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STEEL CONSTRUCTION

JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE


VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005

Are
AreYou
You Getting
Getting The Bolts You
You Specified?
Specified?
AA Discussion Paper
Discussion Paper

IS SNN 0049-2205
0049-2205
Print Post Approved
pp 255003/01614
STEEL CONSTRUCTION - EDITORIAL
Editor: Scott Munter, National Manager – Engineering & Construction
Over the past two years high strength structural bolts have once again
resurfaced as a quality concern due to the market pressure to reduce
project costs. This has resulted from the importation of product from
new global sources. Bolts are key structural elements and to accept
untraceable product without quality certification from a recognised
authority is very high risk.
A market perception is that there has been no major failures or life lost
as a result of high strength bolt failures. But there has been failures
both at installation and in-service many of which are never reported but
concealed by the legal system. ASI last reported on failures in August
2001. This litigation process conceals not only the problem but the
important lessons and learning. Safety factors are included in design this problem has occurred, but more importantly examines the technical
to prevent failure but designers have to remember that inbuilt code aspects of high strength structural bolts. This paper enables readers to
and material standard safety factors are for product complying with understand all critical mechanical properties and geometrical aspects
Australian Standards. These safety factors are reduced even further by before concluding with guidelines of the minimum requirements for
nonconforming product. certification. ASI has also included a reference to current media
releases at the conclusion of this paper. Members are encouraged to
ASI has held technical evenings in most states and many government read these additional documents and forward any feedback on bolt
authorities have released hazard alerts, planning circulars and building related issues in the Australian construction market.
notes to provide advice on high strength bolt quality to all facets of the
supply chain, installers and certifiers. It should be stated that there ASI refers readers to the reprinted Advisory Note in this issue on the
are very reputable quality bolt suppliers still available in the Australian design methodology for eccentrically connected cleats which now
market. This comprehensive paper brings together the how and why contains recommendations.

© AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE


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2 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


Are you getting the bolts you specified?
A discussion paper
Saman Fernando & Steven Hitchen - Ajax Engineered Fasteners

Summary
Bolted connections have the potential to be the weakest link in structural steel framework if the project
does not receive the bolts that are specified in the design documentation. Suppliers must source and certify
compliance of bolts with the design specifications. The specification involves a duty of care by the supplier
and specifier and if this process does not occur the traceability of the system is compromised and the risk
of poor quality product increases as observed in some recent Australian projects. Market pressure to reduce
the cost of steel packages has resulted in global sourcing from regions with varying levels of capability and
lesser experience in the manufacturing of quality assured structural bolt assemblies. Slightly more expensive
product which is a negligible percentage of the overall project cost is cheap insurance to pay for a safe and
serviceable structure. Supply chain quality assurance is critical to minimise this quality risk and ensure
conforming bolt assemblies are supplied, installed and certified. This paper concentrates on high strength
bolt assemblies commencing with a brief outline of the market history of structural bolts in Australia and
details quality problems, marking and properties before concluding with an outline of the documentation
required to ensure compliance.

Introduction also important when selecting bolts. In order to


Bolted joints are designed to keep structures assure a quality construction or fabrication with
and other engineering assemblies together. safety, economy and functionality, bolts that satisfy
Engineers are going to extreme lengths to the expected performance criteria must be used.
make sure that the correct fastener is used in
the design. In general, the design will perform Fastener quality is one of the most overlooked – and
to the level that the engineer expected only in some cases disregarded – aspects in construction
when the bolts specified by the engineer are and manufacturing in Australia. This complacency
used as intended. In engineering designs, bolts is a result of 100 years of relying on Australian
are specified in various ways. It is common manufacturers to supply product equal to the
that a particular Australian Standard or a set highest quality available anywhere in the world.
of standards are referred to when correctly Unfortunately, this is no longer possible as most
specifying a bolt and a nut. Simple parameters standard fasteners are now imported; even Ajax
such as: was driven out of the market in 2000-01 by cheap
imports.
• property class or grade
• nominal diameter Ajax was the quality benchmark in Australia for
• thread form many years, forcing importers to operate their
• thread pitch own testing and certification systems to compete.
• head geometry Inevitably, the difference between the quality of the
• nut geometry Australian-made product and the imported product
• overall length became less, and the competitive focus turned to
• threaded length price alone. Unable to compete with price as the
• grip length and major selling criterion, Ajax was forced to withdraw
• plating specification from all standard stocked bolt products in 2001.

are specified in the standards. When a washer As the importers began battling each other, in
is used in the assembly the internal and external particular, the value and quality of high tensile
diameters, hardness, thickness and coating of and structural bolts dropped. With the industry
the washer also need to be specified. Similarly, benchmark removed, the need to ensure and certify
the mechanical properties such as the tensile the quality of fasteners was removed, and importers
strength, yield strength and proof strength are began to look for cheaper sources.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005 3


In 1999, the US government enacted Public the number of such failures is alarmingly growing,
Law 101-592 (1990), also known as the we have taken this initiative to highlight the current
Fastener Quality Act (FQA). This legislation problems occurring in the industry with respect to
forced US importers to take responsibility substandard bolt and nut products. Although some
for the product they were supplying into the of these failures are associated with incorrect design
US market. The law was introduced after and incorrect installation, a significant number of
defective and counterfeit fasteners caused failures were a result of using poor quality fasteners.
the death of nearly 400 US citizens over 15 It should be stated that not all current suppliers of
years. Manufacturers of substandard bolts were imported fasteners supply substandard products.
faced with either complying with the new law There are very reputable quality suppliers still
and absorbing the extra costs, or finding new available in the Australian market.
markets with no quality protection. Some of
the ex-suppliers to USA may have ended up in There is another type of quality issue emerging in
Australia. the Australian construction engineering industry. It
is common nowadays to have large turn-key projects
In 2002, International Standards Organization designed in one country (eg. Japan, USA, Germany)
(ISO) introduced the ISO/FDIS 16426: and fabricated in another country (eg. China,
Fasteners – Quality Assurance system in India, Taiwan) and installed and commissioned in
order to address similar issues occurring on Australia. As some of the overseas designers are
global markets. This provides fastener quality not familiar with the relevant Australian standards
assurance guidelines that are applicable to they tend to use practices well outside the Australian
suppliers, importers, distributors and purchasers. standards. For example, in some countries A490M
(PC10.9) bolts are used for typical structural
One early sign of this emerging quality problem applications. AS4100 does not facilitate the use of
in Australia occurred in a large portal frame PC10.9 bolts in structural applications. In this case,
in Victoria. Chinese structural bolts were either the relevant standard for the design should
fracturing after assembly, which caused a call to be different or a whole lot of additional supporting
replace all bolts from this source. The incident information may be required to justify the design
was noted on the (then) AISC website in August methods used to comply with AS4100. The issue
2001. of responsibility and liability has to be handled
carefully here and the design engineers must take
More recently, a hangar collapsed at Canberra responsibility and liability for all the practices
in late 2004, which prompted an investigation outside the Australian standard.
by ACT Workcover. The investigation report
found that not only were the bolts not up to Furthermore, if local riggers are used for installation
the standard, but also that certification of any they may be neither trained for nor have the
validity was hard to obtain. The report – HA.32 necessary equipment to carryout the construction
– recommended that end-users insist on test to an unfamiliar standard. Tightening methods,
certificates and statements of conformance for tightening torques and so forth must then be
the specific batch of bolts. prescribed by the design engineers and appropriate
training equipment and auditing should be provided.
Ajax Fasteners Innovations (AFI) the R&D arm
Most likely in turn-key projects, the whole package
of Ajax Engineered Fasteners currently offers
including structural bolts is imported and as a
consulting and risk assessment services as well
result the bolts may not comply with the relevant
as failure investigations to the industry. Our
Australian standards. The regulatory authorities
NATA-accredited test facilities and wealth of
such as NOHS and building inspectors as well as
knowledge in the fastener related technologies
insurance companies would face a dilemma when
allow us to help the industry with various
dealing with these projects.
fastening-related issues. Typically, we sign
confidentiality agreements before we start any
consulting or failure analysis work. As a result, This discussion paper aims at highlighting the
AFI is unable to release exact details of the typical problems in the market place; how to identify
failures we have come across. However, as them and how to avoid them. Furthermore, this
paper recommends the methods of specifying the
1 James A. Speck, Mechanical Fastening, Joining and correct fastener and the methods of assuring that the
Assembly, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997. p.99-103 correct fastener (as specified) has been used.

4 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


What are the common quality problems? difficult to achieve the necessary mechanical
The quality issues seen in fasteners can properties by using standard heat treatment methods.
be broadly classified into systematic and Secondly, the bolts should be heated evenly so that
unsystematic process characteristics. Systematic there is no temperature gradient within a batch or
process characteristics are built in to the system in a bolt. This means bolts should be arranged in a
and are present on each and every fastener. For single layer on the oven belt (in case of a continuous
example, the width across flats of a hexagonal flow mesh belt furnace) and the belt speed should
drive bolt is one such characteristic. When be adjusted to make sure that all the bolts reach the
the forging process is designed the tools are required band of temperature for heat treatment at
made to provide a dimension meeting the lower the exit of the oven.
limit of the tolerance. As tools wear off, this
dimension gets larger. Once this dimension Typically, bolts are then dropped in to oil tanks for
reaches the upper limit of the tolerance band, quenching. If a large number of bolts were dropped
the machine should be stopped and tools should in at once the temperature of the oil will increase
be changed. and the cooling rate of the bolt will decrease. As the
cooling rate determines the final hardness, variations
Typically, the Statistical Process Control (SPC) of hardness among bolts from the same batch
method is used in production facilities to may be experienced. The cooling system used to
maintain the capabilities of the processes and maintain the temperature of the quenching oil should
to monitor tool conditions. All dimensions and also be efficient and well maintained. Otherwise,
characteristics that are designed in to the tooling the first part of the batch will have a faster cooling
and processes belong to this category. rate than the latter part of the batch due to increased
quenching oil temperature. In general, heat
Then there are process characteristics that are treatment process must be carried out with utmost
not systematic. Non-systematic characteristics care. If the facility is subject to power interruptions
include: (as reported in some parts of China) it will be
• cracks in raw material extremely challenging to maintain the quality of heat
• occlusions treatment as most of the mesh-belt type ovens work
• inclusions at steady state. Batch ovens on the other hand have
• welding points in wire a better control; however, they are extremely slow
• sporadic chipping in an extrusion die and costly for bolt manufacturing.
• chipped forging die
• parts with missing threads As already understood all these practices need
• threads with pitch errors extreme care, adequate time, stoppages to the
• non-helical threads and machine, modifications to the tooling and set-up
• excessive coating thickness, as well as a well trained operator. As a result this
among others. will add significantly to the cost of the product.
Therefore, it must be recognized that quality comes
These problems are more intermittent and very at a cost.
difficult to eliminate unless 100% inspection
is used. Some of the above defects can be The following is a list of quality issues experienced
eliminated by improved process procedures by AFI testing services:
such as when the wire is welded, observe and
reject the parts including the weld, or hold few Identification:
parts in a primary holding tray and visually 1. Mixed product in a box (with different head
inspect them prior to releasing them to the main marking)
output bucket. Visual inspection of this sort 2. Head marking not clearly identifiable
will pick up die chipping, thread faults, wire 3. Head marking does not comply with the
seams and cracks, etc, so that the sorting may be relevant Australian standard
limited to the few parts in the holding tray. 4. The box does not contain traceability
Another source of defects in fastener information
manufacturing is heat treatment. Firstly, heat 5. The box carries a statement of conformance
treatment requires the use of correct chemical to national and international standards
composition in the wire. With incorrect without any specific reference to the
chemical composition it will be extremely particular standard.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005 5


Mechanical Strength: ignores all quality aspects. This should be reported
1. The tensile strength is less than the immediately and the supplier should be avoided for
specified any further purchases.
2. Yield strength is less than the specified
3. Proof strength is less than the specified Head markings not visible, does not meet the
4. Hardness (where applicable) is not standards
within the specified range Again in order to identify a quality product the
5. % elongation at failure is less than the markings have to be clearly visible and should meet
specified the AS4291.1 (metric bolts) and AS4291.2 (metric
6. % reduction in area at failure is less than nuts) or AS 2465 (unified) requirements. Not clearly
the specified visible head markings may be an indication of the
7. Strength under wedge loading is below quality of the product.
the minimum required
8. Incorrect decarburization depths Box does not contain quality information
9. Failure occurs by head popping off In order to be traceable, the relevant standard and
10. Nuts stripping the batch number unique to the batch of bolts should
be clearly identified on the box. General statements
Geometry: such as the “product contained in this box meets and
1. Incorrect thread geometry exceeds all national and international standards”
2. Incorrect head geometry does not mean much. It must identify the relevant
3. Incorrect shank geometry standard. Sometimes, the box may not have enough
4. Incorrect bolt geometry space to identify all relevant standards. In that
5. Incorrect nut geometry case the supplier’s literature should provide a list
6. Incorrect washer geometry of relevant standards against the part number of the
product. Insufficient quality information on the
Material:
packaging may also be an indication of the quality of
1. Chemical composition not meeting the
the products.
relevant standard
2. Splits, occlusions and impurities
The tensile strength, yield strength and proof
3. Forging defects
4. Surface defects strength are less than the specified by the relevant
standard
Plating: This is very common in substandard components,
1. Plating thickness does not meet the mainly due to incorrect material or incorrect heat
relevant standard treatment. In some bolts we have found that the
2. Uneven plating thickness surface hardness is extremely high but the core
3. Binding threads hasn’t reached the necessary core hardness. We
4. Plating does not cover the full extent of have also tested some bolts which failed at around
the fastener 70% of the expected strength. Many overseas
5. Corrosion already starting manufacturers do not have heat treatment facilities
in-house. They send product to bulk heat treatment
The following sections describe the extent and facilities. At these facilities, the ovens are typically
impact of those issues. overloaded and the product in the middle does not
go through the full temperature cycle necessary for
Mixed product in a box heat treatment. Hence, only some of the products
(with different head marking) meet the specification, in some cases, allowing them
This is one of the most dangerous findings. to pass the batch by selectively testing such product.
What this means is that the product in the box
has come from more than one manufacturing % elongation and % reduction of area not
source and therefore from many different meeting the standard
batches. The traceability of the above product This is a parameter measuring the ductility of the
is totally lost. Any quality testing done by bolts. Due to incorrect heat treatment, bolts can
the end-user does not give any indication to become very brittle. These bolts typically pass
the quality of the products in the box. This the strength criteria but fail in % elongation and %
is a characteristic of a supplier who totally reduction of area criteria.

6 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


Strength under wedge loading dissected and microscopically inspected for cold
This test loads the fastener while placing a shuts, surface cracks and any other systematic
wedge under its head. If the fastener is too defects.
brittle, the head will snap off under load. This
again is a measure of the ductility and the Geometry
strength of the fastener. There are certain geometrical features that are
critical to the functionality of the product. Width
Failure occurs outside the threaded area across flats, width across corners, thread pitch,
Typical bolt design is made in such a way that thread OD and thread ID, etc, are crucial to assure
the bolt failure should always occur in the correct engagement with the tightening tool and the
threaded area or the shank area. If any bolt is corresponding nut. Length, thread length and shank
failed in the head-shank intersection either a diameter are crucial for the compatibility of the bolt
quality problem or an application problem will in the joint; the flange diameter, head and nut height,
indeed be the reason. Occlusions, inclusions, root radius of the thread, the radius in the head-
material defects, forging defects, not adequate shank intersection and under-head bearing surface
radius in the corner, are the typical root causes diameter are important for the strength performance
for this type of failure. of the bolt. All of these dimensions are given a
tolerance range by the relevant standard. Bolts and
Nut stripping nuts must meet these tolerance limits. Incorrect
As will be discussed later in the text, nuts dimensions may also cause nut/bolt binding leading
are not meant to fail in a bolted joint under to galling of mating surfaces.
any circumstances. A stripped nut is a clear
indication of lapse in quality if it failed when Material
used with a correct strength bolt. This is again As discussed earlier, chemical composition and
a common occurrence with some substandard uniformity of material, free from splits, occlusions
imported products. and any impurities is important to allow proper
forging and heat treatment of the bolts.
Surface Defects
Cracks in the wire, occlusions (trapped gas), Plating
inclusions (impurities), chipped extrusion dies The main function of plating is to provide corrosion
and forging dies could cause surface defects. protection and some lubricity. Certain standards (eg.
Depending on the extent and location of the AS1252) require application of wax to the thread
defect, it could seriously compromise the in order to assure correct friction conditions and to
performance of a fastener. Typically, surface avoid galling. This requires:
defects cause increased stress concentration
leading to crack initiation and subsequent a) the substrate to be properly cleaned prior to
fatigue failures. application of plating, and
b) an even distribution of the coating thickness over
Forging Defects the entire surface area of the bolt.
The forging process forms a piece of cylindrical
wire into a bolt. The head area of the bolt If the bolts are not cleaned adequately prior to
will undergo severe plastic deformation. It is coating, that will cause coat peeling and produce
very important in tool design to make sure that areas without any coating hence compromising
material flow occurs via the shortest route when corrosion resistance. Electro-plating inherently
forming the final part. Incorrect tool design and attracts more plating thickness to the edges of the
forging process may cause surface cracks (due product. This typically should not cause a problem
to excessive deformation), cold shuts (material as the maximum coating thickness of an electro-
flows over to form a hidden cavity) and other plated product is in the order 8 -15 µm. Hot-dip
local defects that are systematic to the particular galvanized coatings, on the other hand, are sensitive
tool design or intermittent due to particular not only to the cleanliness of the bolt but also to
condition of the tool (surface roughness, friction the cleanliness of the galvanizing bath. As this is
coefficient) or the material. All these defects applied by dipping the bolts in a molten zinc bath
should be avoided by proper tool design and gravity effects may also cause uneven coating
intermittent microscopic examination of cross- thickness. Drips and dabs also cause uneven coating
sections on the highly deformed zones of the thickness in poorly galvanized products. Most
bolt. Typically, the first off products will be threaded fasteners should be centrifuged after

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005 7


galvanizing to alleviate this problem. Failure to Bolt Type Relevant
do this will also result in uneven coatings. Poor Australian
engagement with the nut and the tightening Standard
tool are the main practical problems associated
with uneven coatings other than compromised Hexagon Head Metric Commercial AS1111
corrosion protection. Most of these defects are Bolts
visible to the naked eye. Many products have Hexagon Head Metric Commercial AS1111
been observed already corroded in the box on Setscrews (fully threaded)
arrival. Hexagon Head BSW Mild Steel AS2451
Bolts/Setscrews
The impact of various defects on the Hexagon Head Precision Metric AS1110
performance of the bolt may vary depending on High Tensile bolts/Setscrews
the defect. While some of the above defects are
somewhat innocent, there are some defects that Hexagon Head Unified High Tensile AS2465/
can totally compromise the functionality and (UNF/UNC) bolts/Setscrews SAE
safety of the joint. Grade 5,
Grade 8
When describing plating, another important Hexagon unified high tensile nuts AS2465/
issue is worth noting. It is well reported that SAE
high strength fasteners that has hardness above Grade 5,
HRC37 are susceptible to Stress Corrosion Grade 8
Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement. If such Hexagon Head High Strength AS1252
product comes in contact with hydrogen as a Structural bolts nuts and washers
part of the manufacturing process unexpected
Cup Head Metric, Square Neck AS1390
fractures could occur when in use. Common
processes such as acid washing and electro- Cup Head Metric Oval Neck AS1085
plating bring these products in contact with Fishbolts
hydrogen. It is common practice in the fastener Cup Head BSW Square Neck AS B108
industry to apply Hydrogen Embrittlement Cup Head BSW Oval Neck AS E25
Removal (HER) process immediately after Fishbolts
the high strength parts come in contact with Hexagon Head Metric Coach Screws AS1393
hydrogen. This process requires baking
products at 205 °C for a four – five hour ISO metric hexagon socket head cap AS1420
period. All products PC10.9 and higher screws
must have HER process done if they come in ISO metric hexagon socket set AS1421
contact with hydrogen in the manufacturing screws
process. We have noticed that certain high ISO metric machine screws AS1427
tensile electroplated products coming from Hot dip galvanized steel bolts and AS1559
overseas may not have undergone this process. associated nuts and washers for
To be prudent PC12.9 and higher products tower construction
must not come in contact with hydrogen in the
ISO metric hexagon nuts including AS1112
manufacturing process. That is why PC12.9
bolts are not available in electro-plated finish. thin nuts, slotted nuts and castle nuts
Plain washers for metric bolts, AS1237
How do you specify a bolt, nut and a washer? screws and nuts for general purpose
The easiest way to specify all the characteristics Self drilling screws for the building AS3566
of a bolt is by referring to an Australian and construction industry
standard which specifies that type of bolt. Then Steel Nails, Metric series AS2334
all you need to specify is the nominal length,
nominal diameter, pitch, property class and in Bolts, studbolts and nuts for fanges AS2528
some instances the surface coating. That means and other high and low tempreture
by specifying only a few parameters you can applications
specify any bolt fully and accurately.

8 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


Surface Coating Type: Relevant imperial BSW thread profile is described in AS3501
and Unified National Thread UNC and UNF is
Australian
described in AS3635.
Standard
Hot dip galvanized coatings AS1214 Nominal Length of the bolt
on threaded fasteners (ISO Traditionally, the nominal length of the bolt for
metric coarse thread series) the application is selected by having at least two
full threads protruding beyond the nut in the final
Electroplated coatings on AS1897 assembly. The available length range (preferred
threaded components (ISO and non-preferred) is shown in the relevant standard
metric coarse series) for the bolt. Typically, the length of the bolt (L) is
Hot dip galvanized coatings AS B193 added to the diameter description by adding x L at
on fasteners (BSW and the end of the identification. For example, M20-
2.5px100 for specifying a coarse thread M20 bolt
UNC threads)
with a pitch of 2.5mm and a length of 100mm or 3⁄4
Electroplated coatings on AS K132 UNC x 6 for specifying a 3/4” UNC coarse thread
threaded components bolt 6 inches long.
Part 1 - Cadmium on steel,
Part 2 - Zinc on steel Property Class
According to AS4291.1, all high strength bolts can
Nominal Diameter be identified by the property class generally denoted
For metric series the nominal diameter is by ‘PC X•Y’ where ‘X’ x 100MPa gives the nominal
denoted with an M followed by the diameter in tensile strength of the material and ‘Y’ gives 10 x
millimeters For example M20 denotes metric the ratio between tensile and yield strength. For
20mm nominal diameter bolts or nuts. example, ‘PC 8.8’ bolt has a nominal tensile strength
of 8 x 100MPa = 800MPa and a yield strength of 0.1
In BSW or Unified imperial series the nominal x 8 x 800MPa = 640MPa.
diameter is given as a fraction of an inch. For
example 3⁄4” means a nominal diameter of 0.75 Nuts are specified in AS4291.2 in accordance
inches. with the strength of the bolt with which they were
designed to be used. For example, a PC 8.8 bolt gets
Thread Profile and Pitch a Class 8 nut and a PC 10.9 bolt gets a Class 10 nut.
Some diameters of bolts and nuts are available Note that only one figure is given in the nut class.
in fine and coarse threads. For example, an This is because nuts do not have tensile strengths,
M16 bolt with a thread pitch of 1.5mm can be but proof loads as their capacity. The Class of a
specified by: nut is not directly related to the strength as it is
• M16-1.5p with a bolt. An M16 Class 8 nut sees a nominal
• M16x1.5, or stress of 880MPa under proof load, whereas the
• M16-fine. corresponding bolt has a tensile strength of only
800MPa. In another comparison, a PC8.8 M16 bolts
Similarly, a coarse threaded fastener can be (AS1110) has a proof load of 91kN and an ultimate
identified by tensile load of 125kN based on a tensile stress area
• M16-2.0p, of 157mm2. The corresponding class 8 nut based
• M16x2.0, or on the same stress area has a proof load of 138.2kN.
• M16-coarse. When this proof load is applied to the nut for 15
seconds via a hardened mandrel and then released,
ISO Metric coarse thread profiles are described it should be possible to unwind the nut by just using
in AS1275 while ISO Metric Fine thread fingers. This makes sure that the nut thread has not
profiles are described in AS1721. undergone any macro level permanent deformation.
This is how it assures that the nut never fails in a
The imperial range is identified by threads per proper bolted joint.
inch (tpi) or UNC (coarse) and UNF (fine).
For example, the BSW thread profile can be When a property class is denoted for a metric
specified as either ‘3⁄4BSW 10tpi,’ or ‘3⁄4BSW’ fastener it automatically assumes that the part
for the standard 3⁄4” diameter bolt or nut. The complies with AS4291.1 (bolt) or AS4291.2 (nut).
imperial Unified thread profiles use ‘3⁄4 UNC- All the detail mechanical properties relevant to
10tpi’ or ‘3⁄4UNC’ for the coarse thread and ‘3⁄4 the particular property class are described in these
UNF-16tpi’ or ‘3⁄4UNF’ for the fine thread. The standards.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005 9


For UNC/UNF bolts the two strength grades PC8.8 bolts according to AS4291.1 is 23-34 HRC.
available are Grade 5 (similar to PC8.8) and If the bolts were made to 34HRC they will definitely
Grade 8 (similar to PC10.9). These grades are scour the washers made to 26HRC hence making
specified in SAE J429 for the bolt and SAE J the washer not as effective. Therefore, it is always
995 for the nut. better to specify and use the hot-dip galvanised
washers made to hardness range 35-45HRC. This
Avoid incorrect terminology such as ‘grade may be an additional requirement the engineer
10.9’ or ‘property class 8’. may place on the supplier of the products. As the
requested range is within the larger range specified
The structural bolt code, AS1252, refers to all in the standard all scrupulous suppliers should have
relevant components: bolt, nut and the washer. no issues in supplying to the reduced range.
They are usually supplied in Australia as an
assembly, with the washer and nut already on In some cases (where assemblies are not available),
the bolt. when specifying high tensile bolts (to AS1110 or
AS1111) the corresponding nuts should be specified
There has been an issue reported with the to AS1112. The property classes or strength grades
AS1252 standard that has caused a reasonable must match between the bolt and the nut in order to
confusion in the market place. The AS1252- achieve the full capacity of the bolt. High tensile
1983 was superseded by AS1252-1996 bolts must never be used with lower property class
the current standard. This was due to an or grade nuts.
initiative of the Australian Government to
align our standards with the ISO standards. Nut and Bolt Compatibility
Unfortunately, there were two major differences The correct nut must be specified with the
in the new standard that have caused a selected bolt. The following table shows typically
significant grief in the market place. compatible nuts.

Firstly, the 1996 standard specifies an across Bolt Strength Matching Nut
flat (A/F) dimension of 34mm for M20 bolts AS2451 Mild Steel BSW AS2451 28tonf
compared to 32mm specified in the 1983
proof load
standard. When the new standard was released,
neither the bolts nor the spanners made to the AS4291.1 Property Class 4.6 AS4291.2 Class 5
new standard were available. In Australia AS4291.1 Property Class 5.6 AS4291.2 Class 5
34mm spanner does not come with a standard AS4291.1 Property Class 8.8 AS4291.2 Class 8
spanner set and until recently were not available
AS4291.1 Property Class 10.9 AS4291.2
in the market. Currently most countries
including USA still uses 32mm A/F dimension Class 10
on M20 bolts. Hence bolts and spanners made AS4921.1 Property Class 12.9 AS4291.2
to 34mm A/F dimension was a rarity. As a Class 12
result the new standard did not come into SAE J429 Grade 5 UNC/UNF SAE J995 Grade 5
acceptance for M20 bolts. Progressively, UNC/UNF
the products made to 1996 standard became
available. If available, it is better to use the SAE J429 Grade 8 UNC/UNF SAE J995 Grade 8
1996 M20 bolt as it is more robust compared UNC/UNF
to the 1983 product. Unless the product is Black Structural Bolts Black Structural
available in the market it is difficult to enforce AS1252 Nuts AS1252
the new standard. Galvanised Structural Bolts Galvanised
AS1252 Structural Nuts
Secondly, the AS1252-1996 standard reduces
the hardness requirement for hot-dip galvanised AS1252
washers. The 1983 standard specified a
hardness range of 35 - 45HRC for all washers. How do you know you have the correct bolt, nut
In the 1996 standard, while the same hardness and the washer?
range was kept for non hot-dip galvanised Bolts and nuts must contain marking specified in
washers the hardness range for hot-dip the relevant standard. By inspecting the parts for the
galvanised washers has been increased to 26 correct marking you will have some indication if the
– 45HRC. The specified hardness range for product supplied is what you specified.

10 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


Unfortunately, the presence of markings Marking dot may
be replaced by
Hexagon Metric AS1112
alone does not guarantee that all necessary manufacturer’s mark

Property Class 8
‘x’ here

mechanical and dimensional properties conform


to the standard. The following tables show the (Clock-face system)
specied markings on bolts and nuts. Ref. small line at
8 O’clock position
Bolt Markings: with respect to the
Bolt Marking Bolt Type Relevant dot representing 12
Standard o’clock position.
Hexagon Head Unied AS2465 This system may
National Head Tensile also be used with
Grade 8 bolts.
Hexagon Head Unied AS2465 Hexagon Metric AS1112
National Tensile Grade Property Class 4
5 04 (Clock-face system)
Hexagon Head AS1110 Hexagon Metric AS1112
Precision Metric High Property Class 5
Tensile Property Class (Clock-face system)
8.8
Hexagon Head High AS1252 Hexagon Metric AS1112
Strength Structural Property Class 6
PC 8.8 (FJ stands for (Clock-face system)
Friction Joint but not
mandatory) Hexagon Metric AS1112
Hexagon Head Metric AS1111 Property Class 9
Commercial Property (Clock-face system)
Class 4.6
Hexagon Head BSW AS2451 Hexagon Metric AS1112
Mild Steel Property Class 10
(Clock-face system)
B8 B8 Inch stud bolts Grade AS2528
B8 Hexagon Metric AS1112
Z Z
X

Y
X

Metric hexagonal AS1393 Property Class 12


coach screws (Clock-face system)

XYZ XYZ Tower Bolts AS1559 High strength AS1252


structural nut
Property Class 8
XYZ T XYZ TL Tower Bolts AS1559
Unied Hexagon AS2465
(UNC/UNF)
Nut Markings: strength Grade 5-
Style A
Nut Marking Nut Type Relevant
Standard Unied Hexagon AS2465
(UNC/UNF)
Hexagon Metric AS1112
strength Grade 5-
Property Class 8
Style B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005 11


Unied Hexagon AS2465 • give you a test certicate with certain
information missing
(UNC/UNF) • give you a generic letter saying any product
strength Grade 5- supplied by them meets the standard without
Style C identifying the product or the relevant standard.
Unied Hexagon AS2465
(UNC/UNF) If you don’t know exactly what you are looking for
it will become very difcult to accept or reject the
strength Grade 8- documentation provided by the supplier.
Style A
Unied Hexagon AS2465 The correct test certicate should contain all the
(UNC/UNF) information listed below while a compliance
strength Grade 8- certicate should contain at least the information
marked bold in full:
Style B
Unied Hexagon AS2465 • Identication and address of the supplier
(UNC/UNF) • Identication and address of the test
strength Grade 8- laboratory and accreditation seals of the test
Style C laboratory
• Date of issue, page number on each page
Grade 2H Forged AS2528 • Test certicate number
Nut Manufacturer • Batch identication number
xyz • Product identication
• Customer purchase order number to match
Grade 2H Bar AS2528 the batch number and
• Any other system reference numbers.
Turned Nut
These make sure that the product is fully
Manufacturer xyz traceable from the customer purchase order to
High strength AS1252 the original steel used for the production of the
structural washer products.
• Test, test specication, measured values in
comparison to specication
Typical for the bolt: tensile test/surface hardness
How do you make sure that the bolts you are test, raw material specication, reference
purchasing meet the relevant standard? number and the heat number with chemical
This is not easy as there is no method of non- analysis or any traceable pointer to this
destructively testing a bolt to see whether it information
contains any mechanical or manufacturing Typical for nut: hardness test, reference number,
defects. In this case, the quality systems of the any other associated test certicate number, raw
manufacturer and supplier have to be relied material specication, reference number and
upon. When a supplier claims that a particular the heat number with chemical analysis or any
bolt, nut or washer satises a certain standard traceable pointer to these information
(should be same as that specied by the Typical for washer: hardness test, reference
engineer), it is the supplier’s responsibility to number, any other associated test certicate
provide documentary evidence of conformance number, raw material specication, reference
and also it is the purchaser’s right to insist on number and the heat number with chemical
such documentation. analysis or any traceable pointer to these
information
Market experience is that one of the following • Statement of compliance referring to a
could happen when asking for a test/compliance denite relevant standard
certicate from a supplier. They can: • Signature of authenticity

• refuse to provide any documentation Any further information may be requested as agreed
• give you a test report but not a compliance with the supplier. Suppliers may charge extra for
or test certicate requested additional information which are not
• give you an inspection certicate typically provided in the compliance certicates.
• give you a test/compliance certicate from The fact that a compliance certicate is issued by
an unaccredited foreign test laboratory a NATA accredited laboratory with a signature

12 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


of the relevant NATA signatory assures that Without this assurance it is not possible to endorse a
the certificate is issued as per the quality compliance certificate. Any issuer of a compliance/
accreditation guidelines of NATA. A statement test certificate takes responsibility for following
of compliance on the certificate assures that the necessary evaluation processes prescribed by
the product is in full compliance with the the accreditation organisation. When issuing a
relevant standard. Therefore, lack of certain compliance/test certificate, the NATA signatory
test results should not cause a major concern. accepts liability for any loss or damage caused by
No compliance certificate can be issued if issuing a false compliance certificate.
the product does not fully satisfy all the
requirements of the relevant standards.
Who is responsible? What can be done?
It is very important to identify the difference In any engineering development there are many
between a test/compliance certificate and a parties involved with each party having various aims
test report. An independent NATA accredited and objectives. For example, a building construction
laboratory may test a few bolts and issue a project could involve:
test report signed by a NATA signatory. A test • owners
report may only provide specifications and test • architects
results pertaining to the tested samples of the • engineers
bolt. It may also refer to a relevant standard • quantity surveyors
when quoting the specifications and all the tests • builders
conducted and their results may confirm to • fabricators
the relevant standards. This test report cannot • sub contractors
replace a compliance/test certificate. The • project managers
difference is that a compliance/test certificate • purchasers
not only tests the sample bolts but also • quality auditors
investigates the process by which the bolts were • building inspectors.
made to ensure that it is quality-traceable and
the sample results can be applied to the whole Each party brings in a certain expertise to the
batch of the bolts.
project and they take responsibility for the work
According to the statistical process theory they do. Achieving a well-engineered structure with
any number of sample tests (unless 100% of functionality and economy requires each of these
the batch is tested) will not assure the quality parties working together in the best possible way.
of the batch if the batch did not come from a
stochastic process where the measured variables In the case of fasteners, engineers design the
follow a known statistical distribution. For joints and specify the fasteners. They expect that
example, if the bolts in a box contain three the fabricators and builders will use the specified
different head markings, that indicates that the fasteners in the way intended by the engineers.
bolts did not come from the same process and In many projects, however, purchasers buy the
hence the statistical parameters established fasteners and if they do not understand the engineer’s
using the samples in this box cannot be used specification or if the engineer has not specified
to predict the behavior of such processes and it accurately; or they are under financial pressure,
therefore the quality of the untested bolts purchasers may end up buying substandard fasteners.
remains unknown. In many cases purchasers are evaluated by how much
money they save on the project and it becomes their
The above discussion is extremely important prerogative to buy the cheapest product especially if
in the quality assurance process of bolts, nuts they do not understand the required quality. When a
and washers. Sample testing by a local NATA-
accredited laboratory may be used as a check failure occurs, engineers or the builders are usually
for a compliance certificate issued by another the first to be blamed. What is often evident in
non-accredited (in Australia but accredited this type of conflicts is a lack of clear definition
overseas) laboratory. Even in this process if the of responsibility. It is paramount that a line of
local accredited laboratory wants to endorse the responsibility is properly defined and understood.
compliance certificate issued by the overseas
laboratory they must have confidence that the USA Experience
production process is quality traceable and the When the US implemented the Fastener Quality
batch shares the same statistical characteristics Act, the mechanism they used was to pass the
of the samples tested. responsibility to the purchaser.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005 13


They identified that regulating a large number Conclusion
of manufacturers and suppliers would be nearly • Fasteners keep structures together. Without
impossible and would also make the low end fasteners it will become disfunctional
users (eg. people using bolts for gardening
fixtures, non critical structures etc.) pay a higher • The fastener quality is of utmost importance to
price for quality that they do not need. This the safety of the community
also assures the survival of low-quality cheap • Incidence of failures due to poor quality of
suppliers.
fasteners is becoming more frequent
The fastener quality standards were well • There is no quality bench mark present in the
defined, publicised and were understood by the industry
engineers, purchasers and testing organisations.
Accredited testing organisations were appointed • The current standards provide necessary
to take responsibility for issuing compliance/ guidelines to identify the quality of fasteners
test certificates. The legislation enforced civil
• Engineers must be more familiar with providing
action against the purchaser in case of loss or
a tighter specification and purchasers and
damage or simply not meeting the standard.
inspectors must be more proactive in identifying
It has been reported that this system works
relatively well. the fasteners and demanding the quality
documentation from the suppliers
In Australia • Quality assurance cannot be achieved by
Learning from the USA experience, it is our just testing samples. The manufacturing and
proposal that the fastener quality should be distribution processes must be traceable to apply
legislated in Australia. Again, the responsibility statistical quality control methods
in the long term must be passed on to the
purchaser. • In a project, there is no particular person
responsible for the quality of the fasteners.
However, in the short term this may not be The responsibility is distributed amongst
possible or practical as the purchasers may manufacturers, suppliers, engineers, contractors,
not have the necessary technical know how to fabricators, owners, inspectors and purchasers
make sure that the fastener quality is correctly
assured. In this case, it would be better, in • Learning from the USA experience, fastener
the interim, to pass the responsibility to the quality should be legislated
design engineers as they are the only party
• The ultimate responsibility should be passed to
currently having an intimate understanding of
the purchaser in the long term
the fastener specification, their identification
and desired function. The purchaser should • In the short term, purchasers should consult
have an involvement as they make the final the design engineer for certification before
decision to place an order. It is proposed that placing an order. The received goods should be
the purchaser consults the design engineer and inspected and signed off by the design engineer.
the design engineer signs-off the purchase order The ultimate responsibility should still lie with
and makes sure that all the necessary quality
the purchaser
documentation and compliance/test certificates
are sought and checked once the bolts are • Building inspectors may provide secondary level
received. checking and monitoring

On a secondary level assurance, the building • If adequate measures are not taken as a
inspectors may be required to look at the quality matter of urgency, it is just a matter of time
documentation relevant to the fasteners. In this before a major disaster could occur! Most
case, the inspectors need to be educated to read failures are covered-up on-site and not
and inspect the relevant information. reported!

14 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


High Strength Structural Bolts
Additional references and information:
Scott Munter – Australian Steel Institute

ASI call for market feedback and information:


At the time of researching and editing this paper the following information has been sourced in the public
domain on high strength structural bolts. Australian Steel Institute encourages members to read these
references as they reinforce the duty of care that is required by all sectors of the industry to maintain quality
high strength bolt assemblies. ASI encourages any sector of the industry to forward recommendations,
reports or incidences regarding high strength structural bolts to Scott Munter, National Manager –
Engineering & Construction by email: scottm@steel.org.au This will allow ASI to monitor the performance
of the high strength bolt market and report back to industry if any problems persist.

ASI 2001 website release on imported This bulletin is available for download at:
structural bolt failures http://www.ajaxfast.com.au/downloads/
A failure of imported high strength structural Bulletin%201-05%20Nut%20Compatibility.pdf
bolts was posted on the ASI website in August
2001 following the dramatic failure at some Department of Housing and Works – Government
stage after the erection of a large portal frame in of Western Australia. Building Note Number 38-
Victoria. 2005. Structural Steel Bolts
Issued 1 June 2005 by the Government of Western
Australia was an alert to the industry on concerns
This alert is no longer posted on the ASI
relating to the conformance of structural steel bolts
website due to the age of this document but is being imported into Australia.
still available on request.
Email: scottm@steel.org.au This building note is available for download
at: http://www.dhw.wa.gov.au/200506_BN38_
ACT WorkCover – HA.36. Failure of Structural_Steel_Bolts.pdf
Structural Bolts
Issued 6 September 2004 this hazard alert NSW Government - Department of Planning.
followed and ACT WorkCover investigation Planning Circular. Structural Steel Bolts
into the collapse of a steel structure. This Issued 19 December 2005 this planning circular was
collapse identified a number of safety issues released to provide councils, accreditation bodies,
relating to metric Property Class 8.8 structural relevant government agencies, industry groups and
bolts. industry practitioners with advice regarding the
quality of structural steel bolts.
This hazard alert is available for download at:
http://www.workcover.act.gov.au/pdfs/hazalerts/ This planning circular is available for download at:
http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/planningsystem/pdf/
HA32-BoltFailures.pdf
brans/bs05_002_steelbolts.pdf
AJAX Engineered Fasteners – Technical HOBSON ENGINEERING
Bulletin No. 1-05. Nut Compatibility The HOBSON update being the latest newsletter
Issued 5 May 2005 this report covers the from Hobson Engineering: Vol 21 (purchasers of
importance of the compatibility of nuts for high strength structural bolts) has the lead article
use with high tensile bolts and provides a case in this issue from the desk of Peter Hobson titled:
study demonstrating this issue. Both distributors ‘AS1252 Structural Assemblies’. It covers the market
and end-users need to be aware of the need issues through to a suggested solution.
to use the correct nut with heat-treated bolts.
This bulletin has been produced in response to This newsletter is available for download at:
complaints about some industry practices. http://www.hobson.com.au/files/hobupd_vol21.pdf

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005 15


ASI Advisory Note
Design method for eccentrically connected cleats not to be used

In Steel Construction Vol. 38 No. 1, March an important difference between this situation and
2004, the Australian Steel Institute published a that with hollow section bracing connections. In
warning about eccentric hollow section bracing these connections there are two flexible components
connections. At this time the ASI website also bolted together – “eccentrically connected cleats”.
contained the warning. The warning stated that The problem is that the eccentricity moment is
the method for calculating the compression shared between the two flexible plates and plastic
capacity of overlapped gusset plates or hinges develop at a very low load unless there
“eccentrically connected cleats” may be is lateral restraint. The cleat assembly deflects
unconservative. The method is found in Design sideways during loading. Eccentrically connected
of Structural Steel Hollow Section Connections, cleats should not be designed as a concentric column
the hollow section design manual published even when a large effective length factor is used. It
in 1996 by the Australian Institute of Steel is necessary to apply the existing design code rules
Construction, now the Australian Steel Institute. for combined bending and compression (AS 4100
The problem arises because of the assumption Section 8 – Members Subject to Combined Actions).
that “the connection may be treated as two Software is available to perform the necessary code
eccentrically connected cleat components whose checks.
ends are fixed and prevented from sway”.
(See Note 1.) Recommendations
The connection types to which this advisory • Do not use an eccentric hollow section bracing
applies are the slotted tube, welded tee end, and connection for a short compression member
flattened end connections. Unless restrained unless it is stiffened against sidesway. A
against sidesway, each of these connections concentric connection should be used if there is
deflects laterally as it is loaded in compression, no sidesway stiffening.
developing a plastic hinge in each plate at a • Design eccentric hollow section bracing
fraction of the section compression capacity. connections taking eccentricity into account by
The real capacity of the connection is very rigorous application of design code rules for
much less than would be computed assuming combined bending and compression – do not use
the presence of lateral restraint or the absence the method in Design of Structural Steel Hollow
of eccentricity. The problem is exacerbated for Section Connections.
connections in short compression members
and for compression members that are not
exclusively wind bracing.

The small eccentricity occurring when a


stiff member is connected to a gusset plate
(e.g. channel web bolted to gusset plate)
has traditionally been ignored in the design Scott Munter
of simple bracing connections and this is National Manager – Engineering & Construction
permissible in some cases because most of the
eccentricity moment acts on the stiff bracing Note 1: The original reference paper was “Eccentrically
member and only a small bending moment Connected Cleat Plates in Compression”, Journal of Structural
acts on the flexible cleat component. There is Engineering, ASCE Vol 119, No3, 1993 pp 767--781.

16 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


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Saunders International Pty Ltd
PO Box 281 PO Box 78 MWS Engineering
Condell Park NSW 2200 02 9792 2444 Currumbin QLD 4223 07 5534 3155 33 Maxwell Road
D A Manufacturing Co Pty Ltd Pooraka SA 5095 08 8349 4933
Sebastian Engineering Pty Ltd
PO Box 7085 PO Box 3300 RC & ML Johnson Pty Ltd
Wetherill Park NSW 2164 02 9604 5200 Nerang QLD 4211 07 5596 2222 671 Magill Road
Magill SA 5072 08 8333 0188
Southern Cross Rigging & Constructions Pty Ltd DWW Engineering
65-67 Mandarin Street PO Box 47 S J Cheesman
Villawood NSW 2163 02 9783 5600 Richlands QLD 4077 07 3375 5841 21 George Street
Port Pirie SA 5540 08 8632 1044
Steeline Fabrications Factory Fabricators Pty Ltd
PO Box 6065 39 McRoyle Street SA Structural Pty Ltd
West Gosford NSW 2250 02 4322 4226 Wacol QLD 4076 07 3879 4711 9-11 Playford Cresent
Salisbury North SA 5108 08 8285 5333
Tenze Engineering Fritz Steel (QLD) Pty Ltd
PO Box 12 Samaras Structural Engineers
PO Box 426 61-67 Plymouth Road
Greenacre NSW 2190 02 9758 2677 Richlands QLD 4077 07 3375 6366
Wingfield SA 5013 08 8268 7988
Universal Steel Construction (Australia) Pty Ltd Gay Constructions Pty Ltd
225 Queensport Road Steriline Racing Pty Ltd
PO Box 6946 PO Box 590
Murarrie QLD 4172 07 3890 9655
Wetherill Park NSW 2164 02 9756 2555 Mt Barker SA 5251 08 8398 3133
John Holland Structural Mechanical Process
W G E Pty Ltd TASMANIA
GPO Box 2238
29 Glastonbury Ave Brisbane QLD 4001 07 3334 8600
Unanderra NSW 2526 02 4272 2200 Haywards Steel Fabrication & Construction
Milfab PO Box 47
Walpett Engineering Pty Ltd Cnr Boundary Road and Steel Street Kings Meadows TAS 7249 03 6391 8508
52 Hincksman Street Deception Bay QLD 4508 07 3203 3311
Queanbeyan NSW 2620 02 6297 1277
Morton Steel Pty Ltd
VICTORIA
Weldcraft Engineering (ACT) Pty Ltd 47 Barku Court
79 Thuralilly Street Hemmant QLD 4174 07 3396 5322 Alfasi Steel Constructions
Queanbeyan NSW 2620 02 6297 1453 12-16 Fowler Road
Noosa Engineering & Crane Hire Dandenong VIC 3175 03 9794 9207
Z Steel Fabrications Pty Ltd PO Box 356
PO Box 7274 Apex Welding & Steel Fabrication
Tewantin QLD 4565 07 5449 7477 PO Box 1333
Lismore Heights NSW 2480 02 6625 1717
Pacific Coast Engineering Pty Ltd Bundoora LPO VIC 3083 03 9466 4125
NORTHERN TERRITORY PO Box 7284 Australian Rollforming Manufacturers Pty Ltd
Garbutt QLD 4814 07 4774 8477 35-45 Frankston - Dandenong Road
Pierce Engineering Pty Ltd Dandenong VIC 3175 03 9793 4881
M & J Welding and Engineering
GPO Box 2638 48 Quinn St Bahcon Steel Pty Ltd
Darwin NT 801 08 8932 2641 North Rockhampton QLD 4701 07 4927 5422 PO Box 950
Morwell VIC 3840 03 5134 2877
Transcon Rimco Building Systems Pty Ltd
Trans Australia Constructions Pty Ltd 3 Supply Court Barra Steel (VIC) Pty Ltd
PO Box 39472 Arundel QLD 4214 07 5594 7322 55 Rushdale Street
Winnellie NT 821 08 8984 4511 Knoxfield VIC 3180 03 9753 3011
Seacove Steel
PO Box 1377 Culpan Industries Pty Ltd
QUEENSLAND PO Box 440
Noosaville QLD 4566 07 5474 4466
Niddrie VIC 3042 03 9357 8343
AG Rigging & Steel Pty Ltd Stewart & Sons Steel
PO Box 9154, Wilsonton 11 Production Street F & B Skrobar Engineering Pty Ltd
Toowoomba QLD 4350 07 4633 0244 Bundaberg QLD 4670 07 4152 6311 PO Box 1578
Moorabbin VIC 3189 03 9555 4556
Ahrens M&S Sun Engineering Pty Ltd
PO Box 40 Geelong Fabrications Pty Ltd
113 Cobalt Street 5/19 Madden Avenue
Goombungee QLD 4354 07 4696 5255 Carole Park QLD 4300 07 3271 2988 Geelong VIC 3214 03 5275 7255
Alltype Welding Taringa Steel Pty Ltd
PO Box 1418 GFC Industries Pty Ltd
17 Jijaws Street 42 Glenbarry Road
Beenleigh QLD 4207 07 3807 1820 Sumner Park QLD 4074 07 3279 4233 Campbellfield VIC 3061 03 9357 9900
Apex Fabrication & Construction Thomas Steel Fabrication GVP Fabrications Pty Ltd
164-168 Cobalt Street PO Box 147 25-35 Japaddy Street
Carole Park QLD 4300 07 3271 4467 Hyde Park QLD 4812 07 4775 1266 Mordialloc VIC 3195 03 9587 2172
Austin Engineering Pty Ltd W D T Engineers Pty Ltd Lucon Pty Ltd
173 Cobalt Street PO Box 115 72 Market St
Carole Park QLD 4300 07 3271 2622 Acacia Ridge QLD 4110 07 3345 4000 South Melbourne VIC 3205 03 9684 2222
Beenleigh Steel Fabrications Pty Ltd Walz Construction Company Pty Ltd Metalform Structures Pty Ltd
41 Magnesium Drive PO Box 1713 2 Zilla Court
Crestmead QLD 4132 07 3803 6033 Gladstone QLD 4680 07 4976 7999 Dandenong VIC 3175 03 9792 4666

18 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005


Monks–Harper Fabrications Pty Ltd WESTERN AUSTRAlLIA Italsteel WA
25 Tatterson Road PO Box 206
Dandenong South VIC 3164 03 9794 0888 Ausclad Group of Companies Limited Bentley WA 6102 08 9356 1566
15 Beach Street
Preston Structural Steel Pty Ltd Kwinana WA 6156 08 9439 1934 JV Engineering (WA) Pty Ltd
140-146 Barry Road 100 Dowd Street
Campbellfield VIC 3061 03 9357 0011 C Bellotti & Co Welshpool WA 6106 08 9351 9199
Riband Steel (Wangaratta) Pty Ltd PO Box 1284 Metro Lintels
69-81 Garden Road Bibra Lake WA 6965 08 9434 1442 2 Kalmia Rd
Clayton VIC 3168 03 9547 9144 Cays Engineering Bibra Lake WA 6163 08 9434 1160
Stilcon Holdings Pty Ltd 17 Thornborough Road Pacific Industrial Company
PO Box 263 Greenfields WA 6210 08 9582 6611 PO Box 263
Altona North VIC 3025 03 9314 1611 Kwinana WA 6966 08 9410 2566
Fremantle Steel Fabrication Co
Structural Challenge Pty Ltd PO Box 3005 Park Engineers Pty Ltd
PO Box 437 Jandakot WA 6964 08 9417 9111 PO Box 130
Hampton Park VIC 3976 03 8795 7111 Bentley WA 6102 08 9451 7255
Highline Building Constructions
Thornton Engineering Australia Pty Ltd Locked Bag 25 Scenna Constructions
PO Box 245 Welshpool WA 6986 08 6454 4000 PO Box 3165
Corio VIC 3214 03 5274 3180 Jandakot WA 6964 08 9417 4447
H'var Steel Services Pty Ltd United KG
Trojan Specialised Structures (Australia)
PO Box 4121 56 Cooper Road PO Box 219
Dandenong South VIC 3164 03 9792 2933 Jandakot WA 6164 08 9414 9422 Kwinana WA 6167 08 9499 0499
Wolter Steel Co Pty Ltd Inter-Steel Pty Ltd Uniweld Structural Co Pty Ltd
PO Box 2737 PO Box 1190 10 Malcolm Road
Seaford VIC 3198 03 9788 5444 Canning Vale DC WA 6970 08 9256 3311 Maddington DC WA 6109 08 9493 4411

ASI STEEL MANUFACTURER AND DISTRIBUTOR MEMBERS

NEW SOUTH WALES QUEENSLAND Webforge Australia Pty Ltd


142-146 Fairbank Road, Clayton South VIC 3169
Bisalloy Steels Industrial Galvanizers Corporation Pty Ltd Private Bag 155 Clayton South VIC 3169
Resolution Drive, Unanderra NSW 2526 Corner Holt Street and Curtain Avenue, Pinkemba www.webforge.com.au
PO Box 1246 Unanderra NSW 2526 QLD 4008
www.bisalloy.com.au PO Box 1311 Egale Farm QLD 4009 WESTERN AUSTRAlLIA
www.indgalv.com.au
BlueScope Lysaght Midalia Steel Pty Ltd
Suite 116, 26-32 Pirrama Road, Pyrmont NSW 2009 Orrcon Pty Ltd 49 Pilbara Street, Welshpool WA 6986
GPO Box 2695 Sydney NSW 2001 121 Evans Road, Salisbury QLD 4107 PO Box 228 Welshpool WA 6986
PO Box 295 Salisbury QLD 4107
Coil Steels www.orrcon.com.au NEW ZEALAND
16 Harbord Street, Granville NSW 2142
PO Box 166 Granville NSW 2142 Smorgon Steel Tube Mills Fletcher Building Ltd
www.coilsteels.com.au 46 Ingram Road, Acacia Ridge QLD 4110 Private Bag 92114, Auckland
PO Box 246 Sunnybank QLD 4109 New Zealand
Graham Group www.smorgonsteel.com.au/tubemills
117-153 Rookwood Road, Yagoona NSW 2199 H J Asmuss & Co
PO Box 57 Yagoona NSW 2199 SOUTH AUSTRALIA PO Box 14-441 Panmure, Auckland 1006
New Zealand
www.grahamgroup.com
Fielders Steel Roofing Pacific Steel & Wire
Horan Steel Pty Ltd 15 Railway Terrace, Mile End SA 5031 259 James Fletcher Drive
165 Newton Road, Wetherill Park NSW 2164 PO Box 281 Marleston SA 5033 Otahuhu, Auckland
PO Box 6427 Wetherill Park NSW 2164 www.fielders.com.au New Zealand
www.horan.com.au www.pacificsteel.co.nz
VICTORIA
OneSteel Limited Steel & Tube Holdings Ltd
Level 40, 259 George Street, Sydney NSW 2000 BlueScope Steel Limited Private Bag 30-543 Lower Hutt
GPO Box 536 Sydney NSW 2001 Level 11, 120 Collins Street, Melbourne VIC 3000 New Zealand
www.onesteel.com GPO Box 18207 Melbourne VIC 8003
www.bluescope.com Vulcan Steel Ltd
OneSteel Market Mills Greenmount
Ingall Street, Mayfield NSW 2304 G.A.M. Steel Pty Ltd PO Box 58-009 Auckland
PO Box 245C Newcastle NSW 2300 557 Mount Derrimut Road, Derrimut VIC 3030 New Zealand
PO Box 171 Deer Park VIC 3023
Southern Steel Group
www.gamsteel.com.au
319 Horsley Road, Milperra NSW 2214
PO Box 342 Panania NSW 2213 OneSteel Martin Bright
www.southernsteel.com PO Box 39 MDC Somerton VIC 3062
Stramit Building Products P/L Smorgon Steel Group Ltd
Level 5, Tower A, Zenith Centre, 821 Pacific Hwy, Ground Floor, 650 Lorimer Street
Chatswood NSW 2067 Port Melborne VIC 3207
Locked Bag 7013 Chatswood DC NSW 2067 www.smorgonsteel.com.au
www.stramit.com.au
Smorgon Steel Reinforcing & Steel Products
Weldlok Industries Pty Ltd Division
117-153 Rookwood Road, Yagoona NSW 2199 Level 1, 668 Lorimer Street
PO Box 57 Yagoona NSW 2199 Port Melborne VIC 3207

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 39 NUMBER 2 - DECEMBER 2005 19


(ABN) / ACN (94) 000 973 839

Level 13, 99 Mount Street


North Sydney NSW 2060
Tel: (02) 9929 6666
Fax: (02) 9955 5406
Web: www.steel.org.au