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Part 1 function.

Introduction, or what is fuzzy thinking?

Andrew Kusiak

Intelligent Systems Laboratory Fuzzy sets Unlike two-valued Boolean logic, fuzzy logic is

2139 Seamans Center multi-valued. It deals with the degree of

Linguistic variables and hedges

The University of Iowa membership and the degree of truth. Fuzzy logic

Iowa City, Iowa 52242 - 1527 Operations of fuzzy sets uses the continuum of logical values between 0

andrew-kusiak@uiowa.edu Fuzzy rules (completely false) and 1 (completely true). Instead

http://www.icaen.uiowa.edu/~ankusiak Summary of just black and white, it employs the spectrum of

Tel: 319 - 335 5934 Fax: 319 - 335 5669 colours, accepting that things can be partly true and

partly false at the same time.

Based on material provided by Professor Michael Negnevitsky

Fuzzy sets

Range of logical values in Boolean and fuzzy logic The elements of the fuzzy set “tall men” are all

men, but their degrees of membership depend on

their height.

The concept of a set is fundamental to mathematics. Degree of Membership

Name Height, cm Crisp Fuzzy

Chris 208 1 1.00

0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1

A natural language expresses sets. For example, a Mark 205 1 1.00

(a) Boolean Logic. (b) Multi-valued Logic. John 198 1 0.98

car indicates a set of cars. When we say a car, we

Tom 181 1 0.82

mean one out of the set of cars. David 179 0 0.78

Mike 172 0 0.24

Bob 167 0 0.15

Steven 158 0 0.06

Bill 155 0 0.01

Peter 152 0 0.00

Crisp and fuzzy sets of “tall men” A fuzzy set is a set with fuzzy boundaries.

Degree of

The x-axis represents the universe of discourse − the Let X be the universe of discourse and its elements

Crisp Sets

Membership

1.0

0.8 range of all possible values applicable to the be denoted as x. In the classical set theory, crisp

Tall Men

0.6

variable of choice. In our case, the variable is the set A of X is defined as function fA(x) called the

0.4

man height. According to this representation, the characteristic function of A

0.2

0.0 universe of men’s heights consists of all tall men. ⎧1, if x ∈ A

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

fA(x): X → {0, 1}, where f A ( x) = ⎨

⎩0, if x ∉ A

Height, cm

Degree of

Membership Fuzzy Sets

1.0 The y-axis represents the membership value of the

0.8

fuzzy set. In our case, the fuzzy set of “tall men” This set maps universe X to a set of two elements.

0.6

maps height values into corresponding membership For any element x of universe X, characteristic

0.4

0.2 values. function fA(x) is equal to 1 if x is an element of set

0.0 A, and is equal to 0 if x is not an element of A.

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Height, cm

Crisp and fuzzy sets of short, average, and tall men Representation of crisp and fuzzy subsets

In the fuzzy theory, fuzzy set A of universe X is

defined by function μA(x) called the membership

Degree of

Crisp Sets

Membership

1.0 μ (x)

function of set A 0.8 Short Average Tall

Short X Fuzzy S ubset A

Tall Men

0.6

1

μA(x): X → [0, 1], where μA(x) = 1 if x is totally in A; 0.4

μA(x) = 0 if x is not in A; 0.2

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Height, cm

This set allows a continuum of possible choices. Degree of 0

Membership

Fuzzy Sets

Crisp S ubset A Fuzziness Fuzziness x

For any element x of universe X, membership 1.0

Short Average Tall

Typical functions that can be used to represent a fuzzy

0.6

element of set A. This degree, a value between 0 0.4

set are sigmoid, gaussian and pi. However, these

and 1, represents the degree of membership, also 0.2 Tall functions increase the computation time. Therefore,

called membership value, of element x in set A. 0.0 most applications use linear fit functions.

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Linguistic variables and hedges The range of possible values of a linguistic variable

In fuzzy expert systems, linguistic variables are used represents the universe of discourse of that variable.

in fuzzy rules. For example: For example, the universe of discourse of the

The fuzzy set theory is rooted in linguistic IF wind is strong linguistic variable speed might be the range between

variables. THEN sailing is good 0 and 220 km/h and may include such fuzzy subsets

as very slow, slow, medium, fast, and very fast.

IF project_duration is long A linguistic variable carries with it the concept of

A linguistic variable is a fuzzy variable. For THEN completion_risk is high fuzzy set qualifiers, called hedges.

example, the statement “John is tall” implies that

the linguistic variable John takes the linguistic Hedges are terms that modify the shape of fuzzy

IF speed is slow

value tall. sets. They include adverbs such as very, somewhat,

THEN stopping_distance is short

quite, more or less and slightly.

Fuzzy sets with the hedge very Representation of hedges in fuzzy logic (1/2) Representation of hedges in fuzzy logic (2/2)

Mathematical

Hedge Graphical Representation Mathematical

Degree of Expression Hedge Expression Graphical Representation

Membership

1.0 A little [μA ( x )]1.3

Short Tall

Short Very very [μA ( x )]4

0.8

More or less μA ( x )

0.4

Very Short Very

VeryTall

Tall Very [ μA ( x ) ] 2

0.2 Tall

Somewhat μA ( x )

0.0

150 160 170 180 190 200 210 Extremely [ μA ( x )] 3

2 [μA ( x )]2

Height, cm if 0 ≤ μA ≤ 0.5

Indeed

Example, for Alex is tall, μ = .86, Alex is very tall, μ = μ2 =.74, 1 − 2 [1 − μA ( x )]2

if 0.5 < μA ≤ 1

Alex is very very tall, μ = μ4 =.55

Cantor’s sets Complement

Operations of fuzzy sets

Not A

Crisp Sets: Who does not belong to the set?

B Fuzzy Sets: How much do elements not belong to

The classical set theory developed in the late 19th A AA the set?

century by Georg Cantor describes interactions The complement of a set is an opposite of this set.

For example, if we have the set of tall men, its

between crisp sets.

Complement Containment

complement is the set of NOT tall men. When we

These interactions are called operations. remove the tall men set from the universe of

discourse, we obtain the complement. If A is the

fuzzy set, its complement ¬A can be found as

A B AA B

follows: Not A

μ¬A(x) = 1 − μA(x) A

Intersection Union

Intersection

Containment Union

Crisp Sets: Which element belongs to both sets? Crisp Sets: Which element belongs to either set?

Crisp Sets: Which sets belong to which other sets? Fuzzy Sets: To what degree the element is in both sets?

Fuzzy Sets: Which sets belong to other sets? Fuzzy Sets: How much of the element is in either set?

In classical set theory, an intersection between two sets The union of two crisp sets consists of every element

Similar to a Chinese box, a set can contain other contains the elements shared by these sets. For

sets. The smaller set is called the subset. For that falls into either set. For example, the union of

example, the intersection of the set of tall men and the tall men and fat men contains all men who are tall

example, the set of tall men contains all tall men; set of fat men is the area where these sets overlap. In

very tall men is a subset of tall men. However, the OR fat. In fuzzy sets, the union is the reverse of the

fuzzy sets, an element may partly belong to both sets intersection. That is, the union is the largest

tall men set is just a subset of the set of men. In with different memberships. A fuzzy intersection is the

crisp sets, all elements of a subset entirely belong to membership value of the element in either set. The

lower membership in both sets of each element. The fuzzy operation for forming the union of two fuzzy

a larger set. In fuzzy sets, however, each element fuzzy intersection of two fuzzy sets A and B on

can belong less to the subset than to the larger set. sets A and B on universe X can be given as:

universe of discourse X:

Elements of the fuzzy subset have smaller B μA∩B(x) = min [μA(x), μB(x)] = μA(x) ∩ μB(x), μA∪B(x) = max [μA(x), μB(x)] = μA(x) ∪ μB(x),

memberships in it than in the larger set. AA

where x∈X A B where x∈X A B

A B

Operations of fuzzy sets

Fuzzy set operators Fuzzy rules What is a fuzzy rule?

μ( x) μ(x)

Cantor’s operators 1 1

B In 1973, Lotfi Zadeh published his second most A fuzzy rule can be defined as a conditional

A

A influential paper. This paper outlined a new statement in the form:

Not A 0 0

B x

B

x approach to analysis of complex systems, in which

A AA 1

Not A

1 A Zadeh suggested capturing human knowledge in IF x is A

Complement Containment

0

x

0

x

fuzzy rules. THEN y is B

Complement Containment

μ(x) μ(x)

A B AA B

where x and y are linguistic variables; and A and B

1 1

A B A B are linguistic values determined by fuzzy sets on the

Intersection Union

0

x

0

x universe of discourses X and Y, respectively.

1 A∩B 1

A∪B

0 0

Intersection x Union x

What is the difference between classical and We can also represent the stopping distance rules in a

fuzzy rules? fuzzy form: Fuzzy rules relate fuzzy sets.

A classical IF-THEN rule uses binary logic, for Rule: 1 Rule: 2 In a fuzzy system, all rules fire to some extent,

example, IF speed is fast IF speed is slow i.e., fire partially. If the antecedent is true to

THEN stopping_distance is long THEN stopping_distance is short

Rule: 1 Rule: 2 some degree of membership, then the

IF speed is > 100 IF speed is < 40 In fuzzy rules, the linguistic variable speed also has consequent is also true to that same degree.

THEN stopping_distance is long THEN stopping_distance is short the range (the universe of discourse) between 0 and

220 km/h, but this range includes fuzzy sets, such as

The variable speed can have any numerical value slow, medium and fast. The universe of discourse of

between 0 and 220 km/h, but the linguistic variable the linguistic variable stopping_distance can be

stopping_distance can take either value long or short. between 0 and 300 m and may include such fuzzy

In other words, classical rules are expressed in the sets as short, medium and long.

black-and-white language of Boolean logic.

Fuzzy sets of tall and heavy men The value of the output or a truth membership grade of

A fuzzy rule can have multiple antecedents, for

Degree of

Membership

Degree of

Membership the rule consequent can be estimated directly from a

example:

1.0

Tall men

1.0

Heavy men

corresponding truth membership grade in the

0.8 0.8

antecedent. This form of fuzzy inference uses a

0.6 0.6 IF project_duration is long

method called monotonic selection.

0.4 0.4 AND project_staffing is large

0.2 0.2

Degree of Degree of AND project_funding is inadequate

0.0 0.0 Membership Membership

160 180 190 200 70 80 100 120 1.0 1.0 THEN risk is high

Height, cm Weight, kg Tall men

0.8 0.8 Heavy men

These fuzzy sets provide the basis for a weight estimation 0.6 0.6 IF service is excellent

model. The model is based on a relationship between a 0.4 0.4 OR food is delicious

man’s height and his weight: 0.2 0.2 THEN tip is generous

IF height is tall 0.0 0.0

160 180 190 200 70 80 100 120

THEN weight is heavy Height, cm Weight, kg

multiple parts, for instance:

IF temperature is hot

THEN hot_water is reduced;

cold_water is increased

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