Israeli Intelligence Community 2009

Source: From Wikipedia. The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: ) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel.


Current Members of the Israeli Intelligence Community
Aman: the supreme military intelligence branch of the Israeli Defense Forces. Air Intelligence Directorate: the intelligence unit of the Israeli Air Force. Naval Intelligence Department: the intelligence unit of the Israeli Sea Corps. Intelligence Corps: the main intelligence collection and analysis of the IDF. Field Intelligence Corps: the intelligence unit of GOC Army Headquarters. The intelligence units of the four Regional Commands (Central, Northern, Southern, Home Front). Mossad: the agency responsible primarily for overseas intelligence work. Shin Bet ("Shabak"): the organization responsible for internal security, including in the Israeli-occupied territories. The intelligence branch of the Israeli Police. The Centre for Political Research: the intelligence branch of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Former Members Nativ. The organization responsible for bringing Jews from Soviet Bloc countries, a later manifestation of the Mossad. Le'aliyah Bet. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it was moved out of the intelligence community and became a department within the Prime Minister's office. Lekem. The agency responsible for obtaining and securing secret technology. It was dissolved, and its director, Rafi Eitan, resigned over the exposure of Jonathan Pollard, who was convicted of spying on its behalf. Parliamentary Supervision over the Intelligence Community is undertaken by the Subcommittee for Intelligence and Secret Services, a subcommittee of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, which supervises the entire Israeli Security Forces. Structure and Organization: The issue regarding the suitable structure of the IIC, and questions as to dividing responsibilities and jurisdictions between Aman, Shabak, and Mossad, as well as the format of work for the three in relation to Prime Ministers and Ministers, all of these became


In 1994. it being a system with organizational capacities. (1984. and transferring certain strategic and political areas and non-military ones. in the current structure of the IIC. The State Comptroller made the issue his agenda and submitted to the Knesset his findings and conclusions. Shabak. which has hindered the effectiveness of intelligence work on several fronts. If needed. In a document known as the "Magna Carta. often rather wide.The Commission to investigate the intelligence network following the War in Iraq maintained that. The level of coordination and inter-regional cooperation has suffered in the past from fundamental shortcomings. Various commissions and individual inspectors were appointed throughout the years. and Mossad. the Subcommittee for Intelligence also examined the questions and brought its recommendations before the Prime Minister. in order to examine the issues and propose recommendations. (2004) The government was tasked with the matter on a number of occasions and arrived at various decisions. among the organizations.The historical development of the IIC destined Aman with a range of activities and tasks that are conventionally outside the realm of military intelligence in the West. The Intelligence Subcommittee follows this discourse and examines the steps required to practically settle key areas of dispute.agenda issues many times in the past. Aman has assumed functions which ordinarily would be handled by other intelligence agencies. including disputed ones. (1973-74) The Zamir Commission. and available human resources. There are still open-ended issues remaining to be discussed. (1990s) The Commission to investigate the intelligence network following the War in Iraq. The Role of Aman . some critics say. such as the responsibility for intelligence research in political matters and other markedly nonmilitary affairs. As such. The organizations repressed the necessity for the mutual sharing of intelligence information and in synchronizing some activities. Aman. there is a need to reexamine the position and placement assumed by intelligence bodies within the current structure. is usually established upon a geographical basis. This largely followed from the reliance by the State of Israel during its first years on the IDF as an anchor and mechanism to fulfill national tasks. The division of labour among the intelligence arms." the heads of the three services continue their attempt to arrive at agreements regarding these. Accordingly. as to the division of jurisdictions and inter-regional sectoral boundaries. resources. whether due to traumatic experiences or as a matter of routine. These were: The Yadin-Sherf Commission. Reforms . (1974) The Commissions of Aluf Aharon Yariv. 1986) The Reports of Aluf Refael Vardi. notwithstanding the historical consolidation behind the current IIC structure. (1963) The Agranat Commission. There are interfacing and overlapping segments. from Aman to a civilian intelligence authority. and despite the advantages gained by Aman's Research Department and Unit 8200 during many years of service. the Subcommittee could become actively involved in the matter so as to ensure appropriate and reasonable standards for overall intelligence work in Israel. it is finally time to restructure the IIC in accordance with a proper work 3 .

in addition to foiling attacks. its citizens.alerting the political leadership and the security arms to the possibility of war and estimating the means of the enemy. a strategic-political emphasis. which includes evaluating the stability of regimes. 4 . against Palestinian and other forms of terrorism. SIGINT: This proposed service would supply all the other services with SIGINT intelligence. and organs. Shabak: Is tasked with the security of the State. with the distinction between them being based upon the respective spheres of responsibility of each service: Aman (IDF): Its jurisdiction is to consist primarily of "military intelligence" . professional designation. and engaging in industrial-scientifictechnological and nuclear -related intelligence as well as against global terrorism. as well as a correct constitutional and legal frame of reference. and identifying prospective targets during a war or a limited military conflict. The Commission recommended on reforming the current IIC structure. and against internal subversion. ending up with three or four independent intelligence services. National Security Council: Its function is to evaluate global conditions according to overall intelligence. Mossad: Charged with. and preparing national and security responses. alongside the National Security Council.distribution.

died 18 February 2003) was spymaster of the intelligence and the security services of Israel and the Director of the Mossad (1952 .The Spymasters Efraim Halevy (Hebrew: Mossad Directors below Reference – Page 23. ). and began secondary school. Young Isser was five years old when the revolution broke out and Vitebsk passed several times between the Whites and the Reds. Soviet soldiers stole their suitcases. Russia (now Belarus) to a large. Isser Harel (Hebrew: 5 . In Dvinsk. It was a gift of his maternal grandfather. completed primary school.1963). The exact date of his birth was not passed on to him because the book of Gemara in which the date was recorded was lost in the migrations of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and World War I. See . In 1922 the family emigrated from the Soviet Union to Dvinsk in independent Latvia. The family had a vinegar factory in Vitebsk. Isser and his family fell on hard times when the Soviet regime confiscated their property. who had a concession to make vinegar in large parts of Tsarist Russia. Childhood and Youth Isser Harel was born in Vitebsk. On one occasion he saw Leon Trotsky give a speech in the town. which contained the rest of their possessions. As he grew. On the way. born Isser Halperin on 1912. wealthy family. Isser began his formal studies.

Harel was the head investigator in the 15 year manhunt for Adolf Eichmann. with two of the MKs defecting to Likud and the other to the Alignment. As a result. The hunt ended in May 1960. Eichmann was the man responsible for technical coordination of the Final Solution in WWII. from his first marriage. when the Mossad covertly kidnapped Eichmann from Argentina to Israel. Isidore Roth. She currently works for the Shabak (General Security Service) in Israel. Harel lost his seat in the 1973 elections.000. Subsequent to the Israeli War of Independence he was transferred to the Israel Security Agency (ISA. After his discharge he was recruited to the Haganah Intelligence Service. On September 22. and served in the Jewish Settlement Police. was an Israeli military person. However. and was elected to the Knesset as the party won four seats. Harel documented his 15 year investigation in "The House on Garibaldi Street". He was replaced as head of Mossad after it became known that many of his agents had misappropriated funds. 1952. He joined David Ben Gurion's newly created National List prior to the 1969 elections. a daughter. Shin Bet). which resulted in the systematic murder of 6. Harel became the first man to be given the Hebrew title of HaMemuneh (the responsible one).000 Jewish people. after Ben Gurion resigned from the party it began to disintegrate.D. With the outbreak of the 1929 Hebron massacre. At the beginning of 1930 he immigrated to Israel. Harel became head of the Mossad. He had one child. Harel turned to politics. a reference to his unique position as the head of both Israeli civilian intelligence services. carrying a pistol that he concealed in a loaf of bread. his friends decided to move up their immigration date in order to reinforce the Jewish settlement in Palestine. which also enhances their cover. Isser began preparations to immigrate to Israel. Mossad and Shabak. After leaving Mossad. Born in Poland in 1916.F. born 6 . During this preparatory year he worked in agriculture with the aspiration to join a kibbutz. and director of the Shabak between 1952 and 1953.a Jewish national consciousness grew within him and he joined a Zionist youth organization. When he was 16. He crossed Europe from north to south to board a ship in Genoa. Dorot immigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine in 1936. She did not serve in the Israeli Defense Forces but instead in the National Work Program which is an alternative for women who do not or cannot serve the mandatory 18 months in the I. Mossad agents working on foreign soil have to "earn" their money through business activities. In World War II he volunteered and served in the British Army. Documents were prepared for the 17-year-old Isser stating that he was 18 and eligible for a British visa. Since then. After one year as Izi Dorot (1916–1980).

Yossef Harmelin 7 . He was also a partner in the Atlas hotel management company. rising to his first term as director four years later. One month after he immigrated to Israel in 1949 he joined Shin Bet.ramarossziget. French. English. Born in Vienna. 2007). Harmelin immigrated to Israel in 1939 under the Youth Immigration program. Born into a Jewish family in M. he left Shabak to pursue other interests. from 1953 until 1963. He became deputy director of Shabak in 1960. born Arthur Mendelowitz. He served as deputy director of the Mossad until 1963. serving as an ambassador in Iran and South Africa and as director of Shabak from 1964 to 1974 and again from 1986 to 1988. which he later adopted as his first name. banks and the stock market. Romania branch of the Mossad Le'aliyah Bet for clandestine immigration to Israel. He retired in 1988. Romanian and Hungarian. Amos Manor (October 8. Following the outbreak of World War II. he served as the secretary of the Bucharest. He also worked as a business consultant for various textile firms.Head of Shin Bet. In 1964 Manor began serving on the directorial board of several companies. Harmelin fought with the Israel Defense Forces in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. including his ambassadorship. in October 1953. 1918 – August 5. Dorot followed Isser Harel to the Mossad as Deputy Director. Amos Manor spoke fluent Hebrew. he was replaced as Director of Shin Bet by Amos Manor. in northern Transylvania Romania. Amos Manor is credited with building up the Shin Bet as a national institution capable of handling the many threats posed to internal Israeli security during that time. Prior to his immigration to Israel in 1949. but in 1944 was transferred to the Auschwitz concentration camp. Israel's internal intelligence and security service. under the alias "Amos". In 1974. before returning to head the security agency again in 1986. was a former Director of the Shin Bet. (1922–1994) was an Austrian-born Israeli politician. he was drafted to the Hungarian Army.

joined the Haganah while a student in the Kfar Ha-Ro'eh seminary. Peri introduced structural changes in the Shabak in order to address problems that arose during the First Intifada and deal with the new situation in Israel in the wake of the Oslo Accords. Yaakov Peri 8 . He was CEO of Cellcom Israel from 1995 to 2003. the Knesset defense dismissed the Washington Star report as "groundless" and having "no basis in fact" (born February 20. 1944) was head of the General Security Service. the Israeli domestic intelligence agency (known in Israel by the acronym Shabak) from 1988 to 1994. Ahituv's family immigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine in 1935. founded during the Israeli War of Independence and later became the Israel Security Agency (Shin Bet). The allegation was denied by both Begin and Ahituv. After Ahituv testified that his resignation had been submitted before the spate of bombs.Avraham Ahituv (born Avraham Gottfried in 1930) is a German-born Israeli politician. from 1974 to 1980. Ahituv also authorized the use of lies in Israeli courts to cover confessions obtained by torture. the Israel Security Agency. After retiring from the Shabak. This policy was to enable full integration of the Israeli Arab population into Israeli main stream society. where he completed his high school matriculation test. In 1946 Ahituv. having served as Director of the Shabak. Ahituv was instrumental in adopting a policy of “practical moderation” in relation to the Israeli Arab demographic. (SHAI). It was during the conflict period that Gottfried changed his name to Ahituv. Through the 1950s Ahituv was in the Arab division of the Shin Bet. In August 1982 a report appeared in the Washington Star that Ahituv's resignation was caused by the intervention of Prime Minister Begin in the investigations in the bombing of Palestinian town Mayors by Jewish extremist groups. he went into business. In 1949 Ahituv joined the Internal Intelligence Service.

He came in second to Ehud Barak in a Labor party leadership election in June 2007. He has a B. and his mother Saada Gillon (nee Frumkin) served as Deputy Attorney General. Over the years. He was formerly head of the Shin Bet. His father. Gillon is married with three children. Carmi Gillon is currently the mayor of the Jerusalem suburb Mevasseret Zion and vice-president of external relations for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. his father. Ami Ayalon was born in Tiberias and grew up in kibbutz Ma'agan. and was appointed a Minister without Portfolio in September 2007. born 27 June 1945) is an Israeli politician and member of the Knesset for the Labor Party. Ayalon graduated from Bar-Ilan University with a Amihai ‘Ami’ Ayalon (Hebrew: 9 .. and a former Israeli ambassador to Denmark and head of Shabak. where he worked until retirement as a carpenter. His mother came as a young girl to study in Jerusalem. in political science from the Hebrew University where he was recruited into the Israeli Security Agency and an M. was one of the founders of Ma'agan. he attracted criticism for failing to provide adequate security. Yitzhak. Gillon has also been a member of a number of boards of directors. He graduated from the National Defense College. and completed management training at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. He began his army service in the armored corps and was later transferred to the artillery corps. the Internal General Security Service of Israel. in public policy from Haifa University. Israel's secret service.A. was the only Jewish judge to serve at the Supreme Court of Palestine under the British Mandate and was also a member of the Hebrew University's Board of Governors from the 1930s until his death. and commander-in-chief of the Navy. He was released from the army in 1971. including the Tahal Group. Carmi Gillon (Hebrew: ¯ . Danker Investment and the Arab Israel Bank. was a state attorney. born January 1950) is an Israeli politician. Gillon has written several books and a range of articles on the subjects of foreign affairs and security. His parents moved to British Mandate Palestine in the 1930s. Gillon was born in Jerusalem into a well known family of lawyers who resided in the Jerusalem neighborhood of Rehavia. Gad Frumkin.A. In addition to his official roles. His grandfather. He is also a graduate of the advanced management program at the Harvard Business School. Colin Gillon. After the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin.

Ayalon was appointed to the Israeli cabinet as a Minister without Portfolio. Aiming to improve the Shin Bet's protection capabilities. In 1999. Israel's internal security service. Prime Minister Ehud Barak promoted Dichter to Director. Ayalon was elected to the Knesset on the Israeli Labor Party's list. He began his career in Shin Bet as a sky marshal for El Al. under then Commander Ehud Barak. Dichter was selected to serve in the elite unit of the Israel Defense Forces.Bachelor of Arts in 1980. Sayeret Matkal. he is now a member of the security cabinet. His parents were Holocaust survivors. The assassination of the late Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in 1995 shed light on Shin Bet's shortcomings. Another one of Dichter’s successful initiatives included envisioning and planning with Prime Minister Ariel Sharon the controversial West Bank security barrier. Dichter was appointed Director of the Security and Protection Division. Dichter joined Shin Bet. in 1974 where he advanced to eventually become its Director in 2000. As an adolescent. In 1992 he received a Master of Public Administration from Harvard University. The targeted assassination of Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash — known as "the Engineer"— took place under Dichter's leadership. the Palestinians launched one of their most deadly campaigns. After becoming proficient in Arabic and completing field intelligence courses. currently Israel's Minister of Public Security and a member of Knesset from the Kadima party. In 2006. the oldest Zionist youth movement still functioning. During his tenure as Director. In September 2007. 10 . Ayalon was one of two candidates for the leadership of the Labor Party in ongoing party primaries. Under Dichter’s leadership. In 1992. In doing so. he became Deputy Director of Shin Bet. he began working in the Shin Bet’s Southern District—specifically in the Gaza Strip. the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Shin Bet changed its modus operandi and restructured its mission and duties to serve at the forefront of Israel’s security and counterterrorism efforts. he joined Hashomer Hatzair. Avi Dichter (born December 4. 1952) is an Israeli politician. One year later. the Shin Bet is credited with drastically reducing the number of attacks perpetrated against Israel during this time as well as helping to restore safety and positive morale to the public. but was not given a position in the cabinet when Labor entered a coalition with Kadima. At the end of May 2007. He is married and the father of three. he was appointed as Director for the region. After graduating high school in Ashkelon (where he met his wife). Upon completing his military service. The organization spearheaded counter-insurgency and intelligence operations deep inside the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

On May 4. In 1978. On May 15. From 2000 to 2003. In the Israel Defense Forces. he was recruited to the Shabak and served as area coordinator for the Nablus district. Diskin was appointed as the commander of the Jerusalem District. and by 1989. He speaks Hebrew. In 1984. From 2003. English and Arabic. D. Several months later. Meir Dagan. he was appointed Department head in the Shabak's Arab Affairs Branch. he was on a study sabbatical. also the Jenin and Tulkarm districts. he became the head of the Arab Affairs Branch. 2005. 11 . They have three children. he was the Shabak's Deputy Director. 2006 Dichter was sworn in as the Minister of Public Security. Yuval Diskin (born 1956) is the 12th and current Director of Shabak. he became the coordinator of Nablus District.C. Dichter left office and became a research fellow at the Brookings Institute in Washington.In September 2005. he replaced Avi Dichter as Shabak Director. Dichter holds a BA in Social Sciences from Bar Ilan University ('86) and an Executive MBA from Tel Aviv University (1999). he returned to Israel and announced his foray into politics with the newly-established Kadima party. He and his wife Ilana reside in Ashkelon. In 1994. From 1997. Diskin operated in Beirut and Sidon. during which he became special advisor to Mossad Director. Diskin served as deputy company commander of Sayeret Shaked (the command Sayeret of the Israeli Southern Command). In 1990. During the 1982 Lebanon War. where they both grew up.

This was done to subvert the British quotas on Jewish immigration. and politics resulted in the creation of the intelligence agency for the Israeli government once it was established in 1948.mossad. covert operations such as paramilitary activities and political assassinations and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. counterterrorism. The Mossad's modes of The Mossad (HaMossad leModi'in uleTafkidim Meyuhadim or Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations) is the national intelligence agency of Israel.200 (est. the Mossad oversees a staff estimated at 1. The Mossad does not 12 . its ideology. The agency consisted of several of the existing members who had worked to establish Israel as a Jewish nation and to bring the Jewish people to it. but its director reports directly to the Prime Minister. Membership in the Mossad is very prestigious in Israeli society. Its role and function is similar to that of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6). 1949 as the Central Institute for Coordination Employees 1. unorthodox Zionist organization whose mission in 1938 was to bring Jews to Israel. "Mossad" is the Hebrew word for institute or institution. Organization From its headquarters in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv.000 in the late 1980s. although it may have numbered up to 2. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community (along with Aman (military intelligence). Prior to Israel's formation the "Mossad Le'aliyah Bet" was a small. Director Parent agency Office of the Prime Minister Website www.200 personnel.) Agency Executive Meir The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations Formed December 13. OADNA and Shin Bet (internal security). The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection.

which is involved in assassination. are similar to case officers of the CIA. Thirty to forty operate at a time. Its current staff is estimated at 1.ts (Proverbs 11:14). It is assumed to consist of eight different departments.use military ranks. mainly in Europe and the Middle East. it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister's office. Their field intelligence officers. Additionally." A month later. including diplomatic and unofficial. called katsas. The Political Action and Liaison Department is responsible for working both with allied foreign intelligence services. reporting directly to the prime minister. sabotage.200. the Mossad has a Research Department. 13 . the terrorists struck at the World Trade Center. and with nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with Israel. The motto was changed recently as part of the Mossad's public 'coming out' to another Proverbs passage: be-'. Just prior to the 9/11 attacks a large Israeli spy ring was discovered in the United States and was fully unraveled after 9/11. Among the departments of the Mossad is the Special Operations Division or '"Metsada" (see Kidon). the General Security Service (GSS or "Shin Bet") and the foreign office's "political department". although most of its staff have served in the Israel Defense Forces as part of Israel's compulsory draft system.yn tachbūlōt yippol `ām. and psychological warfare. Shiloah wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security services – the army's intelligence department (AMAN). a nation falls." Activities United States of America The Mossad informed the FBI and CIA in August 2001 that as many as 200 terrorists were slipping into the United States and planning "a major assault on the United States." The Israeli intelligence agency cautioned that it had picked up indications of a "large-scale target" in the United States and that Americans would be "very vulnerable. tasked with intelligence production. Mossad's former motto: be-tachbūlōt ta`aseh lekhā milchāmāh is a quote from the Bible (Proverbs 24:6): "For by wise guidance you can wage your war. tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage overseas. In March 1951. At least 200 suspected Israeli spies were arrested in regards to suspected involvement in the 9/11 attacks and were subsequently deported back to Israel. Employees in the Collections Department operate under a variety of covers. at the recommendation of Reuven Shiloah to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. Psychological warfare is also a concern of the Lochamah Psichologit Department. which conducts propaganda and deception activities as well. ū-teshū`āh be-rov yō'. This is translated by NRSV as: "Where there is no guidance. and a Technology Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities. and in abundance of counselors there is victory" (NRSV). The largest is Collections. and many of them are officers. paramilitary operations. Organizational History The Mossad was formed on December 13. but in an abundance of counselors there is safety. 1949 as the "Central Institute for Coordination".

Norway Lillehammer affair. 1973. The sending of letter bombs during the Operation Wrath of God campaign. Some of the more famous examples of the Mossad letter bombs were those sent to Nazi war-criminal Alois Brunner. Directed missions for Israeli spy Eli Cohen (was born and worked in his youth in Egypt but spied on Syria) in 1964. disappeared on its way from Antwerp to Genoa along with its cargo of 200 tons of yellowcake. the Mossad discovered that Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann was in Argentina and through surveillance. in 1995 in front of the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema. caught in 1965 in Syria while he was monitoring radio frequencies. The German freighter "Scheersberg A". Argentina protested what it considered as the violation of its sovereignty. Malta. whom they mistakenly believed to have been involved in the Munich Olympics massacre. a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad. and the United Nations Security Council noted that "repetition of acts such as [this] would involve a breach of the principles upon which international order is founded. who provided vast amounts of valuable intelligence. Some of these attacks were not fatal. 1960. however. Malta The assassination of Fathi Shiqaqi. Italy The abduction of nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986 after American-Israeli agent Cheryl Bentov lured him from the United Kingdom." Mossad aborted a second operation to capture Josef Mengele. Mossad agents in Lillehammer murdered Moroccan busboy. Eli Cohen was. Germany Operation Plumbat (1968) was an operation by Lekem-Mossad to further Israel's nuclear program. although their purpose might not have been to kill the receiver. and subsequently smuggled to Israel where he was tried and executed. Ahmed Bouchikhi. On July 21. after supposedly being transferred to an Israeli ship. Egypt Directed missions for Israeli spy Wolfgang Lotz in Egypt 1957-1965.Argentina In 1960. they confirmed that he had been living there under the name of Ricardo Klement. He was captured by a team of Mossad agents on May 11. 14 . creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incompatible with the preservation of peace" while also acknowledging that "Eichmann should be brought to appropriate justice for the crimes of which he is accused" and that "this resolution should in no way be interpreted as condoning the odious crimes of which Eichmann is accused. Bosnia and Herzegovina Assisted in air and overland evacuations of the Jews from war-torn Sarajevo to Israel in 1992.

" The reactor was subsequently destroyed by an Israeli air strike in 1981.Intelligence assistance in the Commando Assault on Green Island. The alternative theory is that Bull was killed by the CIA. In July 1973. an Iraqi pilot who defected and flew his MiG 21 to Israel in 1966. who were responsible for the Munich massacre at the 1972 Olympic Games. Operation Sphinx . claimed credit for the blast. 15 . 2007. including Bull's son. torturing. 1979. On April 5. the Iranian secret police and intelligence service was created under the guidance of United States and Israeli intelligence officers in 1957 to protect the regime of the shah by arresting. and the incident became known as the Lillehammer affair. Iraq and Iran are also candidates for suspicion. the opening airstrike of the Six-Day War.Provision of key intelligence on the Egyptian Air Force for Operation Focus. training SAVAK personnel and carrying out a broad variety of joint operations with SAVAK. and left only when his cover was about to be blown. The most common theory is that the Mossad was responsible. was killed while walking with his pregnant wife. based on "sources close to Israeli intelligence". Ahmed Bouchiki. Norway. that Dr. "[An] environmental organization named Groupe des ecologistes francais. Iran 1960s Prior to the Iranian Revolution of 1978–79 in Iran. in 1990. developer of the Iraqi supergun. obtained highly sensitive information about Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor by recruiting an Iraqi nuclear scientist in France. the Mossad destroyed 60 percent of the Iraqi reactor components being built in France. Six Mossad agents were arrested. This has been denied by Israeli spokesman Mark Regev. who had been given shelter in Norway. He had been mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh. called "Operation Wrath of God". The Mossad agents had used fake Canadian passports. The Sunday Times reported that Askari had been a Mossad asset since 2003. Operation Bulmus 6 . and its representatives have all but claimed responsibility for his assassination. 2007. In 2007 It was alleged by private intelligence agency Stratfor. Mossad became increasingly active in Iran. unheard of before this incident. Egypt during the War of Attrition.Between 1978 and 1981. Ardeshir Hosseinpour. After security relations between the United States and Iran grew more distant in the early 1960s which led the CIA training team to leave Persia. Palestinian Territories The assassination of members of Black September. and executing the dissidents (especially Leftists). believe that the Mossad is taking credit for an act they did not commit to scare off others who may try to help enemy regimes. Others. The alleged assassination of Canadian scientist Gerald Bull. was killed by the Mossad on January 15. the Palestinian group responsible for the Munich massacre. SAVAK (Organization of National Security and Information). a scientist involved in the Iranian nuclear program. one of the leaders of Black September. which angered the Canadian government. a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer. Iraq Assistance in the defection and rescuing of the family of Munir Redfa. A US intelligence official told The Washington Post that Israel orchestrated the defection of Iranian general Ali Reza Askari on February 7.

and a New Zealander. Ze'ev Barkan. two Mossad agents were caught in Jordan. who were allegedly working for Mossad. Uriel Kelman and Eli Cara.The assassination of PFLP and PFLP-EO leader Wadie Haddad in 1978. were deported to Israel. The assassination of Fathi Shqaqi. who would otherwise have faced the death penalty for attempted murder. Soviet Union In February 1956. in exchange for the Mossad agents. a friendly member of the Politburo provided the Mossad with a copy of Nikita Khrushchev's speech denouncing Joseph Stalin. Morocco According to Time. Both Kelman and Cara served half of their six month sentences and. an Israeli. David Reznick. The Mossad passed it on to the United States. in particular the Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. 16 . in 1995. attempted to fraudulently obtain New Zealand passports by claiming the identity of a severely disabled man. the Mossad was involved in what is known as the Ben Barka Affair (see Mehdi Ben Barka). and has a relationship with the Ethiopian government. New Zealand In July 2004. which had signed a peace treaty with Israel. Ethiopia Assistance in Operation Moses. In 1997. The assassination of Hamas leader Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil in Damascus in 2004. Two others. a leader of Hamas. Lebanon The provision of intelligence and operational assistance in 1973's Operation Spring of Youth. by spraying him with poison at a pro-Hamas rally in Amman. Tunis Raid . they were using fake Canadian passports. upon release. the immigration of Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 1984. New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions on Israel over an incident in which two Australian based Israelis. on a mission to assassinate Sheikh Khaled Mashal. The assassination of As-Sa'iqa leader Zuhayr Muhsin in 1979. the head of Palestinian Islamic Jihad. Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom later apologized to New Zealand for their actions. New Zealand cancelled several other passports believed to have been obtained by Israeli agents. Israel was forced to provide the antidote to the poison and to release around 70 Palestinian prisoners. The sending of letter bombs to PFLP member Bassam Abu Sharif.The assassination of Abu Jihad from the Fatah in 1988. are believed to have been the third and fourth men involved in the passport affair but they both managed to leave New Zealand before being traced. Uganda The provision of intelligence regarding Entebbe International Airport and grant of refueling rights in Kenya for Operation Entebbe in 1976. This led to a diplomatic row with Canada and Jordan. Again.

1939.000 Jews into what was to become the State of Israel. created in 1953 and also headed by Meirov. although in a much smaller scale. This was a major intelligence coup that raised the prestige of the organization. The Mossad was founded on the basis of the Ha'apala movement.which published the speech.000 Jewish immigrants to Palestine. Mossad has often come under criticism for perceived excessive actions against Israel's many enemies. In the first years after it was created. In addition to the sea. the Mossad served as a basis for the agency Lishkat Hakesher (Liaison Bureau). The most famous ship used by the Mossad was Exodus. Throughout most of its years. It has been criticized for carrying out assassinations. The name's origin is a play on words: The Yishuv (Jewish Community in Palestine) referred to legal immigration as "Immigration A. Its activity was initially centred in Athens and later on its centre moved to Paris. embarrassing the USSR. which brought 4. the Mossad achieved a certain measure of success.554 Holocaust survivors. the Arab world. It operated from 1938 until the founding of the State of Israel. codenamed Nativ ("Path"). Overall. Mossad Le'aliyah Bet The Mossad Le'aliyah Bet (literally Institution for Immigration B) was a branch of the Jewish Defense Association (Haganah) in the British Mandate of Palestine that operated to facilitate Jewish immigration to Palestine in violation of unilateral British restrictions to Jewish immigration. it had began operating during 1938.000 Jewish immigrants (many of whom were Holocaust survivors). and other countries. When World War II broke." and therefore called illegal immigration "Immigration B" (Aliyah Bet). the Mossad became virtually paralyzed and its activities were only renewed by August 1945. the Mossad was led by Shaul Avigur (Meirov). the Mossad also brought immigrants via land. Even though the Mossad Le'aliyah Bet was officially founded on April 29. from the Arab world. With the founding of Israel. 17 . the Mossad was able to bring an additional 64 ships with over 70. which brought Jews from Soviet bloc. abductions and torture. in fifty cruises it was able to bring as many as 20. Operating primarily through the sea. the Mossad was able to bring about 100. Since that time and until the founding of Israel. The reason for its establishment was the increasing limitation on legal Jewish immigration by the British Mandate authorities.

18 . and was a close friend of David Ben-Gurion.Mossad Directors Reuven Shiloah. In the mid-1930s he met Betty Borden of New York and the two were married in 1936. At the urging of Shiloah. 1998-2002 Meir Dagan. However. Prime Minister Ben-Gurion created the "Central Institute for Coordination" (Mossad) in December of 1949 and appointed Shiloah as its first Director. 1996-1998 Efraim Halevy. From an Orthodox Jewish family and with a rabbi for a father. After his tenure at the Mossad Shiloah worked in the Israeli Embassy in Washington DC and continued serving as an advisor. 1974-1982 Nahum Admoni. 1982-1989 Shabtai Shavit. 1949-1952 Isser Harel. 2002-present Reuven Shiloah (December 1909-1959) was the first Director of the Mossad from 1949 to 1952. 1968-1974 Yitzhak Hofi. Shiloah abandoned the religious life of his family at an early age. Shiloah was involved in Israeli political and defense matters since before its creation. 1952-1963 Meir Amit. Born in Ottoman ruled Jerusalem as Reuven Zaslanski. Before the 1948 Arab-Israeli War Shiloah obtained the invasion plans of the Arab League. 1989-1996 Danny Yatom. it was not until April 1. he would later shorten his last name to Zaslani and use the codeword Shiloah. and he began building relationships with other intelligence agencies. particularly in the West. 1951 that the Mossad became operational under Shiloah because bureaucratic fighting had delayed Ben-Gurion's initial order. 1963-1968 Zvi Zamir.

Harel became head of the Mossad. which contained the rest of their possessions. a reference to his unique position as the head of both Israeli civilian intelligence services. a daughter. Harel was the head investigator in the 15 year manhunt for Adolf Eichmann. Isser and his family fell on hard times when the Soviet regime confiscated their property. and began secondary school.D.000 Jewish people. Harel became the first man to be given the Hebrew title of HaMemuneh (the responsible one). Soviet soldiers stole their suitcases. She currently works for the Shabak (General Security Service) in Israel. With the outbreak of the 1929 Hebron massacre. Isser Harel was born in Vitebsk. She did not serve in the Israeli Defense Forces but instead in the National Work Program which is an alternative for women who do not or cannot serve the mandatory 18 months in the I.F. completed primary school. He was replaced as head of Mossad after it became known that many 19 . He crossed Europe from north to south to board a ship in Genoa. The exact date of his birth was not passed on to him because the book of Gemara in which the date was recorded was lost in the migrations of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and World War I. On September 22. Russia (now Belarus) to a large. When he was 16. The family had a vinegar factory in Vitebsk. carrying a pistol that he concealed in a loaf of bread. Young Isser was five years old when the revolution broke out and Vitebsk passed several times between the Whites and the Reds. In 1922 the family emigrated from the Soviet Union to Dvinsk in independent Latvia. The hunt ended in May 1960. from his first marriage. a Jewish national consciousness grew within him and he joined a Zionist youth organization. his friends decided to move up their immigration date in order to reinforce the Jewish settlement in Palestine. As he grew. which resulted in the systematic murder of 6. It was a gift of his maternal grandfather. when the Mossad covertly kidnapped Eichmann from Argentina to Israel. Isser began his formal studies.1963). Eichmann was the man responsible for technical coordination of the Final Solution in WWII. On one occasion he saw Leon Trotsky give a speech in the town. Mossad and Shabak. Harel documented his 15 year investigation in "The House on Garibaldi Street". who had a concession to make vinegar in large parts of Tsarist Russia. Documents were prepared for the 17-year-old Isser stating that he was 18 and eligible for a British visa. He had one child. During this preparatory year he worked in agriculture with the aspiration to join a kibbutz. On the way. In Dvinsk. Isser began preparations to immigrate to Israel. died 18 February 2003) was spymaster of the intelligence and the security services of Israel and the Director of the Mossad (1952 .000. 1952. wealthy family. At the beginning of 1930 he immigrated to Israel.Isser Harel (Born Isser Halperin on 1912.

Amit advocated military action to stop Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons. and then as Mossad Director in 1963. Following the lead of other former generals. and done work for the Israeli government. which also enhances their cover. In a 2008 interview with Klein. As Director. Amit entered the Israeli intelligence community. However. earning a business degree from Columbia Business School. Since his retirement from the Mossad. It was also during his time that the Mossad engineered the defection of a Maronite Iraqi pilot who flew the then new Mig-21 from Iraq to Israel. Amit also built close personal ties with the CIA. He has also called for the assassination of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad who has repeatedly threatened to destroy Israel. with two of the MKs defecting to Likud and the other to the Alignment. and was elected to the Knesset as the party won four seats. after Ben Gurion resigned from the party it began to disintegrate. Harel lost his seat in the 1973 elections. The comments from Amit were considered significant since. he orchestrated some of the Mossad's greatest successes. including the spy Eli Cohen who penetrated the highest levels of the Syrian government. He said that he views the conflict as World War III. Harel turned to politics. he had refused to support an attack against Iran. Amit had a network of informants that permeated the entire Egyptian military. Amit joined the Dash party and served in the Knesset. Meir Amit (Born 17 March 1921) was the Director of the Mossad from 1963 to 1968. until the interview. After returning to Israel. Amit is particularly known for his success in expanding Israel's human intelligence (HUMINT). During the lead up to the Six-Day War in 1967. He is currently the chairman of Israel's Center for Special Studies. He joined David Ben Gurion's newly created National List prior to the 1969 elections. Born in Palestine during the British mandate. especially in the Arab world. Amit assessed the current problem of Islamic terrorism. After leaving Mossad. Mossad agents working on foreign soil have to "earn" their money through business activities. he has continued to be an active voice in the intelligence community. In the late 1950s Amit studied in the United States.of his agents had misappropriated funds. 20 . providing key details for Israel's pre-emptive strike on Egyptian air bases and subsequent ground offensive. As a result. he fought for the Haganah during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Since then. a widespread attempt to impose Islamic beliefs across the world. first as a Major General at the head of IDF Intelligence in 1961. In a recent 2006 interview with reporter Aaron Klein.

a unit that included future Israeli leaders among the likes of Moshe Dayan and Yitzhak Rabin. eventually promoted to the Commander of the Southern Command. he helped carry out Operation Wrath of God. During his tenure at the Mossad. Israel. After the war he continued climbing the chain of command. In it he strongly criticized the German rescue effort for its complete lack of coordination. Zamir was interviewed about the incident in 1999 when he spoke with the producer of One Day in September. His final IDF post before being appointed Mossad Director came in 1966 when he was appointed the military attaché to London. first as a soldier in the Haganah's Palmach. Born in Poland. just north of Tel Aviv. After the German government refused to accept an Israeli team during the Munich hostage crisis. Zamir was played by Ami Weinberg in Steven Spielberg's 2005 movie Munich.rstenfeldbruck airbase the night that the failed rescue attempt left all nine remaining Israeli hostages dead. Zamir currently resides in Zahala. a documentary on the massacre. 1925) was a Major General in the Israel Defense Forces and the Director of the Mossad from 1968 to 1974.Zvi Zamir (Born Zvicka Zarzevsk. He had previously been interviewed on this subject for an NBC profile during their coverage of the 1992 Barcelona Olympics. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. the Israeli response to the Munich Massacre. and he has discussed the massacre several times since. and dealt with the lead-up to and aftermath of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Zamir was sent to observe the activities at the F. Zamir fought in the newly created Israel Defense Forces. 21 . Zamir immigrated with his family to the then British Mandate of Palestine when only seven months old. At the age of 18 Zamir began his military career.

Hofi lobbied strongly for a rescue mission to be mounted to save the large number of Israeli passengers on a hijacked Air France airliner flown to Entebbe International Airport in Uganda. Admoni retired in 1989. in which it was revealed that Israel was spying on the United States. 2006 he was appointed by Prime Minister Ehud Olmert to be chairman of an investigation committee. 22 . staff and training posts. working his way up the chain of command to be Mossad Director Yitzhak Hofi's deputy.Yitzhak Hofi (born 25 January 1927) was the director of Mossad from 1974 to 1982. After the war he went to the United States and studied at the University of California. There he rejoined the Israeli intelligence community. Before that he was a general in the Israeli Defense Forces in charge of the Northern Command. who had revealed secrets of the Israeli nuclear weapons program to the British press. and used contacts in Kenyan intelligence to allow the refueling of Israeli planes in Nairobi on the return journey. Admoni watched over the Jonathan Pollard affair. Nahum Admoni (born 1929) was the Director of the Mossad from 1982 to 1989. Hofi was born in Tel Aviv. Born in Jerusalem to Polish immigrants. During his service as Mossad Director. He was Acting Chief of Staff for a brief period in 1974. Hofi directed Mossad katsas to survey the airport. In order to facilitate the resulting Operation Entebbe. Berkeley. Along with a number of other embarrassing incidents involving careless mistakes by Mossad agents. He continued to serve in the Israeli Defense Forces in a variety of command. he fought in the 1948 ArabIsraeli War in the SHAI. He joined the Haganah in 1944 and commanded a company in the Arab-Israeli War in 1948. and later in the newly created Israeli Defense Force Intelligence. before retiring from the military and taking the post of director of Mossad. the Haganah intelligence branch. returning to Israel in 1954. He headed the Northern Command of the IDF during the Yom Kippur War in 1973. On August 28. In July 1976. He also endured the revelation of Israeli involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair and the public abduction of Mordechai Vanunu. charged with investigating the actions of the government during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.

and between 1991 and 2001 he served as Prime Minister Ehud Barak's. gaining a BA. and served as head of the committee on foreign workers.F. stating that 23 . From 1963 to 1996 he served in the Israel Defense Forces and worked in the Sayeret Matkal anti-terrorism force. but resigned from the Knesset on 30 June 2008. Shabtai Shavit was the Danny Yatom (Born 15 March 1945) is a former Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for Labour. He then joined the Mossad in 1964. physics and computer science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Task Force for Future Preparedness against Terrorism. Chief of Staff and security advisor. Between 1996 and 1998 he served as head of the Israeli Mossad. Advisor to the Sub-Committee on intelligence of the Knesset. Before that he was a Director of the Mossad security service. Shavit first joined the Israel Defense Forces. when he resigned from the Knesset and from Israeli politics.Y. including as Advisor to the Israeli National Security Council. He retained his seat in the 2006 elections and served as head of the West Bank barrier lobby. as well as chairing the lobbies for enlisted soldiers and the West Bank barrier. where he worked his way up to his appointment as Director. where he served in the Sayeret Matkal and from 1958 to 1959 he was the Military Governor of the Southern Command. He retained his seat in the 2006 elections. Committee on Foreign Affairs and National Security. Israel in 2001. and as a member of the N.Director General of the Mossad from 1989 to 1996. After retiring from the Mossad he spent five years as CEO of Maccabi Health Services Group. Thereafter he became the chairman of the Institute for Counter-Terrorism at the Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya. from 2003 until June 2008. and also President and CEO of EMG Israel and Chairman of Athena. after which he moved to the Armor Corps and then became the head of the Israeli Central Command.D. ranked Major General. Yatom studied mathematics. Shavit has also continued to work in government roles. In 2003 he was elected to the Knesset on Labour's list. He then became a Knesset member and served in the 16th and 17th Knesset. rising to the position of deputy commander.

and to settle the crisis with the King of Jordan. He is known as a hard-headed pragmatist on issues involving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Ehud Barak and Ariel Sharon. a religious high school in Jerusalem. under the directorship of Shabtai Shavit. heading three different branches throughout. The special relationship he developed with King Hussein made it possible for Halevy to open Jordan to the awareness that only a peace agreement with Israel would extricate the Hashemite kingdom from the crisis after the Gulf War. Benjamin Netanyahu. he resigned from this position after Dov Weisglass. he is remembered for his part in bringing about the peace treaty with Jordan. isolated and neutralized him and Prime Minister Sharon refrained from accepting his recommendations on a host of issues and went to teach at Hebrew University of Jerusalem. published by the Chief Education Officer. He was the ninth director of Mossad and the 4th head of the Israeli National Security Council. In March 1998. He took an active part in a special mission by Rabin in forging the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. Halevy served as the envoy and confidant of five Prime Ministers: Yitzhak Shamir. and integrity". he began his work in the Mossad. Above all. (Born 1934) is a lawyer and an Israeli intelligence expert. He immigrated to Israel in 1948. ethics. Halevy remained in the Mossad for the next 28 years. he took an active part in Benjamin Netanyahu's mission to return the Mossad men captured in Jordan. because the Islamic movement is respected by Palestinians and generally keeps its word. he was appointed the second head of the National Security Council and an advisor to Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. After the failure of the Mossad operation to assassinate Hamas leader Khaled Mashal in 1997. and later. he became the Israeli ambassador to the European Union in Brussels. Between 1990 and1995. In June 2003. Between 1957 and1961 he was the editor of the journal Monthly Survey. Halevy believes that Israel should take up Hamas’s offer of a long-term truce and try negotiating. Halevy was born in the United Kingdom to an established Orthodox Jewish family. Yitzhak Rabin. He attended Ma'aleh. He pointed to the cease-fire in attacks on Israel that Hamas declared two years ago and has largely Efraim Halevy 24 . He is the author of the book ‘The Role of the Intelligence Community in the Age of Strategic Alternatives for Israel’. He was replaced by Leon Litinski. On October 2002. In 1961.he was "not willing to be part of a political reality in which basic values are trampled upon. In 1996. he said. the bureau chief of Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. such as leading by example. graduated (with commendation) in law. In 1967. he was selected to the Chief Branches Forum. he served as deputy director and as head of the headquarters branch. unlike many others in the intelligence establishment who are known to take more extreme ideological positions on these issues. he became the director of Mossad following the resignation of Danny Yatom. willing to ruffle feathers on the right and the left.

and after that served as the commander of the Israeli unit with a connection to Lebanon. Dagan restored his former deputy T to the post and Dagan is likely to recommend T as his replacement. Dagan joined the Israeli General Staff. In mid 2007 Dagan had a "spat with the Deputy Director N. Dagan became head of the Headquarters. Dagan is the son of Holocaust survivors. During his military service Dagan was injured twice. At the end of the 90s. He was added to the Israeli Headquarters for Fighting Terror as Ami Ayalon's Deputy. Dagan enlisted in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and served in the paratrooper brigade. Dagan was appointed Director of the Mossad by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon in August 2002. Shimon Peres. Dagan commanded a temporarily-formed undercover commando unit. When Ayalon received the position of head of the Shabak. and founded a similar unit in connection to Lebanon. In 1963. and after that he participated in the fighting in the Golan Heights. whose task it was to combat the increasing insurgent violence in Judea. he was requested to return to public service by then Prime Minister of Israel. known as Sayeret Rimon. in political science from the University of Haifa. During the 1982 Lebanon War. as head of the operations division and special advisor to the head of the General Staff. and in June 2008 Olmert again extended his tenure until the end of 2009. It was the forerunner to other IDF Mistaravim units that were formed in the 1980s such as Sayeret Shimshon and Sayeret Duvdevan. As the commander of this unit Dagan learned of Unit 504. In 2006 he published the book Man in the Shadows. The latter unit is the only one of its type that is at present still in operation. and Gaza. He was reconfirmed until the end of 2008 by Prime Minister Ehud Olmert in February 2007. an Israeli intelligence unit which operates agents. In the 1967 Six Day War. covering Middle Eastern history since the late 1980s. but they are very. who is thought to be a candidate for replacing Dagan in late 2008. very credible. A year later. Dagan holds a B. a coastal city south of Tel Aviv. In 1995. 25 . “They’re not very pleasant people. he commanded a company which fought in Sinai.A. and also won a decoration for his service. Dagan's family immigrated to Israel in 1950 and settled in Bat Yam. Dagan was decorated with the Medal of Courage in 1971. Born Meir Huberman in the Soviet Union in 1945. Dagan commanded the Barak Armored Brigade. replacing outgoing Director Ephraim Halevy. Dagan retired from the IDF. Meir Dagan is an Israeli military officer and current Director of the Mossad.” Halevy said. Samaria.honored. In the early 1970s.

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