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ABSTRAK

HUBUNGAN PEMBERIAN ASI EKSKLUSIF DAN PEMBERIAN


VITAMIN A DENGAN KEJADIAN INFEKSI SALURAN PERNAFASAN
AKUT PADA ANAK USIA 1-5 TAHUN

Skripsi, 2010
Yarah Azzilzah

Latar Belakang: Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut (ISPA) merupakan salah satu
penyebab morbiditas dan mortalitas pada balita. Di Indonesia angka kejadian
ISPA pada balita tahun 2001 mencapai 42%. Tingginya kejadian ISPA ini diduga
dipengaruhi oleh pemberian ASI eksklusif dan pemberian vitamin A. Tujuan
penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya hubungan pemberian ASI
eksklusif dan pemberian vitamin A dengan kejadian ISPA pada anak usia 1-5
tahun.
Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian analitik observasional dengan
desain cross sectional. Penelitian ini dilakukan dari tanggal 3 November 2010 –
29 November 2010 di Puskesmas Sekip Palembang. Populasi penelitian ini adalah
anak usia 1-5 tahun yang mengunjungi Puskesmas Sekip Palembang. Sampel pada
penelitian ini dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik consecutive sampling. Data
penelitian ini diperoleh dari data primer dan data sekunder. Teknik analisis data
menggunakan statistik uji chi-square.
Hasil: Didapatkan 103 sampel, laki-laki 60 anak (58,3%) dan perempuan 43 anak
(41,7%). Distribusi pemberian ASI eksklusif 66 anak (64,1%) dan pemberian
vitamin A lengkap 85 anak (82,5%). Kejadian ISPA sering 42 anak (40,8%) dan
kejadian ISPA jarang 61 anak (59,2%). Hasil analisis chi square menunjukkan
bahwa ada hubungan antara pemberian ASI eksklusif dan kejadian ISPA (nilai p =
0,000 < 0,05, RP = 0,381 CI 95% = 0,239-0,608) dan ada hubungan antara
pemberian vitamin A dan kejadian ISPA (p = 0,000 < 0,05, RP = 0,424 dan CI
95% = 0,286-0,626).
Simpulan: Ada hubungan antara pemberian ASI eksklusif dan pemberian vitamin
A dengan kejadian ISPA pada anak usia 1-5 tahun.

Kata kunci: ASI Eksklusif, Vitamin A, Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut


ABSTRACT

RELATIONSHIPS EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AND PROVISION


OF VITAMIN A WITH THE OCCURRENCE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY
INFECTION IN CHILDREN AGES 1-5 YEARS OLD

Skripsi, 2010
Yarah Azzilzah

Background: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) is one of causes of morbidity


and mortality in children under five. In Indonesia the occurrence of ARI in
children under five in 2001 reached 42%. The high occurrence of ARI was
allegedly influenced by exclusive breastfeeding and the provision of vitamin A.
The objective of this study was to determine whether or not relationships
exclusive breastfeeding and provision of vitamin A with the occurrence of ARI in
children aged 1-5 years.
Method: The study was an observational analytic study using cross sectional
design. Research was conducted from the date of 3 November 2010 - 29
November 2010 at the Puskesmas Sekip Palembang. The population is children
aged 1-5 years who visited the Puskesmas Sekip Palembang. The samples in this
study were selected by using consecutive sampling technique. The research data
was obtained from primary and secondary data. Statistical analysis was using chi-
square test.
Results: There were 103 samples, 60 male children (58.3%) and 43 female
children (41.7%). Distribution of exclusive breast feeding was 66 children
(64.1%) and provision of a complete vitamin A was 85 children (82.5%). The
occurrence of frequent ARI was 42 children (40.8%) and the occurrence of rare
ARI was 61 children (59.2%). The result of chi-square analysis showed that there
is a relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and the ARI occurrence (p =
0.000 <0.05, RP = 0.381 95% CI = 0.239 to 0.608) and there is a relationship
between provision of vitamin A and the ARI occurrence (p = 0.000 <0.05, RP =
0.424 and CI 95% = 0.286 to 0.626).
Conclusion: There is a relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and
provision of vitamin A with the occurrence of ARI in children aged 1-5 years old.

Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, Vitamin A, Acute Respiratory Infection