadv
outlined. namelv:
O(oding business transactions into the chosen LDI Standard:
OInteríacing with the VADS.
Manv LDI soítware suppliers pro·ide additional íunctions.1hese
mav include:
OA trading partner database integrated into the LDI
Soítware.1his can pro·ide íor code translation e.g. internal
customer codes to a trade sector standard code, and ´ or íor
the speciíication oí the LDI requirements oí each trading
OSupport oí multiple LDI Standards. 1he selection oí the
appropriate standard mav be determined bv the trading
partner database:
OSophisticated íacilities to ease the íormatting oí internal
application data to and írom the LDI Standard. Drag and
drop` interíaces are a·ailable íor this purpose. Various LDI
Soítware suppliers ha·e associations with the large suppliers
oí business applications production planning. order
processing. etc., and pro·ide standardised interíaces to those
Olacilities íor transactions to be sent bv íax or e-Mail to
customers that do not use LDI. 1he identiíication oí such
customers mav be determined bv the trading partner
OInteríacing with a ·arietv oí LDI VADS including the
Internet,. 1he selection oí the appropriate VADS mav be
determined bv a trading partner database:
O1he option to encrvpt the LDI Message:
Olacilities íor the automatic acknowledgement oí the LDI
OMessage tracking and an audit trail oí messages sent and
ODirect input and printed output oí LDI transactions
allowing íree standing LDI Operation-in eííect the LDI
svstem pro·ides the ser·ice oí a íax machine.
LDI Soítware is a·ailable on a ·arietv oí platíorms írom the basic
P( up to a mainírame svstem. As with all classes oí soítware the
price ·aries: the basic P( packages starting at sav, 500 pounds
sterling ´ 800 US dollars and the price then goes up írom there íor
the larger machines. additional íacilities and ser·ices such as
consultancv. lor some LDI soítware the support oí each standard
and ´ or VADS is an additional plugin that is paid íor separatelv.
\earlv maintenance charges. that include updates as the new
·ersions oí the LDI Standards are released. tend to be quite heítv.
At the top oí the range is the concept oí an LDI (orporate
Interíace. 1his soítware. oíten mounted on its own. mid range.
machine acts as a central clearing house íor all the e-(ommerce
transactions oí a large organisation. 1he external interíaces can
link to se·eral LDI VADS`s and translate to a ·arietv oí LDI
Standards to meet the needs oí a large number oí trading partners.
1he internal interíaces can link to a number oí business svstems
such as order processing and accounts pavable.possiblv svstems
that are replicated across the ·arious di·isions oí the organisation.
1he svstem can also be used íor intra organizational transactions
- ií the interíace íor external customers and suppliers uses LDI.
whv not use the same interíaces íor trades between di·isions oí
the organisation.
I Integration
LDI soítware will do its job well at a relati·elv modest price. \hat
pre-packaged LDI soítware cannot do is automaticallv integrate
with the business application and a comprehensi·e solution to
this requirement can take a lot oí time and cost a lot oí monev.
1he simple wav to implement LDI is not to link the LDI soítware
and the applications - a set-up sometimes reíerred to as LDI-lax
or LDInterruptus. 1his is. a course. íollowed bv
manv organisations when thev íirst start and persisted with bv
manv small organisations who are onlv doing LDI` because a
large trading partner has told them to. In this mode oí operation:
OIncoming LDI messages are printed out írom the LDI
soítware and then manuallv keved into the business
application that thev are intended íor:
OOutgoing LDI messages are extracted írom the business
application and tvped into the LDI soítware íor íormatting
and onward transmission.
1he use oí LDI in this wav ensures that the transactions get
through quicklv hence the term LDI-lax, but it rules out anv oí
the other ad·antages oí using LDI. lor íull integration oí the
business application and the LDI Soítware there needs to be an
interíace to transíer data írom the business application to the LDI
soítware and ·is a ·ersa. 1o ease this process. most LDI soítware
pro·ides íor a ílat íile` interíace. Ií the data to be sent is sav, an
order then the business application can be modiíied so that:
O1he supplier record in the order processing svstem has an
indicator to sav that its orders are to be sent ·ia LDI:
O1he order print run is modiíied so that orders íor LDI
capable suppliers are not printed:
OAn additional run is included to take the orders írom the
LDI capable suppliers and íormat the data onto the ílat íile:
O1he ílat íile is accessed bv the LDI soítware and. using user
supplied parameters. the order data is íormatted into the
required LDI standard and posted into the VADS.
1he re·erse process is used íor incoming LDI messages. 1his will
in·ol·e the creation oí a batch input routine to run in parallel with
the online íacilities utilized bv most business
applications. 1he additional worrv with incoming LDI messages
is ·alidation. lor orders. in·oices and anv other data manuallv
input into a business application there will be or should be,
comprehensi·e primarv and secondarv ·alidation built into the
svstem and there is a human operator there to deal with anv
lor LDI messages there will not be anv input errors at the recei·ing
end but there isnormallv, no guarantee that the data sent bv the
trading partner is correct or acceptable. Arguablv the LDI routines
taking input messages need all the same ·alidation checks as the
equi·alent manual input routines and there needs to be procedures
íor correcting the problems or iníorming the trading partner and
getting them to transmit a corrected message.
EDI Operation
Once the LDI svstem is set-up it. like anv other data processing
svstems. needs careíul and svstematic operation. A big diííerence
between electronic transactions and their paper equi·alents is that
with electronic transactions there is no paperwork to íall back on
should anvthing go wrong. In these circumstances. thereíore. it is
sensible to keep a securitv copv oí all incoming transactions -
preíerablv in their LDI íormat as soon as thev enter the svstem.
1his then gi·es a íall-back position should anv data be lost or
corrupted and is an aid to the diagnosis oí anv problems.
1he second aspect to LDI operation is how oíten should the
svstem be run. LDI has been implemented. in part at least. to cut
down transaction cvcle time and there is no point in reintroducing
unnecessarv delavs. lor manv organisations a dailv download írom
the mailbox and processing run is suííicient - howe·er. this is not
entirelv satisíactorv ií the dailv run is timed íor an hour beíore a
major trading partner sends out their dailv orders. In some
circumstances. such as just-in-time manuíacture in the ·ehicle
assemblv business. cvcle times can be as short as one hour and
ob·iouslv order processing needs to be ·erv írequent ´ real-time.

Sample EDI Application
\ebLogic Integration pro·ides an LDI sample application that
demonstrates how \ebLogic Integration with the LDI (onnect
íor \ebLogic Integration add-on can be used to exchange LDI
purchase-order iníormation o·er a VAN. In the sample application.
a supplier trading partner uses the LDI integration íunctionalitv
oí \ebLogic Integration to connect to a buver o·er a VAN.
1he interactions between the buver and supplier occur in the
íollowing sequence:
1. A buver trading partner submits an LDI purchase order.
o·er a VAN to the supplier.
2. 1he LDI-to-XML transíormation engine bundled with
Power.Ser·er! con·erts the purchase order to XML.
3. 1he XML document triggers a business process in the
supplier application. 1he business process generates an XML
purchase order acknowledgment.
4. 1he supplier íorwards the acknowledgment to the
transíormation engine which con·erts it to LDI. and then
íorwards it o·er a VAN to the buver.
OA number oí organisations ha·e started using the Internet
as an LDI VADS
OUnlike the traditional VADS. the Internet does not
guarantee the saíe deli·erv oí anv data vou send into it
O1he plus side oí using the Internet is that it is cheaper than
anv oí the commercial networks that pro·ide speciíic LDI
VADS ser·ices.
O1he coding ´ decoding oí the LDI message and the
interíacing with the VADS is normallv achie·ed using LDI
Olor íull integration oí the business application and the LDI
Soítware there needs to be an interíace to transíer data írom
the business application to the LDI soítware and ·is a ·ersa.
A big diííerence between electronic transactions and their paper
equi·alents is that with electronic transactions there is no paperwork
to íall back on should anvthing go wrong. In these circumstances.
thereíore. it is sensible to keep a securitv copv oí all incoming
OLDI Agreement
OLDI security issues

Aíter this lecture the students will be able to:
OUnderstand details oí the technical elements oí an LDI
OLDI Agreements
OLDI Securitv
Aíter discussing how the LDI is being implemented it is clear that
a large organization that processes manv electronic transactions is
going to need its own LDI set-up. 1here are. howe·er. manv
small companies that are dragged into LDI trade bv a large trading
partner but íor who the set-up and running costs oí an LDI
íacilitv would outweigh the beneíits. lor these organizations there
are a number oí alternati·es as discussed below:
I Alternatives
O1he low cost. P( based. íree-standing LDI íacilitv.
OMaking use oí an LDI clearing house. 1o do this the
companv contract íor their LDI messages to be sent to a
clearing house who decode them. print them out and then
post or íax them on. 1he British Post Oííice is an example
oí an organisation that pro·ides this ser·ice.
OInternet access ·ia a clearing house. 1his is an update on the
LDI-Post ser·ice outlined abo·e where a clearing house is
used but the inward and outward transactions are
transmitted between the end user and the clearing house and
accessed bv the client using a standard web browser.
As vou know setting up an LDI svstem requires a lot oí discussion
with trading partners. Manual svstems relv a lot on the
understanding oí the people in·ol·ed: when these interchanges
are automated there is no understanding between the machines -
thev just do what thev are told well thev do on a good dav!,.
1he introduction oí LDI mav also be part oí a wider process oí
business processing re-engineering that makes the eííecti·e
operation oí the supplv chain much more crucial to successíul
business operation. 1raditional logistics had buííer stocks in the
íactorv`s parts warehouse or the retailer`s regional depot and stock
room. In just-in-time manuíacture and quick response supplv
these buííer stocks are eliminated - this reduces the capital
emploved and a·oids the need to double handle goods. \ithout
these buííer stocks the LDI svstems become crucial -the orders
need to be deli·ered on time or cars will be made
with missing wheels and there will be no cornílakes on the shel·es
in the supermarket. lence to achie·e a successíul. electronicallv
controlled supplv chain. businesses ha·e to talk. 1hev need to
agree the nature oí the business that is to be done electronicallv.
the technical details oí how it is to be undertaken and the procedures
íor resol·ing anv disputes that arise.
I Interchange Agreements
1he appropriate wav to document the details oí a trading
arrangement between electronic trading partners is an LDI
Interchange Agreement. 1he agreement makes clear the trading
intentions oí both parties. the technical íramework íor the
transactions and the procedures to be íollowed in the e·ent oí a
dispute. 1he LDI Agreement is a document. normallv on paper.
and signed bv both trading partners beíore electronic trading
begins. 1he íirst requirement oí the agreement is to establish the
legal íramework. 1his has a special signiíicance as most business
law relates to paper based trading and how that law should applv
to the less tangible íorm oí an electronic message is not alwavs
clear although a number oí countries are updating their legal
pro·isions to take account oí electronic trade,. 1his point is made
in the commentarv that is included in the Luropean
Model lectronic ata Interchange (I) Agreement (UIA):
lor LDI to be a successíul alternati·e to paper trading. it is essential
that messages are accorded a comparable legal ·alue as their paper
equi·alent when the íunctions eííected in an electronic en·ironment
are similar to those eííected in a paper en·ironment. and where all
appropriate measures ha·e been taken to secure and store the

The EU-IA. in the text of the Agreement. Includes the Clause:
1he parties. intending to be legallv bound bv the Agreement.
expresslv wai·e anv right to contest the ·aliditv oí a contract
eííected bv the use oí LDI in accordance with the terms and
conditions oí the Agreement on the sole grounds that it was
eííected bv LDI.`And the agreement also speciíies:
O1he point in its transmission and processing at which a
message will be deemed to be legallv binding - the usuallv
accepted standard is that the document` achie·es legal status
when it arri·es at the recei·ing partv. the reception rule`.
O1he timescale íor processing LDI massages. One purpose
oí LDI is to speed up the trade cvcle and this is not achie·ed
ií messages are not reliablv processed within an agreed
O1he time that copies oí the message will be retained a
deíault oí three vears is pro·ided íor bv the LU-IA but
manv member states require longer periods. e.g. se·en or ten
O1he procedure íor settling anv disputes. 1he LU-IA
suggests a choice between arbitration bv a named
organisation. e.g. a chamber oí commerce appointed
arbitration chamber. or bv recourse to the judicial process.
O1he legal jurisdiction in which. anv disputes should be
settled. In addition to the legal or legalistic, aspects oí the
agreement it is important to speciív the technical
requirements. 1hese requirements include:
O1he coding svstems that will be used íor identiíving entities
such as organisations and products and attributes such as
O1he LDI standard that is to be emploved and. within that.
the messages and data segments that will be used. Updating
oí message standards as new ·ersions are released is an issue
that also needs to be co·ered.
O1he network that is to be used - including details oí
scheduling and protocol where a post and íorward network
is not to be emploved.
Model agreements are a·ailable írom ·arious parties. including
trade organisations. and reíerences to example agreements can be
íound on the web pages that accompanv this book.
Another major issue oí concern is the pri·acv and securitv oí the
messages and their exchange. Let`s discuss how to protect the data
while it is being transíerred írom one place to another.
I Security
1he íirst point is to ensure that interchange oí messages is reliable.
In the íirst instance this is a matter oí procedures at both ends oí
the trading agreements. Procedures. rigid procedures. are required
to ensure that all the processes are run and that thev reach their
successíul conclusion - an old-íashioned requirement called data
processing standards`. Procedures are particularlv important where
operations are manual as opposed to being controlled bv job
control programs J(P, run under the appropriate operating
svstem,. Particular attention is needed ií the LDI soítware is run
on a separate machine sav a P(, and the application soítware
operates in a mainírame or similar en·ironment: it is ·ital that all
the data recei·ed on the LDI machine is passed to and processed
once onlv!, on the mainírame and that outgoing data is reliablv
processed in the re·erse direction.
Further aspects oI security are:
Controls in the EDI Standards:
LDI Standards include controls designed to protect against errors
in. and corruption oí. the message. 1he sort oí thing that is
pro·ided is íor segment counts in the message and message counts
in the interchange.
Controls in the Transmission Protocol:
1ransmission protocols include protection. such as longitudinal
control totals. to detect anv data corruption that occurs during
transmission. \here corruption is detected the network svstem
occasions a retransmission without the need íor outside
Protection against Tampering:
\here there-is concern that the transmission might be intercepted
and modiíied it can be protected bv a digital signature. 1his is
designed to ensure that the message recei·ed is exactlv the same as
the message sent and that the source oí the message is an
authorized trading partner.
Privacy of Message:
\here the contents oí the message are considered sensiti·e the
pri·acv oí the message can be protected. during transmission. bv
encrvpting the data.
One potential problem is that the recipient oí the message might
denv ha·ing recei·ed it: the electronic equi·alent oí the idea that
the unpaid in·oice must ha·e got lost in the post`.
One wav out oí this is to use the receipt acknowledgement
messages see below, but the other alternati·e is a trusted third
partv`. 1he trusted third partv` can be the VADS supplier or. ií
vou don`t trust them. some other organisation. 1he role oí the
third partv is to audit trail all transactions a role the VADS pro·ider
is ideallv positioned to íulíill, and to settle anv dispute about
what messages were sent and what messages were recei·ed.
One aspect oí securitv pro·ided íor bv the LDI standard is the
receipt acknowledgement message. 1his is a transaction speciíic
message sent out bv the recei·ing svstem to acknowledge each
message. order or whate·er. 1rading partners that use receipt
acknowledgement messages need to be clear about the le·el oí
securitv guarantee, implied bv the receipt oí the acknowledgement.
1he LDI acknowledgement message can be:
OAutomaticallv generated bv the LDI Soítware Phvsical
Acknowledgement,. It iníorms the sender that the message
has arri·ed but there is no guarantee that it is passed to the
application íor processing or that it is a ·alid transaction
within the application.
O(oded into the application to coníirm that it is in the svstem
íor processing.
OProduced bv the application once the message is processed to
coníirm that the message was ·alid and possiblv to gi·e
additional iníormation such as stock allocation and expected
deli·erv date Logical Acknowledgement,.
1he need íor securitv in an LDI svstem needs to be kept in
proportion: aíter all LDI is ·erv probablv replacing a paper based
svstem where computer output orders. without signatures. were
bunged in the post and e·entuallv manuallv keved in bv an order
entrv clerk. 1ransmission and LDI message controls are automatic.
(hecks o·er and abo·e that all come at a cost: encrvption and
digital signatures both require extra soítware and procedures:
message acknowledgements require additional soítware to generate
the message and to match it to the original transaction on the
other side oí the trading relationship. LDI orders and in·oices
íor regular transaction oí relati·elv low cost supplies do not justiív
too hea·v an in·estment in pri·acv and securitv - ií an extra load
oí cornílakes arri·es at the supermarket distribution centre it ca be
sorted out on the phone and the error will probablv be in the
warehouse. not the LDI svstem whate·er the supplier tells the
LDI pavments require more care: normallv the pavment transaction
is sent to a bank with its own procedures, with the pavment
ad·ice being sent to the trading partner. 1he o·erall íacilities íor
LDI pri·acv and securitv are summed up in ligure 11.1

Iig. JJ.J LDI Privacy and $ecurity
1he o·erall LDI technical setup is summarized in íig 11.2

Iig JJ.2 LDI summary

O1here are number oí alternati·es instead oí setting own
LDI setup like the low cost. P( based. íree-standing LDI
íacilitv. making use oí an LDI clearing house. Internet access
·ia a clearing house.
O1he appropriate wav to document the details oí a trading
arrangement between electronic trading partners is an LDI
Interchange Agreement
O1he securitv aspects in LDI are (ontrols in the LDI
Standards. (ontrols in the 1ransmission Protocol.
Protection against 1ampering. Pri·acv oí Message.

OVarious preventive measures for computer
OData Lncryption $tandard (DL$)

ODescribe some securitv measures to pre·ent the (omputer
Svstems írom ·arious threats in a network .
1he incredible growth oí the Internet has excited businesses and
consumers alike with its promise oí changing the wav we li·e and
work. But a major concern has been just how secure the Internet
is. especiallv when vou`re sending sensiti·e iníormation through
Let`s íace it. there`s a whole lot oí iníormation that we don`t want
other people to see. such as:
O(redit-card iníormation
OSocial Securitv numbers
OPri·ate correspondence
OPersonal details
OSensiti·e companv iníormation
OBank-account iníormation
Iníormation securitv is pro·ided on computers and o·er the
Internet bv a ·arietv oí methods. A simple but straightíorward
securitv method is to onlv keep sensiti·e iníormation on remo·able
storage media like íloppv disks. But the most popular íorms oí
securitv all relv on encryption . the process oí encoding
iníormation in such a wav that onlv the person or computer,
with the key can decode it.
In the Key of...
(omputer encrvption is based on the science oí crvptographv.
which has been used throughout historv. Beíore the digital age.
the biggest users oí crvptographv were go·ernments. particularlv
íor militarv purposes. 1he existence oí coded messages has been
·eriíied as íar back as the Roman Lmpire. But most íorms oí
cryptography in use these davs relv on computers. simplv because
a human-based code is too easv íor a computer to crack.
Most computer encrvption svstems belong in one oí two
categories. Broadlv speaking. there are two tvpes oí encrvption
OSecret-kev crvptographv
OPublic-kev crvptographv
Secret-Key Cryptography
Secret-kev crvptographv the use oí a shared kev íor both encrvption
bv the transmitter and decrvption bv the recei·er. Shared-kev
techniques suííer írom the problem oí kev distribution. since
shared kevs must be securelv` distributed to each pair oí
communicating parties. Secure-kev distribution becomes
cumbersome in large networks.
1o illustrate secret kev crvptographv. A encrvpts a message with a
secret kev and e-mails the encrvption message to B. On recei·ing
the message. B checks the header to identiív the sender. then
unlocks his electronic kev storage area and takes out the duplicate
oí the secret kev. B then uses the secret kev to decrvpt the message.
1he Achilles heel oí secret-kev crvptographv is getting the sender
and recei·er to agree on the secret kev without a third partv íinding
out. 1his is diííicult because ií A and B are in separate sites. thev
must trust not being o·erheard during íace-to-íace meetings or
o·er a public messaging svstem a phone svstem. a postal ser·ice,
when the secret kev is being exchanged. Anvone who o·erhears or
intercepts the kev in transit can later read all encrvpted messages
using that kev. 1he generation. transmission. and storage oí kevs
is called kev management: all crvptosvstems must deal with kev
management issues. Although the secret-kev method is quite
íeasible and protocol íor one-on-one document interchange. it
does not scale. In a business en·ironment where a companv deals
with thousands oí on-line customers. it is impractical to assume
that kev management will be ílawless. lence. we can saíelv assume
that secret-kev crvptographv will not be a dominant plaver in
gi·en its diííicultv pro·iding secure kev management.
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
A widelv-adopted implementation oí secret-kev crvptographv is
Data Lncrvption Standard DLS,. 1he actual soítware to períorm
DLS is readilv a·ailable at no cost to anvone who has access to the
Internet. DLS was introduced in 19¯5 bv IBM. the National Securitv
Agencv NSA,. and the National Bureau oí Standards NBS, which
is now called NIS1,. DLS has been extensi·elv researched and
studied o·er the last twentv vears
and is deíinitelv the most well-known and widelv used
crvptosvstem in the world. DLS is secret-kev. svmmetric
crvptosvstem: \hen used íor communication. both sender and
recei·er must know the same secret kev. which is used both to
encrvpt and decrvpt the message. DLS can also be used íor single
user encrvption. íor example. to store íiles on a hard disk in
encrvpted íorm. In a multiuser en·ironment. howe·er. secure-kev
distribution becomes diííicult: public-kev crvptographv. discussed
in the next subsection. was de·eloped to sol·e this problem.
DLS operates on 64-bit blocks with a 56-bit secret kev. Designed
íor hardware implementation. it operation is relati·elv íast and
works well íor large bulk documents or encrvption. Instead oí
deíining just one encrvption algorithm. DLS deíines a whole
íamilv oí them. \ith a íew exceptions. a diííerent algorithm is generated
íor each secret kev. 1his means that e·ervbodv can be
told about the algorithm and vour message will still be secure.
\ou just need to tell others vour secret kev a number less than 256.
1he number 256 is also large enough to make it diííicult to break
the code using a brute íorce attack trving to break the cipher bv
using all possible kevs,.
DLS has withstood the test oí time. Despite the íact that its
algorithm is well known. it is impossible to break the cipher without
using tremendous amounts oí computing power. A new
technique íor impro·ing the securitv oí DLS is triple encrvption
1riple DLS,. that is. encrvpting each message block using three
diííerent kevs in succession. 1riple DLS. thought to be equi·alent
to doubling the kev size oí DLS. to 112 bits. should pre·ent
decrvption bv a third partv capable oí single-kev exhausti·e search.
Oí course. using triple-encrvption takes three times as long as
single-encrvption DLS. Ií vou use DLS three times on the same
message with diííerent secret kevs. it is ·irtuallv impossible to
break it using existing algorithms.. O·er the past íew vears se·eral
new. íaster svmmetric algorithms ha·e been de·eloped. but DLS
remains the most írequentlv used.
Public Key Cryptography
A more poweríul íorm oí crvptographv in·ol·es the use oí public
kevs. Public-kev techniques in·ol·e a pair oí kevs: a pri·ate kev and
a public kev associated with each user. Iníormation encrvpted bv
the pri·ate kev can be decrvpted onlv using the corresponding
public kev. 1he pri·ate kev. used to encrvpt transmitted iníormation
bv the user. is kept secret. 1he public kev is used to decrvpt
iníormation at the recei·er and is not kept secret. Since onlv the
bona íide author oí an encrvpted message has knowledge oí the
pri·ate kev. a successíul decrvption using the corresponding public
kev ·eriíies the identitv oí the author and ensures message integritv.
Public kevs can be maintained in some central repositorv and
retrie·ed to decode or encode iníormation. Public kev techniques
alle·iate the problem oí distribution oí kevs
Let`s examine How this Process Works:
Lach partv to a public-kev pairing recei·es a pair oí kevs. the public
kev and the pri·ate kev. \hen A wishes to send a message to B. A
looks up B`s public kev in a directorv. A then uses the public kev to
encrvpt the message and mail it to B. B uses the secret pri·ate kev
to decrvpt the message and read it. Anvone can send an encrvpted
message to B but onlv B can read it. Unless. a third partv. sav (. has
access to B`s pri·ate kev. it is impossible to decrvpt the message
sent bv A. 1his ensure coníidentialitv.
(learlv. one ad·antage oí public kev crvptographv is that no one
can íigure out the pri·ate kev írom the corresponding public kev.
lence. the kev management problem is mostlv coníined to the
management oí pri·ate kevs. 1he need íor sender and recei·er to
share secret iníormation o·er` public channels is completelv
eliminated: All transactions in·ol·e onlv public kevs. and no pri·ate
kev is e·er transmitted or shared: 1he secret kev ne·er lea·es the
user`s Pc. 1hus a sender can send. a coníidential message merelv bv
using public iníormation and that message can be decrvpted onlv
with a pri·ate kev in the sole possession oí the intended recipient.
lurthermore. public-kev crvptographv can be used íor sender
authentication. known as digital signatures. lere`s how
authentication is achie·ed using public-kev crvptographv: A. to
digitallv sign a document. puts his pri·ate kev and the document
together and períorms a computation on the composite kev -
document, to generate a unique number called the digital signature.
lor instance. when an electronic document. such as an order íorm
with a credit card number. is run through the method. the output
is a unique íingerprint` oí the document. 1his íingerprint` is
attached to the original message and íurther encrvpted with the
signer A`s pri·ate kev. 1he result oí the second encrvption is then
sent to B. who then íirst decrvpts the document using Ks public
kev. B checks whether the message has been tampered with or is
coming írom a third partv (. posing as A.
1o ·eriív the signature. B does some íurther computation
in·ol·ing the original document. the purported signature. and
Ks public kev. Ií the results oí the computation generate a
matching íinger-print` oí the document. the digital signature is
·eriíied as genuine: otherwise. the signature mav be íraudulent or
the message altered. and thev are discarded. 1his method is the
basis íor secure e-(ommerce. ·ariations oí which are being
explored bv se·eral companies.
Se·eral implementations oí these popular encrvption techniques
are currentlv emploved. In public-kev encrvption. the RSA
implementation dominates and is considered ·erv secure. but
using it íor o·erseas traííic conílicts \ith the US go·ernment`s
position on export oí munitions technologv oí militarv
importance. (learlv. the go·ernment has not reckoned with the
Internet data ílow.
O1he most popular íorms oí securitv all relv on encryption.
the process oí encoding iníormation in such a wav that onlv
the person or computer, with the key can decode it.
O1here are two tvpes oí encrvption methods:
$ecret-key cryptography and Public-key cryptography
OSecret-kev crvptographv the use oí a shared kev íor both
encrvption bv the transmitter and decrvption bv the recei·er
OA widelv-adopted implementation oí secret-kev
crvptographv is Data Lncryption $tandard (DL$)
OA more poweríul íorm oí crvptographv in·ol·es the use oí
public kevs. Public-kev techniques in·ol·e a pair oí kevs: a
pri·ate kev and a public kev associated with each user.
Iníormation encrvpted bv the pri·ate kev can be decrvpted
onlv using the corresponding public kev

RSA and Public-Key Cryptography
RSA is a public-kev crvptosvstem íor both encrvption and
authentication de·eloped in 19¯¯ bv Ron Ri·est. Adi Shamir. and
Leonard Adleman. RSA svstem uses a matched pair oí encrvption
and decrvption kevs. each. per-íorming a one wav transíormation
oí the data. RSA is also de·eloping digital signatures. which are
mathematical algorithms that encrvpt an entire document. 1he
securitv oí RSA is predicated on the íact that it is extremelv diííicult
e·en íor the-íastest computers-to íactor large numbers that are
the products oí two prime numbers kevs,. each greater than
2112. RSA is important because it enables digital Signatures. which
can be used to authenticate electronic documents the same wav
handwritten signatures are used to authenticate paper documents.
lere`s how. a digital signature works íor an electronic document
to be sent írom the sender X to the recei·er \: X runs a: program
that uses a hash algorithm to generate a digital íingerprint-a pattern
oí bits that uniquelv identiíies a much larger pattern oí bits-íor
the document and encrvpts the íingerprint with his pri·ate kev.
1his is X`s digital signature. which is transmitted along with the
data. \ decrvpts the signature with X`s public kev and runs the
same hash program on the document. Ií the digital íingerprint
output bv the hash program does not match the íingerprint sent
bv X aíter that has been decrvpted,. then the signature is in·alid.
Ií the íingerprints do match. howe·er. then \ can be quite sure
that the digital signature is authentic. Ií the document were altered
en route. the íingerprints will not match the output írom the
hash programs will be diííerent, and the recei·er will know that
data tampering occurred. Ií the sender`s
signature has been íorged encrvpted with the wrong pri·ate kev,.
the íingerprints` won`t match either. 1hereíore the digital signature
·eriíies both the identitv oí the sender and the authenticitv oí the
data in the document.
1he use oí RSA is undergoing a period oí rapid expansion and
mav bec0me ubiquitous. It is currentlv used in a wide ·arietv oí
products. plat-íorms. and industries around the world. It is being
incorporated into the \orld \ide \eb browsers such as NetScape.
gi·ing it a wider audience. In hardware. RSA can be íound in
secure telephones. on Lthernet network cards. and on smart cards.
Adoption oí RSA seems to be proceeding more quicklv íor
authentication digital signatures, than íor pri·acv encrvption,.
Perhaps in part because products íor authentication are easier to
export than those íor pri·acv.
Mixing RSA and DES
ORSA allows two important íunctions not pro·ided bv DLS:
OSecure kev exchange without prior exchange oí kevs. and
ODigital signatures.
Olor encrvpting messages. RSA and DLS are usuallv
combined as íollows:
Oíirst the message is encrvpted with a random DLS kev. then.
beíore being sent o·er an insecure communications channel.
the DLS kev is encrvpted with RSA.
O1ogether. the DLS-encrvpted message and the RSAencrvpted
DLS kev are sent. 1his protocol is known as an
RSA digital en·elope.
\hv not just use RSA to encrvpt the whole message and not use
DLS at all· Although RSA mav be íine íor small messages. DLS
or another cipher, is preíerable íor larger messages due to its
greater speed. In some situations. RSA is not necessarv and DLSkev
agreement can take place the two-user en·ironment: íor
example. ií vou want to keep vour personal íiles encrvpted. just
do so with DLS using. sav. a password as the DLS kev.
RSA. and public kev crvptographv in general. is best suited íor a
multiuser en·ironment. Also. anv svstem in which digital
signatures are desired needs RSA or some other public-kev svstem.
Digital Public-Key Certificates
1he most diííicult aspect oí creating an eííecti·e multipartv
transaction svs-tem is the distribution oí public kevs. Because the
kevs are intended to. be public and widelv distributed. secrecv is
not a concern: anvone should be able to get a copv oí a public kev.
Rather. the primarv concern is authenticitv. An impostor could
easilv create a pri·ate ´ public kev pair and distribute the public kev.
claiming it belonged to someone else.
lor instance. ií A in Lngland is doing business with B in (anada
and wants to encrvpt iníormation so that onlv B can read it. A
must íirst get the public kev oí B írom a kev directorv.
1hat`s where the problem lies. 1here is nothing that savs that this
public kev iníormation is ·alid and not a íorgerv put there bv (
impersonating B. One solution to this problem is a public-kev
certiíicate. A public-kev certiíicate is a data structure. digitallv signed
bv a certiíication authoritv also known as the certiíicate issuer,.
that binds a public-kev ·alue to the identitv oí the entitv holding
the corresponding pri·ate kev. 1he latter entitv is known as the
subject oí the certiíicate. In essence. a certiíicate is a copv oí a
public kev and an identiíier number,. digitallv signed bv a trusted
partv. 1he problem is then transíormed into íinding a trusted
third partv to create these certiíicates. A public-kev user needs to
obtain and ·alidate a certiíicate containing the required public kev.
1his is where it gets complicated. Ií the public-kev user does not
alreadv ha·e a copv oí the public kev oí the trusted partv that
signed bv one certiíicate. then the user mav need an additional
certiíicate to get that public kev- In such cases. a chain oí multiple
certiíicates mav be needed. comprising a certiíicate oí the publickev
owner signed bv one certiíication authoritv. and additional
certiíicates oí certiíication authorities signed bv other certiíication

Clipper Chip
(lipper is an encrvption chip de·eloped as part oí the (apstone
project. Announced bv the \hite louse in April 1993. (lipper
was designed to balance the competing concerns oí íederal law
eníorcement agencies with those oí pri·ate citizens and industrv.
Law eníorcement agencies wish to ha·e access-íor example. bv
wire-tapping-to the communications oí suspected criminals. and
these needs are threatened bv secure crvptographv. (lipper
technologv attempts to balance these needs bv using escrowed
kevs. 1he idea is that communications would be encrvpted with a
secure algorithm. but the kevs would be kept bv one or more third
parties the escrow agencies`, and made a·ailable to law
eníorcement agencies when authorized bv a court-issued warrant.
1hus. íor example. personal communications would be
imper·ious to recreational ea·esdroppers and commercial
communications would be imper·ious to industrial espionage.
and vet the lBI could listen in on suspected terrorists or gangsters.
Skipjack. designed bv the NSA. is the encrvption algorithm
contained in. the clipper chip. It uses One 80-bit kev to encrvpt and
decrvpt 64-bit blocks oí data. Skipjack can be used in the same wav
as DLS and mav be more secure than . DLS. since it uses 80-bit
kevs and scrambles the data íor 32 steps. or rounds`: bv contrast.
DLS uses 56-bit kevs and scrambles the data íor onlv 16 rounds.
1he details oí Skipjack are classiíied .1he decision not to make the
details oí the algorithm publiclv a·ailable has been widelv criticized.
and manv are suspicious that Skipjack is not secure. either due to
design o·ersight or to deliberate introduction oí a secret trapdoor.
Bv contrast. the manv íailed attempts to íind weaknesses in DLS
o·er the vears ha·e made people coníident in the securitv oí DLS.
Since Skipjack is not public. the same scrutinv cannot be applied.
and thus a corresponding le·el oí coníidence mav not arise.
Aware oí such criticism. the go·ernment in·ited a small group oí
independent crvptographers to examine the Skiplack algorithm.
1heir report stated that. although their studv was too limited to
reach a deíiniti·e conclusion. thev ne·ertheless belie·e that Skipjack
is secure. Another consequence oí Skipjack`s classiíied status is
that it cannot be implemented in soítware. but onlv in hardware
bv go·ernment-authorized chip manuíacturers.
ORSA is a public-kev crvptosvstem íor both encrvption and
authentication de·eloped in 19¯¯ bv Ron Ri·est. Adi Shamir.
and Leonard Adleman.
OA public-kev certiíicate is a data structure. digitallv signed bv a
certiíication authoritv also known as the certiíicate issuer,.
that binds a public-kev ·alue to the identitv oí the entitv
holding the corresponding pri·ate kev
O1he idea behind the clipper is that communications would
be encrvpted with a secure algorithm. but the kevs would be
kept bv one or more third parties the escrow agencies`, and
made a·ailable to law eníorcement agencies when authorized
bv a court-issued warrant

UNIT - '

OVarious Anti Viruses

ODescribe some security measures to prevent the Computer
$ystems from various threats in a network
In the pre·ious lecture we discussed (rvptographv technique to
pro·ide securitv oí data in a network. 1odav we will take a look on
other techniques which can íurther enhance the securitv.
Ií vou ha·e been using the Internet íor anv length oí time. and
especiallv ií vou work at a larger companv and browse the \eb
while vou are at work. vou ha·e probablv heard the term firewall
used. lor example. vou oíten hear people in companies sav things
like. I can`t use that site because thev won`t let it through the
Ií vou ha·e a íast Internet connection into vour home either a
DSL connection or a cable modem,. vou mav ha·e íound vourselí
hearing about íirewalls íor vour home network as well. It turns
out that a small home network has manv oí the same securitv
issues that a large corporate network does. \ou can use a íirewall
to protect vour home network and íamilv írom oííensi·e \eb
sites and potential hackers.
Basicallv. a íirewall is a barrier to keep destructi·e íorces awav írom
vour propertv. In íact. that`s whv its called a íirewall. Its job is
similar to a phvsical íirewall that keeps a íire írom spreading írom
one area to the next. As vou read through this article. vou will learn
more about íirewalls. how thev work and what kinds oí threats
thev can protect vou írom.
What It Does
A íirewall is simplv a program or hardware de·ice that íilters the
iníormation coming through the Internet connection into vour
pri·ate network or computer svstem. Ií an incoming packet oí
iníormation is ílagged bv the íilters. it is not allowed through.
Let`s sav that vou work at a companv with 500 emplovees. 1he
companv will thereíore ha·e hundreds oí computers that all ha·e
network cards connecting them together.
In addition. the companv will ha·e one or more connections to
the Internet through something like 11 or 13 lines. \ithout a
íirewall in place. all oí those hundreds oí computers are directlv
accessible to anvone on the Internet. A person who knows what
he or she is doing can probe those computers. trv to make l1P
connections to them. trv to make telnet connections to them and
so on. Ií one emplovee makes a mistake and lea·es a securitv hole.
hackers can get to the machine and exploit the hole.
\ith a íirewall in place. the landscape is much diííerent. A companv
will place a íirewall at e·erv connection to the Internet íor example.
at e·erv 11 line coming into the companv,. 1he íirewall can
implement securitv rules. lor example. one oí the securitv rules
inside the companv might be:
Out oí the 500 computers inside this companv. onlv one oí them
is permitted to recei·e public l1P traííic. Allow l1P connections
onlv to that one computer and pre·ent them on all others. A
companv can set up rules like this íor l1P ser·ers. \eb ser·ers.
1elnet ser·ers and so on. In addition. the companv can control
how emplovees connect to \eb sites. whether íiles are allowed to
lea·e the companv o·er the network and so on. A íirewall gi·es a
companv tremendous control o·er how people use the network.
lirewalls use one or more oí three methods to control traííic
ílowing in and out oí the network:
OPacket filtering - Packets small chunks oí data, are
analvzed against a set oí filters. Packets that make it through
the íilters are sent to the requesting svstem and all others are
OProxy service - Iníormation írom the Internet is retrie·ed
bv the íirewall and then sent to the requesting svstem and
·ice ·ersa.
O$tateful inspection - A newer method that doesn`t examine
the contents oí each packet but instead compares certain kev
parts oí the packet to a database oí trusted iníormation.
Iníormation tra·eling írom inside the íirewall to the outside is
monitored íor speciíic deíining characteristics. then incoming
iníormation is compared to these characteristics. Ií the comparison
vields a reasonable match. the iníormation is allowed through.
Otherwise it is discarded
What It Protects You rom
1here are manv creati·e wavs that unscrupulous people use to
access or abuse unprotected computers:
O#emote login - \hen someone is able to connect to vour
computer and control it in some íorm. 1his can range írom
being able to ·iew or access vour íiles to actuallv running
programs on vour computer.
OApplication backdoors - Some programs ha·e special
íeatures that allow íor remote access. Others contain bugs
that pro·ide a backdoor. or hidden access. that pro·ides
some le·el oí control oí the program.
O$M1P session hijacking - SM1P is the most common
method oí sending e-mail o·er the Internet. Bv gaining
access to a list oí e-mail addresses. a person can send
unsolicited junk e-mail spam, to thousands oí users. 1his
is done quite oíten bv redirecting the e-mail through the
SM1P ser·er oí an unsuspecting host. making the actual
sender oí the spam diííicult to trace.
OOperating system bugs - Like applications. some operating
svstems ha·e backdoors. Others pro·ide remote access with
insuííicient securitv controls or ha·e bugs that an experienced
hacker can take ad·antage oí.
ODenial of service - \ou ha·e probablv heard this phrase
used in news reports on the attacks on major \eb sites. 1his
tvpe oí attack is nearlv impossible to counter. \hat happens
is that the hacker sends a request to the ser·er to connect to
it. \hen the ser·er responds with an acknowledgement and
tries to establish a session. it cannot íind the svstem that
made the request. Bv inundating a ser·er with these
unanswerable session requests. a hacker causes the ser·er to
slow to a crawl or e·entuallv crash.
OL-mail bombs - An e-mail bomb is usuallv a personal
attack. Someone sends vou the same e-mail hundreds or
thousands oí times until vour e-mail svstem cannot accept
anv more messages.
OMacros - 1o simpliív complicated procedures. manv
applications allow vou to create a script oí commands that
the application can run. 1his script is known as a macro.
lackers ha·e taken ad·antage oí this to create their own
macros that. depending on the application. can destrov vour
data or crash vour computer.
OViruses - Probablv the most well-known threat is computer
·iruses. A ·irus is a small program that can copv itselí to
other computers. 1his wav it can spread quicklv írom one
svstem to the next. Viruses range írom harmless messages to
erasing all oí vour data.
O$pam-1vpicallv harmless but alwavs annoving. spam is the
electronic equi·alent oí junk mail. Spam can be dangerous
though. Ouite oíten it contains links to \eb sites. Be careíul
oí clicking on these because vou mav accidentallv accept a
cookie that pro·ides a backdoor to vour computer.
O#edirect bombs - lackers can use I(MP to change redirect,
the path iníormation takes bv sending it to a diííerent router.
1his is one oí the wavs that a denial oí ser·ice attack is set
O$ource routing - In most cases. the path a packet tra·els
o·er the Internet or anv other network, is determined bv the
routers along that path. But the source pro·iding the packet
can arbitrarilv speciív the route that the packet should tra·el.
lackers sometimes take ad·antage oí this to make
iníormation appear to come írom a trusted source or e·en
írom inside the network! Most íirewall products disable
source routing bv deíault.
Some oí the items in the list abo·e are hard. ií not impossible. to
íilter using a íirewall. \hile some íirewalls oííer ·irus protection.
it is worth the in·estment to install anti-·irus soítware on each
computer. And. e·en though it is annoving. some spam is going
to get through vour íirewall as long as vou accept e-mail.
1he le·el oí securitv vou establish will determine how manv oí
these threats can be stopped bv vour íirewall. 1he highest le·el oí
securitv would be to simplv block e·ervthing. Ob·iouslv that deíeats
the purpose oí ha·ing an Internet connection. But a common
rule oí thumb is to block e·ervthing. then begin to select what
tvpes oí traííic vou will allow. \ou can also restrict traííic that
tra·els through the íirewall so that onlv certain tvpes oí
iníormation. such as e-mail. can get through. 1his is a good rule
íor businesses that ha·e an experienced network administrator
that understands what the needs are and knows exactlv what traííic
to allow through. lor most oí us. it is probablv better to work
with the deíaults pro·ided bv the íirewall de·eloper unless there is
a speciíic reason to change it. One oí the best things about a
íirewall írom a securitv standpoint is that it stops anvone on the
outside írom logging onto a computer in vour pri·ate network.
\hile this is a big deal íor businesses. most home networks will
probablv not be threatened in this manner. Still. putting a íirewall
in place pro·ides some peace oí mind.
Proxy Application Gateways
A proxv application gatewav is a special ser·er that tvpicallv runs
on a íirewall machine. 1heir primarv use is access to applications
such as the \orld. \ide \eb írom within a secure perimeter lig
22.1, Instead oí talking directlv to external \\\ ser·ers. each
request írom the client would be routed \ed to a proxv on the
íirewall that is deíined bv the user. 1he proxv knows how to get
through the íirewall. An application le·el proxv makes a íirewall
saíelv permeable íor users in an organization. without creating a
potential securitv hole through which hackers can get into corporate
networks. 1he proxv waits íor a request írom inside the íirewall.
íorwards the request to the remote ser·er
outside the íirewall. reads the response. and then returns it to the
client. In the usual case. all clients within a gi·en subnet use the
same proxv. 1his makes it possible íor the proxv to execute eííicient
caching oí documents that are requested bv a number oí clients.
Proxv gatewavs ha·e se·eral ad·antages. 1hev allow browser
programmers to ignore the complex networking code necessarv
to support e·erv íirewall protocol and concentrate on important
client issues. lor instance. bv using l11P between the client and
proxv. no protocol íunctionalitv is lost. since l1P. Gopher. and
other \eb Protocols map well into l11P methods. 1his íeature
is in·aluable. íor users needn`t ha·e separate. speciallv modiíied
l1P. Gopher. and \AIS clients to get through a íirewall-- a single
\eb client with a proxv ser·er handles all oí these cases.
Proxies can manage network íunctions. Proxving allows íor creating
audit trails oí client transactions´including client IP address. date
and time. bvte count. and success code. Anv regular íields and
meta-iníormation íields in a transaction are candidates íor logging.
1he proxv also can control access to ser·ices íor indi·idual
methods. host and domain. and the like. Gi·en this íirewall design
in which the proxv acts as an intermediarv. it is natural to design
securitv-rele·ant mediation within the proxv. Proxv mediation
helps mitigate securitv concerns bv
1, limiting dangerous subsets oí the l11P protocol a site`s
securitv policv mav prohibit the use oí some oí l11P`s
2, eníorcing client and´or ser·er access to designated hosts an
organization should ha·e the capabilitv to speciív acceptable
web sites,:
3, implementing access control íor network ser·ices that is lost
when the proxv is installed to restore the securitv policv
eníorced bv the íirewall,: and
4, checking ·arious protocols íor well-íormed commands. A
bug existed in a pre·ious ·ersion oí the Mosaic browser that
permitted ser·ers to download a 1rojan horse` URL to the
client that would cause the client to run an arbitrarv program.
1he proxv must be in a position to íilter dangerous URLs and
malíormed commands.

What is antivirus software?
Anti·irus soítware is a program that either comes installed on
vour computer or that vou purchase and install vourselí. It helps
protect vour computer against most ·iruses. worms. 1rojans. and
other unwanted in·aders that can make vour computer sick.`
Viruses. worms. and the like oíten períorm malicious acts. such as
deleting íiles. accessing personal data. or using vour computer to
attack other computers.
Why should I use antivirus software?
\ou can help keep vour computer healthv bv using anti·irus
soítware. Remember to update vour anti·irus soítware regularlv.
1hese updates are generallv a·ailable through a subscription írom
vour anti·irus ·endor.
Regular Backups
1his poster reminds each computer user oí their responsibilitv to
make regular backups to protect their computer data. 1he task oí
backing up the data íound on vour computer is oíten the most
o·erlooked and hardlv e·er done until its too late` action within
the computer end-user communitv. \ith the soítware tools now
a·ailable. it no longer is the arduous task that is once was a íew
vears ago... 1here is no excuse not to backup vour data - do it now.
don`t wait until its too late! Once vour svstem is in use. vour next
consideration should be to back up the íile svstems. directories.
and íiles. liles and directories represent a signiíicant in·estment oí time
and eííort.
At the same time. all computer íiles are potentiallv easv to change
or erase. either intentionallv or bv accident. Ií vou take a careíul
and methodical approach to backing up vour íile svstems. vou
should alwavs be able to restore recent ·ersions oí íiles or íile
svstems with little diííicultv.
ote: \hen a hard disk crashes. the iníormation contained on
that disk is destroved. 1he onlv wav to reco·er the destroved data
is to retrie·e the iníormation írom vour backup copv.
1here are se·eral diííerent methods oí backing up. 1he most
írequentlv used method is a regular backup. which is a copv oí a
íile svstem. directorv. or íile that is kept íor íile transíer or in case
the original data is unintentionallv changed or destroved. Another
íorm oí backing up is the archi·e backup: this method is used íor
a copv oí one or more íiles. or an entire database that is sa·ed íor
íuture reíerence. historical purposes. or íor reco·erv ií the original
data is damaged or lost. Usuallv an archi·e is used when that
speciíic data is remo·ed írom the svstem.
A íirewall is simplv a program or hardware de·ice that íilters the
iníormation coming through the Internet connection into vour
pri·ate network or computer svstem. Ií an incoming packet oí
iníormation is ílagged bv the íilters. it is not allowed through.
lirewalls use one or more oí three methods to control traííic
ílowing in and out oí the network: Packet filtering, Proxy
service, $tateful inspection
Olirewall protects írom #emote login. Application
backdoors, Operating system bugs, Denial of service.Lmail
bombs. Virus
OA proxv application gatewav is a special ser·er that tvpicallv
runs on a íirewall machine. Instead oí talking directlv to
external \\\ ser·ers. each request írom the client would
be routed \ed to a proxv on the íirewall that is deíined bv
the user. 1he proxv knows how to get through the íirewall.
OAnti·irus soítware is a program that either comes installed
on vour computer or that vou purchase and install vourselí.
It helps protect vour computer against most ·iruses. worms.
1rojans. and other unwanted in·aders that can make vour
computer sick.`

OLthical, $ocial, and Political issues in LCommerce

OUnderstand Lthical. Social. and Political issues in L(ommerce
Deíining the rights oí people to express their ideas and the
propertv rights oí copvright owners are just two oí manv ethical.
social. and political issues raised bv the rapid e·olution oí ecommerce.
1hese questions are not just ethical questions that we as indi·iduals ha·e
to answer: thev also in·ol·e social Institutions such as íamilv. schools.
and business íirms. And these questions ha·e ob·ious political
dimensions because thev in·ol·e collecti·e choices about how we
should li·e and what laws we would like to li·e under.
In this lecture we discuss the ethical. social. and political issues
raised in e-commerce. pro·ide a íramework íor organizing the
issues. and make recommendations íor managers who are gi·en
the responsibilitv oí operating e-commerce companies within
commonlv accepted standards oí appropriateness.
Understanding Lthical. Social. And Political Issues In L-(ommerce
Internet and its use in e-commerce ha·e raised per·asi·e ethical.
social and political issues on a scale unprecedented íor computer
technologv. Lntire sections oí dailv newspapers and weeklv
magazines are de·oted to the social impact oí the Internet. \hv is
this so· \hv is the Internet at the root oí so manv contemporarv
contro·ersies· Part oí the answer lies in the underlving íeatures oí
Internet technologv and the wavs in which it has been exploited
bv business íirms. Internet technologv and its use in e-commerce
disrupts existing social and business relationships and understandings.
Instead oí considering the business consequences oí each unique
íeature. here we examine the actual or potential ethical. social.
and´or political consequences oí the technologv see 1able 23.1,.
\e li·e in an iníormation societv.` where power and wealth
increasinglv depend on iníormation and knowledge as central
assets. (ontro·ersies o·er iníormation are oíten in íact
disagreements o·er power. wealth. iníluence. and other things
thought to be ·aluable. Like other technologies such as steam.
electricitv. telephones. and tele·ision. the Internet and e-commerce
can be used to achie·e social progress. and íor the most part. this
has occurred. lowe·er. the same technologies can be used to
commit crimes. despoil the en·ironment. and threaten cherished
social ·alues. Beíore automobiles. there was ·erv little interstate
crime and ·erv little íederal jurisdiction o·er crime. Likewise with
the Internet: Beíore the Internet. there was ·erv little cvber crime.`
Manv business íirms and indi·iduals are beneíiting írom the
commercial de·elopment oí the Internet. but this de·elopment
also exacts a price írom indi·iduals. organizations. and
societies.1hese costs and beneíits must be careíullv considered bv
those seeking to make ethical and sociallv responsible decisions in
this new en·ironment. 1he question is: how can vou as a manager
make reasoned judgments abo·e what vour íirm should do in a
number oí e-commerce areas- írom securing the pri·acv oí vour
customer`s click stream to ensuring the integritv oí vour companv
domain name·
1he major ethical. social. and political issues that ha·e de·eloped
around e-commerce o·er the past se·en to eight vears can be looselv
categorized into íour major dimensions: iníormation rights.
propertv rights. go·ernance. and public saíetv and welíare as shown
in lig 23.1Some oí the ethical. social. and political issues raised in
each oí these areas include the íollowing:
OInformation rights: \hat rights to their own personal
iníormation do indi·iduals ha·e in a public marketplace. or
in their pri·ate homes. when Internet technologv make
iníormation collection so per·asi·e and eííicient· \hat
rights do indi·iduals ha·e to access iníormation about
business íirms and other organizations·
OProperty rights: low can traditional intellectual propertv
rights be eníorced in an internet world where períect copies
oí protected works can be made and easilv distributed
worldwide in seconds·
Oovernance: Should the Internet and e-commerce be
subject to public laws· And ií so. what law-making bodies
ha·e jurisdiction - state. íederal. and´or international·
OPublic safety and welfare: \hat eííorts should be
undertaken to ensure equitable access to the Internet and
ecommerce channels· Should go·ernments be responsible
íor ensuring that schools and colleges ha·e access to the
Internet· Is certain online content and acti·ities - such as
pornographv and gambling - a threat to public saíetv and
welíare· Should mobile commerce be allowed írom mo·ing
1o illustrate. imagine that at anv gi·en moment societv and
indi·iduals are more or less in an ethical equilibrium brought
about bv a delicate balancing oí indi·iduals. social organizations.
and political institutions. Indi·iduals know what is expected oí
them. social organizations such as business íirms know their
limits. capabilities. and roles and political institutions pro·ide a
supporti·e íramework oí market regulation. banking and
commercial law that pro·ides sanctions against ·iolators.Now.
imagine we drop into the middle oí this calm setting a poweríul
new technologv such as the Internet and e-commerce.
Suddenlv indi·iduals. business íirms. and political institutions
are coníronted bv new possibilities oí beha·ior. lor instance.
indi·iduals disco·er that thev can download períect digital copies
oí music tracks. something which. under the old technologv oí
(Ds. would ha·e been impossible. 1his can be done. despite the
íact that these music tracks still belong` as a legal matter to the
owners oí the copvright - musicians and record label companies.
1he introduction oí the Internet and e-commerce impacts
indi·iduals. societies. and political institutions. 1hese impacts can
be classiíied into íour moral dimensions: propertv rights.
iníormation rights. go·ernance. and public saíetv and welíare 1hen
business íirms disco·er that thev can make a business out oí
aggregating these musical tracks - or creating a mechanism íor
sharing musical tracks- e·en though thev do not own` them in
the traditional sense. 1he record companies. courts. and (ongress
were not prepared at íirst to cope with the onslaught oí online
digital copving. (ourts and legislati·e bodies will ha·e to make
new laws and reach new judgments about who owns digital
copies oí copvrighted works and under what conditions such
works can be shared.` It mav take vears to de·elop new
understandings. laws. and acceptable beha·ior in just this one area
oí social impact. In the meantime. as an indi·idual and a manager.
vou will ha·e to decide what vou and vour íirm should do in legal
grev`- areas. where there is conílict between ethical principles. but
no c1ear-cutural guidelines. low can vou make good decisions in
this tvpe oí situation·
Beíore re·iewing the íour moral dimensions oí e-commerce in
greater depth. we will brieílv re·iew some basic concepts oí ethical
reasoning that vou can use as a guide to ethical decision making.
and pro·ide general reasoning principles about social political
issues oí the Internet that vou will íace in the íuture.

lig 23.1 1he Moral Dimensions oí an Internet Societv
Let`s take a look on what are Lthics. \hat is an Lthical dilemma
and what are the Lthical principles which we can íollow in order to
come out oí the ethical dilemma.
Basic Ethical Concepts: Responsibility Accountability. and
Lthics is at the heart oí social and political debates about the
Internet. Lthics is the studv oí principles that indi·iduals and
organizations can use to determine right and wrong courses oí
action. It is assumed in ethics that indi·iduals are íree moral agents
who are in a position to make choices. \hen íaced with alternati·e
courses oí action. what is the correct moral choice·
Lxtending ethics írom indi·iduals 94 business íirms and e·en
entire societies can be diííicult. but it is not impossible. As long as
there is a decision-making bodv or indi·idual such as a Board oí
Directors or (LO in a business íirm or a go·ernmental bodv in a
societv,. their decisions can be judged against a ·arietv oí ethical
principles. Ií vou understand some basic ethical principles. vour
abilitv 94 reason about larger social ava political debates will be
impro·ed. In western culture. there are abilitv and liabilitv principles
that all ethical schools oí thought share: responsibilitv. accountliabilitv.
Respons1nilitv means that as íree moral agents. indi·iduals.
organizations and societies are responsible íor the actions thev
take. Accountabilitv means that indi·iduals. organizations. and
societies should be held accountable 94 others íor the consequences
oí their actions. 1he third principle -liabilitv - extends the concepts
oí responsibilitv and accountabilitv 94 the area oí law. Liabilitv is a
íeature oí political svstems in which a bodv oí law is in place that
permits indi·iduals 94 reco·er the damages done 94 them bv other
actors. svstems. or organizations. Due process is a íeature oí law
go·erned societies and reíers 94 a process in which laws are known
and understood and there is an abilitv 94 appeal 94 higher authorities
to ensure that the laws ha·e been applied correctlv.
Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas
Lthical. social. and political contro·ersies usuallv present themsel·es
as dilemmas. A dilemma is a situation in which there are at least
two diametricallv opposed actions. each oí which supports a
desirable outcome. \hen coníronted with a situation that seems
to present ethical dilemmas. how can vou analvze and reason
about the situation· 1he íollowing is a íi·estep process that should
J. Identify and describe clearly the facts. lind out who did
what to whom. and where. when. and how. In manv
instances. vou will be surprised at the errors in the initiallv
reported íacts. and oíten vou will íind that simplv getting the
íacts straight helps deíine the solution. It also helps to get
the opposing parties in·ol·ed in an ethical dilemma to agree
on the íacts.
2. Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the higher
order value involved. Lthical. social. and political issues
alwavs reíerence higher ·alues. Otherwise. there would be no
debate. 1he parties to a dispute all claim to be pursuing
higher ·alues e.g.. íreedom. pri·acv. protection oí propertv.
and the -enterprise svstem,. lor example. Double(lick and
its supporters argue that their tracking oí consumer
mo·ements on the \eb increases market eííiciencv and the
wealth oí the entire societv. Opponents argue this claimed
eííiciencv comes at the expense oí indi·idual pri·acv. and
Double(lick should cease its or oííer \eb users the option
oí not participating in such tracking.
3. Identify the stakeholders. L·erv ethical. social. and political
issue has stakeholders: plavers in the game who ha·e an
interest in the outcome. who ha·e its ·ested in the situation.
and usuallv who ha·e ·ocal opinions. lind out the identitv
oí these groups and what thev want. 1his will be useíul later
when designing a solution.
4. Identity the options that you can reasonably take. \ou
mav íind that none oí the options satisíies all the interests
in·ol·ed. but that some options do a better job than others.
Sometimes. arri·ing at a good` or ethical solution mav not.
alwavs be a balancing oí consequences to stakeholders.
5. Identify the potential consequences of your
options.Some options mav be ethicallv correct. but
disastrous írom other points oí ·iew. Other options mav
work in this one instance. but not in other similar instances.
Alwavs ask vourselí. what ií I choose this option
consistentlv o·er time·` Once vour analvsis is complete. vou
can reíer to the íollowing well established ethical principle to
help decide the matter.
Candidate Ethical Principles
Although vou are the onlv one who can decide which among
manv ethical principles vou will íollow and how vou will prioritize
them. it is helpíul to consider some ethical principles with deep
roots in manv cultures that ha·e sur·i·ed throughout recorded
O1he olden #ule: Do unto others as vou would ha·e them
do unto vou. Putting vourselí into the place oí others and
thinking oí vourselí as the object oí the decision can help
vou think about íairness in decision making.
OUniversalism: Ií an action is not right íor all situations.
then it is not right íor anv speciíic situation Immanuel
Kant`s categorical imperati·e,. Ask vourselí. Ií we adopted
this rule in e·erv case. could the organization. or societv.
O$lippery $lope: Ií an action cannot be taken repeatedlv. then
it is not right to take at all Descartes` rule oí change,. An
action mav appear to work in one instance to sol·e a
problem. but ií repeated. would result in a negati·e
outcome. In plain Lnglish. this rule might be stated as once
started down a slipperv path. vou mav not be able to stop.`
OCollective Utilitarian Principle: 1ake the action that
achie·es the greater ·alue íor all oí societv. 1his rule assumes
vou can prioritize ·alues in a rank order and understand the
consequences oí ·arious courses oí action.
O#isk Aversion: 1ake the action that produces the least harm.
or the least potential cost. Some actions ha·e extremelv high
íailure costs oí ·erv low probabilitv e.g.. building a nuclear
generating íacilitv in an urban area, or extremelv high íailure
costs oí moderate probabilitv speeding and automobile
accidents,. A·oid the high-íailure cost actions and choose
those actions whose consequences would not be
catastrophic. e·en ií there were a íailure.
Oo Iree Lunch: Assume that ·irtuallv all tangible and
intangible objects are owned bv someone else unless there is
a speciíic declaration otherwise. 1his is the ethical no íree
lunch` rule., Ií something someone else has created is useíul
to vou. it has ·alue and vou should assume the creator wants
compensation íor this work.
O1he ew York 1imes 1est (Perfect Information #ule):
Assume that the result oí vour decision on a matter will be
the subject oí the lead article in the 0 Y47 )iv08 the next
dav. \ill the reaction oí readers be positi·e or negati·e·
\ould vour parents. íriends. and children be proud oí vour
decision· Most criminals and unethical actors assume
imperíect iníormation. and thereíore thev assume the
decisions and actions will ne·er be re·ealed. \hen making
decisions in·ol·ing ethical dilemmas. it is wise to assume
períect iníormation markets.
O1he $ocial Contract #ule: \ould vou like to li·e in a
societv where the principle vou are supporting would become
an organizing principle oí the entire societv· lor instance.
vou might think it is wonderíul to download illegal copies
oí vv8ic tracks. but vou might not want to li·e in a societv
that did not respect proper:` rights. such as vour propertv
rights to the car in vour dri·ewav. or vour rights to a term
paper or original art. None oí these rules is an absolute
guide. and there are exceptions and logical diííiculties with all
these rules. Ne·ertheless. actions that do not easilv pass these
guide-lines deser·e some ·erv close attention and a great deal
oí caution because the appearance oí unethical beha·ior mav
do as much harm to vou and vour companv as the actual
Now that vou ha·e an understanding oí some basic ethical
reasoning concept. let`s take a closer look at each oí the major
tvpes oí ethical. social. and political debates that ha·e arisen in
Privacy and Information Rights
1he Internet and the \eb pro·ide an ideal en·ironment íor
in·ading the personal pri-·acv oí millions oí users on a scale
unprecedented in historv. Perhaps no other recent -issue has raised
as much widespread social and political concern as protecting the
pri·acv oí o·er 160 million \eb users in the United States alone.
1he major ethical issues related to ecommerce and pri·acv includes
the íollowing: Under what conditions should we in·ade the pri·acv
oí others· \hat legitimates intruding into others li·es through
unobtrusi·e sur·eillance. market research. or other means· 1he
major social issues related to e-commerce and pri·acv concern the
de·elopment oí exception oí pri·acv` or pri·acv norms. as well
as public attitudes. In what areas oí should we as a societv encourage
people to think thev are in pri·ate territorv` as opposed to public
·iew· 1he major political issues related to ecommerce and pri·acv
concern the de·elopment oí statutes that go·ern the relations
between record keepers and indi·iduals.
low should organizations - public and pri·ate -who are reluctant
to remit the ad·antages that come írom the uníettered ílow oí
iníormation on indi·iduals - be restrained. ií at all· In the íollowing
section. we will look íirst at the ·arious practices oí e-commerce
companies that pose a threat to pri·acv.

Information Collected At E-Commerce Sites
Almost all 9¯°, \eb sites collect personallv identiíiable
iníormation and use cookies to track the click stream beha·ior oí
·isitors on the site.
Personally identifiable information (PH) is anv data that can
be used to identiív. locate. or contact an indi·idual. As describe
below. ad·ertising networks track the beha·ior oí consumers across
thousands oí popular sites. not just at one site. In addition.
most sites collect anonymous information composed oí
demographic and beha·ioral iníormation that does not include
anv personal identiíiers. lor instance. sites collect Iníormation
about age. occupation. income. zip code. ethnicitv. and other data
that place a cookie on vour hard dri·e to identiív vou bv numberbut
not bv name.
1able 23.1 lists manv oí the personal identiíiers routinelv
collected bv online e-commerce sites. 1able 23.2 illustrates some
oí the major wavs online íirms gather iníormation about

1able 23.J Personal Information Collected by L Commerce $ites

Iig 23.2 1he Internet's major Personally identifiable
Information Gathering Tools
Profiling: Privacy And Advertising Networks
A majoritv 5¯ °, oí all \eb sites. and ¯8 ° oí the most popular
100 sites allow third parties-including ad·ertising networks such
as Adíorce. A·enue A. Double(lick. Lngage. L90. MatchLogic.
and 24´¯ Media these íirms constitute about 90 ° oí the network
ad·ertising industrv,- to place cookies on a ·isitor`s hard dri·e in
order to engage in proíiling.
Profiling is the creation oí digital images that characterize online
indi·idual and group beha·ior. An ad·ertising network such as
24´¯ Media maintains o·er 60 million anonvmous proíiles and
more than 20 million personal proíiles. Double(lick maintains
o·er 100 million anonvmous proíiles.
Anonymous profiles identiív people as belonging to highlv
speciíic and targeted groups. íor example. 20-30-vear-old males.
with college degrees and incomes greater than >30.000 a vear. and
interested in high íashion clothing.
Personal profiles add a personal e-mail address. postal address.
and´or phone number to beha·ioral data. Increasinglv. online
íirms are attempting to link their online proíiles to oííline
consumer data collected bv the established retail and catalog íirms.
In the past. indi·idual stores collected data on customer mo·ement
through a single store in order to understand consumer beha·ior
and alter the design oí stores accordinglv. Also. purchase and
expenditure data was gathered on consumers purchasing írom
multiple stores - usuallv long aíter the purchases were made - the
data was used to target direct mail
and in-store campaigns. and mass media ad·ertising. 1he online
ad·ertising networks ha·e added se·eral new dimensions to
established oííline marketing techniques. lirst. thev ha·e the abilitv
to preciselv track not just consumer purchases but , b748ivg
b0,;i47 on the \eb at thousands oí most popular member sites.
including browsing book lists. íilling out preíerence íorms. and
·iewing content pages. Second. thev create the abilitv to dvnamicallv
-adjust what the shopper sees on screen - including prices. 1hird.
thev create the abilitv to build and continuallv reíresh highresolution
data images or beha·ioral proíiles oí consumers . \hat`s
diííerent about ad·ertising networks is the scope and- intensitv
oí the data dragnet. and the abilitv to manipulate the shopping
en·ironment to the ad·antage oí the merchant. Most oí this
acti·itv occurs in the background without the knowledge oí the
shopper. and it occurs dvnamicallv online in less than a second.
Online consumer Joe Smith goes to a \eb site that sells sporting
goods. le clicks on the pages íor golí bags. \hile there. he see a
banner ad. which he ignores as it does not interest him. 1he ad
was placed bv USA and Network. le then goes to a tra·el site and
enters a search on lawaii` the USAad Networks ser·es ads on
this site. and Joe sees an ad íor rental cars there. Joe then ·isits an
online bookstore and browses through books about he worlds
best golí courses. USAad Network ser·es ads there as well. A
week later. Joe ·isits his ía·orite online news site. and notices an
ad íor golí ·acation packages in lawaii. Delighted. he clicks on the
ad. which was ser·ed bv USAad Network. Later. Joe begins to
wonder whether it was a coincidence that this particular ad appeared
and. ií not. how it happened. 1he sample online proíile illustrates
se·eral íeatures oí such proíiles.
lirst. the proíile created íor Joe Smith was completelv anonvmous
and did not require anv per-sonal iníormation such as a name. email
address. or social securitv number. Ob·iouslv. this proíile
would be more ·aluable ií the svstem did ha·e personal
iníormation because men Joe could be sent e-mail marketing.
Second. ad networks do not know who is operating the browser.
Ií other members oí Joe`s íamilv used the same computer to
shop the \eb. thev would be exposed to golí ·acation ads. and
Joe could be exposed to ads more appropriate to his wiíe or
children. 1hird. proíiles are usuallv ·erv imprecise. the result oí
best guesses` and just plain guesses. Proíiles are built using a
product´ser·ice scoring svstem that is not ·erv detailed. and as a
result the proíiles are crude.
In the abo·e example. Joe is ob·iouslv interested in golí and
tra·el because he intentionallv expressed these interests. lowe·er.
he mav ha·e wanted to scuba di·e in lawaii. or ·isit old íriends.
not plav golí. 1he proíiling svstem in the example took a leap oí
íaith that a golí ·acation in lawaii is what Joe reallv wants.
Sometimes these guesses work. but there is considerable e·idence
to suggest that simplv knowing Joe made an inquirv about lawaii
would be suííicient to sell him a trip to lawaii íor anv oí se·eral
acti·ities and the USAad Network pro·ided little additional ·alue.
As a result oí the crudeness oí the proíiles. marketers ha·e been
unwilling to pav premium prices íor highlv targeted. proíile-based
ads. preíerring instead to use more ob·ious and less expensi·e
techniques such as placing tra·el ads on tra·el sites and golí ads
on golí sites.
Network ad·ertising íirms argue that \eb proíiling beneíits both
consumers and businesses. Proíiling permits targeting oí ads.
ensuring that consumers see ad·ertising mostlv íor products and
ser·ices in which thev are actuallv interested. Business beneíit bv
not paving íor wasted ad·ertising sent to consumers who ha·e no
interest in their product or ser·ice. 1he industrv argues that bv
increasing the eííecti·eness oí ad·ertising. more ad·ertising
re·enues go to the Internet. which in turn subsidizes íree content
on the Internet. Last. product designers and entrepreneurs beneíit
bv sensing demand íor new products and ser·ices bv examining
user searches and proíiles.
(ritics argue that proíiling undermines the expectation oí
anonvmitv and pri·acv that most people ha·e when using the
Internet. and change what should be a pri·ate experience into one
where an indi·idual`s e·erv mo·e is recorded. As people become
aware that their e·erv mo·e is being watched. thev will be íar less
likelv to explore -sensiti·e topics. browse pages. or read about
contro·ersial issues. In most cases. the proíiling is in·isible to
users. and e·en hidden. (onsumers are not notiíied that proíiling
is occurring. Proí1ling permits aggregating data on hundreds or
e·en thousands oí unrelated sites on the \eb.
1he cookies placed bv ad networks are persistent. 1heir tracking
occurs o·er an extended period oí time and resumes each time the
indi·idual on to the Internet. 1his click stream data is used to
create proíiles that can include hundreds oí distinct data íields íor
each consumer. Associating so-called anonvmous proíiles with
personal iníormation is íairlv easv. and companies can change
policies quicklv without iníorming the consumer.
Some critics belie·e proíiling permits weblining - charging some
customers more monev íor products ser·ices based on their
Although the iníormation gathered bv network ad·ertisers is oíten
anonvmous. in manv cases. the proíiles deri·ed írom tracking
consumers` acti·ities on the \eb are linked or merged with
personallv identiíiable iníormation. Double(lick and other
ad·ertising network íirms ha·e attempted to purchase oííline
marketing íirms that collect oííline consumer data íor the purpose
oí matching oííline and online beha·ioral data at the indi·idual
le·el. lowe·er. public reaction was so negati·e that no network
ad·ertising íirms publiclv admit to matching oííline Pl with online
proíile data. Ne·ertheless. client \eb sites encourage ·isitors to
register íor prizes. beneíits. or content access in order to capture
personal iníormation such as e-mail addresses. Anonvmous
beha·ioral data is íar more ·aluable ií it can be linked with oííline
consumer beha·ior. e-mail addresses. and postal addresses. 1his
consumer data can also be combined with data on the consumers`
oííline purchases. or iníormation collected directlv írom consumers
through sur·evs and registration íorms.
As the technologv oí connection to the Internet íor consumers
mo·es awav írom telephone modems where IP addresses are
assigned dvnamicallv. and toward static assigned IP addresses used
bv DSL and cable modems. then connecting anonvmous proí1les
to personal names and e-mail addresses will become easier and
more pre·alent.
lrom a pri·acv protection perspecti·e. the ad·ertising network
raise issues about who will see and use the iníormation held bv
pri·ate companies. the absence oí consumer control o·er the use
oí the iníormation. the lack oí consumer choice. the notice. and
the lack oí re·iew and amendment procedures. 1he per·asi·e and
largelv unregulated collection oí personal iníormation online íears
and opposition among consumers. In recent sur·evs. 92°oeholds
said thev do not trust online companies to keep their personal
iníormation coníidential. and 82 ° agreed that the go·ernment
should regulate how online companies use personal iníormation.
One result oí the lack oí trust toward online íirms speciíic íears
oí pri·acv in·asion is a reduction in online purchases. An estimated
>3 billion was lost in 2000 sales. and >18 billion will be lost in
2002 online sales ií nothing is done to allav consumer íears.
(oncerns about online pri·acv ha·e led to two tvpes oí regulatorv
eííorts: go·ernmental regulation bv íederal and state agencies and
pri·ate selí-regulation eííorts led bv industrv groups. But beíore
considering these eííorts to preser·e and maintain pri·acv. we
should íirst take a more in-depth look at the concept oí pri·acv.
The Concept of Privacy
Pri·acv is the moral right oí indi·iduals to be leít alone. íree írom
sur·eillance or interíerence írom other indi·iduals or organizations.
including the state. Pri·acv is a girder supporting íreedom: \ithout
the pri·acv required to think. write. plan. and associate
independentlv and without íear. social and political íreedom is
weakened. and perhaps destroved. Iníormation pri·acv is a subset
oí pri·acv. 1he right to iníormation pri·acv includes both the
claim that certain iníormation should not be collected at all bv
go·ernments or business íirms. and the claim oí indi·iduals to
control o·er personal oí whate·er iníormation that is collected
about them. Indi·idual control o·er personal iníormation is at
the core oí the pri·acv concept.
Due process also plavs an important role in deíining pri·acv. 1he
best statement oí due process in record keeping is gi·en bv the
lair Iníormation Practices doctrine de·eloped in the earlv 19¯0s
and extended to the online pri·acv debate in the late 1990s
described below,.
Privacy claims-and thinking about pri·acv - mushroomed in.
the United States at the end oí the nineteenth centurv as the
technologv oí photographv and tabloid claim oí indi·iduals to
journalism enabled the in·asion oí the heretoíore pri·ate li·es oí
wealthv industrialists. lor most oí the twentieth centurv. howe·er.
pri·acv thinking and legislation íocused on restraining the
go·ernment írom collecting and using personal iníormation.\ith
the explosion in the collection 41 pri·ate personal iníormation bv
\eb-based marketing íirms since 1995. pri·acv concerns are
increasinglv directed toward restraining the acti·ities 41 pri·ate
íirms in the collection and use 41 in 147v,tion on the
Web. Claims to privacy are also involved at the workplace:
Millions oí emplovees are subject to ·arious íorms 41 electronic
sur·eillance that in manv cases is enhanced bv íirm Intranets and
\eb technologies. lor instance. 38° 4 1 emplovers monitor
emplovee e-mail. and 30° monitor emplovee computer íiles.
Legal Protections
In the United States. (anada. and Germanv. rights to pri·acv are
explicitlv granted in or can be deri·ed írom. íounding documents
such as constitutions. as well as in speciíic statutes. In Lngland
and the United States. there is also protection oí pri·acv in the
common law. a bodv oí court decisions in·ol·ing torts or personal
injuries. lor instance. in the United States. íour pri·acv-related
torts ha·e been deíined in court decisions in·ol·ing claims oí
injurv to indi·iduals caused bv other pri·ate parties intrusion on
solitude. public disclosure oí pri·ate íacts. publicitv placing a
person in a íalse light. and appropriation oí a person`s name or
likeness mostlv concerning celebrities, íor a commercial purpose.
In the United States. the claim to pri·acv against go·ernment
intrusion is protected primarilv bv the lirst Amendment
guarantees oí íreedom oí speech and association and the lourth:
Amendment protections against unreasonable search and seizure
oí one`s personal documents or home. and the lourteenth
Amendment`s guarantee oí due process.
In addition to common law and the (onstitution. there are both
íederal laws and state laws that protect indi·iduals against
go·ernment intrusion and in some cases deíine pri·acv rights ·isa-
·is pri·ate organizations such as íinancial. education~. and media
institutions cable tele·ision and ·ideo rentals,
OInternet and its use in e-commerce ha·e raised per·asi·e
ethical. social and political issues on a scale unprecedented íor
computer technologv.
O1he major ethical. social. and political issues that ha·e
de·eloped around e-commerce o·er the past se·en to eight
vears can be looselv categorized into íour major dimensions:
iníormation rights. propertv rights. go·ernance. and public
saíetv and welíare.
OLthics is at the heart oí social and political debates about the
Internet. Lthics is the studv oí principles that indi·iduals
and organizations can use to determine right and wrong
courses oí action

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