Remote Diagnostic System for LeisureBoat Engines

PETER ANDERSSON AND JONAS LINDVALL

Department of Signals and Systems Chalmers University of Technology Göteborg, Sweden, 2006

EX004/2006

Preface
This thesis project was performed in collaboration with Johan Oskarsson who works as an engineer at Volvo Penta in Lundby, Gothenburg. The work took place at Volvo Penta Customer Support Department, where Johan was looking for an idea that could make the progress easier during diagnostic work concerning leisure-boat engines which often includes unwanted travel. This was a perfect opportunity for us to try out our knowledge after four years of studies at Chalmers University of Technology for a Master of Science in Electronic Engineering. We would like to thank our supervisor Johan Oskarsson at Volvo Penta, for giving us the opportunity to carry through this master’s thesis project. Further, we would like to thank Jonas Kuschel at IT University of Gothenburg and Lena Peterson for their assistance and of course everyone at Quality Action Centre for provided contacts and resources. Peter Andersson I would like to thank my family and friends for there support during this report. I wouldn’t have come this far without your encouragement. This thesis project has been an amusing but very demanding task and taken more energy than I ever could imagine. In return I have taken a firm step into the future. Thank you all for making this possible. Jonas Lindvall I would like to thank my lovely girlfriend Leyla for her patience. I have not been easy to live with during this work. I must say that this has been more challenging than I could ever imagine. I would also like to thank my whole family and my friends for their support during this time. Everyone has been so nice to me. I hope I can make it up to you all sometime.

ii

Summary
Progress in telematic and wireless communication systems, with new developments occurring almost daily, makes it possible to reach almost every corner of the world. Remote vehicle diagnostics is a type of telematic service that provides opportunities to conduct vehicle diagnostics work remotely. Remote-diagnostics systems can provide mechanics with vital information that can help to anticipate engine errors before they occur, help the technicians prepare for repairs and provide technicians and personnel with engine-related information. The use of such systems could lead to more effective service and repairs and less travel expenses. However, the full potential of a remote-diagnostic system is not known yet. This thesis is the result of a research project with the initial purpose of finding an existing telematic system for remote diagnostics. The result of our market research made us change focus to find a whole new system design with purpose to increase the efficiency in diagnostic work. The major results of this work are the remote-diagnostic system design and the market launching model, developed in collaboration with future system users. In the conclusion we present an idea of how a system can be designed based on needs expressed by several categories of potential users. Further, we present our idea of how to launch this kind of system into the aftermarket.

iii

.............................................................................8......................................................................... 14 4................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20 5.................................. 6 2............1.............................................................................. 23 6.....................................................2 CDMA..............................................................................................................................6 CONTROL AREA NETWORK – CAN ................................................................................................................................. 21 6 TELEMATIC SOLUTIONS .......3 CONCLUSIONS ..............................................9 3G ........................ 2 FRAME OF REFERENCE ... 12 4............................. 21 5.......................................................................9........................3 CONCLUSION ..................................................................... 18 5...........................................................8........................ 12 4..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 4................ 4 2............................. 8 3.................................................9.............................................................................................................................2 ELECTRONIC VESSEL CONTROL – EVC..................... 20 5.......9...........................2 DIAGNOSTICS .................... 5 2. 4 2...................................1 Bluetooth .......................................................................................................Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION............ 17 4......................1.......................................................................................2 Volvo OnCall ........................................1...............................................................................1...................................................... 6 2...........1 GM´s OnStar ............... 15 4....1 Diagnostic Software for the EDC control unit ....1 Overview of Bluetooth ...............................1 Centralized approach ..........................................2..........................2 RESULT ......................2.................1 System picture............3 DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE – DTC.............................................................................................. 15 4......................2 General Interaction .........................................................5 2 BACKGROUND ..................................................................2 1...........................1 COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS ................................................ 16 4................................................................................................................................................................................ 4 2................................................................................................................................................................................4 Volvo Penta Action Service.............................................................3................. 1 1.................................................................................. 9 INTERVIEWS .................................................... 11 4....3.... 1 PURPOSE................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1 LIMITATIONS ...........................................2 DEVELOPMENT .......................................................................... 17 5 EXISTING SYSTEMS...................................................................................7 CONTROL INTERFACE UNIT – CIU..................................................................................................................................................................4 1........ 6 3 METHOD.......... 15 4.....................................................................................................................1 TELEMATICS ........ 2 OUTLINE..................... 2 PROBLEM DEFINING ............................................................................................................................... 16 4....................................................................................................................................................................................1 CANSAS-PRO .......................................1 TDMA ..................1 1...... 19 5....................................... 18 5........................................8 BLUETOOTH .................................................................................5 SAE J1939 CAN LINK.1....2 LITERATURE STUDIES ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 6.....................................3 1..........3 EDGE...............2..... 11 4.............................................................4 ENGINE INTERFACE ...................... 5 2........................................................ 25 7 METHOD FOR REMOTE DIAGNOSTICS...........................................................................................4 END CUSTOMER .............1................................................3 REMOTE DIAGNOSTIC .............1 3............................................................................................3 SeaKey .................................................................................................................... 23 6........................................................................................................................................... 13 4......................................................................................................2 Decentralized approach............................................ 24 6............................................1 CAN TO BLUETOOTH .................................................................................................................................... 21 5.......................1 Diagnostic at Volvo Penta................................................................................... 9 4 TECHNICAL FRAMEWORK ............................................. 13 4............................................................................................... 18 5.. 15 4................1 ELECTRONIC DIESEL CONTROL – EDC............................ 26 iv ........... 24 6.....................................................................................................

.........1 10............................................................ 33 8.......................2 Cost saving.................................3 Central Expert ............................1 Boat owner/Customer......................................1..............................................................................................................................3 SCENARIOS .......................................1 Cost of implementation ........... 41 9..................................................................................................................................................................................................................7.............................. 45 FUTURE VISIONS .......................................... 41 9.....................1 FUTURE WORK .......................................................4........................................ 38 8................ 38 8.................2 11 11.................................................................................................................................................................... 41 9. 34 8.................3 RISK MANAGEMENT ........ 41 9.....................................................................2 CAN-BT GATEWAY IMPLEMENTATION.1 12 12............................................................... 43 9.......... 46 VISION..................................... 38 8....5 FURTHER RVD SCENARIOS ...........................................................................................................1 DIAGNOSTIC WORK TODAY.....................................................4 VOLVO PENTA HEAD QUARTER ..........................................................................1....................................................................................................... 49 PERSONAL REFERENCES ............................................................... 39 9 MARKETING ........................... 45 CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................... 49 v ............... 41 9..4...................................1 Remote collaboration ... 38 8............................................................. 48 REFERENCES........................................ 43 9....................................................................................... 44 10 10................................................ 33 8......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 ECONOMY MEASURE .................. 42 9............................................................................................................................................................ 45 FUTURE APPLICATIONS ..............................................1 SYSTEM DESIGN ...... 35 8...................................................................................... 26 7.......................................................................4 BENEFITS.....................................................................................................2 CONCLUSION ..........................................................1...................................................... 27 7......................................................................................................5 BUSINESS EMISSION ....................................................................................................................4..... 29 8 REMOTE DIAGNOSTIC EXAMPLES ....................................................................................................................2 Local Technician/Dealer......................................................................................................................................2 SOLUTION DETAILS.................................................................................6 CONCLUSIONS ..............................................................

vessel) Diagnostic SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers SMS: Short Messages Service TDM: Time Division Multiplexing TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access vi .Terminology ACK: Acknowledgement CAN: Controller Area Network CIU: Control Interface Unit CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check CSMA/CD: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detection D12: 12 liters diesel engine ECU: Electronic Control Unit EDC: Electronic Diesel Control EDGE: Enhanced Data GSM Environment EMS: Engine Management System EVC: Electronic Vessel Control GPRS: General Pocket Radio Service GPS: Global Positioning System GSM: Global System for Mobile HCU: Helm Control Unit MS: Multi Station PCU: Power train Control Unit PDA: Personal Digital Assistant RVD: Remote Vehicle (alt.

Vodia: Diagnostic software for PocketPC based PDA VP: Volvo Penta WAP: Wireless Application Protocol vii .

It is also possible to detect abnormalities in an effective way. To perform a full service. optimize the amount of fuel injected into the cylinders. such as GM’s OnStar. Each ECU controls different parts of the vessel and can be programmed to behave in different ways.e. The possibility to program each unit makes it possible to calibrate the different parts to operate in most effective ways i. companies are showing an increased interest in Remote Vehicle Diagnostic (RVD). that really explains what to do.2 Purpose A good way to approach a problem is to consider the underlying needs and try to identify the real purpose. There is no “correct” way to approach a problem but there is always a layer. Volvo Penta is a part of the Volvo group. Today there are some examples of commercial services. which are interconnected via a serial bus. as in the vehicle industry in general. In the marine industry. 1. such as a car or boat. Volvo OnCall and VP’s SeaKey for marine purpose. Marttala & Karlsson [1]. driving system for marine and industrial applications and also components and services for aircrafts and aircraft engines. 1. including drive control levers. display requested status parameters and DTCs. Thus. one of the world’s largest manufacturer of trucks. 1 . Purposes always create different layers. One can find the right way to solve a problem by splitting the purpose in different layers and searching for the right approach. is the vessel’s Electronic Vessel Control (EVC) system. The engine program comprises diesel and petrol engines in output ranges of 10-2000 hp. construction machines. it is important to make small steps to be able to find a middle layer between the first ones considered. is to a large extent controlled by computers. control panels and cables.1 Background This master’s thesis project was performed at Volvo Penta (VP) in Gothenburg. buses. Volvo Penta is a world leader manufacturer of engines and complete driving system for marine and industrial purposes. that all focus on customer needs such as road assistance and guidance. Data values not in accord to predefined accepted values automatically generate so-called Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) that are stored in the ECUs. from an already existing system. A modern vehicle. often higher than the first suggested.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter will give the reader a general view of the background. This layer gives a number of possible solutions. Our task is to design an RVD system. The common name for a VP engine’s all ECUs. where one specific purpose is an instrument to accomplish something at the next layer. called Electronic Control Units (ECUs). To find a way to move up and down in layers makes it possible to find creative solutions. some of them maybe never considered. technicians have to connect a computer with advanced computer programs which can update the ECUs software. that adapts to Volvo Penta needs. purpose and limitations of the work.

Since the engine we aim at must be equipped with EVC system. all from manufactory industry where data from machines bound to the manufacturer process is accessible. The vehicle market and the leisure-boat market are similar when it comes to the engines. Remote Diagnostics is represented in a lot of fields. Here the reader can get a first picture of what the field remote diagnostic involves and what have been done in the field so far. This project is supposed to be a part of a reference document for future implementation of an RVD system. 3. 1.5 Outline In chapter 2 we give the reader an overview of the subject diagnostic and fields directly related.3 Limitations The research concentrates on the boat and vehicle market. The functionality and cost vary among these different systems. Research and interviews have been made at the Swedish west coast. To decrease the project scope the leisure-boat segment was chosen. The chapter also informs about different approaches 2 . As the name Remote Diagnostic suggests.1 Levels of purposes The project purpose is to deliver a business case for a relevant VP product.Figure 1. to the airplane industry where the demands of perfect functionality are high. 1. it means diagnostic of an object from a remote geographical location. required changes of existing products and a description of modules included. we concentrate on dealers and customers who handle such engines.4 Problem Definition 1. The business case shall include cost of implementation. where the same engines that are used in trucks and cars are also used in boats. What different RVD systems are available at the market? How can an RVD system be implemented in the EVC system? What changes are required from a Volvo Penta point of view? What are the technical requirements for an RVD system to satisfy VP? 1. 2. Our research is limited and includes the vehicle and heavy-vehicle markets where telematic and remote diagnostic are emerging and have been so for a couple of years. 4.

The report concludes with chapter 10 that presents possibilities for future applications and upgrades for the system. We have decided to present our work in a chronological way with a conclusion section in each chapter that explains results and further actions.to remote diagnostics. A number of scenarios show the reader how the system can be used in reality. In chapter 8 facts and results from previous chapters are taken into consideration and form a basis for the out coming system. The later parts as chapter 9 present the Volvo Penta organization and an inquiry of the ultimate user. followed by overall conclusions in chapter 11. Chapter 6 focuses on telematic solutions for short-range data communication and chapter 7 handles methods for performing remote diagnostic in an effective way with today’s diagnostic work in mind. Here is also a proposal for how the marketing of the system can be made. The next following chapter is therefore a direct consequence of the conclusion and result from the chapter before. that is methods for gathering data and also an evaluation of the reliability of the result. that is the target group for the system proposal. 3 . Chapter 5 to 7 then conclude with chapter 8 where a remote diagnostic system is presented. Chapter 3 gives the reader a insight in how the work has been carried out. In chapter 5 we first present remote diagnostic systems available on the market today and related functions.

from a general point of view. safety and route guidance were the range of practicable services in the telecommunication industry. should answer three main questions: Are there any problems? What is the problem? What possible actions can be taken? Hamilton also presents four different steps that are taken in a diagnostics cycle. Problems that can occur with today’s diagnostics are that it often identifies the effect of the problem instead of the actual cause. fleet management. To make a diagnostic check of an engine. if R2-D2 of Star Wars decided to start running into walls. An example of a common telematic service of today is navigation systems such as Global Positioning System (GPS). which have been available for the last five years in most modern vehicle. Failure – Deviating behavior in a system component. Before the standardization. C3PO would probably make him run diagnostics on himself to try to figure out what his problem was.equipped boats is growing quickly. It is generally hard to define telematics.1 Telematics The world market of vehicle telematics and fleet management solutions for professional and private markets is today estimated to $5 billion. each developer had its own system for communication between different electrical components. These can be either hardware or software solutions. 1. Hamilton [3] presents an organized perspective and description of diagnostics. In an early stage of telematic solutions. 2. Diagnostics of engine signals are today standardized according to Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). but the number of EV. For example. Detection – Internal. which need computerized diagnostic tools to make an understandable diagnosis. from being a technician’s instincts of engines behavior to today’s computer-controlled engine systems. such as Internet-based information systems. embedded diagnostics systems that monitor deviations. vehicle diagnostics and much more. The serial bus is connected to all ECUs where the Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) are stored automatically. a diagnostic tool is connected to the serial bus. Most of the marine service work of today takes place during off-season. 2. 4 . with annual rates forecasted to 50% [7]. A service or repair work is not finished until a test run is made to control that the engine works properly. Diagnostics have been changed over the years. but it is often referred to as the convergence of telecommunication and informatics [8]. A telematic service of today includes many different areas.2 Diagnostics Diagnostics is a procedure or program that is run internally to test a piece of software or hardware and to ensure that it is operating properly. The data from this test run is a good reference if an error occurs during season. This is a difficulty for developers of these kinds of tools.2 FRAME OF REFERENCE 2. Today most repairs are still done without DTCs. He claims that diagnostics.

2. Today’s access of technical information from the boat gets available from the Volvo Penta diagnose tool VODIA. 4. internet enabling services and vehicle diagnostics. if technicians could lower downtimes with fast and precise diagnostics higher customer satisfaction could be reached. Improving diagnostics is a common interest for customer and technicians. Figure 2. Early telematics applications focused primarily on services related to route guidance and safety. perform tests and reprogram the control units.1 PocketPC based PDA with Vodia software 2. which often are described as accessing. Remote diagnostic market is in a strongly growing phase.1 Diagnostics at Volvo Penta The traditional usage of diagnostics functions concerns reading error messages from the boats on-board system memory. The software on the client. Recovery – The necessary actions to be taken based on collected diagnostics data. developed for Volvo Penta’s aftermarket. It was released in 2002 and will be in use at most Volvo Penta dealers around the world. Diagnosis – Analysis of the collected data from the embedded system. were more and more market get involved.3. The user connects the PDA to the boat via a special hardware interface. and it is generally considered as one of the most important telematics services in the future. 2. Information that indicates “what” is wrong but not the “cause”. VODIA is a PDA application.3 Remote diagnostic Marine and vehicle industry companies show an increasing interest in Remote Diagnostics. diagnosing and programming vehicle systems remotely [12]. read-outs of engines parametric data and reprogramming of ECU software. is developed in Embedded Visual C++. It supports the new engine systems and makes it possible to trace faults. The VODIA system also contains a web application on Volvo Penta Partner Network where the user can download software and update the PDA application. which is a PDA with operating system PocketPC 2002. Engine systems become more and more computerized and therefore problems and solutions are nowadays often 5 . both product developers and the aftermarket. but lately telematics has come to include a broad range of services with many different application areas like fleet management.

2 Engine lifetime Possible customers of remote diagnostic services appear in all three blocks. The technology has reached a phase where it is possible to offer relatively costeffective telematic solutions passable for the aftermarket. a service technician are contacted. This requires selling many high-quality engines adapted to the market prices.4 End customer VPs ambition is to make as good profit as possible. location-based applications and wireless services for automobiles. and information like DTCs. Right after the engine is sold it enters the aftermarket. 2.related to digital technology like ECUs. more than only a “tool” to solve problems by repairing the engine. In the last block. Research and Development (R&D) Production Aftermarket Figure 2. If the service technician is involved from start he could perform a more effective work. the aftermarket. and it continues right until the engine is made obsolete. GM’s OnStar. The aftermarket can be described as the life phase that follows after the engine is sold or put into operational use. 73 percent of consumers would like automakers and dealers to be able to diagnose car problems remotely [4]. where technically skilled personal are trying to correct problems via phone. When problems occur that they cannot correct. According to a recent survey by InfoMove. This has made it economically possible for companies to investigate the remote-diagnostics usage in there company.3.3.2 Decentralized approach A decentralized approach of remote diagnostic is to focus on the local service technician. Unlike the centralized approach the service technician should be more involved within the problem. and provide necessary support services [13]. This means that production cost must be as low as possible.1 Centralized approach Today’s remote diagnostic systems are mostly restricted to service centers. Volvo OnCall and VP’s SeaKey for marine purpose are all within this category. In R&D and production phase the customer for RVD systems are VP and/or companies in cooperation with Volvo. Market analysts Frost & Sullivan define remote diagnostics as the ability to access the vehicle’s performance parameters and trouble codes in case of malfunction using a wireless network. 2. the customers will be the users of a VP engine 6 . 2. all focus on customer needs such as road assistance and guidance. These are examples of centralized approach of commercial services were the needs of the service technician have not been in focus. Today. a Seattle provider of personalized. The reason why remote diagnostics has not been used earlier in the vehicle industry is related to the technology progress.

The aftermarket concerns maintenance. leisure-boat owners or local technicians. For VP the maintenance work i.e. 7 . The characteristic of the aftermarket is that it consists of many customers.e. in contrast to existing systems like CANSAS that aim at R&D and production. Our ambition is to come up with an idea for an RVD-system platform aimed at the aftermarket e. the individual or company that purchases or operates the engine.i.g. repairs and spare parts are highly profitable. repairs and the spare part market.

1 The traditional research process. register and measure a more or less given reality [2]. The progress of the work has forced us to use two different research methods. technicians and Volvo Penta central experts. This was the obvious choice when the purpose was to observe and compare already existing products and methods at the RVD market. The new problem made us change the method to a qualitative perspective of research method. VPengine related electronics. The qualitative approach directs the individual. The focus of this study has been how people. understand the reality when it comes to diagnostic and repairs of marine engines. In the initial phase a qualitative traditional research process was applied. Results from these interviews have been the basis for new questions and new approaches to the problem. Figure 3. used in the initial phase [2]. Diagnostic. i. central experts and end customers. The information collected during the quantitative phase together with the information from the qualitative part gave us an overview of the areas of Remote Diagnostic. used in the later phase [2].e. in contrast to the quantitative approach where the focus is to observe. The literature studies that were done in parallel with the market research gave us a deeper understanding of the problem and new ideas came up continuously.2 The qualitative research process. All this 8 .3 METHOD In this chapter we give a brief overview of progress and methods we have applied to come to a result and conclusion for this thesis. Figure 3. We also got a deeper understanding of the repair procedure and we identified the needs from local technicians.

He gave us valuable information from his research. where the supply is much better.2 Interviews The interviews took place in the qualitative phase of the research. Literature concerning telematics and wireless communication stand in relation with remote diagnostic. We believe that the changeover from a quantitative to a qualitative process was natural in this research. We decided to visit local workshops in the local vicinity. The deeper in the research we got. second. The quantitative phase together with the literature study can be describe as a prestudy and gave us a deep understanding and helped us identify the problem. This our location made it possible for us to get the technical information about the engines e. which forced to change approach several times. why this field was included in the studies. The conclusion consists of a system design of an RVD system aimed for the leisure-boat segment and an idea of how to launch to market. presentation and consultation gave us a much deeper insight in the field. When we faced the problem it was necessary to get deeper knowledge about what has been done and what has been written in the related fields. To get an initial overview of the diagnosis and repair process we had discussions with our tutor at Volvo Penta. the closer we got the to the core problem. we got the opportunity to carry out this thesis work at the Volvo Penta headquarter in Gothenburg. In collaboration with him we came up with a number of scenarios where an RVD solution hypothetically could simplify the diagnostic and repair procedure. design and function of the electrical system and specific data in the internal literature and handbooks. Concerning methods for remote diagnostic. at first. During the visits we presented the scenarios to the local technicians and collected feedback.1 Literature studies As in all scientific research we had to make extensive literature studies. We got a deep understanding of what the problem really was instead of giving a satisfying answer to the wrong problem. The purpose of these visits were. 3. To enter deeply into the subjects we started our work with literature studies. Jonas Kuschel. Based on this information we developed new ideas of how an RVD system could simplify the work of the technicians in the field. remote diagnostic and wireless communication. PhD student at the ITuniversity of Gothenburg was object for consultation. 9 . Fortunately.g. Because local technicians had an important role in the scenarios it was necessary to get a better understanding of the technicians work in the workshops. His research papers. Literature concerning diagnosis and remote diagnostic in the marine industry is in highest grade limited why we included literature concerning the vehicle industry. This is why we think that both methods gave a satisfying result to the right problem. The core problem was found in another layer than first expected. All this was made by splitting the main purpose in small pieces. to get feedback on our ideas. In the initiation phase we had limited knowledge of earlier work in the fields of diagnostic. 3.together led to a conclusion of the thesis. to get better understanding of the technicians work procedure.

The advantage of using a qualitative approach was the possibility to discuss questions and problems. In this way the risk of misunderstandings was minimized, both from the interviewer and the person-interviewed point of view. A possible detriment could be the limited number of local technicians and central experts included in the study. They cannot answer for the whole existing group [3]. Since we limited the research to the local vicinity, we expect the result from the chosen reference group to be reliable.

10

4 TECHNICAL FRAMEWORK
Electronic devices for controlling engine electronic parts in marine industry are called Electronic Control Units (ECUs). These ECUs have several sensors attached to the engine which trigger Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) in case of abnormal data values. DTCs are parts of information used to find causes of engine problems. This chapter will explain and review different electronic and communication systems that are related to today’s Volvo Penta engine systems for leisure boats, and affect our RVD research.

4.1 Electronic Diesel Control – EDC
Volvo Penta Corporation uses a control system, which is called EDC for many of their engine systems. The Volvo Penta Electronic Control System is a single-lever system for combined operation of the throttle and gear functions in marine engines. The system comprises an electronic unit, drive unit control lever(s), control panels and cables. The system controls the fuel injection through an electrical pump. The control unit turns the engine on and controls all its functions. The control lever and the gear are controlled by a potentiometer read by the control unit. The driver seat is also equipped with a throttle, which controls the rudder with hydraulic or a wire and a button set consisting of ‘Active station’, ‘Neutral’ and ‘Diagnosis’ buttons. On each new driver seat there is a Multi Station (MS) unit connected, which communicates with the control unit through the CAN bus.

Figure 4.1 Volvo Penta EDC system New injection systems are under development, due to constantly increasing demands on reductions of exhaust emissions and low fuel consumption from diesel engines. Fuel systems are rapidly reaching their limits. The new D12 engine family (TAD1240 – 1242GE) is equipped with the new Volvo Engine Management System (EMS) further developed by Volvo Penta and named EDC III. They have very little in common with the EDC I system
11

used on the Industrial Engines TWD740VE and TWD1231VE. Industrial D12 engines are equipped with the EDCIII system. It is controlled entirely electronically. The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) reads operating parameters from a number of sensors placed on the engine. EMS provides efficient engine management and advanced facilities for diagnostics and error tracing. Precisely controlled fuel injection makes a more efficient combustion resulting in lower fuel consumption and faster injection. The engine is equipped with 11 sensors functions in order to register operating data. The control unit (ECU) compares current readings with stored data. The fuel system components consists of the ECU, which is cooled by the fuel flow via a built-in cooling circuit, the non-return fuel valve, fuel pre-filter with water separator and water-in-fuel indicator, gear driven low-pressure fuel pump, fine fuel filter with manual feed pump and fuel pressure switch, the traditional in-line injection pump with mechanical or electric governor is replaced by individual unit injectors, overflow valve (4.5 bar). In the fuel system there are 7 sensors with 8 functions; flywheel and camshaft speed, boost temperature and pressure, coolant and fuel, fuel pressure and water-in sensor.

4.1.1 Diagnostic Software for the EDC control unit The EDC system has an internal diagnostic function that makes it possible to detect errors in the engine. The diagnostic function is to detect and localize errors in the EDC system, protect the engine against continuing to operate during serious errors. If an error has occurred, diagnostic indicators on the indicator panel start to blink. When the diagnostic button is pressed, an error code is given for error detection. The Volvo Penta Diagnostic Software can be used for diesel engines with electronic controlled fuel injection, i.e. EDC engines. The connection to the engine control unit is through a particular diagnose socket, usually on the electronic central. The program is designed to read error codes which have been stored in the control unit.

4.2 Electronic Vessel Control – EVC
EVC is the latest development in instrumentation for Volvo Penta marine engines. In a basic Electronic Vessel Control (EVC) system there are two ECUs, one Power train Control Unit (PCU) at the engine to interface the engine and the transmission, and one Helm Control Unit (HCU) at the helm to interface gauges, key, controls etc. A helm is the control panel from where the boat is maneuvered. Another HCU, e.g. for the fly bridge, can be installed by a Yconnector on the CAN-bus since all the information is available here. The major improvement compared with EDC is that one system handles both instruments and controls. In the EVC the CAN-bus handles all communication, only one cable needs to be installed between the engine and the helms. The main purpose of an EVC system development is to decrease the number of cables installed in the boat and consequently reduce weight and misreading by error in cables.

12

Figure 4. The following data frames contain information associated with the particular fault code. The CAN SAE J1939 interface.4 Engine Interface Today there are three different ways to connect controls and instruments to the engines. while the much faster CAN link handles the data communications. 4.2 EVC-system overview. a DTC is stored in the ECU memory. which holds information related to the specific problem and contains detailed information about the specific failure. The J1708 link handles the engine diagnostic and parameter setting tool. DTC example: MID 128 PID 164 DATA XXX DATA XXX DATA XXX CRC XXX There are two starting frames in a DTC message indicating the related MID and PID. 13 .5 SAE J1939 CAN link A standard equipped engine has an 8-pole bus interface connector to provide access to the SAE J1939 CAN link and the SAEJ1708/1587 link. Other DTCs require diagnostic tools connected to the system. to locate errors for further analysis. The last frame is a checksum. 4. the CIU and stand-alone connections. Some DTCs are forwarded to the driver who is notified by a lamp on the dashboard or at the EVC display.3 Diagnostic Trouble Code – DTC When a failure is detected. 4.

It is easy to add new nodes without any changes in the software or hardware.3 CAN frame The standard CAN communicates at low level and the CAN protocol specifies the transport of small packages between A and B. the electric cable networks also expanded in size as well as complexity. a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) field. With special hardware the CAN system can filtrate and make nodes react to specific messages. but cannot address one specific node.4.6 Control Area Network – CAN When electronic substance and electronic controlled functions in the car industries expanded. CAN nodes can send message when the bus is free. it sends an error flag and starts a repetition of the 14 . which is limited and countable. The CAN protocol uses NRZ with bit stuffing. For that it needs a Higher Layer Protocol (HLP) that takes care of the start procedure. The identifiers with the lowest numeric value get access to the bus. Situations when two nodes want to send at the same time are solved by bit arbitration. CAN messages are of the type ‘Data’ and ‘Remote Message’ which means request for data. The bit rate is 1 Mbit/s. transport of data larger than 8 bytes. A frame consists of a 32-bit identifier. translation of data and status. If a controller detects a transfer error. but it took quite a while before the car industry began to use the system. distribution of messages. which is the company that is the creator and developer of VP’s EVC system. CAN/J1939 uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) and Arbitration on Message Priority (AMP). The identifier decides priority when two units want to transmit at the same time. J1939 is designed for operation in real-time between electronic units.e. Volvo Penta uses a dialect protocol of the SAE J1939. The solution was the CAN-bus. the nodes can both listen and send messages on the bus. CAN was developed by Bosch and Intel in the 80’s. a data field consisting of 0 to 8 bytes with data. biphasic. The CAN system is occurrence-trigged. node addresses or readdresses of communication. The multiplex system made the manufactures take responsibility for the electronic evolution and the electronic communication between different units in a network. Figure 4. The standard CAN does not include flow schedule. a 15bit checksum for error detection and a 2-bit Acknowledgement (Ack) field for confirmation. It became necessary to leave the old system behind for a new system where several control signals share the same cable to minimize the electric cable net. which means that no data processing exists without an occurrence on an in port or when a message has arrived. The CAN-bus is of broadcast type i. The dialect has been developed by CPAC. A real-time system must have a characteristic of a maximal ‘response time’.

2 General Interaction A Bluetooth system consists of four interlocked layers that provide the desired functionality: Hardware . forcing each node to respond only to self-concerned information. including many manufacturers of mobile phones.1 Overview of Bluetooth The Bluetooth wireless connectivity technology was introduced in 1994 by Ericsson as a way for mobile devices to communicate with each other at short range. and Toshiba formed the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) to develop a royalty-free. PDAs. The broadcast communication is achieved by using a message-oriented transmission protocol. 15 .An adapter and a suitable driver. Bluetooth of today will unite the worlds of computers and telecom.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band. This stops the current transmission. computers. Nokia.transmission. mouses etc. In 1998. As mentioned earlier. Further. a garage-door opener. keyboards. up to 10 meters. Ericsson.g. local filtering. Intel. IBM. 4. open specification for short-range wireless connectivity.7 Control Interface Unit – CIU The Volvo Penta CIU is an optional equipment to the CAN link. Bluetooth is a radio-frequency technology that uses the 2. or other connections. This means that messages sent over the network do not define stations or station addresses. CAN is based on the so-called broadcast communication mechanism.8. 4.g. It is also a good technology for synchronizing devices. Bluetooth is positioned as a replacement for cable. Since then more than 2000 companies have joined the Bluetooth SIG.8 Bluetooth Bluetooth is a wireless technology for connecting different devices such as cellular phones. infrared. This band is the same as used by e. 4. This form of error signaling leads to short error recovery times. but mechanisms are provided by the protocol e. each message has its own priority. thus solving the problem of several stations competing for bus access simultaneously. The CIU converts the CAN protocol to analogue or digital signals and signals to CAN protocol. digital cameras and voice transmission headsets. Due to the broadcast property all messages sent over the network are visible to all nodes. maybe that is why it is called Bluetooth. The name came from the Danish king Harold Bluetooth who lived between 910 and 985 AD. PDAs. Instead a specific identifier that is within the whole network recognizes each message. laptops.8. The Viking king Harold Bluetooth united Denmark and Norway. 4.

the respective daemons are started. Bluetooth uses a time-division multiplexing (TDM) scheme. In this way. 128 Kbps in a car or boat and 2 Mbps in fixed applications.The applications allow the functionality provided by the daemons to be used and controlled by the user.9.4 High-level view of the architecture of the Bluetooth protocol stack. the respective driver is loaded by the hotplug system. a single 16 . If this is the case. When inserting a Bluetooth adapter. 4.Services that are controlled by the configuration files and provide the functionality. it determines the services to start. EDGE has specifically been developed to meet the bandwidth needs of 3G. the system checks the configuration files to see if Bluetooth should be started.Configuration Files . Bluetooth uses frequency hopping. TDMA works by dividing a radio frequency into time slots and then allocating slots to multiple calls. Applications . the Bluetooth system is deactivated in the default configuration. 4. Based on this information.1 TDMA Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a technology for delivering digital wireless service using Time Division Multiplexing (TDM).9 3G 3G is the third generation of mobile communications technology. For security reasons. It provides bandwidth up to 384 Kbps when a device is stationary or moving at pedestrian speed. and CDMA. TDMA. Daemons . Its spread-spectrum approach greatly reduces the risk that communications will be intercepted. Figure 4. After the driver is loaded. This will show a standard High-level view of the architecture of a Bluetooth protocol stack.Used for controlling the Bluetooth system. 3G will work over wireless air interfaces such as GSM.

4. that use TDMA.9. every channel uses the full available spectrum. allowing more subscribers to connect at any given time. such as GSM. EDGE enables data to be delivered at rates up to 384 Kbps on a broadband.3 EDGE Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) is a faster version of GSM wireless service. Unlike competing systems. EDGE is based on the GSM standard and uses TDMA multiplexing technology. CDMA provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies. 4. Instead. CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user.2 CDMA Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a digital cellular technology that uses spreadspectrum techniques.9. and it is the common platform on which 3G technologies are built. simultaneous data channels. 17 . TDMA is used by the GSM digital cellular system.frequency can support multiple. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.

1. and Dearborn Group. Downright remote diagnostic systems for the vehicle industry are today used for Research and Development (R&D) purpose. fuel consumption. diagnostics protocols and warranty-related information from trucks [9]. a system for accomplishing RVD of truck and marine engines. which either already have or are developing remote diagnostics applications..1 OnStar user panel OnStar has a future purpose that allows mechanics to identify vehicle problems before it enters a workshop for service. More examples are NEXIQ Technologies Inc. position technology. Toyota. At the OnStar center. Many fleet-manager systems can also locate the vehicle in real time.1 GM´s OnStar OnStar is a service made to meet the customer requirements. ATX Technologies Inc. advisors offer real-time personalized help at all time. security and information service for GM cars. BMW. Telematic services used in the vehicle industry unite techniques of wireless communication. Volkswagen. 5. Volvo Dynafleet and Networkcar’s Networkfleet are examples of fleet managers with purpose of lowering the operating expenses throughout fuel control and an optimized administration. IBW. Vetronix Inc. If customers choose not to buy OnStar as an extra feature the access of RVD fail. We argue that an RVD service should be a standard in the vehicle or vessel and not depend on 18 . OnStar is a safety.5 EXISTING SYSTEMS This chapter presents a number of systems available at the market. using Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite and cellular technology GSM/GPRS to link the vehicle and driver to an OnStar center. If the Check Engine light turns on at the instrument panel the driver can push a button and an OnStar advisor can run a remote diagnostic check of the engine. A segment where such services are well established is the heavy-vehicle industry where so called fleet managers provide fleet operators with important information about driver performance.. These services are underlying to the field of telematic mentioned in chapter 2. Jentro AG. An example is Volvos CANSAS-PRO.2 describes OnStar´s available services and the work in progress. Volvo OnCall. remote diagnostic and different types of entertainment and safety services in the car. The advisor can then help the driver with further actions such as contact roadside assistance or assist in scheduling a service appointment if necessary. GM’s OnStar are commercial systems that provide safety and navigation for car users. The system collects data for test purposes and accesses the engine remotely.1 Commercial systems 5. Figure 5. Picture 5..

Volvo OnCall is available in Volvo cars and works as a road assistant. The service collects and organizes detailed performance and location-based information directly from the vehicle engine computer and a global positioning system (GPS). Figure 5. Systems similar to OnStar do not fit in as an RVD system for our purpose but could work as a complement.2 Volvo OnCall Volvo OnCall is a core part of Volvo’s philosophy for an uncompromised approach to safety.3 Volvo OnCall system overview 19 . Figure 5.customer choices.2 GM’s OnStar system overview 5. OnCall system is very similar to OnStar and also a commercial system that follows the same principles. This information is then transmitted wirelessly from the vehicle and made available to Volvo OnCall service center or website for fleet manager purpose [10].1. This fact makes Volvo OnCall a non-suitable RVDsystem solution for a general implementation at VP engines.

is excessive when oral communication is necessary. Membership to Volvo Action 20 . Another reason is the usage of satellite communication. 7 day per week SeaKey response center.4 SeaKey user control Developers of SeaKey have plans of adding a CAN-bus connection. With this service an owner of a Volvo Penta engine has the possibility to obtain help and assistance by phone anytime of the day. The concept of Volvo Penta Action Service is to provide rapid service when customers are in great need.5 SeaKey Box. The system connects electronic equipment to internet for remote monitoring. Figure 5. Since many of the incoming calls can be solved by technically competent personal at the call center this is a useful service.3 SeaKey SeaKey is a communication system that provides satellite connectivity and works as a control and alarm service for marine vessels. So far the system gets data only from external sensors and this is one of our reasons for rejecting it. in our opinion. who can provide the customer with technical assistance or spare parts if necessary. The system is made for aftermarket and focuses on customer use. When a repair must be performed onboard the operator contacts the closest VP dealer. and communicating requests for a number of situations” such as those listed below [11].5. 5. “SeaKey provides instant communication to the 24 hour. • Boat stolen • Water intake • Concierge services • Low battery • Lost / need directions / bad weather • Mechanical malfunction • Out of fuel / run aground • Tracking Figure 5.4 Volvo Penta Action Service Volvo Penta Action Service has operated throughout Europe since 1997.1.1. the implementation is expensive and would cost up to a couple of thousand dollars for each system. SeaKey provide security and not technical information concerning the engine. which.

By doing that. e. In chapter 6 a wireless solution for a mobile unit is presented and in chapter 9 we show and compare the cost and ideas of different telematic solutions. The reason is that it would be possible for a customer to relinquish installation in a procured vessel due to lack of interest in the commercial-services aspect. with completely different economic demands.Service (VAS) is provided automatically to all VP owners and is free during warranty time. The system must be coast effective and easy to use for the end customer. CANSAS-PRO uses satellite and GSM communication to be accessible all around the world. Its R&D purpose. The system is not developed to meet the requirements of the aftermarket. navigation. Volvo Penta Action Service could be a complement to an RVD system. The conclusions from this chapter gave us a higher layer of the initial purpose and a new approach to the problem. entertainment etc. Figure 5.3 Conclusions The initial project purpose was to make a market research to find existing RVD systems. 5. We find it important not to include RVD systems in an already existing commercial system.2 Development 5.1 CANSAS-PRO CANSAS-PRO is developed by Volvo Trucks to help Volvo engineers for development purposes. To use the system as a special tool to simplify diagnostic work make cost and functionality to important factors. The CANSAS-PRO system is a downright RVD system. The research resulted in us finding commercial system for RVD purpose that aim either at R&D or systems developed to satisfy the needs from the customer point of view. makes it way too expensive and complicated for aftermarket use.2. new system requirements arise. and are optional when a customer buys a vehicle or boat. Once the warranty period has expired. The progress in wireless technology makes it possible to find a cost-effective unit with simply the purpose to send engine data from the EVC system to a remote location. The customer directed systems provide the car or boat owner with safety services. CANSAS-PRO is expensive and much of the logic and functions are unnecessary for RVD purpose in the leisure-boat segment.6 CANSAS PRO Mobile platform. The reason why CANSAS PRO is an unsuitable choice for our RVD system is because of its complexity and its expensive hardware. there is a charge of $50 each successful help action. 5. 21 . Our ambition after the initial research is to completely isolate an RVD system.g. the Action Service could handle the customer when there is no dealer available for assistance. The intelligence in this system is located in the mobile platform.

7 Levels of purposes with the new higher purpose of Remote access to ECU data 22 .Figure 5.

who is developing a product in our interest. To handle different protocols based on CAN.6 TELEMATIC SOLUTIONS This chapter presents different technical solutions which can enable communication between the EVC system and a remote application. Our first task is to find a reliable and low-price circuit. we contacted Teleca Systems AB. These modules are used to decode and interpret the result when a request is made. an idea of using a Bluetooth link between the CAN-bus and a commercial cellular phone which allows further communication with a remote server. CAN packets should be handed over to the application. a mobile unit. We were looking for a gateway that could receive CAN packets from the CAN-bus. according to our research and investigations.g. such as DTCs and vital information from the engine. The Bluetooth connection should be usable for every commercial cellular phone on the market equipped with a Bluetooth service. Another module function is to hide specific protocol parts. The basis of our idea is as mentioned earlier to communicate between the CAN-bus and a commercial cellular phone located at the boat. The mobile device communicates with the back-end system using other functions on the same web service. During research concerning Bluetooth-to-CAN solutions. Further. i. handling of flow control and timing. The TWAG gateway makes it possible to fetch data from the CAN-bus and send it via Bluetooth. Modern cellular phones have no problem sending wanted information.g.1 CAN to Bluetooth This chapter explains how a Bluetooth link can be used in a remote diagnostic system and how it can enable access to all ECUs. via a Bluetooth link. e.g.e. The mobile device connects to the TWAG by Bluetooth and communicates over Internet via GPRS to a web server. were brought out. After a reverse encapsulation. The best way regarding to the possibility for future development and high transfer rates is to use a third-generation (3G) cellular phone. Bluetooth is a relatively inexpensive communication method where developments of low-price circuits are in progress. e. The problem was to find a solution which enables communication between the CAN-bus and a remote application. This implementation must be as cost-effective and reliable as possible in the leisure-boat environment which has vibrations and damp. a client application can reach the database and other services through the web server. This application could be either a web site or a PC application. On Board Diagnostics 2nd Generation (OBD2) and D2. Teleca have developed a gateway called Teleca Wireless Automotive Gateway (TWAG). 6. The Bluetooth-enabled cellular phone should capture these packets. 23 . The web server has database access. In collaboration with VP personnel. Next task will be to develop a cellular-phone software application that communicates with a remote user application. e. separate modules exist. In this chapter we give a short overview of this system and in the chapter conclusions we declare what we believe is the most suitable solution. an OBD2 request. encapsulate these packets into L2CAP layer of the Bluetooth and then transmit to the Bluetooth network.

1. Since future prospects of diagnosis are reading directly from the CAN-bus our study focuses on CAN communication only. The CAN-to-Bluetooth gateway is connected to CAN/J1939 and sends information from the boat through a commercial 3G cellular phone to a remote server.1 System picture We give an overview of the system picture of a Bluetooth remote diagnostic system.6. 6. One way is to send it in its original form and convert it to understandable information at the website. The remote server is furthering the information to a database server where all information is stored and made available for future use. A low-price gateway can be constructed by using a Bluetooth connection between the CAN-bus and an advanced mobile phone which can perform the necessary logic and connection to the back-end system through the Internet. All cellular phones have the same Bluetooth connection which makes it possible for all phones equipped with a Bluetooth link to communicate with the boat. Benefits of the last alternative are that information can be readable on the phone and there will also be less data traffic when selection of required data is made before transferring.1 Bluetooth The usage of Bluetooth entails problems concerning connection security and availability. including a CAN -to-Bluetooth gateway.2. near the Bluetooth station. Another alternative is to have data converted by the phone software or in the Bluetooth sender before it is forwarded to the web. Figure 6. A solution is to have a firm place for the phone. 24 .2 Result 6.1 System overview Today’s diagnosis use J1587/J1708 to request required information from the CAN-bus. remote server and a database server. A benefit of using Bluetooth is the communication standard. There are two ways to send the information. Bluetooth connectivity is not always trustable and can be affected when phones get out of range or if improper materials block the unit. One problem would be to convert the CAN-bus signals via Bluetooth to a cellular phone and make them understandable for the phone and the website.

We defined the core problem as how an RVD system should be used by the actors in a diagnosis and repair process. 6.Cellular phone using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) or 3G can easily download software and make phone updates. After some discussion concerning application usage and requirements a final proposal came up to us. We began to realize where the core problem was. The client could either be a stand-alone client application or a browser. An RVD system aims at simplifying the diagnostic work Figure 6. We initiated negotiations with Teleca about how we could evaluate a client interface for possible VP usage. Due to this realization the thesis changed focus one more time. The plan was to understand how diagnostic work takes place today with the purpose of finding the needs for all actors involved in repair work. we decided it was unnecessary to do the same work. the idea was to collaborate with Teleca.3 Conclusion Since development of a CAN-to-Bluetooth gateway already was in progress at Telica with expertise in the field. Instead.2 Levels of purposes with the new higher purpose of Increase the efficiency in diagnostic work 25 .

parameter log and ECU data increase the efficiency in service and repair work? Research concerning RVD is mostly concentrated to the technical aspects such as security and connectivity. What kind of need will an RVD system satisfy for Dealers? 2.e. where the local technician. local technician. What are important factors to make the organization (dealers. with the purpose of getting a more specific picture of the problem. From this data the technician can get a first picture of a possible cause of the problem. How can the RVD system be introduced to the aftermarket? 7. The following questions intend to identify the overall needs from the active participants in the diagnostic work and are answered in the chapter conclusion. Our ambition is to develop an idea or concept of how an RVD system should be designed to increase efficiency in the diagnostic work. What is relevant information to access when using an RVD system? 6. After previous research the main question finally was discernible: How can remote access to DTCs. 26 . The technician uses his knowledge to relate the symptoms experienced by the customer to a possible problem cause. During the further diagnostic work the dialog often continues. customers) use the system? 5. the engine and in some cases the customer are present.1 Diagnostic work today Service and repair of marine engines take place in workshops or boatyards. The diagnostic phase always starts by the local technician interviewing the customer to get the customers experience of the problem. What kind of need will an RVD system satisfy for Volvo Penta? 3. What kind of need will an RVD system satisfy for boat owners (End customers)? 4. The purpose of the work presented here is to find a suitable method for RVD of an engine in a marine leisure boat. central experts and customers [5]. What is the least expensive implementation? 7.7 METHOD FOR REMOTE DIAGNOSTICS This chapter gives a method proposal based on facts from literature studies and input from interviews and consultations. 1. and is not performed from the actual actors point of view i.

Figure 7. The overall diagnostic work is carried out through a large amount of collaboration between involved actors. often related to unrecognized problems with new engine models. the customers knowledge about boats.1. First. He has a central role in the diagnostic work and collaborates with the costumer. knowledge about the customers driving style. Quality Action Center (QAC) becomes involved to find a permanent solution for the specific problem. and the reliance on local knowledge i.1 and 7. This work is made in collaboration with Product Development (PU). the case is sent on to the Global Service Development (GSD) for further support.2 Collaboration between involved actors in Volvo Penta Organization The central actor in this chain of collaboration is the local technician. MU and CS. Three main aspects of these were: the importance of being co-located with each other and the boat. previous problems with a particular boat etc [5]. If they do not have a solution. Figure 7. In field studies with the purpose of discerning how marine diagnostic work of today can be improved by using remote diagnostic previous research revealed important details about how the actors involved collaborate in the repair work. These more complex problems. The importance of collaboration 27 . PU evaluates the changes and confirms that the new solution is reliable. In many cases a central expert has to travel to the spot for assistance. the importance of collaboration. 7. If many cases similar in nature occur. the reliability of the customers reports.e. se fig 7. the Market Unit (MU) takes on the case.1 Remote collaboration The revealed important aspects of collaboration in diagnostic work today are the following: 1. are forwarded to central experts at Customer Support (CS) at Volvo Penta headquarter. Co-located with each other and the boat 2.2. In some cases the cause cannot be found.1 Collaboration between participants of repair work [6].

The central expert does not have the same focus. indicates that a central expert does not have the local knowledge the local technician possesses. The idea that an engine can be repaired remotely is not going to be reality in a long time. To first send the information to the central expert and then forward this information to the local technician is a waste of time and a source of misunderstandings. The local technician can get a picture of the problem and prepare his work without physical contact with the boat. Technicians do not want too much information in the hand unit (PDA or cell phone). What the customer now experiences is a higher fuel consumption that not is desired. The central expert is more into taking care of the technical aspect of the engine e.g. The reliance on local knowledge We agree with the thought of using RVD to improve the collaboration of actors involved in diagnostic work.3. It is hard for the local technician to get any information that is useful by oral remote conversation with the boat owner. Often they are busy working and do not have time to evaluate large amounts of data. To enable remote access to diagnostic data for the local technician by e. To increase the collaboration an RVD system cerates possibilities in the following ways: • Remote Access to Diagnostic Data • Remote Collaboration with Customers • Remote Collaboration with the Central Expert Remote Access to Diagnostic Data Interviews indicate that 90% of all boat owners have no experience of engines or electronics what so ever and are completely hand out in situations of a failure. the customer having problem at startups when the engine is cold. The idea of sending information from boat to local technician’s cell phone or PDA when a new DTC is set in the engine is not an appreciated function. This concept is the opposite of the so-called centralized approach adopt by many vehicle manufacturer that advocate the central expert as a central unit. Earlier work [5]. When RVD is introduced the methods may be gradually advanced to a more centralized concept as a consequence of developments in the methods and technique. The decentralized way to introduce RVD is to keep the three main aspects of diagnostic work and to improve collaborations between the percipients. figure 8. He is more like a salesman who wants to satisfy the customer. The central expert increases the fuel injection and the engine starts easily. The argument for why the local technician should get the information is his local knowledge. To follow the decentralized concept with the local technician in focus is a suitable approach because of his central role and the importance of his contribution in diagnostic work. confirmed by our interviews. The local technician knows what the customer needs. In the end it is the local technician that makes the repair. They think the 28 . Remote Collaboration with Customers According to previous work [5] the possibilities for collaboration with the customer remotely would be beneficial.1 or PDA. The technician can also have benefits when he receives automatically sent DTCs from a boat. In this way major engine breakdowns can be prevented.g. He can then contact the customer and ask for his experience of the problem. a PCapplication. The thought of the centralized concept is that the central expert will take over much of the technician’s role in workshops. can improve the efficiency in the repair progress.

It is very important to get the right information in this mail. Our interviews indicate that the local technicians are very busy every day during boat season and most of their days include service work with other customers. The local technicians are skeptic to services like that. and can see all boat-specific data by use of a web portal. The technician knows this and can remotely make sure that certain parameters do not indicate that a DTC is about to be set in the boat. When this happens today the local technician tries to solve the problem sometimes without success. Remote Collaboration with the Central Expert New engine models often get problems that are unfamiliar to the local technician due to lack of experience and information. What kind of need will an RVD-system satisfy for Dealers? There is no problem in finding a technical solution for transferring data like DTCs and other parameters from the EVC system to a remotely located computer. special spare parts. and the central expert has to travel to the spot to get the required information. engine model.most important feature is to have the DTCs stored in an accessible database. The technician can get a picture of the problem based on the DTCs and parameters he requests via the RVD system. The obvious need is to perform the first diagnosis remotely and spare the first trip to the spot just to accomplish a first diagnosis. Technicians mean that the boat-specific data e. i.g. If a technician can be alerted when a certain DTC occurs at a specific engine make the boat owner comfortable and 29 . To reduce these trips can be very beneficial. The main problem is the system models and how a model should be designed to increase the efficiency in the service and repair work. Depending on the professional experience of the local technician.2 Conclusion 1. it is sensible to contact the customer to discuss the issue [5]. In [1] we can identify other benefits based on interviews with local technicians. He can be well prepared with the right tools and a plan for how to solve the problem when arriving at spot. Often there are misunderstandings. To be interrupted with services like this would make the ongoing work inefficient. If not successful he explains the situation by e-mail or discussions with central experts. An RVD system that automatically sends DTCs when they occur makes this possible. together with DTCs is very valuable information. 7. The central expert knows exactly what kind of engine they are talking about and it is easier to give the local technician a direct answer without travel. gear etc. They think it is best like it is today when the customer calls the technician when he/she has problem so they can discuss the problem. If so. the information relevance can vary. To send the DTCs together with specific engine data is the perfect solution for this problem. Now the technician gets access to the DTCs in the database. They do not know anything about the engine or engine model and this requires a trip to the spot to make this clear to the technician. Another case from previous research could be when a customer is about to go for a long trip shortly. Instead the technicians like the idea of be able to ask the customer to press the Diagnostic Transfer button.e. A mentioned benefit is the technician’s possibilities to follow up engines with problems. A common opinion by technicians is that an RVD system would be especially important to customers with no knowledge about engines at all. the composer of the mail.

In these cases it is in the customer’s highest interest that the boat really works properly at these times i. the feeling of security is very important. In some cases DTCs are generated by some one-time incident when a certain value gets outside a predefined scope in the EVC system. In these situations one can reset the DTC by turning of the voltage to the EVC system. weekends or holidays. 4.e. According to the interviews. Based on studies [8]. When a leisure boat has an average run hour of 50 h/year it is understandable that the owner does not want any engine downtime at all. Second. The diagnostic work of today is in fact all about collaboration between the actors involved. Otherwise something can easily go wrong. 3. An RVD system can satisfy this need when the customer knows that he/she always have access to professional help by pressing a Diagnostic Transfer button. What kind of need will an RVD system satisfy for VP? In our research to find an RVD system we established contact to Jonas Kuschel. Based on his work we reject the idea of a centralized approach to the problem. Often the boat is used in afternoons. the uptime of the engine is very important. In studies it is clearly documented that none of these actors can solve the problems by his own. Third.e. In the future the system may well be used for remote upgrades and parameter settings all without travel. A feeling of not be able to realize an action like this make the customer doubtful about the whole system. What are important factors to make the organization (dealers. When customer knows that he/she can transfer all DTCs from the boat to the technician without having any knowledge at all of the boat it is a good feeling for the customer. which the local technician does not have knowledge of. we do not think the centralized idea will be realized. To convince those customers to use an RVD system requires simplicity i. i. not more than one single button to press if needed. The centralized idea concerns a vision of letting the RVD replace the service technicians in the workshops.some problems with new engine models. If the customer has to go through a complicated procedure to send the information he/she will feel unsure if he/she can remember this in a situation. The need from VP point of view is not to save money by reducing the number of local technicians with a RVD system but to reduce travels made by local technicians and central experts. Instead of waiting for a busy technician to arrive at the spot and perform this procedure. the customer sends the DTCs to the technician and with his guidance the customer can solve the problem himself. it must be easy to use. What kind of need will a RVD-system satisfy for End Consumer? When a boat owner uses his leisure boat it is in most cases for recreational use. could also be more easily identified using an RVD system. His research field is similar to ours and he helped us a lot during our research. customers) use the system? An important factor for the customer to use the system is. simply because the local technician seems to play such an important role in the diagnostic work. at first that is worth the money invested in the system. the local technicians and the central experts.e. easy to use. 2. at least not in the near future. In these cases an RVD system can save days of downtime and frustration. PhD student at the IT-university of Gothenburg. the customer. the feeling of safety is important to the customer. An RVD system could reduce the downtime during boat season by improving the collaboration between the customer and the local technician and in that way make the repair work more effective. For the customer the purpose of an RVD system is mainly to maximize the uptime. The only thing 30 .

To reduce these trips can be very beneficial. the only demands are enough of memory capacity. They think the most important is to have the DTCs stored in an accessible database. An important factor to have the technicians use the system is of course that it makes the work more effective. What is relevant information to access when using an RVD system? According to information from our interviews. How can the RVD system be introduced to the aftermarket? This problem has its origin in the lack of interest when the market does not see any use for an RVD service. just press a button and the technician has all technical information he needs. Often they are busy working and do not have time to evaluate large amounts of data. they do not see the system as a help in their daily work.g. Based on the fact that everything that adds to the production cost of an engine e. 7. Now the technician gets access to the DTCs in the database. The benefit of this system is that the cell phone is re-programmable with software updates. The cell phone has the software to forward the data via GPRS to Internet and the database. 6. only the software in the cell phone. 5.g. The cell phone is also replaceable i. gear etc.e. According to the interviews we found out that every dealer was very skeptic to the system when the question of cost was mentioned. If the technician in some way can be convinced of the advantage of using an RVD system and observant of that it really works the doubtful thoughts will disappear. This can be done by downloading the new files by the GSM network or by connecting the phone to a computer and downloading the files. engine model. The idea is that the customer calls up the technician when he/she has problem similar to today’s cause of action. They discuss the problem and the local technician asks the customer to press the Diagnostic Transfer button. He/She does not have to worry about giving a lot of information about the boat if a failure occurs. Our idea is to carry out as much hardware and software as possible from the engine. The prices for similar systems are high. hardware associated to an RVD system becomes exceedingly more expensive to the end customer. Local technicians see this idea as one more electronic system that causes a lot of problems. special spare parts. There is no need to change anything at the boat. we had to come up with some idea that requires minimum implementation to production. low price for the RVD system. The BT stack has to be initiate only once to be able to forward information from the EVC system to a cell phone placed at the dashboard or somewhere nearby. What is the least expensive implementation? We have come to a conclusion about a least expensive system. and second. together with DTCs is very valuable information. They do not know anything about the engine or engine model and this require a trip to the spot to make this clear to the technician.the customer has to care about after buying the boat is to use it. GPRS and Bluetooth connection. Technicians mean that the boat specific data e. By connecting a Bluetooth (BT) stack to the diagnose connection or directly to the CAN-bus we minimize the addition of parts. there is no restriction to a special brand or model. and can se all boat specific data. They do not want to pay anything for the system. If there would be something more cost- 31 . technicians do not want too much information in the hand unit (PDA or cell phone). We can se that the least expensive solution is to use techniques used by the public that are well established. To implement a cell phone already known by many customers is both reliable and inexpensive in comparison to other built-in systems. The technicians mean that an RVD system would be especially important to customer with no knowledge about engines at all.

effective and easy to use there would be a market. To bind the customers to VP and create a genuine relationship is a tremendous win. Most of the local technicians think it is best like it is today why the introduction most not be radical. and the sale of spare parts is a large part of a manufacturer income. The aftermarket is the major time of the engine lifetime. This would lead to more effective repairs. 32 . In some way they have to be convinced that the system stands for improvement of parts of their work. A key factor for aftermarket introduction is to make the changes in steps and on a small scale. In this way the system can be tested. They can be some kind of “super” dealers with special benefits from VP. In this way hopefully other dealers will have their eyes opened for the system. Our suggestion is to give the system to local technicians that are interested in the service and recompensate them in some way. evaluated and further developed.

increase the efficiency in diagnostic work. 33 . 8. The remote server’s task is to translate the data and forward it to the intended place. The cellular phone receives data from the CAN-BT gateway and forwards the same data to the Remote Server (2) via GSM/GPRS. used by local technicians or central experts. Remote Agent.e. The driver of the boat can initiate the diagnostic by pressing a button to send diagnostic data. The Remote Agent consists of a CAN-to-BT gateway and a Bluetooth-equipped cellular phone.8 REMOTE-DIAGNOSTIC EXAMPLES The first part of this chapter presents the system design developed according to results of chapter 5. The Internet/PC Application is the user interface from the other side of the system. We present the overall system design and also four different models of short-range communication between the CAN bus and a Bluetooth cell phone. The Remote Sever contains the system intelligence. from the Remote Agent or the Internet/PC application.1 System design with the Remote Agent (1). The user of the application can receive information from the boat and can also make requests of parameters if needed. Figure 8. The scenarios are worked out in discussions with our supervisor and personnel at VP and describe situations that have high frequency of occurrence today.1 System Design The system design comprises four separate parts. It is central to reduce travels of central experts and local technicians and also the satisfy needs from customers and the other part of the organization. Remote Server (2). 6 and 7. Database Server (3) and the Internet/PC application (4). The later part present a scenario of today followed by five scenarios were our model for RVD is applied. The scenario objectives are to show how the system satisfies the needs presented in previous chapters i. Database Server and the Internet/PC Application. The Remote Agent (1) is the interface between the boat and the rest of the system. Remote Server.e. The diagnostic can be initiated from both ends i. The Remote Server (2) acts like a middleware between the Internet/PC Application (4) and the Database Server (3) and also between the Internet/PC Application and the Remote Agent.

Model 1 Bluetooth dongle connected on the Sync cable. Figure 8.2 CAN-BT Gateway implementation This chapter presents the best models of implementation of a CAN-BT gateway on a VP leisure boat engine. • • Access to one drive line only (-) Easy access (+) Model 3 Bluetooth dongle connected to diagnostic connector J1587 communication. Model 2 Bluetooth dongle connected to PCU-Engine cable CAN communication. The models have been developed in collaboration with personnel at VP and focus on low implementation cost and few additional devices. • • Access to both drive lines (both Chassi ID) (+).8. 34 .2 Bluetooth dongle connected on the Sync cable. Figure 8.3 Bluetooth dongle connected to PCU-Engine cable CAN communication. Hard to access (-).

Figure 8. Figure 8. Bluetooth to mobile phone.Diagnostic today Boat X is located close to the home marina.3 Scenarios Scenario 1 . The owner of boat X uses to engage workshop Y for service and repair work. often the owner. The driver of the boat. The diagnostic work starts with the local technician communicating orally with the customer to find out the experienced problem from 35 .5 VODIA connected to diagnostic connector. Boat X generates a DTC that is indicated at the instrument panel. Bluetooth to mobile phone. contacts the local technician at Y. • Access to one drive line only(-) • Easy access (+) 8. A VP dealer workshop Y is located in connection to the marina. • Access to one drive line only (-) • Easy access (+) Model 4 VODIA connected to diagnostic connector.4 Bluetooth dongle connected to diagnostic connector J1587 communication.

and repairing the engine to a satisfying recovery. Customer Initiate. and hopefully an idea of the “cause” without any travels. The diagnostic work continues by finding the cause. such as DTCs and EVC data. A VP dealer workshop Y is located in connection to the home marina. Now all information concerning the specific serial number is stored in databases available for later work and is also available if more problems appear concerning the same boat. not necessarily solved by the same service technician. The local technician gets oral information about the experienced problem from the customer. “what” the problem is. Figure 8. If needed the technician can request parameters and perform real-time checks of the engine to investigate the problem even more. From now the diagnostic work continues as usual with the technician either visiting the boat or bringing the boat to the workshop. far from marina Boat X is used during holiday and is located far from the home marina. Data evaluation together with his local knowledge gives the technician a picture of the problem and an idea of the cause.Remote Diagnostic. The driver of the boat. give the technician a first picture of the problem.the customer point of view. 36 . correcting it. Next step is to get in contact with the boat. Scenario 3 . After evaluation of the technical data together with the technician’s local knowledge a large step in the diagnostic work is completed i.e. information that is important for the local technician for faster and more effective work. He then asks the customer to press the Diagnostic Transfer button. often the owner. is now transferred and stored in a file related to boat X. When it is time for the repair work appointment. The customer normally has forgotten details from the incident. The owner of boat X uses to engage workshop Y for service and repair work. The information concerning boat X. Scenario 2 . The data from the boat. This is done either by visiting the boat or by bringing the boat to the workshop. The owner of boat X uses to engage workshop Y for service and repair work. often some time has passed. A VP dealer workshop Y is located in connection to the marina. together with new DTCs. Customer Initiate. close to marina Boat X is located close to the home marina. contacts the local technician at Y.6 Scenario picture with boat close to home marina Boat X generates a DTC that is indicated at the instrument panel. Now the technician connects a VODIA and gets access to the engine data. The technician can log on to the web application and access the database. In cases where problems cannot be solved by remote conversation and guidance from the local technician a service appointment can be made.Remote Diagnostic.

The information concerning boat X. The driver of the boat contacts the local technician at Y. The operator then asks the customer to press the Diagnostic Transfer button and to wait for further information about what dealer to choose for the repair work. He finds the boat by the received chassi-ID. If the local technician is contacted he can find the nearest dealer in the area and have an opportunity to explain the situation and also give the nearest dealer the chassi-ID for the boat.Figure 8. The technician then asks the customer to press the Diagnostic Transfer button. ideas of “what” the problem is and hopefully an idea of the “cause” without travel. If needed the technician can request parameters and perform real time check of the engine to investigate the problem even more.7 Scenario picture when boat owner is located far from marina Boat X generates a DTC that is indicated on the instrument panel. The diagnostic work starts with the local technician communicating orally with the customer to find out about the experienced problem from the customer point of view. The owner of boat X usually engages Y for boat service and repair work. After data evaluation a large part of the diagnostic work is done without travel. 37 . The local technician/Action Center gets oral information about the experienced problem from the customer. Now all information concerning the specific serial number are stored in databases available for later work and is also available if more problems appears concerning the same boat. The customer normally has forgotten details from the incident. together with new DTCs give the technician a first picture of the problem. When it is time for the repair work appointment. By evaluation of data together with local knowledge from the technician a major part of the diagnostic work is done i.e. together with new DTCs give the technician a first picture of the problem. i. an idea of “what” the problem is. The driver of the boat. Scenario 4 – dealer far from water. The nearest local technician can now log on to the web application and access the database. If needed the technician can request parameters and perform real-time checks of the engine to investigate the problem further. If the problem can not be solved by remote conversation and guidance from the local technician a service appointment can be made. The information concerning the boat X. not necessarily solved by the same service technician. Boat X generates a DTC that is indicated at the instrument panel. From now the diagnostic work continues as usual where the technician either visiting the boat or bringing the boat to the workshop. The technician can now log on to the web application and access the database. often some time has passed. no boatyard A VP dealer workshop Y is located far from water and has neither a boatyard nor any facilities for keeping boats in the workshop. and hopefully an idea of the “cause”. contacts the local technician at Y or Volvo Penta Action Center. The data from the boat such as DTCs and EVC-data is now transferred and stored in a file related to boat X. information that is important for the local technician for working faster and more effective.e. The data from the boat such as DTCs and EVC data is now transferred and stored in a file related to boat X.

that is by knowing that professional help is only a button away.4. lower travel costs.Remote Diagnostic.4. By improving safety and reliability in the boat. the possibility for a specific dealer to bind a customer.2 Local Technician/Dealer The dealer’s benefits in scenarios 1 to 5 are. 8.Remote Diagnostic. central expert and customer clearly benefit by using an RVD system. give the local technician a chance to prepare and maybe repair the engine at the first appointment. Scenario 6 .3 Central Expert The central experts get more detailed background data. local technician. Initiate by Central expert Workshop Y is making a service on Boat X.4. Initiate by local technician Workshop Y has made a service on Boat X. With a database with information about the specific boat decrease the chance of misunderstandings in the collaboration between the actors in the diagnostic work. in first hand. The central expert has deep technical knowledge about the engine and he also gets access to all necessary information. 8. The local technician requests the relevant parameters from his office by an internet application and the parameters are displayed in real-time at the screen. 8. In collaboration with the customer the local technician make realtime checks of the engine when it is operating in its natural environment.1 Boat owner/Customer The key factors for the boat owner in the scenarios is maximized engine uptime and also the increased safety and the feeling of been taken care of. Secondly. The central expert can give more complete advices without 38 . but also less waste of valuable time when the first diagnosis can be made remotely. He has possibilities to follow up engines in a better way when all specific data are stored in a map related to a specific engine. The possibility to access information such as DTCs and engine parameters.Scenario 5 . The central expert request necessary parameters remotely and can now support the local technician. 8.4 Benefits The actors in the diagnostic work e.g. When the local technician saves data related to a boat and its owner in his database he has a chance to improve the business relationship by provide more and better services. The local technician is interested in the engine behavior after the service. The local technician contacts the central expert and explains the situation. The central expert logs in at the Internet application from his office computer. The local technician has a problem finding the cause of the problem. the boat owner can enjoy his boat usage to maximum.

The boat builder company is just about to finish up a boat for delivery. There is also possible to make statistics of all kind of engine history. cell phone. The Market Unit gets in contact with the Customer Support (CS) and the Global Service Development (GSD). connects his Vodia and initiates diagnostic of the engine.g. A boat builder representative contacts the closest VP dealer and explains the situation. Another typical critical situation can be as following example. With other words. the buyers of a VP engine are in great need of fast and qualified support if a problem occurs.K Market Unit and explains the situation. GSD gets the information and sends a VP technician to solve the problem. problems with related action. When a boat builder signs a business contract to use VP engines in their boats they expect quality. The technician has about 400 km traveling one way. otherwise an action can be planned in a simple and creative way. Without improvement after sensor replacement. The dealer has to interrupt his work and try to get as much information as possible by phone to make a preliminary diagnose. People or companies who invest in an exclusive boat have big demands on usage whenever he/she wants to. If a problem occurs there must be help available in a short matter of time. EVC software and parameter settings. He takes his service devices and drives the 100 km to the site. The VP dealer contacts the VP U. GSD is responsible for the technical support and warranty matters. With information from the database for the specific boat a problem can be easier to detect and will lead to a faster solution for the problem. When they find an engine problem close to deadline and shipping they are in greatest need of professional help from VP to be able to deliver a quality boat on appointed time. Hopefully the problem is easy to correct and can be made by the builder himself. When the engine test-drive is made a problem occurs. In England Volvo Penta have contract with four major boat builders. The boat builder company is just about to finish up a new build boat. 8. Volvo Penta U. which means that important information can be lost. The boat builder company contacts Volvo Penta Europe and explains the situation to a central expert.5 Further RVD scenarios Further examples are meant to give a picture of how an RVD system could work in a daily usage of diagnostic and repair work. When the Volvo Penta technical engineer has the picture clear to him he contacts the boat builder and gives him his opinion. The buyer wants the yacht to be shipped to his dock in the Mediterranean. and wait for further contact after the data is transferred. After evaluation VP personnel can come up with a solution for the problems. A typical critical situation can be as follows. A truck is going to load the yacht in four days from this time. Otherwise. That means 800 km two 39 . This is especially usable with new engine models. the engine in the boat does not start.traveling to spot. Suddenly. Downtime for workboats can in most cases mean a huge loss of income for the owner.K headquarter is placed in London. The central expert asks the boat builder to connect his transfer device e. the problem can lead to claims or in worst case a notice of cancellation of the contract. which use new VP engines controlled by EVCsystems in their boats. The technician is the third part in the information flow. After a data evaluation he realizes the problem to be an injection sensor indicate an error (but the real problem is a blockage in a hose connection which brings out the sensor error). The Volvo Penta personnel can now display the history of the boat including DTCs. The possibility of qualified service in short time is also a main issue to decrease downtimes for end customers.

Another example where RVD could be useful is when a train due to start up its 20 brand new engines and they do not start. This scenario could be avoided if the technician had used a remote diagnostic tool to find out that the fuel tank was empty and contacted the personal on place to fuel up.ways plus overnight costs. When the tanks are filled up the engines start up perfectly. When the technician arrives he realizes the problem is that the engines are out of fuel. and he maybe finds something more that needs to be replaced or corrected that results in an even longer delay. 40 . Volvo Penta sends a technician to find the problem at a cost of 20 000 Swedish crowns for traveling and 5000 for accommodation.

signal processing. instrument and other surrounding equipments.e. That fact can lead to lower travel avoidance than predicted.1.1.1 Cost of implementation This chapter does not include a full economic analysis. the overall opinion among dealers is that RVD usage in daily work will simplify and speed up lot of work with remotely located customers. telematic hardware and not the surrounding accessories e. gaining efficiencies. etc. 9. However.g. training. and provide a source for product quality improvement. However. 41 . Changes would include: • Changes to organization.9 MARKETING Marketing research can be used to evaluate the acceptability of a product or a service and to find out its worth. sensors. personnel. reducing cost. Loyal customers lead to increased revenues and also result in cost savings for warranty. underlying decisions need to be made about what the purposes are for an RVD system at VP. We give a short overview of an approximated cost of implementation for a number of telematic systems considered in chapter 5 and 6. 9. RVD could have the potential to improve results by e.2 Solution details This section discusses aspects of changes related to system implementation. To market an RVD system. Hardware cost/unit SeaKey CANSAS PRO CAN/Bluetooth GSM modem 2 000 $ 4 000 $ 100 $ 150 $ Cost of implementation involves prices for communication parts i. interviews with dealers and local technicians indicate that deficient information may lead to the necessity of being present at spot and performing supplementary diagnostic anyway. 9.1 Economy measure 9. customizing service and attracting and retaining customers.g.2 Cost saving The introduction of an RVD system will in first hand reduce travel costs.

The reason why we believe the training of local technicians would not be a costly process is because it is in their own interest to undertake RVD to simplify their work. i. Customer demands for the product are obvious and it will be the supplier of the best product that will have the most profit. all kind of 42 . Figure 9. Within the organization there would be a whole new way to follow up the engines and get all kind of information for specific engines. The database could then be described as a “virtual engine”.3 Risk Management In the near future experts forecast a legalization of all actors to produce and sell RVD systems for readout of engine data. A better solution would be to concentrate on what to do with the information. • Changes to surrounding systems.• Changes to processes.e. We believe VP needs a RVD expert since further development and continuously follow up are necessary. A database like this could be a tremendous source for a lot of participant. There will be a market value in the database. By discussions with dealers and VP personnel we confirmed that giving training and experience in remote diagnostics for technician and personnel would neither take much time nor be a costly process. and fast have advantage. 9. A standard protocol will be set and all engine manufactures have to follow it. All data which been taken out would be stored in a database belonging to VP. with data stored from all outtakes that have been done. This will be a natural result of an anti-trust law that allows all actors to have access to manufactures engine data. This eliminate the data out take since once the information is stored at a central database the information is accessible for every authorized person.1 VP engine equipped with Telematic Box with standardized interface Since VP´s core business is making engines at good standard they will not have a change against producers with RVD as core business. servers and other data communication equipments. The manufacture that offers the best product will be the market leader. The ambitions when implementing RVD are not to change any supporting systems but would be a simplifying complement for existing systems. A large number of telematic manufactures will enter the market and they will concentrate at the RVD only. Something that we not further investigate in this report is the development in VPPN for making RVD services available at the web-portal including databases.

Project GSD .Technical support .5 Business Emission 43 .2 Engine data stored in a virtual vehicle by using RVD In this case a leading telematic manufacture holds his position.statistic.CS QAC . Figure 9.4 Volvo Penta Head Quarter Customer Support .MU International Dealers United States Dealers Asia Dealers Europe Dealers 9. but the benefit of selling licenses will be the argument [14]. engine and market related data could be taken out for a cash-and-carry price. Marin & Industry Market Unit .Installation Training .Quality . VP still has a small part at the market.Warranty SAM&I . Different kinds of licenses or applications for specific purpose can be sold. 9.Education QAC – Quality Action Center GSD – Global Service Development SAM&I – Sales. Application.

Since safety and reliability is hard to translate into cost and savings. whether the services will appeal to the customer or whether the customer will pay for the services. We work with energy. safety and environmental care. RVD services are not likely to be an income for VP by providing the market with RVD systems. but benefit will be in improvement of quality and service without larger expenses. the importance of using an RVD system is hard to bring forth in the economic analysis. The profit is in providing new service possibilities and in giving the customer a feeling of being taken care of.6 Conclusions The main factor is not the economic profit made by supplying the market with RVD systems. passion. and respect for the individual. The service also creates possibilities for better and faster services by reducing travels.g. A few issues are still to be unresolved."Volvo Penta supplies technically advanced engines and power systems to demanding customers in selected marine and industrial segments. 44 . Our products and services shall generate competitive advantages for our customers and provide end users with superior reliability and performance." 9. Our business operations shall contribute to an increased volume base and profitability for the industrial operations of the Volvo Group. Our product and service offering is designed in the spirit of customer orientation and Volvo’s core values – quality. e.

10. This is a way to find systems with lasting functions. The system could compare current problem with earlier repair works and making a proposal for preventive repairs. As we mentioned before. To continue investigation and getting closer to a complete product questions like cost of implementation and development comparing to economically profit must be answered. warranties cost could greatly be reduced by eliminate unseen mistakes that lead to future warranties. Today SWDL is illegal.2 Future visions Our future vision of a perfect RVD system is an automatic diagnose system for all VP engines giving technicians direct instructions of current problem without involvement of personal judging. Before a boat is delivered to a customer. We have brought out certain future applications. 10.10 FUTURE WORK The telematic market has high expectations and desires for Remote diagnostic systems [4]. Sea trails could be progressed with an RVD system by making a check after the boat have settled away from the dealer. To make progress of these services a gradually development of prototypes by trail and error principle should be made. By including RVD systems at Sea trial.1 Future Applications An RVD system could enable following useful applications: • • • • Log Vessel Data (LVD) Sea trials Engine tests SoftWare DownLoad (SWDL) Regular readings of engine data saved in a database are a good information source for evaluation and development purposes. A future RVD system could also be used for preventive measuring to avoid future failure. 45 . the technique is available for developing of a systems that meet our requirements. This could dramatically change diagnostic works and problem solving concerning engine systems. a procedure called Sea trials is performed where the engine is checked to make sure everything works properly. but in a future with better communication possibilities and regulations an SWDL service could be very useful to reduce travels for work that could be performed remotely.

We believe that a customer who feels taken care of and who at the same time is a participant in the repair work feels more comfortable. they focus either on satisfying customer needs or on advanced engine diagnostic for R&D. We have listened to dealers’ ideas. The introduction of an RVD system that leads to faster services. That limitation could be avoided with a well developed and widely spread system which offers the necessary security and stability that customers want. GSM communication is preferable over satellite communication because there is often a need for oral communication between local technicians and customers during the repair work. Even if a remote diagnostic system is faultless in a technical way it would not fulfill its purpose unless it is design to fit in the diagnostic work as it takes place today. both when is comes to equipment and to data traffic. 46 . To find an answer for these questions we could not only take the technical aspects into consideration.. Our experience from this work is that a problem often has more than one side. When we tried to find system within our requirements we discovered that no suitable system exists.. safety and environmental care. A major task was to find the right purpose and arrive at a research question. By doing that we could formulate research questions with the purpose to find needs from the participants in diagnostic work. A good way to increase service and quality is to make progress in RVD development and become first ahead in marine engine industry to enable RVD. already existing RVD system for implementation on a VP boat engine. We suggest that RVD should be offered as an important part of a safety and security package and by that increase engine values aiming at the Volvo core values. The system must be as cheap and reliable as possible and also easy to use. The performance and local knowledge possessed by the local technicians have been the base for our investigation. An unreliable service cannot be sold to a customer. The study was then refocused to the daily work of diagnostic instead of searching for existing RVD systems. thoughts and reflections on the potential benefits of RVD systems. We argue that the GSM network of today is a suitable communication link for our system design. reduced engine down time and increased customer awareness can lead to larger available customer groups.g. Increase the efficiency in diagnostic work. The existing systems were all developed for other purposes than the one we had in mind i. These segments have complete different economical demands than our system which aiming the aftermarket. The initial research purpose did not seem very complicated: The goal was to find a suitable. where dealer does not has the technology available or if the dealer is not skilled enough to use the system. We have understood that the most important factor for retaining customers is customer satisfaction. An important outcome of our investigation is that customers would decline paying for an RVD service.11 CONCLUSIONS Volvo Penta´s purpose is to sell top class marine engines with high quality. Another reason is that it is a cheaper way to communicate. e. Finally we identified the highest level of purpose as. Another reason why payment liability should be separated from the customer is that dealers do not always have the possibility to use the service. To improve customer loyalty it is important to listen to the customers and find out what they believe is important factors. The importance of customer loyalty and the fact that customers will decline paying for an RVD system gave us economical and functional requirements for the technical aspect.e. especially in the early stage development when the service would be invisible to the customer. This important understanding made us consider what the purpose of our project really was. quality. To improve business there is always an effort to satisfying customer needs as well as improving customer loyalty by making services more efficient.

In our research we found out the process of diagnostic work and identified factors that could be improved in order to simplify work. Next important step was to make a profound investigation to find needs from all participants in the diagnostic process that also is intended users i. A perfect place is Spain. Most of the previous research in field of remote diagnostic is in high grade focused on the technical aspects of wireless communication. This contributes to long distance travels for central experts when problems occur by the coastline. The system does not require a lot of changes but can simply be attach to the EVC system without lots of additional coasts in fabrication. central experts. By this we found a solution fitting economical requirements and the use of well established techniques made the system user friendly.The results present a way for the participants to collaborate remotely instead of being present at the same geographical location. where the VP headquarters is located in Madrid. Third will be done by improve local activity i. 47 . The problem lay in a whole other dimension.e. customers and also other part of organization such as R&D. When system and procedure has been brought to maturity it will hopefully result in increasing efficiency in diagnostic work by making a joint venture where collaboration between all participants in diagnostic work is the core issue. Central experts can by international collaboration find solutions for different problems.e. We successively understood more why there is no RVD system at the market today that is designed for remote diagnostic. Demands for those dealers are both interest in the new system and that they are located in areas where the benefits can be obvious. improve the dealer-customer service. As repay the chosen “super dealers” could get advantages and extra support. Why a business plan is exclude from the report is the difficulty to make an entirely costs analysis of such a wide scope. Initial goal of this project was to make a business plan which we did not accomplish. We realized this is the major problem. local technicians. The work finally results in an idea of how to get the system out on the market and use its entire potential. see appendix 1. Due to the many participants there were many different needs to consider in order satisfying all parties. Everything in diagnostic work is about collaboration between the participants. By using the system VP takes advantage of special in-house competence with reduced travels as result. We found it would be very hard to introduce a system that is perfect in a technical way when the needs from the intended users are not yet identified. otherwise serious feedback is hard to get and system development will slow down. beginning by providing a selected number of dealers with the RVD system.1. by adopt daily techniques. The dealer will provide his customers with RVD systems and make his own customers network. A result of this work was that we found a solution that took those needs in consideration and result in a system that not is permanently attached to the engine. The launch should be made in three steps. Another approach that was in consideration was the cost aspect. The idea of bring out as much as possible of the system from the boat and use well known and establish technique is a success. The most important result of our work is the success of finding the right purpose that was totally unknown from the beginning. In chapter 7 we identify the needs from the most important participants and have this in consideration when the final system design is presented in chapter 8. The first step is to make clear how the diagnostic work taking place today. se figure 7. far from coast. Second step will be to use even more of the system potential by save information about engine problems in a database accessible from client connected to VPPN. The importance of interest is critical.

and compare performance or display other wanted information. A reason to install an RVD system could be to increase the value of a boat. 48 .1 Vision Our vision of a future RVD system is centered in the VP organization with an installation of an RVD system in every leisure boat equipped with a VP engine. An ambition is to give product developers the ability to use a system application as a tool for comparing engines or to implement other useful features. Remote software upgrades make it possible to install new software wherever the engine is settled e. In a future vision. in power generators located in remote places or in rough environments where it is hard to reach the engine. a future RVD system needs to be reliable. The tool can search for engines from the same production year. The software structure should similar Vodia software. with more developed services and better contracts for claims of several reporting systems (basic check or claim report). We believe an introduction of RVD to VP engine systems will reduce the number of unpleased customer at the sellers. As we mentioned earlier the main factor for satisfying a customer is to increase safety and reliability in boat performance.g. working hours etc. This information leads to better support and investigation possibilities of marine engines. We believe the only way to make a customer willing to pay for an RVD service is to make him feel safe and well taken care of. An application for upgrade engine software remotely is technically possible with an RVD system. by making them less involved with problem solving and instead more concerned about selling. To make a customer safe. location. By that it is possible to reduce outlay for software constructions and upgrades. These customers will instead make contact directly to a dealer or the action service. A loyal customer leads to increased revenues for VP. This will be a benefit for the seller. An application like this could be used for correcting software bugs by releasing software upgrade campaigns. required payment could be an income for VP.11. combined with the already known VPPN network web-portal. Future usage of RVD is meant to be working in combination with VPPN cause of dealers’ familiarity to VPPN information and service web portal.

J. Marttala.30. et al.com (s6) 8.. 5. Nationalencyklopedin. Gothenburg.frost. A. Lund 1998 3. 40275 Göteborg. http://www. Practical Self-diagnosing AUVs. Å. Sweden.1 Personal references 14. IT University. Box 8718. et al. Blue-Collar Ubicomp in the Vehicle Industry.waymaker. Application Development Group.co. 0707-141510 49 . SeeByte Ltd.31) 6.volvo.networkcar.htm(s20) 10. 4. Kuschel. Box 8718. K. Rapporter och uppsatser.uk/VolvoOwnership/OnCall/About. Networkcar a Raynold and Raynold Company http://www. Lund 1999 2.se/bitonline/2001/09/10/20010910BIT00330/09100033. Hamilton. J. How it works. Karlsson. Frost & Sullivan's Analysis Of The European Remote Vehicle Diagnostics Market http://www. Kuschel.com/networkcar/pub/remotediagnostics(s7) 13. May 2002.com/volvopenta/na/en-us/partsservice/customer_care/seakey(s22) 12.nationalencyklopedin. Remote Diagnostics. http://nweb. OnCall http://www. Studentlitteratur.se(s6) 9. http://www. et al.com 12. SeaKey http://www. (s28. Projektboken: Metod och Styrning för Lyckade Projekt. Backman. Allied Business Intelligence. Department of Applied IT. Application Development Group. Studentlitteratur.29.htm(s21) 11. Global telematics. VOLVO ON CALL.volvocars. Decentralized Remote Diagnostics: A Study of Diagnostics in the Marine Industry. (2002).global-telematics. 40275 Göteborg(s28) 7. The Digital Car “Dynamic Player Roles and Business Models in the Telematics Value Chain". et al. Jonas Kuschel.12 References 1.. F. A. Department of Applied IT. Ljungberg.

Appendix 1 1 .

2 .

3 .

4 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful