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Evaluation of the impact on the wider community and economy
One North East March 2007
Staggering school hours in the North East
Evaluation of the impact on the wider community and economy
Project No: 128191 March 2007 Newcombe House 45 Notting Hill Gate, London, W11 3PB Telephone: 020 7309 7000 Fax: 020 7309 0906 Email : London@cbuchanan.co.uk
Prepared by: ____________________________________________ Nathalie Gay Status: draft Issue no: 1
Approved by: ____________________________________________ John Siraut Date: 4/8/2011
(C) Copyright Colin Buchanan and Partners Limited. All rights reserved. This report has been prepared for the exclusive use of the commissioning party and unless otherwise agreed in writing by Colin Buchanan and Partners Limited, no other party may copy, reproduce, distribute, make use of, or rely on the contents of the report. No liability is accepted by Colin Buchanan and Partners Limited for any use of this report, other than for the purposes for which it was originally prepared and provided. Opinions and information provided in this report are on the basis of Colin Buchanan and Partners Limited using due skill, care and diligence in the preparation of the same and no explicit warranty is provided as to their accuracy. It should be noted and is expressly stated that no independent verification of any of the documents or information supplied to Colin Buchanan and Partners Limited has been made
Staggering school hours in the North East Evaluation of the impact on the wider community and economy
1 Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Methodology 1.3 Report structure 2 Policy Framework 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The education system in England 2.3 Education policy context 2.4 Travel to school 2.5 Education in the North East 2.6 Conclusion 3 Education in Europe 3.1 Background 3.2 Educational structure 3.3 Female labour force statistics 3.4 Conclusion 4 Literature review findings 4.1 Introduction Adaptation of school hours to the changing socio-economic context 4.2 Changing the organisation of school times for educational reasons 4.3 Homework - In school or out-of school 4.4 Childcare, affordability and employment 4.5 Crime, anti-social behaviour and security 4.6 Travelling in daylight hours 4.7 School transport issues 4.8 School transport costs 4.9 Extended school day in the north east 4.10 Other implications of staggering school opening hours 5 Conclusions and recommendations 5.1 Why stagger school hours 5.2 Extended school day 5.3 Wider impacts of staggering school hours 5.4 Difficulties linked to changing school hours 5.5 Recommendations Appendix A- Bibliography General United Kingdom France 38 Switzerland Italy 39 Germany Spain 41 Netherlands United States APPENDIX B – Time agencies Introduction Role And Main Activities Examples Appendix C: Types of school in England Introduction State Schools Mainstream Schools
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 6 8 8 8 13 14 16 16 18 19 21 22 24 25 25 28 29 31 33 33 34 34 35 36 37 37 37 39 40 42 42 44 44 44 44 46 46 46 46
Staggering school hours in the North East Evaluation of the impact on the wider community and economy
Special Schools Other State-Funded Schools Independent Schools Provision For Children Aged Under Five
47 47 48 48
Table 2.1: Table 3.1: Trips to and from School 1999-2001 Comparative labour market statistics
Figure 4.1: Figure 4.2: Socio-economic implications of the organisation of school time Role of extended schools in the community
Colin Buchanan was commissioned by One North East to undertake a literature review into the impact of staggering school opening hours on the wider community and economy. Staggering school hours refers to changing the start and end times but keeping overall school opening and teaching hours constant. However, this report also discusses the wider implications of school hours in general, including out-ofschool-hours childcare facilities and extended school opening hours.
The study is a literature review using resources such as Google Scholar and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences. The structure of the literature search was to identify and record: National, regional and local policy on school opening times; Provision of school based services outside core school hours; In countries where schools tend to finish around midday commentary on activities undertaken in the afternoon; The first round impact of these variations in school hours in terms of school transport, participation in pre and post school activities, crime/antisocial behaviour, children’s employment and road safety; and The second round impacts in the local community on working hours, opening times of public services etc. To capture information from around Europe, the literature review was undertaken in English, French, German, Italian, Dutch and Spanish by native speakers in all instances. This also enabled us to identify particular examples of interest and we therefore contacted a number of schools, local education authorities and other stakeholders in localities that have staggered school opening times in recent years to ascertain what the wider impacts in the community have been.
The remainder of this report sets out: The English policy framework in relation to school opening hours (section 2); The structure of education in key countries covered by the literature review (section 3); Findings of the Literature review and description of case studies (section 4); and Conclusion and recommendations (section 5). The bibliography for the literature review is included in Appendix A, Appendix B explains the work and objectives of the “time and mobility” agencies set up in various countries in Europe and Appendix C provides an explanation of various types of school to be found in England.
When considering the issue of staggering school hours in the North East, account needs to be taken of present national policy on education. School session times and general school organisation are regulated at the national level and cannot be quickly and easily modified. However, a number of initiatives recently adopted by the government allow for more flexibility and leeway for schools with regards to school governance and enables them to set up innovative schemes which also include modifying the organisation of school times. Moreover, recent developments in the provision of school transport and changes in travel to school patterns also need to be taken into consideration when looking at the socio-economic impacts of staggering school hours.
The education system in England
Information on the education system in England has been taken from the Eurydice1 website and various government websites2.
Key Governing Bodies
2.2.2 The Department for Educations and Skills (DfES) is responsible for education in England. Local Education Authorities (LEAs) and school governing bodies, along with other stakeholders are involved in the policy-making, administration and day to day running of individual schools. In terms of roles and responsibilities, the DfES provides strategic orientation, policies and guidance on education for the country. LEAs were established by the 1902 Education Act and are responsible for the local administration of state sector education. At the school level, each institution has a governing body, which comprises members of the local community, parents, teachers, staff and representatives of the LEA. Governing bodies of faith schools include representatives of the relevant faith community. Governing bodies are required to meet at least once a term and are involved in many aspects of school life. Their three key roles are to set the strategic direction of the school, ensure accountability and monitoring and evaluating school performance. They also approve the school budget, appoint the head teacher and review progress against the budget, plans and targets.
Organisation of school time
2.2.5 Education in England and Wales is divided into primary, secondary, further and higher education. School attendance (or alternative home education) is compulsory for children aged between five and 16. Children are required to attend school at the start of the term before their fifth birthday but often start before. Most schools in England and Wales are comprehensive: that is, there is no selection of pupils at entrance on the basis of ability. In the case of a community, voluntary controlled or community special school the LEA determines the dates when the school terms and holidays are to begin and end; and the governing body determines the times of the school sessions.
www.eurydice.org/ see, for example, www.dfes.gov.uk, www.teachernet.gov.uk and www.governornet.co.uk
The LEAs in Tyne & Wear region generally coordinate their school holiday dates. 2.2.7 In the case of a foundation, voluntary aided or foundation special school the governing body determines both the dates and times when the school terms and holidays are to begin and end, and the times of the school sessions3. Education (Schools and Further Education) Regulation 10(2) 1981 states that all schools must meet for no less than 380 half-day sessions a year. Schools are generally open between 9.00am and 3.30/4.00pm with approximately one hour for lunch. A break of around 15 minutes may punctuate the morning and/or afternoon session. Minimum weekly lesson times (including religious education) are suggested in DfES Circular 7/90 and WO Circular 43/90. These are 21 hours for pupils aged five to seven years and 23.5 hours for pupils aged eight to 11 years. These times are in addition to the daily act of worship, registration and breaks for lunch and recreation. Most schools provide more hours of lessons than the suggested minimum.
Changing school session times
2.2.10 The majority of schools are not free to change school session times at will. The Changing of School Session Times Regulations 1999 Number 2733 sets out the framework and procedure for changing school opening and end times in England. The procedure for changing school session times for community, voluntary controlled or community special schools is quite long and complex. First of all, the governing body must consult the LEA, the school head teacher and all persons employed at the school. It must prepare a written statement justifying their proposal. The statement must be circulated to all parents of registered pupils at the school. A meeting must then be arranged to give the opportunity to all parents, the head teacher and others affected to discuss the proposal. If the governing body then decides to implement the changes, it must inform the LEA and parents of the change and date of implementation a minimum of three months beforehand where the changes affect the start and finish times and six weeks for other changes (for example, changing times of the midday break). The new school session times must be implemented at the start of the school year. More detail on the procedure for changing new session times is available on the DfES internet site4. Governors at foundation, voluntary aided and foundation special schools can change school session times without the need for consultation. In 2003, a consultation ran on the topic of deregulating school session times. Following the consultation Ministers decided not to deregulate5. However, the Power to Innovate provision set out in Chapter 1 of the 2002 Education Act enables schools to apply to the Secretary of State to implement innovative proposals which include changing school time sessions and other changes in relation to school organisation6.
Education policy context
Over the years there has been a willingness to give more scope to schools in order to promote innovative schemes. The main changes in the last few years
Appendix C provides an explanation of the different types of school www.dfes.gov.uk 5 www.governornet.co.uk 6 www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts2002/20020032.htm
have been the creation of the extended schools programme and the Power to Innovate initiative. 2.3.2 The Education Act 2002 provided a wide range of provisions including increased flexibility in the curriculum for 14 -16 year olds, the Power to Innovate and more flexible school governance. The Power to Innovate gives the opportunity for schools to test out new concepts and ideas which would otherwise require a change in education legislation. The schools have to present their proposal to the Secretary of State who then decides to grant derogation to the school for a period up to three years for them to test out their initiative. According to the innovation unit, the Secretary of State approved Power to Innovate Orders for over 200 schools and colleges from its inception to September 20067 some of which relate to changes in school session times. To date eleven schools have used the Act to change their hours but none are in the North East. The “Every Child Matters” 2003 agenda proposes to reshape children’s services and was the driver of the extended schools agenda. The aim of the latter is for all primary and secondary schools to provide affordable and sustainable wraparound services essentially childcare provision and other activities for children from 8am to 6pm throughout the year. The objective is to make these services available in half of primary schools and a third of secondary schools by 2008 and all schools by 2010 Increasing the provision of free childcare provision for three and four year olds is also one of the objectives of Every Child Matters8. Other core services include parenting support and specialist child support services. Extended school services and activities can either be offered directly by school staff, and/or in coordination with other schools and by creating partnerships with other local private or voluntary sector providers.
Travel to school
In England, fewer children are walking to school and more are being driven. According to the latest National Travel Survey9, the percentage of children aged five to ten walking to school dropped from 62 per cent in 1989-91 to 50 per cent in 2004. The fall in the percentage of children aged 11 to 16 walking during the same period was from 48 to 44 per cent. At the same time the percentage of school trips by car increased by 15 percentage points for five to ten year olds and by eight percentage points for 11 to 16 year olds. This may be partially explained by the increase in the average length of journey to school from 2.1 to 2.7 kilometres for younger children and 4.5 to 4.7 kilometres for children attending secondary school. Table 2.1 below shows the modal split for the school run by region from 1999 to 2001. Car use in the North East is lower than in the other regions. This is probably a reflection of the fact that the average distance travelled to primary school is around half the English average.
www.innovation-unit.co.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=41&Itemid=105 DfES, Extended schools: access to opportunities and services for all, a prospectus, 2005 9 Department for Transport, National Travel Survey 2005 www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp? ID=1576&Pos=&ColRank=1&Rank=374
Table 2.1: Region/Country
Trips to and from School 1999-2001 Age 5 to 16 (percentages) Walk Car Bus (including school bus) 18 28 23 23 22 15 25 17 12 20 13 18 Other Average Length (Miles) Age 5 Age 11 to 10 to 16 1.4 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.4 1 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.1 1.6 1.9 3 3 2.7 3 2.5 2.4 3 2.3 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.8
England Wales Scotland North East North West Yorkshire and the Humber East Midlands West Midlands East London South East South West 2.4.3
48 45 57 53 43 58 45 56 44 50 45 41
30 25 19 22 31 25 27 27 36 22 37 34
5 2 1 2 3 2 3 8 8 4 7
Source: Department for Transport, national travel survey
Since the school run takes place at the same time each day and is concurrent with travel to work trips, it can contribute to congestion at peak times on weekdays during term time. According to the National Travel Survey 2005, the school run accounted for one fifth of all traffic in urban areas at 8.50am and just under a fifth at 8.35am which is the absolute peak traffic time. Congestion caused by the school run is apparent when looking at the difference in traffic on the roads during term time and during school holidays. Trafficmaster10 notes that: “school holidays reduce traffic on our roads by approximately 10 per cent, from a combination of parents taking holidays and not driving their children to school”. The impacts can be significant, for example, according to Trafficmaster, in Newcastle on the A69 east bound; average journey times during term time are 90 per cent higher than during school holidays11.
School travel plans and Government guidance
2.4.4 Parents have the right to apply to any school regardless of its location although whether a place is offered depends on the school’s admissions policy and whether it is oversubscribed. Children are presently entitled to free transport to school if they: are between five and 16 years old and: attend the nearest suitable school which is above the statutory walking distance. The statutory walking distance is: two miles for pupils aged up to eight and three miles for those aged eight and over. The Education and Inspections Act 2006 changed the definition of “nearest suitable school” enabling children of low income parents, free travel to a wider range of schools. This is likely to lead to a marginal increase in distance travelled to school and use of public transport. The Act also placed a requirement on local authorities to promote more sustainable travel to schools. In order to reduce the impact of the school run on traffic, the Department for Transport (DfT) published in 2003 a good practice guide for travelling to school12. It promotes walking and cycling schemes, such as “walking buses”
10 11 12
a company providing satellite navigation, traffic data and vehicle tracking systems www.trafficmaster.co.uk/shownews.cfm?num=457 DfT, DfES, travelling to school, a good practice guide, 2003
and “cycle trains”, encourages bus use, car sharing, the implementation of school travel plans and accessibility planning as well as staggering school starting and finishing times. 2.4.7 A number of successful schemes such as walking buses, bike trains have already been put into place. The Act also placed a requirement on local authorities to promote more sustainable travel to schools. Around 40 per cent of schools now have travel plans in place13 and an increasing number of local authorities have rolled out US style Yellow School Buses.
Education in the North East
In terms of educational attainment, although this has been improving over the last few years, pupils in the North East have not been performing as well as the English average and there are higher than average school absence rates compared to other English schools. The adult population has overall lower qualifications than average14. As in other regions, education plays an important role in the North East. In 2001 there were 1,379 schools, with 443,906 pupils, 71 per cent of these were primary schools, 16 per cent secondary schools, 5 per cent special schools, 4 per cent nursery schools, 3 per cent independent schools and 1 per cent referral units15. A higher percentage of under five year olds attend nursery school (85%) compared to England (58%). The education sector is also a key employer in the North East, accounting for 10 per cent of its total workforce and represents around 3 per cent of the region’s GVA16. Around 88,000 people are employed in the region’s schools17. It is therefore likely there are in the order of 200,000 cars on the road in the region in the morning peak either taking pupils or staff to school with the vast majority of schools starting at the same time. However, in terms of travel to school initiatives, the region is quite active in the development of school travel plans compared to English schools in general. For example, in 2001, 31 per cent of schools in the North East had implemented travel plans, compared to 11 and 13 per cent for the North West and Yorkshire and the Humber respectively18.
Governing bodies are responsible for determining school session times and for the majority of schools this can only be changed through the procedures set out in legislation. This either involves a process of consultation with local stakeholders or obtaining the approval of the Secretary of State. Education policy has in recent years continued to promote greater parental choice both through providing new types of schools such as Academies and by extending the definition of nearest suitable school in terms of eligibility for free school transport. This is likely to perpetuate the trend for children to travel further to school. Another key strand of education policy is the introduction of the extended school. By 2010 it is envisaged that all schools will offer activities between 8am
Home to School Travel and Transport Draft Guidance DfES ONS, Secondary School Absence Indicator, 2004 15 North East Assembly, North East Regional Education Audit, December 2002. 16 North East Regional Economic Strategy 2006-2016 17 NOMIS Annual Business Inquiry 18 Carins S, Sloman L, Anable J, Kirkbride A and Goodwin P for Department for Transport, The influence of soft factor interventions on travel demand, chapter 4: school travel plans
and 6pm all year round for all children and parents wishing to take up those services. Pre and post school activities may not necessarily be free and will tend to be provided by a different set of staff. 2.6.4 Government policy on school hours has almost drifted by default to the DfT from the DfES. That is pressure by government (to the limited extent that there is any) to change school hours is driven by the transport agenda and is based on encouraging schools to facilitate greater use of sustainable transport modes and to consider staggering school hours from the perspective of reducing travel congestion and the cost of school transport. There is no evidence that government and in particular DfES has considered the wider implications of staggering school start and end times. The DfES agenda revolves around extended school hours with little discussion on the impact that this may have on transport issues other than to highlight that the take up of extended school services will be dependent to some extent on ensuring adequate provision of transport at different times than in the past. In addition where services are provided for a number of schools from a single site there will be the need to provide transport between sites.
Education in Europe
In assessing the evidence about the impact of staggered school hours from other countries it is important to understand key differences in educational structures, childcare provision and labour force participation. This section, therefore, sets out the general organisation of the school system in France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and Germany. The Belgian education system is very similar to the French system and therefore has not been included in the analysis. The information provided in this section with regards to the educational structure of the different countries is based on information from the Eurydice website and the consultants’ personal experience of each country’s education system. The US system has not been covered as it varies from State to State although relevant literature from the US has been included in the report. In considering the wider effects of changes in school opening hours account also needs to be taken of the first order impacts on parents and pupils. Around 90 per cent of primary school age children are taken to school by someone19 who in the majority of cases will be their mother. Women in the key working age group of 17-49 are four times more likely to escort a child to school than men in the same age group20. Fifty six percent of working age women with children under five were in employment, 71 per cent of mothers whose youngest child was aged five to ten are in employment rising to 77 per cent for those whose youngest child was aged 11 to 1521. Changes in school hours could therefore have a disproportionate impact on women’s working arrangements and their employers. This is not so much an issue with secondary school children with only a minority travelling to school with a parent. The level of childcare provision and organisation of school hours affects the labour market, more particularly female labour force participation. Statistics on the level of childcare provision and the labour market for different countries have been gathered in order to show the link between female employment rates and childcare provision. In summary therefore this section covers: Educational structure; Organisation of the school week; Out-of school hours childcare and after school activities; Level of parental choice of schools; Travel to school; and Overview of female participation in the labour market.
Organisation of the education system
The organisation of education in most European countries is similar to that in England: that is, education is divided in four stages: nursery-pre-school, primary, secondary and higher/further education.
Department for Transport, National Travel Survey, 2005: Department for Transport, National Travel Survey, 2005 21 Office of national statistics, Labour force survey, 2005: www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp? id=1655
Organisation of the school week France
3.2.2 In France, children have longer school days than in most European countries including the UK. School opening times in maternelle (pre-school), primary and secondary school vary and are determined at communal level and departmental/regional level respectively. However, for most schools teaching starts at 8.30am and ends at 4.30pm for primary schools and college (first half of secondary school) and 8am till 5.30pm depending on class schedules and options in the lycees (last three years of secondary school). The school week is usually made up of four full days and half a day either on Wednesday or Saturday morning. In the past decade, a new system has been introduced which gives the choice to primary schools to open only four full days a week and catching up the lost hours by reducing the length of holidays. This system was introduced following numerous studies which stated that a four day week was most suited to children’s biological rhythms. The four day week now covers 27 per cent of all primary school children in France22. Legislation states that the school week for pre-school and primary school should not be longer than 26 hours. Total hours per week are more flexible in secondary school: for college it is between 25 and 28 hours and in the lycee, school hours vary from 30 to 40 hours per week.
3.2.5 In the Netherlands, the law states that in primair onderwijs (primary school) and speciaal onderwijs (special needs schools) the length of schooling is 7,520 hours over 8 years. Most schools start at 8.30am or 8.45am and close for lunch - usually between 11.30am and 1pm. In recent years provisions have been put in place for children of working parents to stay at school, but this is not (yet) the norm. It is called "overblijven" and children take their own lunch. At the moment this costs very little (around 1.50 euros) as it is overseen by volunteering mothers, there are discussions on employing qualified supervisors in future, which will mean rising costs. Schools usually resume around 1pm and finish around 3pm. Variation in school times is common, not only between schools but between age groups as well: i.e. older children may have longer school days. Wednesdays are generally half days only for primary schools.
3.2.6 On average, Spanish children in Primary Education have 810 teaching hours per year compared with 861 hours in England, while in secondary education the amount of time spent in schools is 1,050 hours in Spain and 912 hours in England. Spanish schools still tend to maintain a long lunch beak, a reflection of the traditional split working day. This is an area of considerable interest and dispute as at least part of the industry and retail sectors adapt to the everincreasing demand for a continuous working shift. Children at Primary and Secondary Education attend school every day from Monday to Friday. Although in some rural areas schools occasionally open on certain weekends. However, while there are some minor variations school opening hours, there are two basic models:
Traditional model. This is from 9am to 1pm then a 2-2½ hour break recommencing at 3pm until 5pm. This system is widely adopted in Primary and Secondary Education. Continuous model. This is generally from 8.30am to 2.30pm, although it is only adopted by some Secondary and/or Further Education schools.
3.2.9 In primary schools, lesson times are laid down from 7.30/8.30am to 11.30am/1.30pm (Monday to Friday or Monday to Saturday). The length of the school day and week is determined by each of the Länder. The half day school is the traditional form of teaching in Germany. All day schools only cover 6.8 per cent of all primary school children in the country23. At secondary level school times vary, but are generally the same as for primary schools. However, there tends to be a wide range of optional or sometimes compulsory activities provided in the afternoon at this level.
3.2.11 The timetable of educational activities in primary schools consists of 27 hours per week. Generally, lessons are carried out in the morning (either from 8am to 12pm, or from 8.30am to 12.30 pm), for five or six days a week and pupils go back to school in the afternoon one or twice a week. Some schools also offer the possibility to attend lessons only in the morning for six days a week. Secondary schools tend to operate from 8am (or 8.30am) to 4pm (or 4.30pm), Monday to Friday. The State organises the broad structure and timetable of schools. However, the start and finish times are determined by the local councils and the schools, in accordance with parents’ wishes.
Out-of school childcare and after school activities France
3.2.13 From the age of three the public schooling system provides all day services which enable parents to reconcile work with family life. The majority of maternelle, primary and colleges provide structures and help for parents who cannot drop off and pick up their children according to teaching hours. For children in maternelle and primary level, schools generally provide child minding services from 7am or 7.30am until 6pm. This is called “garderie”. Depending on communes and schools, these services are either free or require a small financial contribution from parents depending on salary levels. In Rennes, for example, parents can drop off their children in most maternelles and primary schools at quarter to seven and pick them up until 7pm. Although the majority of children arrive at school ten to five minutes before the start of classes, this system allows for a gradual arrival of pupils at schools according to parents’ needs and may facilitate traffic movement on streets located close to the school. In college, “etude” is provided during the day from 8am till 6pm (varies from one school to another) when children do not have any classes. Etude is compulsory: when children do not have any classes arranged or are waiting to be picked up, they go to a classroom which is supervised by a teacher or member of staff, where they can get help with their homework. In the lycee children are able to leave school premises during their free time.
3.2.15 Provision of childcare and out-of-school-hours activities is not commonly available in the Netherlands. Some schools open to children from 8am, others have private nurseries that run out-of-school-hours sessions, many have nothing. While other factors are relevant, this lack of childcare does has an impact on female employment as although the Netherlands has relatively high female employment rates compared to other EU countries, there is a very high proportion of women working part-time. Indeed, over half of women in employment work part-time and over 80 per cent of working mothers with children under the age of six have part-time jobs24. Moves to provide childcare during schools’ extended lunch break and before and after school are discussed in the next section.
3.2.17 During non-compulsory schooling age, children at Infant Education can attend Nursery or Infant School to suit their parent’s working situation. These generally open Monday to Friday between 06.30am and 08.00am and close around 6pm or 7.30pm, offering breakfast, lunch and mid afternoon snack, as well as other additional services. Infant Education is mainly private in Spain although regulated by the local or regional authorities, which may provide financial support to families with children of this age. Although there are some public nurseries, in 1999 only 2 per cent of children up to the age of 3 years actually attended one25. The cost of a child attending nursery school all day varies between 300 to 500 euros per month. This is considered a too expensive option for many working parents. Those families where both parents work the situation has become a real issue during Infant Education, where a typical employee may spend up to 14 hours away from home26. Moves to provide childcare during schools’ extended mid day break, changing the length of the mid day break and before and after school are discussed in the next section.
3.2.19 In Germany, pre-school education in the Kindergarten is not part of the stateorganised school system, but is assigned to Child and Youth Welfare. The Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs Kultusministerien (Ministry of education and cultural affairs) of the Länder (Constituent state of the Federal republic of Germany) do not adopt regulations governing the timetable in the pre-school sector. A small proportion of children aged 0 to 3 attend pre-school, which are mostly opened only for half days. Childcare and out-of-hour activities for children at primary level (where schools finish at lunchtime) are also limited, which makes it difficult for parents to reconcile work and family responsibilities.
3.2.20 Development of childcare facilities and out-of hour activities are mostly provided by parent associations and the commune. Therefore the provision of these facilities depends very much on the local area and school. Nursery school in Italy is free, in spite of it not being compulsory. Families pay a small contribution, from which low income households are exempted, towards transport and canteen services.
24 25 26
OECD, starting strong II: early childhood education care, 2006 www.ine.es www.ceapa.es
The level of parental choice of school
3.2.21 As in England, most parents in European countries have the choice of schools they want their children to attend, such as in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. Unlike the English system, choice of schools in France is limited. Apart from certain exceptions (private schools, special language schools, schools providing special courses), children have to go to a school in their local area, which reduces the impact of car use for the school run. The majority of primary school children in France live less than one kilometre away from their school.
Travel to school and mode of transport to school
3.2.23 In 1998 around 10 million pupils used organised transport to school in the European Union. In the majority of member states, this represents 10 to 30 per cent of all students27. However, the use of the car for the school run has been on the increase and identified as an issue for a number of countries such as the UK, Ireland, France and Belgium.
3.2.24 Most schools (less so in large cities) provide transport facilities which are usually subsidised by the region or local authority and which pick up children in the morning and drop them off close to their home every school day. When this is not the case, children are entitled to reduced prices on public transport. There is no recent national data on school travel patterns and these differ largely depending on the town, city or rural areas.
3.2.25 Most children in primary school tend to be brought to school, by walking, cycling or car. Older children go more on their own, although this depends on what area the children live in. Children who live in towns generally walk or cycle on their own from age seven upwards. Trip length for travelling to school for this age group is quite short compared to the UK, which makes it easier for walking and cycling. A survey carried out in 2003 states that over a third of children in primary school live less than 500 metres from their school and another third less than one kilometre. Only 15 per cent of children live more than two kilometres away from school. Traffic congestion is therefore not so much of an issue: only 16 per cent of children in primary school are driven to school, whereas 35 per cent walk to school accompanied or not and 49 per cent cycle28. In secondary school most children travel on their own - in rural / suburban areas by walking, cycling or (when 16) moped, in the cities also by public transport.
3.2.26 There are no national statistics available on the mode of transport and purpose of trips in Spain. However, a local study carried out in Barcelona some years ago revealed that 17 per cent of morning peak traffic was formed by parents on the school run29. Just over a third of all schools offer collective transport to and from schools. This is more common outside the large urban areas.
Association nationale pour les transports educatifs de l’enseignement public pour la Commission Europeenne, La securite des transports scolaires en Europe, 1998 28 Vd Houwen, K, Goossen J, Reisgedrag Kinderen basisschool, 2004 29 www.ine.es
3.2.28 Each of the Länder has its own arrangements as regards the transport of pupils to and from school. There are certain differences as to who is entitled to use school transport and the scope of services provided. Only pupils who live a certain distance away from their school have a right to use school transport. There are slight differences on this between the various Länder. Two kilometres is the general minimum distance for which transport is provided for primary school pupils, whilst from grade 5 onwards (age 11) pupils living up to three or four kilometres away from school are expected to arrange for their own transport.
Female labour force statistics
Table 3.1 summarises key statistics on female labour force participation and childcare provision in a number of EU countries and the US. In general, the quality, funding and extent of childcare provision and childcare facilities are best in France, Belgium, Sweden and other Nordic countries, compared to the UK, the Netherlands, Spain and Germany. Moreover, the organisation of the school day in France, for example, (whole day school from 8.30am to 4.30pm) is more adapted to the schedule of working parents. Female employment is the most likely to be affected by childcare responsibilities. Indeed, women are twice as likely as men to be involved in informal childcare and are the ones who will reduce their workload or leave employment to care for children30. Therefore the level of childcare provision is an important factor in female participation in the labour force. For example, France and Belgium (with their high quality childcare provision) combine relatively high female employment rates and low part-time employment, compared to other EU countries such as Italy or The Netherlands, where the number of hours worked by women per week is the lowest and where the rate of women working part-time is high, particularly for mothers with children under the age of six (80%). In an article by Kerstin Jorgens31 comparing the organisation of family time and flexibility in Germany and France, found that in France the integration of women in the labour force mainly took place through full time employment, which was not the case in Germany, were the increase in labour force participation of women was primarily through part-time employment. According to the author, due to the lack of childcare provision and out-of-school-hours activities for children, one of the parents has no choice but to opt for part-time employment when bringing up young children. Although it is difficult to discern any clear pattern, numerous studies have been carried out indicating a link between labour force participation of women and the percentage of part-time female employment with the extent and price of childcare provision, provision of support to working mothers and the length and extent of maternity leave. In Europe, it appears that in countries which provide public childcare facilities, the presence of young children has less of a negative impact on female employment than in other countries. Similarly, employment continuity for mothers is highest in countries where the state provides support for working parents32.
Larsen, work and care and strategies in European families: similarities or national differences? Social policy and administration, vol 8 n36, 2004 31 Jorgens, K, Vie de famille et flexibilité du temps de travail en Allemagne: le mythe de la conciliation, revue international enfance, famille, générations, 2006 32 Acta Sociologica, The impact of young children on women’s labour supply: a reassessment of institutional effects in Europe, 2005
In the UK, a recent study has showed that a 25 per cent childcare price subsidy would increase labour force participation rates of married mothers by three percentage points33. However it seems traditional perception of women’s role in the society also influences female employment rates. According to Simon Duncan and Sarah Irwin what determines labour force participation does not only depend on the cost benefit analysis of working versus the cost of childcare, but also depends on values and what is perceived as morally acceptable34.
Education systems in Europe vary considerably in terms of the length of the school day, distance travelled to school and provision of childcare all which subsequently impact on female participation in the workforce. Those countries where primary schools either finish at mid day or have a long mid day break such as in Germany, Spain, Italy and Netherlands tend either to have lower female participation rates or higher levels of part-time working amongst women. In France, for example, where extensive pre and post school hour facilities are available for children 39 per cent of all women are in full time employment compared to only 17 per cent in the Netherlands where such childcare is much more limited.35 The provision of out-of school childcare is very location specific and often dependent on the strength of parent groups.
Tarja Viitanen, the cost of childcare and female employment in the UK, 2005 Simon Duncan, Sarah Irwin, The social patterning of values and rationalities: mothers ‘choices in combining caring and employment, social policy and society, 3:4 391-399, 2004 35 That is, percentage of women of working age in the labour force, minus those unemployed, who are in full time employment.
Country Female unemployme nt rates (2005) Total average weekly hours of work for women Female labour force participatio n
Comparative labour market statistics
% female part-time employment Average contribution towards preschool childcare Age of legal entitlement to a free service Rate of access to regulated services % pupils in the fourth year of primary school attending a school offering childcare service on school premises
Labour force participation of women with children under 6
27% for children under 3
12.5 hours free early education provision after 3rd birthday 3
0-3y: 20%, aged 3-4 96 %, for older children full enrolment n/a, almost 100% for children 3 and over
14%, but contributions vary widely across Lander
The Netherland s
75% (80% of women with children under 6) 42%
aged 0-3, depends on parental income, maximum capped at 18% depending on income, varies from 3.5% to 100% from 0 to 3 y, 59% of family day care, 26% costs in subsidised centre-based depends on income, maximum of 18% outside school services, parents may assume all costs of childcare
age 0 to 3, in Former western Germany, there are available places for 2.8% of children under 3 and in former eastern Germany 37%. For Kindergarden, 90% children 19% for children under 3, almost 100% for children 3 and over Children 0-3 years: 22.5 % 2.54y: 90%. Most services are available part-time or used part-time 0-2.5y: 38%, 2.56: almost 100%
Belgium Flemish Community
0-3 y: 18%. 3-6 years: 100%.
0-3y: 38% 3-5y: 56.5% 5-6y: 90%
source: eurostat and OECD
Literature review findings
This section reviews the various available literature on school hours with the aim of identifying the various implications of changing the organisation of school time. There are numerous ripple effects of staggering school times which affect pupils, teachers, parents as well as the wider community. Figure 4.1 overleaf summarises the main impacts of changing the organisation of school time identified in the literature. These relate to three main areas, educational issues, transport and wider community impacts. Educational issues revolve around children’s performance, attendance and school organisational issues, including out –of-hours activities. Transport is related to congestion both on the road and public transport and costs. Wider issues cover factors such as employment and crime. In undertaking the literature review it became apparent that relatively little research has been undertaken in this field. The academic literature principally dealt with the relationship of sleep patterns to school start times. Government and policy literature concentrated on the possible benefits of staggering school hours in relation to traffic congestion and costs of school transport. The most useful literature often dealt with particular schools or localities that were considering changing school hours and was effectively ex-ante evaluations of proposals. The findings of the literature review sets out various changes, initiatives and studies conducted in a number of countries both to explain what is being done elsewhere and to determine the outcome and socio-economic impacts of initiatives in relation to school hours, childcare and school transport. Finally, it is important to keep in mind that the issues linked to school session times will differ depending on the stage of education (primary vs secondary) and the location (urban vs rural). This needs to be taken into account when putting into place specific measures regarding school session times. For example, the level of childcare provision and school hours will affect working parents of children in primary school more than working parents of older children, as older children tend to be more independent and travel to school on their own. Similarly, in rural areas transport facilities and funding of travel to school may be more important than in urban areas because of the lack of public transport facilities and also as pupils tend to live further away from their local schools. Staggered school hours have been implemented or suggested in a wide range of countries for very different reasons. The most common reason is traffic congestion in locations as varied as Tehran, Dublin, Hyderabad Australia and the Middle East. However, shortage of schools is also a reason with double shifts operating in Egypt, Mongolia, Singapore, Chile and Nigeria amongst others36.
McGinn, N. & Borden, A. (1995). Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research with Education Policy for Developing Countries. Boston: Harvard University Press
Socio-economic implications of the organisation of school time
Adaptation of school hours to the changing socioeconomic context
4.1.7 The organisation of the school day especially for primary school age children has a disproportionate impact on female employment. As the number of women in the labour force increases so there is greater pressure on schools to change their hours to adapt to the changing social and economic situation. Schools have on the whole been conservative about changing the way they organise teaching time still following the same patterns for generations. With the increase in female employment and changes in working patterns, schools have been slow to adapt with parents’ changing lifestyles. However, in most EU countries, there has recently been a trend to alter school hours according to parents’ needs and or to provide childcare provision at the start, middle (for those countries with long mid day breaks) and end of the school day. Spain 4.1.10 In Spain, for example, the traditional family model has rapidly changed due to the relatively recent significant increase in the number of women in the labour market. Of the 20 million working population in Spain, around 8.2 million are now women37. As a result, more primary and secondary schools are offering services to help parents with their working situation, like earlier opening or later finishing times. Many discussions have taken place in Spain regarding the best system for school opening hours between the traditional model (with a siesta in the middle of the day) and the more standard north European model with a short lunch break referred to in Spain as the continuous model. Most Spanish schools now want to change to the continuous model. In order to change school hours, schools need to obtain the approval of the regional government as well two thirds of teachers and parents. If the proposal is refused, schools have to wait two years before starting the process again. Arguments in favour of the continuous model are: students concentrate better in the morning hours than in the hours after the lunch; there are no long breaks which can distract the attention of students, break time is from 11:30 to 12:00 and after that the subjects are more relaxed; after school hours, students have more time to do their homework; when school finishes they can go to home to eat with their families also the students eat at the same hours during the week and at weekends; in rural areas this kind of system is being implemented to offer a wider range of facilities to students (who often to travel to different schools for particular lessons or facilities). In general, families, where both parents are in employment, prefer the continuous model, because they have no time to pick up the children at siesta time and cannot eat with them at lunchtime. However, as schools finish earlier under the continuous model parents want schools to provide activities after school so children can do their homework or relax. The problem is that generally parents have to pay for these activities. The same is true for lunchtime facilities at schools following the traditional model for children who are unable to go home.
Most teachers are in favour of the continuous model because in this way they have a continued working shift and can use the afternoons for preparing lessons and for free time. However, the Ceapa (Confederacion Española Asociaciones de Madres Y Padres de Alumnos - a parents organisation) is against this model as lunch facilities may disappear. Also the extracurricular activities are not obligatory; hence many children could spend their afternoons, for example, watching television. There is already a growing problem of latchkey children in Spain. Because of this debate, modification of school hours is not uncommon in Spain. For example, the Lope de Vega public school in Andalucia modified its schedule to make it more compatible with parents’ needs. The school opens at 7.30am and lessons begin at 9am. Lunch facilities are provided from 2 to 4pm and extra-curriculum activities are organised until 6pm. San Miguel de Pumarín School in Asturias has decided to change to the continuous model next year. Around 85 per cent of parents were happy with changing the current organisation of school hours and three quarters were in favour of adopting the continuous timetable from 9am to 2pm. The school, however, decided to provide lunchtime facilities from 2 to 4pm and extracurricular activities until 6pm and are also thinking of introducing a breakfast club. However, a financial contribution from parents is needed for children to benefit from out-of school hours facilities and activities. Moreover, the Spanish government unveiled in 2006 its 34 billion euros Strategic Plan for Infancy and Adolescence, where among other objectives it aims that 33 per cent of children between the ages of 0 to 3 years old should be able to join public nurseries by 201038. Netherlands
Similarly, in the Netherlands, a number of primary schools are now open during lunchtime and provide lunch and supervision for children. Previously children were expected to go home for lunch. Germany
In Germany, many Kindergärten are now trying more consciously than before to adapt their opening times in line with the needs of families and, if necessary, are organising an early morning or lunchtime service for some children or groups of children. However, any extension in opening hours is often limited by the number of staff employed at each establishment and the capacity of its premises39. Moreover, all the Länder are currently in the process of expanding their provision of care and supervision for children outside lesson time (e.g. fixed school opening times from 7.30 am to 1pm or 2pm or until 4 or 5pm).
Changing the organisation of school times for educational reasons
A number of studies have been undertaken to understand the schedules that best suit children’s biological rhythm and learning abilities. United States
In the United States, many studies have been carried out proving the benefits of later school starting times for adolescents, notably on school performance and concentration levels. One study for example examined the impact in seven comprehensive high schools in the Minneapolis Public School District that
shifted the school start time from 7.15am to 8.40am. The results showed an increase in attendance between 89 and 93 per cent depending on the grade40. 4.2.3 However, a study by Kyla Wahlstrom explains that schools have not changed their teaching schedules because of the pressure of individuals and groups that assume that their interests will be negatively affected by later school starting times41. The reason for the wide variation in US school starting times is often down to maximising the utilisation of its specialist yellow school bus fleet that sees children being picked up from before 6am and schools opening from 7am. France 4.2.5 In France a number of studies and political initiatives have been carried out in order to determine the best organisation of school hours in accordance with children and parents’ needs. One of these new schemes has been the implementation of the four day week. With the four day week scheme, which is meant to best accommodate the child’s rhythm for learning and studying42, communes choose whether primary schools open only four days a week instead of 4½, but in return have less time off during school holidays. Some schools arrange for activities on the day of the week where there are no classes. In many communes very strong parents associations exist, which organise child minding and activities for children outside school opening times. A number of parent surveys and studies have taken place on the impact of changing school times on children and families. In Rennes, for example, the Sonia Delaunay School has completely rearranged its school hours and holiday times as an experiment regarding school times which best suit children’s learning rhythms. Although there has not been any clear proof of improvement of children’s academic performances, the school is now very popular in the area. A survey conducted in Rennes regarding this school shows that around 40 per cent of families would be affected by a later opening of school time from 8.45am to 9am, due to their own work schedules. However, a majority of parents explained they would be happy for schools to finish later in the day, due to working constraints43. Nonetheless, the school is very popular and parents have adapted to the new timing schedules. What mainly comes out-of the four day week experience, however, is that parents who have adapted to changes are not willing to come back to previous arrangements. Parents organise their time according to school hours and are reluctant to change their habits, especially when it leads to a reduction in overall school times, meaning a complex reorganisation of family time.
Wahlstrom, K. (2002). Changing times: Findings from the first longitudinal study of later high school start times. Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement, College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota 41 Wahlstrom, K. L. (1999a). The prickly politics of school starting times, Kappan, 80(5), 344–347 42 Pour une approche globale du temps de l'enfant : l'expérimentation des aménagements des rythmes scolaires DELEVOYE Jean-Paul, LABADIE Francine FRANCE. Ministère de la jeunesse et des sports Paris;La Documentation française;1998;276 pages 43 Ville de Rennes, JCA développement, étude sur les rythmes de vie et les rythmes scolaires, 2005
United Kingdom 4.2.9 A number of initiatives regarding school opening times have taken place in the UK. For example, the provision of breakfast clubs in a number of schools around the country not only enables parents to bring their children earlier to school if needed, but can improve children’s health and concentration levels during the day in cases where they did not usually have breakfast at home. This is, for example, what has occurred due to the creation of a breakfast club at Woolmore Primary school – Tower Hamlets. Grinling Gibbons Primary School in Lewisham London has restructured the school day to start and finish earlier. School now begins at 8.30am and ends at 2.30pm with a short lunch break. Optional clubs run by support staff and volunteers are offered to the pupils from 2.30 to 3.30pm. The intention is that the children will benefit from a greater breadth in the curriculum as a result of these enrichment activities, including learning a language and the creative arts. During the extra hour at the end of the day teachers are able to spend more time on the planning, preparation and assessment of lessons, as well as attending staff meetings - ensuring good communication and consistent practice and discussing new approaches to teaching Another example is Hadleigh Junior School, Essex which trialled a change in the times of the school week in 2004. School started 15 minutes earlier each day, giving three full lessons every morning. Afternoon sessions finished at 3.20 pm every day except Friday when 'formal' school stopped at 2.05 pm. This arrangement enabled teachers to have more time to plan their lessons and improve their work/life balance.
Homework - In school or out-of school
As schools extend their hours and offer pupils homework clubs there has been a debate not only about the general benefits or otherwise of homework but also whether it makes a difference as to whether that homework is done at home or elsewhere. One of the reasons given for homework is that it gives an opportunity for parents/carers to become involved in the education process and to see the range of work their children are doing at school. However, research44 has found that many parents struggle to assist their children and are surprised by the complexity of homework given. Research in France45 had similar findings with, around a third of parents stating they are not able to help enough with their children’s homework. Children may also not have the right facilities available in terms of space and resources. Researchers46 have found that children’s homework suffers, for example, when done in rooms with a television on. Also parents may not be best placed to understand their children’s learning styles and try and impose alternative styles that are less successful. Children who are involved in structured after school activities (whether academic or not) tend to perform better at school than those who undertake no such activities. The latter are often children from poorer backgrounds and or whose parents are not at home when they children finish school. Given these factors the success or otherwise of at school homework clubs depends a lot on the background of the children themselves. Children from
Many parents lack skills to help with homework – DFES survey reported in Guardian 23 August 2006 45 La Croix/Unapel, l’accompagnement scolaire vu par les parent, 2005 46 Marina M. Pool, Cees M. Koolstra, Tom H. A. van der Voort (2003) The Impact of Background Radio and Television on High School Students' Homework Performance Journal of Communication 53 (1), 74–87.
middle-class families tend not to benefit from such clubs and if it prevents them from participating in other after school activities then they may be detrimental. Children from poorer backgrounds, however, can benefit considerably both in terms of academic achievements but also from a safety and behavioural perspective. To achieve these benefits the clubs need to be run by people who can actually assist the children rather than just adults who are acting as “babysitters”47. 4.3.5 However, the evidence on whether homework should be undertaken at home or school is not conclusive. A major US study48 found that there was a positive impact on grades for those children who did their homework at home where there was no impact for those children who did their homework at school.
Childcare, affordability and employment
The impact of changing the organisation of school hours may positively or negatively impact on the possibility for parents, particularly mothers to reconcile work and family life. Changes in school hours could have a disproportionate impact on women’s working arrangements and their employers. School session times may be more or less adapted for mothers to take up full time employment. Organisation of school time may push mothers to switch to part-time work or give up work temporarily or permanently. Employment patterns of mothers will also depend on: Possibility of flexible working arrangements; Childcare provision and whether it is subsidised or not; and The family structure.
The provision of free or subsidised basis of childcare provision is particularly important for socially deprived families and/or single mothers, where mothers cannot afford to stay out-of work. The cost of childcare is therefore a big burden for socially deprived families, who do not have family of friends to look after children before and/or after school. France
In France, certain cities provide nurseries and childminding services which are now open 24 hours a day and where parents pay according to their level of income. This has been put into place by time agencies49 in a number of cities and towns in the country and funded by the national agency in charge of family support and other associations such as the women’s association. These agencies also try and help parents with atypical or variable working hours, for example, cleaning staff who have to be at work in the early hours of the morning. A study conducted by the Time Agency of Lyon showed that around a third of employees have working times that vary from one week to another, a quarter of the workforce work on Sundays and 48 per cent on Saturdays50. In other countries such as Italy where school finishes early or where public childcare services are not as well developed, a number of initiatives from parents and schools are taking place in order to meet the growing demand for out-of school hours childcare. Germany
Cosden M, Morrison G, Albanese A L, Macias S (2001) When Homework is not Home Work : After-Schools Programs for Homework Assistance Educational Psychologist 36(3) 211-221 48 Keith T, Diamond-Hallam C & Fine J (2004) Longitudinal effects of in-school and out of school homework on high school grades School Psychology Quarterly Vol 19 Issue 3 49 See Appendix B for a fuller description of the role of « time agencies » 50 www.espacedestemps.com/presentation_caue.ppt#4
In Germany, given the regionally disparate demographic patterns (with a low birth rate and limited selective immigration to growth areas), family policies are seen as a key tool in improving regional economic performance. The federal government published a report on family policies concentrating on time management. The report acknowledges that whereas countries such as Germany and the UK offer relatively high financial incentives to parents, these are lower in the “family-friendly” Scandinavian countries (and France) where expenditure on “services” such as after school provision is much greater51. In the city of Luebeck, Germany, a series of independent parental associations organise supervision and activities to guarantee child care from at least 07.30 am to 1.30pm (including school holidays) so as to permit a parent to work parttime.52 The results are: In 2002, 80 employees looked after 1,000 children as part of these associations The Luebeck Job Centre calculate that 600 to 700 secondary jobs depend upon the in-school supervision offered by these associations Also, school days are relatively short and the majority of schools do not provide any type of after school activities or childminding services. However, in order to meet the demand for these services, certain schools have started offering childcare services after school, although a financial contribution is often required. Examples include: Garching (Munich): Mon-Thurs 12noon – 5pm , including lunch, homework, sport etc, for 10 to 16 year olds, managed by an arm of social services with finance from the Land and the town53; Ricklingen (Hannover): three days a week, aimed at children from deprived families, for 10 to 14 year olds, managed and funded by church organisation through donations54; Essen-Ueberruhr: five days a week 1.30-4pm (not in holidays), packed lunch, homework and sport, for 11 and 12 year olds, managed by the school, cost €15 per term (with additional costs for some courses)55; Maxgymnasium (Muenchen): Mon-Thurs 1.15-5pm, lunch, homework and other activities, for 11 to 13 year olds, managed by the school56; Gundelfingen: Mon-Fri 1-4pm, including cheap lunch, homework and activities, for 10 to 16 year olds, managed and funded by church organisation through donations57. Netherlands
In the Netherlands, only approximately 40 per cent of women are economically independent, which can partly be attributed to the lack of adequate childcare provision and school times for young children. The government is aware of this issue and has developed an “Emancipation Agenda” for 2006-201058. One of its aims is to increase the economic independence of women, notably by making schools responsible for organising and contracting before-school and after school care for children from the age of four to 12 and involving
Bundesministerium fuer Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (2005) Zukunft: Familie – Ergebnisse aus dem 7. Familienbericht. Berlin 52 Schleswig-Holsteinischer Landtag Umdruck 15/3501: Interessenvertretung Betreute Grundschulen e.V., Stellungnahme zum Entschliessungsantrag betr. Schleswig-Holsteinische Offensive fuer Familien, www.sh-landtag.de/infothek/wahl15/umdrucke/3500/umdruck-15-3501.pdf 53 www.nachmittagsbetreuung.de/ 54 www.diakonisches-werk-hannover.de/nachmittag.htm 55 www.gymnasium-essen-ueberruhr.de/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=795&Itemid=329 56 www.maxgym.musin.de/profil/nachmittag/ 57 www.kinderheim-st-clara.de/nachmittag.html 58 Dutch Multi-Year Emancipation Policy Plan 2006-2010
social partners and municipalities in arrangements to make work life and private life more compatible.
4.4.10 Prato is Tuscany’s second largest city and the third largest in Central Italy. Normal school hours in Prato are from 9am to 1.30pm. In order to cope with parents’ needs for childcare during out-of school hours, the Town Council funds free childcare service before and after school starts, from 7.50am till 6pm. This service is offered by all schools, but is activated only when 10 per cent or more of the school’s pupils require the service. Pre-school childcare is free, however, parents have to pay for after school services. It appears that the main issue with regards to school hours is mainly the provision of childcare, activities and services throughout the day for working parents and the cost of these services. Indeed, the existence of these services has an impact on labour force participation of women.
4.4.12 Parents of children under the age of six have the right to ask their employers for more flexible working hours. Although employers don't have to agree with the request, they have to show they have considered it carefully. Children from the age of four get free parttime places at nurseries - some three year olds also get places.
Crime, anti-social behaviour and security
Children tend to be both perpetrators and victims of crime in the period after school finishes to a greater extent than for the community as a whole. Therefore changing the school session times may therefore affect the time children come out-of school and hence the period of time when they are out in the streets when they can commit crimes or be victims of crime. Many studies in the US have been conducted in relation to juvenile crime reporting that juvenile crime happens most frequently before and after school time. However, a recent study underlines that these might be overstated as the timing of crime depends on the type of crime and violent crimes against young people are generally committed during school time59. A study by the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development says that most sex between teens takes place after school while parents are at work. Data show that tenth graders who come home to an empty house are more prone to risky behaviour than those who don't.60 This same study provides the following U.S. Justice Department statistics regarding teens who are let out-of school before parents get home: 37 percent are more likely to become teen parents; 49 percent are more likely to use drugs; 57 percent are more likely to drop out-of school; and one in five violent juvenile crimes is committed between 2-6 p.m. Parents may be reluctant for their children to go to school on their own because of dangerous roads to cross, passing through neighbourhoods that are or perceived to be high risk, or bullying on buses. Therefore in order to reduce car usage for the school run and promote sustainable travel, safety and security
Gottfredson, Soule, The timing of property crime, violent crime and substance use amongst juveniles, journal of research in crime and delinquency, 2005 60 Star Tribune, July 26, 1996
need to be enhanced. Safer and organised transport would also provide more flexibility for working parents it would reduce the apprehension of parents for their children to go to school on their own, hence reducing car trips to school.
Travelling in daylight hours
Changing school session times may also lead to children travelling more during periods of darkness, which could have a negative impact on the security of children on their way to and from school. There have been long debates on changing the present time system in the UK of using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in the winter and advancing the clocks by one hour to British Summer Time (BST) for the rest of the year61. Proposals have frequently been put forward to advance the time by an hour to GMT+1 in the winter and GMT+2 in the summer. A common case put forward against such a change is the safety impact on school children who would be travelling to school in the dark in the morning. However, analysis from the experiment done in 1968-71, when such a system operated, found that while accidents increased in the morning they decreased in the afternoon by more including for children aged 5-15. The results for the north of England (ie North East, North West, & Yorkshire & Humber) found a positive net effect in terms of the numbers killed or seriously injured as a result of the time change. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents setting out its support for changes to the present system noted that only 18 per cent of accidents involving children occur in the morning. So lighter evenings would be beneficial in reducing the far greater number of accidents to school children in the evening. However, evidence for Portugal (which is in the same time zone as the UK and which also experimented with a switch to GMT+1 in the winter and GMT+2 in the summer between 1992-96) reported problems with children leaving for school in the dark and disturbances to sleeping habits due to it still being daylight till gone 10pm. In terms of staggering school hours it would appear that children travelling later to school in the morning and returning later in the evening could be beneficial from a safety perspective if that resulted in them getting home when it is still light in the winter.
School transport issues
Changing school session times will have an impact on travel to school journey patterns. The school run can cause congestion, particularly in urban areas. Therefore staggering school hours within an area could reduce congestion at the morning and evening peaks. Staggering school start times may also enable school bus providers to run several services to different schools in the morning and evenings. Traffic issues are generally a key driver behind the demand for staggered school hours. France
Many initiatives for more sustainable means of transport to school have been put into place throughout France. For example, many communes have put into place “walking buses” for primary school children, which consist of parents voluntarily taking their turn to walk a group of children to school62.
House of Commons Library (2007) The Energy Saving (Daylight) Bill Research paper 07/09 Targeting, revue de presse sur les plans de deplacements à l’école, 2004
Recently there has been an interest in the organisation of time and mobility in certain cities, especially since the introduction of the 35 hour working day in 2000. In Lyon the greater authority has developed a mission called “espace des temps” which deals with the implication of work time, opening times of shops and services as well as childcare services and schools, on mobility. It has put into place many initiatives dealing with the issue of time constraint and flexibility in urban areas and its impact on overall mobility. These structures have also developed in certain cities in Italy and Germany. Appendix B describes the objective of these “time and mobility” public agencies and the various schemes they have put into place. One of the initiatives put in place in Lyon concerns school times. In NeuvilleSur-Saone, for example, the starting times of different schools in the town have recently been slightly staggered in order to deal with congestion issues. Although it is too early to fully assess, the initiative seems to have shown that staggered school hours can have a positive impact on congestion, but needs to be accompanied by other measures regarding safety, adapting public transport timetables and provision to school needs and the promotion of sustainable modes of transport63. One of the initiatives put in place in Lyon concerns school times. In NeuvilleSur-Saone for example, the starting times of different schools in the town have recently been slightly staggered in order to deal with congestion issues. Although it is too early to fully assess, the initiative seems to have shown that staggered school hours by five to ten minutes have had a positive impact on congestion. However, this measure has been accompanied by other schemes for improving safety, adapting and coordinating public transport timetables and provision to school needs, as well as the promotion of sustainable modes of transport. Another example is in the fifth arrondissement of Lyon. The fifth arrondissement has a high concentration of schools in a relatively confined area. School starting times are also staggered in order to reduce congestion mostly in front of the schools and on public transport at peak times64. Feedback from parents has been positive. It appears that modifying school opening times has not affected parents’ work arrangements. However, it is important to note that these schemes were only implemented in secondary schools, where parents are more willing to let their children go to school on their own using organised transport if they are no longer able to drive them to school. There are currently two other schemes in progress in the centre of Lyon which aim to identify the issues linked with congestion created by the school run, school transport provision and whether staggered school hours could be put into place. Consultation with students, parents, school staff, school directors, local transport providers and the regional education academy is crucial for the decision process. First of all the Time agency carries out surveys of parents and students in the schools of the neighbourhood, to determine whether they have identified problems and what changes they would like to see happen If congestion and school transport in general has been identified as a problem, the time agency then undertakes consultation with the head teachers, the transport providers and other stakeholders in order to identify a working solution, and to discuss implementation. Staggered school times are
Communaute urbaine du grand lyon, une démarche novatrice pour une mobilite scolaire apaisée a Neuville sur saone, juin 2006 64 Communauté urbaine du grand Lyon, du nouveau sur la mobilité scolaire
determined and agreed by the head teachers, which also need to consider whether the transport providers will be able to organise their pick up service according to these modified opening times. 4.7.12 The city of Poitiers in France also has a “time and mobility agency”. In 2001, in cooperation with the University of Poitiers, they were able to stagger start times of university courses, the earliest courses starting at 8am and the latest starting at 8.45am. According to the agency, there was no considerable impact on traffic on roads, however, it dramatically improved conditions of travel on public buses during the peak hour. The scheme enabled the reduction of congestion on buses which benefited not only students but users of buses in general. The Agency of Poitiers has also tried to put into place other initiatives of the sort in the city for secondary schools, but has faced opposition from the regional education academy, which is apparently unwilling to change the way secondary schools in the region operate. Italy 4.7.14 In 2002, the City Council of Turin commissioned a survey of schools hours and the impact that a change in these would have on traffic on the road network and city mobility more generally. The study specifically looked at three neighbourhoods65. A total of 172 schools (119 public and 53 private) were surveyed: nursery (77); primary (57) and 38 middle schools. The survey showed a great variety in school opening and closing times. With regard to transport, the study looked at the proposition to change the opening and closing time of schools in order to disassociate traffic generated by trips to schools from ordinary traffic and the possibility to organise alternative transport modes to travel to school other than by private car. Alternative transport modes investigated include school buses, collective cab services and ‘secure’ routes for pedestrians. The survey highlighted that only 9 per cent of the schools were willing to change school opening times in order to reduce congestion. Motivations given for this choice were organisational and teaching problems as well as the fact that the current timetable was designed to respond to parents needs in the first place.
4.7.17 The UK government has been pushing travel plans for schools and other major employers for a number of years. Around 40 per cent of schools now have travel plans in place and there are now nine yellow bus pilot schemes in place in the UK66. The North East of England has been particularly active in promotion of school travel plans. A study for DfT that evaluated the impacts of school travel plans found that on average car use could be reduced by eight to 15 per cent67. Nonetheless, a number of parents will continue to drive their children to school, as it is part of their journey to work. Research by Bradshaw and Jones68 suggested that around a third of escort journeys were not solely made for the school run but were part of a linked trip for other purposes.
65 66 67
Citta Di Torino, Prima, Dopo, come andare a scuola, 2002 Home to School Travel and Transport Draft Guidance DfES Carins S, Sloman L, Anable J, Kirkbride A and Goodwin P for Department for Transport, The influence of soft factor interventions on travel demand, chapter 4: school travel plans 68 'The Family and the School Run: What would make a real difference', University of Westminster, 2000
School transport costs
Linked with reducing congestion is also the issue of the organisation of school transport and its cost. The provision of school to home transport is expensive especially if only one run can be made morning and evening. Given that the morning school run coincides with the general morning peak and the demise of work buses to factories there are few other services that the bus fleet can operate. Hence the desire to increase fleet utilisation by doubling up morning and afternoon runs by staggering school hours. Even where children use the standard public transport there is often a desire to reduce general overcrowding on services. Germany
The district of Guetersloh in Germany is currently attempting to introduce staggered school opening hours with the sole aim of reducing the cost of public transport provision: 620 (27%) of the 2,300 school pupils have school travel tickets or monthly travelcards at a reduced price. A study showed that 60 of 84 schools began between 7.50am and 8am69. By staggering school start times, it was calculated that a saving of €350,000 or 27 per cent per annum could be achieved by saving a requirement for 10 peak time only buses. Alternative methods examined included a series of disincentives to using public transport, encouraging pupils to use bicycles, mopeds or even their own cars. The proposals have been agreed in principle by the council and local transport operators. However, consultation with individual schools and parents associations is yet to take place once detailed plans have been drawn up. The final decision on school times remains with the individual school administrations. Proposals have also been discussed in the councils of Hildesheim and Heidelberg. However, these ideas are not always popular with pupils70.
4.8.4 In rural Staffordshire, a group of 17 schools staggered school start and end times to provide for the coordination of extended services, activities and the provision of transport, in order to make the services available to adults and children all days of the week. School times are staggered especially to make it easier for buses to link journeys between schools. Essex County Council has carried out a study on the redesign of school transport provision in the region, which identified cost savings of £350,000 by reorganising school transport in two districts. This would require some schools to stagger starting and ending times by 15 minutes71. For the moment rationalisation of school transport has been possible only for two schools where the same transport provider is able to do the school run for both schools because of different opening and finish times. Nonetheless this was possible only because one of the schools has chosen to adopt “continental” times. It appears it has not yet been possible to convince the LEA and schools to stagger school times in order to create transport cost savings and this mostly seems because of the reticence of school staff and parents to change current arrangements. Another example is in Northern Ireland where neighbouring schools must stagger their school start and end times in order to share bus services72.
Kreis Guetersloh – Abteilung Schule, Bildungsberatung und Sport, Beschlussvorlage: Schuelerfahrkosten – Kostensenkung durch Schulzeitstaffelung, 11/04/2005 70 see petition at www.realschule-joellenbeck.de/inhalt/Bildgalerien/demo.htm 71 Department for Transport, Travelling to school: an action plan, 2003 72 DETR, increasing bus use for journeys to school, 2001
School bus services are important for schools and is a key selling point for competing schools as bus use by pupils is generally high in Northern Ireland. With this system, each vehicle is therefore able to serve two or three schools in the morning and evening peaks. Coordination between schools is essential and finding a common ground is not always evident. Indeed, schools with the earliest and latest school start times are not as popular as: late afternoon classes are not popular with teachers, concentration levels of children reduces as the afternoon advances, difficulties for working parents to coordinate their timetables with their children’s.
United States 4.8.8 As highlighted previously a key reason for the wide range of school starting times in the US is to enable the more efficient operation of school bus services. In fact school opening hours are effectively set by the local council’s transportation department.73 Districts that provided no school bus services started schools later than those districts where buses operated a single run which in turn had later starting times than those districts where school buses undertook multiple runs morning and afternoon.
Extended school day in the north east
There are a number of examples of the extended school day being implemented in the North East at both primary and secondary level. For example, Archibald Primary School serves a relatively deprived area of Middlesbrough74. The first step in introducing extended hours were morning and afternoon nursery/playgroup sessions, then a breakfast club for 3–11 year olds and most recently, a holiday play scheme. The extended hours programme has successfully seen attendance and punctuality improve for the core school day and the school was rated “Outstanding” in its latest Ofsted Report. In Durham75 at least 134 primary and secondary schools are running extended services including: Out-of-school clubs; Study support; Health promotion; Community sports; and Family learning. Newcastle City Council has adopted a strategy76 with regard to the introduction of extended school hours which are seen as being a key part of the community. Around 75 per cent of schools in the city provide some childcare support and around half offer wider community services (usually to parents). The figure overleaf shows how the city sees extended schools becoming an integral part of the wider community. A key issue with extended schools relates to staffing. Pre and post school activities are generally not provided by the core teaching staff so additional staff
Report of the task force to study high school opening times 1998 Fairfax County Public Schools www.teachernet.gov.uk/CaseStudies/casestudy.cfm?id=59&subcatid=9&catid=4 75 www.teachernet.gov.uk/casestudies/casestudy.cfm?id=392 76 Strategy for improving services for children, young people and families through Extended Schools in Newcastle March 2006
will be employed at the school. A high proportion are likely to be drawn from the local community but there will be some additional road journeys arising from the extended school day.
Role of extended schools in the community
Other implications of staggering school opening hours
Organisation of school time will indirectly have an impact on the wider community with regard to a wide range of issues such as: Wider community use of schools and their facilities Employment impacts Business impacts Schools are often used after core times for gatherings and activities organised for the wider community. Changing school times will affect the opportunity for the wider community to use school buildings and facilities although the majority of events will be in the evening where there will be no impact. Changing school times may have knock on effects on other services. In England shops and services opening times are mostly deregulated and can change according to demand. In many other EU countries, however, they remain controlled by legislation although there is a trend towards more flexible opening times, better adapted to changing demand and lifestyles. In France, for example, city authorities are working to ensure schools, shops, public services and businesses stagger hours more to reduce traffic congestion. Staggering school times may have an impact on businesses. If they are unwilling or unable to put into place flexible working hours, then they may face difficulties in retaining and or recruiting staff. Flexible working hours are not applicable or are more difficult to implement for certain types of businesses and certain types of work. Moreover, putting in place flexible working arrangements can have a cost to companies in terms of management and organisation of work. The provision of suitable childcare facilities and out-of-hours activities is also an economic argument for attracting businesses in an area, as it ensures competitiveness and reduction in absenteeism of staff with children. A document from the Swiss Conseil D’Etat reports that a number of companies in the canton of Neufchatel and foreign businesses have been reticent to remain or move into the area because of the lack in effective childcare structures77. In certain parts of Switzerland it is companies that have mainly pushed for improvement of childcare and out-of-school facilities. There may also be fewer opportunities for children to work if their school finish times are put back although employers demand for such labour tends to be more evenings than afternoons. Changing school session times may have a positive impact on the quality of children’s learning environment. This in turn may improve overall qualifications level and opportunities to find employment in later years. There is clear evidence for the US that starting school later (albeit from very early morning) feeds directly into improved performance at secondary level. Finally, the impact of changing school times on crime will also affect the wider community as a whole. Reducing crime levels will improve the image of an area and the overall living environment. In general changing school hours has an impact on activities and services to children which are provided after school time, such as music and dance lessons. In Rennes, the vast majority of primary schools have adopted the four day week. However, in 2005-2006 there have been discussions regarding the reinstatement of school lessons on Wednesdays. This was particularly badly
Rapport du Conseil d’Etat au Grand conseil, horaires scolaires et professionnels, 2004
perceived by associations and companies that provide these services to children. The association of dance teachers of Rennes explained for example that coming back to the old system would represent a loss of 25 per cent of their total revenues, and require a complete reorganisation of all their classes. Staggering school hours may reduce the possibility of children to participate in extracurricular activities provided by independent associations and teachers, thereby affecting those businesses.
Conclusions and recommendations
Why stagger school hours
The main drivers of staggering school hours (that is changing the start and end times but keeping total hours the same) are: increasing road congestion; cost pressures on school transport; and child performance issues.
In all three cases the actual hours children are in school tends not to vary and therefore the wider implications do not change provided working parents are able to adapt their working hours to fit round the new school hours. This tends to be easier in the UK with its wide range of part-time jobs and in general relatively flexible working practices. However, a significant number of children do have responsibility for escorting younger siblings to and from school and looking after them after school. Staggering school hours may make some of these arrangements difficult to sustain.
Increasing road congestion
5.1.4 This tends to be very localised and is more pronounced in densely populated urban areas with schools located close together. Schools in such areas have staggered start times to reduce congestion. However, the impacts are not always clear cut with examples in Europe showing perhaps a greater impact on public transport congestion than road congestion. Congestion is sometimes just spread over a longer period with a slightly less peak of the peak. As schools tend to stagger over a time period, then unless parents work in a job that supports flexibility in starting time (i.e. workers can start at any time over a set period) then this can be very problematic and has caused problems in the examples in France. School travel plans may be more effective in reducing congestion associated with the school run rather than just staggering start times. While both in combination may have an even greater effect. It should also be noted that the morning peak traffic period is around 8.30 so bring forward core school hours may exacerbate congestion in some locations. Coordination between local authorities may well be needed to ensure any staggering along key congested corridors that cover more than one local authority is optimal.
Cost pressures on school transport
5.1.7 This is most notable in the US with its provisions of dedicated school buses but is also seen in parts of the UK, Italy and Germany. Cost issues and shortages of staff where there are dedicated bus fleets and to reduce pressure on public transport where there are not have encouraged local authorities to stagger school hours to enable buses to operate more than one service morning and afternoon. This can lead to large variations in school start times in the same district (e.g. 7.30-9.30 am in the US). School transport cost pressures in some US districts has also led to the introduction of four day weeks for schools with shorter holidays. Schools are staggered in terms of the day off they take.
Child performance issues
5.1.9 Research in the US and France has shown links between school times and children’s’ performance that has led to changes in school hours. In the US the research has concentrated on the sleep patterns among adolescents and has led to moves towards starting later (but US schools start as early as 7.15). While in France, perhaps driven by the long school day, there has been a move for primary schools to move to a four day week. The US evidence especially suggests there are limits to the extent that school hours should be moved earlier in the day for secondary schools.
Extended school day
The real impacts of changing school hours have, however, come from extending the school day rather than staggering it. All countries recognise the connection between employment (especially for women), school hours and childcare provision. The Dutch and Spanish school system with long lunch hours where children were expected to go home is no longer sustainable with the result that schools now offer childcare provision over the lunch period or have changed their operating hours. France has for a long time provided wrap around school based care from early morning to evening and the UK is moving towards the same system. Countries/districts that have changed school hours have generally recognised the need to also provide childcare. So where schools have moved to a four day week programmes have been put in place to ensure child care provision is available on the fifth day. Also in the US it was found parents could arrange childcare more easily for one full day than for a few hours for five days or found it easier to arrange work for four full days rather than for five shorter days. In other European countries there are considerable pressures to extend out-of school provision to enable greater female participation in the workforce especially in countries where schools finish at lunch time or early afternoon. It should be noted that extended school hours are delivered through the use of additional staff which may generate further road trips.
Wider impacts of staggering school hours
Where the school day remains the same length as before it was staggered the wider community impacts are not particularly marked. Where school hours are extended then the key impact is an increase in female participation in the labour market. Other key wider impacts identified relate to: Community use of schools; After school activities; Employment; and Crime.
Community use of school
5.3.2 Some schools are used by the wider community after hours – including gyms, swimming pools and in the US ice rinks etc. Extending the school day reduces the time some of these facilities are available both to school clubs and the wider community. However, adult education services/evening classes tend not to start till early evening and therefore are generally unaffected by staggered hours.
After school activities
5.3.3 A concern in the US of staggered hours is the impact on sports activities. This relates to losing daylight hours for training and matches and problems in arranging matches with other schools that have different staggered hours and having to travel later in the day during peak periods. Other after school activities such as music and drama are less affected as they are less dependent on daylights hours and links with other schools. Although in some of the French examples later school finishing times resulted in a reduction in the take up of some after school activities. The half-day of four day week education systems in some European countries has allowed the development of a number of commercial operations aimed at providing activities for children during this time. In the UK these tend to be run at weekends.
5.3.4 Businesses and Chambers of Commerce did not have any issue with staggered hours as (in the US) flexible working hours are common and could be readily managed. Businesses in France in locations where school hours have been staggered also did not have any major concerns. Although the changes affected only secondary schools and were only 15 minutes or so earlier or later than present. In the US there were some reports of school children with after school jobs being affected due to less time available to do them – although teenage employment is higher in the US than the UK.
Crime and anti-social behaviour
5.3.5 Crime peaks among school age children in the two hours after school. No evidence was found that staggered hours leads to any change in crime levels affecting children. However, there is an issue with teenage children’s behaviour who are left at home unsupervised, a common issue when schools finish early. Higher levels of underage sex, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse and school drops out were reported in the US. Spain has also seen a rise in the number latchkey children both as a result of changes in school hours and the increase in the instances of both parents working. This is also linked with the absence of affordable childcare. In the US and UK the use of public libraries by children as somewhere they go after school till they get picked up by parents is an issue. However, there is no evidence that it is the staggering of school hours per se that causes the problem. Concerns were also raised in various countries about children travelling to and from school in the dark as a result of changing school hours.
Difficulties linked to changing school hours
There are legal, administrative and personal implications of staggering school hours. From the different case studies it is apparent that changing school times involves numerous stakeholders and affects the work and family organisation of parents, employers, teachers, school staff and children. This makes it particularly difficult to find a solution that is adequate for all. Parents’ work and childcare arrangements are usually arranged around school opening times, therefore changing these may cause problems particularly in terms of working arrangements. Staggering school hours may also change the attractiveness of certain schools for pupils and parents. Northern Ireland’s case has proved that the schools
which have the earliest opening times and the latest opening times are not as popular as other schools which operate more traditional hours.
In considering staggering school hours in the North East account needs to be taken as to why the change is being proposed and the implications are fully understood. Changing school hours also requires consultation to be undertaken with various stakeholders and needs to be seen in the light of government’s extended schools policy. In considering this issue we recommend that One NorthEast: Undertakes a visit to Lyon or similar French city to gain a greater understanding of the work done there to reduce traffic congestion by altering opening hours of a wide range of organisations including schools; Maps the north east’s schools against the strategic road network to identify schools that are likely to contribute to significant congestion problems; For those schools review any existing travel plans and if none exist undertake an analysis of children and staff’s origins and mode of transport used to school, mapping those results against congestion hot spots; For those children who are driven to the schools that have been identified survey their parents to ascertain whether the school run is part of a linked trip; Surveys all parents who take children to/from school in these areas to identify working patterns if any, employers and their ability to readily change working hours; In any identified secondary schools survey children to understand any childcare responsibilities they have and pre and post school hour activities; Surveys key employers identified as employing a significant number of parents who take children to/from school to ascertain the impact on them of staggering school hours; In considering staggering school hours identify the scale and range of out-of school services that will need to be provided to ensure working parents are not disadvantaged and teenage children especially are not left “wandering the streets” or becoming “latchkey kids”. Surveys major employers in the region to ascertain working hours, reasons for those hours and whether there are any issues with the start and finish hours of employees of school age children possibly in cooperation with Workwise.
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Rapport du Conseil d’Etat au Grand conseil, horaires scolaires et professionnels, 2004
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Armin Fügenschuh (2005): The Integrated Optimization of School Starting Beruf und Familie berufundfamilie-bremen.de/cmain/s_1.html Bundesministerium fuer Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (2005) Zukunft: Familie – Ergebnisse aus dem 7. Familienbericht. Berlin Difu-Berichte Kommunale Zeitpolitik. Fallstudie Hansestadt Bremen. www.difu.de/publikationen/difu-berichte/4_99/artikel11.shtml Difu-Berichte Kommunale Zeitpolitik. Gemeinsame Tagung des Deutschen Instituts für Urbanistik mit der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung. www.difu.de/publikationen/difu-berichte/4_97/artikel08.shtml Difu-Berichte, Kommunale Zeitpolitik., www.difu.de/publikationen/difuberichte/1_97/artikel11.shtml Fiedler, Joachim Prof. Dr.-Ing (Hrsg./ 2001): Mobilitaetsmanagement. Anwendungsbeispiele aus verschiedenen Handlungsfeldern des Verkehrswesen und Staedtebaus Fuegenschuh, Armin (2006): Ideally matched – School starting times and public transport Guetersloh Schuelerfahrtkosten – Kostensenkung durch Schulzeitstaffelung Heitkoetter, Martina (2004): Lokale Zeitpolitik. Aus Projekt Fachlichwissenschaftliche Begleitung „Lokale Bedurfnisse fuer Familie“. Deutsches Jugendinstitut, Muenchen Jorgens, K, Vie de famille et flexibilité du temps de travail en Allemagne: le mythe de la conciliation, revue international enfance, famille, générations, 2006 Juergens, Kerstin (2006): Vie de famille et flexibilité du temps de travail en Allemagne: le mythe de la conciliation. Revue Internationale Enfances, Familles, Generations. Numéro 4, Printemps Jürgens, Kerstin (2003): Die Schimaere der Vereinbarkeit. Familienleben und flexibilisierte Arbeitszeiten. In: Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 23 (3/2003), 251-267 Jürgens, Kerstin (2005): Die neue Unvereinbarkeit? Familienleben und flexibilisierte Arbeitszeiten. In: Seifert, Hartmut (Hrsg.): Flexible Zeiten in der Arbeitswelt. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 169-190. Kreis Guetersloh – Abteilung Schule, Bildungsberatung und Sport, Beschlussvorlage: Schuelerfahrkosten – Kostensenkung durch Schulzeitstaffelung, 11/04/2005 Landkreis Mittweida Fortschreibung Nahverkehrsplan (2006) Planungsgruppe Nord Luebeck Schulkindbetreuung sichert Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Kind Occasional Papers Time Structures of the City. Case Study Bremen. www.difu.de/english/occasional/timestructures/ Project Bremen 2030 – eine Zeitbewusste Stadt www.bremen2030.de/de/detail.php?gsid=bremen02.c.730.de Schleswig-Holsteinischer Landtag Umdruck 15/3501: Interessenvertretung Betreute Grundschulen e.V., Stellungnahme zum Entschliessungsantrag betr. Schleswig-Holsteinische Offensive fuer Familien, www.sh-landtag.de/infothek/wahl15/umdrucke/3500/umdruck15-3501.pdf Times and Public Transport, Doktorarbeit, Logos Verlag Berlin, 165 Seiten, Oktober 2005
URS Nahverkehrsberatung Heidelberg (1996): Standards in der Schuelerbefoerderung im Odenwaldkreis www.beruf-und-familie.de/index.php www.diakonisches-werk-hannover.de/nachmittag.htm www.difu.de/index.shtml?/publikationen/difu-berichte/4_97/artikel08.shtml www.difu.de/publikationen/difu-berichte/1_97/artikel11.shtml www.gymnasium-essen-ueberruhr.de/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=795&Itemid=329 www.kerstin-juergens.de/ www.kinderheim-st-clara.de/nachmittag.html www.koerber-stiftung.de/wettbewerbe/studienpreis/frames/frames.php? param=www.koerberstiftung.de/wettbewerbe/studienpreis/aktuelles/newsletter_41.html www.maxgym.musin.de/profil/nachmittag/ www.nachmittagsbetreuung.de/
www.ine.es. Instituto Nacional de Estadística www.mec.es. Minsiterio de Educación y Ciencia
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Contacted School Centres www.cide.es www.cmontserrat.org www.educa.madrid.org/cp.conchaespina.madrid www.educa.madrid.org/web/cp.ciudaddezaragoz.madrid www.educa.madrid.org/web/ies.gregoriomaranon.madrid www.iesalamedadeosuna.org www.lasallecomtal.org www.rcajal.es www.xtec.cat/esc-anna-ravell
www.ceapa.es. Confederación Española de Asociaciones de Padres de Alumnos
Dutch Multi-Year Emancipation Policy Plan 2006-2010 Eurydice, the education system in the Netherlands, 2006 Vd Houwen, K, Goossen J, Reisgedrag Kinderen basisschool, 2004 www.emancipatieweb.nl www.minocw.nl/documenten/eurydice_2006_en.pdf www.traffictest.nl
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Wolfson A & Carskadon M (2005) A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times NASSP Bulletin Vol. 89 No. 642 Yarbrough, R. & Gilman, D. A. (2006). 4 days a week. American School Board Journal, 193, 43–45., National School Boards Association
APPENDIX B – Time agencies
Time agencies were first introduced in the 1980’s in Italy, pushed by Italian women in order to help conciliate family life and work. In general, rhythms of life have evolved in the past decades: mobility and distances travelled for daily activities has increased, notably due to urban sprawl and improvement in transport, the increase in leisure time, the entry of women into the labour force and changes in the traditional family model. This has led many mayors and other political actors to think about space and time issues particularly in cities and towns. In the 1990s legislation in Italy promoted the creation of time agencies in cities and towns. It suggested that time strategies, just as spatial strategies should be a direct responsibility of municipalities. A number of laws at the regional level were also approved, some allowing for time considerations to be included in development plans, as well as the allocation of financial resources for undertaking technical and feasibility studies with regards to time issues. There are now over 200 of these local offices in the country. The development of time agencies is more recent in France and dates back more or less to the implementation of the law on the 35 hour working week. These are now very active in a number of cities and towns, in order to promote policies and initiatives helping to solve issues linked to time and mobility. Other European countries such as Sweden and Germany have also developed time agencies while the activities and agenda of Workwise in the UK will be well known in the North East.
Role And Main Activities
The role of the time agencies is to identify issues linked to time and mobility, develop initiatives and persuade a number of different actors on the local scene to participate and in some instances fund these schemes. Agencies are in permanent contact with residents, employers, service providers and other institutions. The activities of time agencies cover a broad range of issues that are often linked to each other. They are involved in: the promotion of local services adapted to the changing needs of local population such as opening times of public facilities (libraries, the local council etc), childcare services and cultural institutions; the facilitation of mobility in the city and promotion of sustainable transport; flexibility of working arrangements and involvement of companies in time related issues; and organisation of school time.
Initiatives launched by time agencies in France other than in schools and childcare include: Afternoon markets: traditionally, markets in France take place in the mornings. However, especially with the increase in the labour force participation of women, less people are able to go to their local market. Markets in certain areas are now taking place in the afternoon from 4.30 to 7pm so that more people can access them. This also reduces congestion in the morning peak.
Longer library, swimming pool opening times and administrative services Rethinking shop opening hours, including on weekends Rethinking of the use of neighbourhoods in time: development of “chronobiological maps”.
Appendix C: Types of school in England
This appendix sets out a brief guide to the wide range of schools that are found in England as adapted from the government’s web site www.parentscentre.gov.uk.78
State schools do not charge parents to send their children to attend. The majority of pupils (more than 90 per cent) go to state schools. In most areas, children aged five to ten years old attend primary schools and move on to secondary schools at 11 years old for education up to the age of 16 or beyond. Most state schools are co-educational - with girls and boys as pupils but a small number provide for either boys or girls. There are four categories of state-funded mainstream schools: Community Foundation Voluntary controlled Voluntary aided There are two categories of state-funded special schools: Community special Foundation special
Schools in all the four categories have a lot in common - they are self-managing and do not charge fees. They work in partnership with other schools and local authorities (LAs), and receive funding from LAs. Each category also has its own characteristics:
The LA employs the school's staff, owns the school's land and buildings and is the admissions authority. It has primary responsibility for deciding the arrangements for admitting pupils.
At foundation schools, the governing body is the employer of the school staff. The governing body is also the admissions authority - having primary responsibility for determining arrangements for admitting pupils. The school's land and buildings are either owned by the governing body or by a charitable foundation.
Voluntary aided schools
The governing body is the employer of the school staff. The governing body is also the admissions authority, having primary responsibility for determining arrangements for admitting pupils. The school's land and buildings will normally be owned by a charitable foundation. The governing body will contribute towards the capital costs of establishing/maintaining the school buildings.
Voluntary controlled schools
The LA employs the school's staff. The LA is also the admissions authority, having primary responsibility for deciding the arrangements for admitting pupils. The school's land and buildings will normally be owned by a charitable foundation.
Mainstream school specialisation and services
Within the four categories of school, there are further ways in which schools can specialise to offer additional benefits and services:
The Specialist Schools Programme is central to the government's goal to increase diversity and improve standards in secondary education. The programme helps schools to build on their particular strengths, establish distinctive identities through their chosen specialisms and achieve their targets to raise standards. Specialist schools have a special focus on their chosen subject area, but must meet the full National Curriculum requirements and deliver a broad and balanced education to all pupils.
An extended school is one which provides a range of services and activities, often beyond the school day, to help meet the needs of its pupils, their families and the wider community. Across the country many schools are already providing extended services which may be valuable to parents, such as childcare, adult education, study support, ICT facilities and adult sports programmes. A few are starting to provide health and social care.
Maintained boarding schools
There are a small number of state boarding schools which only charge for boarding fees tuition is free as it is paid for by the government.
These schools are provided by LAs for certain children with special educational needs (SEN), although the vast majority are educated in ordinary schools.
Other State-Funded Schools
Trust schools are government-funded schools that receive additional support from a charitable trust such as a local business, community group or educational charity.
Academies And City Technology Colleges
There are two types of independent schools that have been established in various parts of the country which are publicly funded and do not charge parents fees: Academies City Technology Colleges (CTCs)
Academies are publicly funded independent schools that will provide a first-class free education for local pupils.
City technology colleges
CTCs are independent, all-ability, non-fee-paying schools for pupils aged 11 to 18 years old. Their purpose is to offer pupils of all abilities in urban areas across England the opportunity to study successfully towards the world of work. All CTCs offer a wide range of vocational qualifications post-16 alongside A levels or equivalents.
There are approximately 2,300 independent schools in England. They are not funded by the state and obtain most of their finances from fees paid by parents and income from investment. Just over half of all independent schools have charitable status.
Provision For Children Aged Under Five
The Early Years Development Plan guarantees every four year old a free nursery place. Children under five years old can attend: State nursery schools Nursery classes attached to primary schools Playgroups in the voluntary sector Privately run nurseries In England and Wales, many primary schools also operate an early admission policy where they admit children under five years old into reception classes. Nursery provision for three year olds is funded at the discretion of local authorities. Places for children under three years old in voluntary or private pre-school settings are paid for largely by parents
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