Ch 1 | Heat Exchanger | Steam

1.

Overview of Performance Monitoring
1.1 Concept of Performance Monitoring

1.1.1

"Where You Are" Versus "Where You Should Be"

Performance monitoring is the process of continuously evaluating the production capability and efficiency of a power plant and its equipment over time using measured plant data. Performance monitoring evaluations are repeated at regular intervals using data readily available from on-line instrumentation. This differs from a performance test, a one-time event that relies on precision instrumentation installed specifically for that test. The objective of performance monitoring is to continuously evaluate the degradation (decrease in performance) of the plant and its equipment in order to provide plant operators additional information to help them identify problems, improve performance, and make economic decisions about scheduling maintenance and optimizing plant operation. A successful performance monitoring system can tell plant operators how much the plant performance has changed and how much each piece of equipment in the plant contributed to that change. This information enables operators to localize performance problems within the plant and to estimate the operational cost incurred because of the performance deficits. While it is expected that performance monitoring will help operators diagnose and repair faults in plant equipment, the diagnostic procedures to accomplish this are beyond the scope of this book. To answer the question "How good is my performance?" one must compare the current capability of the power plant and its equipment to its expected capability. Thus, performance monitoring is a comparison of the current capability, "Where You Are", to the expected capability, "Where You Should Be". Production capability is a measure of the ability of equipment to produce the output that the equipment is designed to produce; it is not the current production. In other words, a plant that is designed to generate (produce) 600 MW, might only be able to generate 550 MW on a hot day, but still be capable of generating 600 MW when operating at its design conditions. The objective of performance monitoring is to continuously evaluate this capability and monitor its change over time. Degradation is defined as the shortfall in equipment performance caused by mechanical problems in the equipment (such as wear, fouling, and

Abu Bader

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1. Concept of Performance Monitoring

oxidation), but not by changes to set points under the control of the plant operators. For example, if plant operators increase the excess oxygen on a coal-fired boiler to reduce CO emissions when burning low quality fuel, the boiler efficiency will decrease. The boiler capability has not changed: if the fuel and excess oxygen level were returned to their original value, the boiler efficiency would also improve to its original value. Thus, the observed efficiency decrease in this example is not degradation, but is instead an opportunity for economic optimization. A second example is a gas turbine whose water-to-fuel injection ratio must be increased to meet more restrictive NOX emissions requirements. The engine power would increase and the heat rate would get worse (increase). These changes in performance do not represent degradation, just a change in operating conditions. Economic optimization is concerned with finding the plant operating mode and control set points that meet all constraints on plant operation (such as equipment protection and emissions limits) and maximize plant profits. The current degradation of plant equipment is an important input to optimization analysis and the current plant control set points are important inputs to degradation analysis, but the two are separate evaluations. Performance monitoring involves two calculations: current production and expected production. The evaluation of performance degradation is a comparison between these two values. For example, a plant designed to produce 600 MW on a 59 F day may be expected to produce 550 MW on a 100 F day. If the plant meets its expected production of 550 MW on the 100 F day, then its performance is as expected (zero degradation) even though it did not perform at its design production level of 600 MW. Table 1-1 lists the plant equipment types discussed in this book, the production objective(s) of each equipment type, and an output parameter that is a measure of each production objective. Any performance evaluation of the equipment listed in the table must relate the cur r ent production capability of the equipment to the expect ed production capability. Notice that the equipment types that consume fuel have two production objectives, and hence two measurements of performance. This is because output and efficiency are independent parameters for these equipment types. For fuel-consuming equipment, efficiency needs to be evaluated along with output production capability because it may be possible to achieve higher output by simply consuming more fuel. For other equipment types (non-fuel-consuming types such as heat exchangers and steam turbines), the input source of energy is fixed (that is, not determined by the performance of the equipment type being monitored)

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and therefore higher efficiency causes higher output. Thus, for these equipment types output and efficiency are not independent performance parameters.

Table 1-1 List of equipment types and their production objectives Equipment
Power Plant Gas Turbine Boiler

Production Objective
Electricity Efficiency Electricity Efficiency Steam Generation

Measured Output
Net Power (MW) Net Heat Rate Power Heat Rate Steam Flow(s), Temperature(s) and Pressure(s) Boiler Efficiency Steam Flow(s), Temperature(s) and Pressure(s) Power Condenser Shell Pressure Cooling Water Temperature to Condenser Feedwater Outlet Temperature

Efficiency Heat Recovery Steam Generator Steam Generation Steam Turbine Condenser Cooling Tower Feedwater Heater Electricity Vacuum Energy Rejection Feedwater Heating

The performance of a power plant has two measures: power and heat rate. They are independent measures of performance in that the highest power is not necessarily achieved at the best (lowest) heat rate. A plant operator generally has the option to control the plant for maximum power output or to control for maximum efficiency. A performance evaluation of a power plant must include evaluations of both the power generation capability and the heat rate capability.

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1. Concept of Performance Monitoring

A gas turbine is like a power plant; in fact, a simple-cycle gas turbine is a power plant. Thus, both power and heat rate are independent performance parameters that must be evaluated when monitoring a gas turbine. A boiler consumes fuel to generate steam. Both the steam generation capability and the boiler efficiency are important parameters of boiler performance, and both must be evaluated. The job of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is to convert the available exhaust gas energy into as much steam as possible. When the plant is operating at full load, the temperature and pressure of the steam are controlled by the plant, and therefore are not independent parameters of HRSG performance. They represent requirements that the HRSG must meet. Improved HRSG effectiveness or efficiency results in increased steam generation. There is no opportunity to increase steam generation capability without increasing HRSG efficiency; thus, efficiency and steam generation are not independent parameters of performance. A performance monitoring system must compare the current value of HRSG steam generation or efficiency to its expected value. A condenser's job is to condense all of the steam exhausted from the steam turbine at a pressure as low as possible. The need to condense all of the steam is a requirement that must be met. Condenser pressure is the measure of condenser performance: the lower the pressure the better the performance. A performance monitoring system must compare the current value of this pressure to its expected value. Other parameters of condenser performance, such as cleanliness, are only important because they are an indication of the ability of a condenser to reduce steam turbine exhaust (condenser) pressure to its expected value. A cooling tower must reject all of the steam condensation energy (condenser duty) to the cooling media (air or water). The quantity of energy to reject is a requirement that the cooling tower must meet. The measure of performance of a cooling tower is the cooling water temperature at the exit of the cooling tower (or at the inlet to the condenser). A lower value of this temperature indicates better performance. A performance monitoring system must compare the current value of this temperature to its expected value.

1.1.2

Performance Calculation Procedure

Performance monitoring involves a calculational procedure that is repeated at regular time intervals. The details of the calculation vary greatly from plant to plant, depending upon the measured data that is available, the plant type, and the degree of sophistication of the calculations. However, a

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performance monitoring calculational procedure always involves some or all of the following steps:

1. Acquire measured data. 2. Review, check and/or validate the raw measured data to find errors and omissions. 3. If possible, fix errors or omissions identified in the measured data. 4. Improve precision of the measured data by averaging and/or other techniques. 5. Compute fluid thermal properties, such as enthalpy and entropy, from measurements. 6. Use mass, energy and/or chemical balances to calculate data that is not measured, but can be
computed from the measurements that do exist.

7. Compute current values for equipment parameters of performance such as heat rates, efficiencies,
effectiveness's, temperature differences, and cleanliness.

8. Predict expected values for equipment parameters of performance. 9. Compute the corrected performance of the plant equipment 10. Calculate the shortfall in performance (degradation), based upon the difference between the
expected and current values of the performance parameters.

11. Estimate the effect (impact) that the equipment degradation has on plant performance and plant
operating cost.

12. Perform plant optimization calculations to predict the most cost-effective way to run the degraded
plant equipment. A given performance monitoring system often will not perform all of these calculational steps, but the list is a fairly complete compilation of the calculations that can be and probably should be done in a comprehensive and successful performance monitoring system.

1.1.3

Expected Performance: "Where You Should Be"

For performance monitoring to be meaningful, one must compare current performance to expected performance, and track that comparison over time. This process is equivalent to tracking degradation (the difference between expected and current performance) over time. Since performance monitoring is a continuous process, as opposed to a one-time event like a

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and then use a model or models of equipment performance to predict the change in equipment performance when the equipment is operated at conditions different from the reference operating conditions. as illustrated by the expected power line in this figure. The baseload power of a gas turbine engine varies with inlet air temperature. the performance evaluation will be performed over a variety of plant operating conditions. The difference between the rated and corrected power is the degradation of the engine from rated. The cor r ect ed power is the power that the actual (degraded) engine would produce if operated at the reference temperature. or very complex. such as a physically based computer code.performance test. A vendor performance curve can be used to compute the expected power line. as illustrated in Figure 1-1. Concept of Performance Monitoring . The model(s) of equipment performance can be very simple. This makes the evaluation of expected performance the most challenging aspect of performance monitoring. The procedure to calculate expected performance is to start with the expected performance at the reference operating conditions (the rated performance). such as table look-ups. which occurs at only one air inlet temperature (shown as TRererence in Figure 1-1). Figure 1-1 illustrates the concept of expected versus actual (degraded) power for a gas turbine engine. Page 18 1. Notice that one point on the expected power line is the r at ed power. the measured gas turbine power levels will likely be along a line below the expected power line. It is assumed for the purposes of this discussion that ambient temperature is the only environmental parameter that is changing. When a degraded gas turbine is operated over a range of inlet air temperatures. Gas turbine vendors typically provide performance curves which show how performance will change with environmental conditions.

steam/water injection.Performance Evaluation Terms Figure 1-1 Comparison of rated. fuel properties. Of course. expected. inlet pressure. inlet relative humidity. Page 19 1. This line could be converted into a table look-up as part of a computerized performance model. Since these are independent parameters of gas turbine performance. and the total power change is the product of the power changes predicted from the changes in each reference operating condition. separate models can be used for each condition. exhaust pressure loss. inlet guide vane angle and firing temperature. any gas turbine performance monitoring system must also account for changes in other reference operating conditions such as inlet pressure loss. Using curves to evaluate equipment performance is discussed later in this chapter under "Curve-Based Methods". measured and corrected power for a gas turbine The expected performance line in Figure 1-1 is actually a simple example of a performance model of a gas turbine. Concept of Performance Monitoring . This line shows how gas turbine power will change as the gas turbine inlet temperature changes.

It would be necessary to adjust (tune) such a computer code so that it accurately predicts the gas turbine rated performance at the reference operating conditions. The values of the reference operating conditions are called the r ef er ence data.1. Change any of the operating conditions (from their reference values). Then the performance monitoring system could input measured data into the computer code to predict the expected performance at the current measured operating conditions. If the monitoring system defines degradation as the fall-off in performance over time. All of the data in Table 1-2 are related. and the power and heat rate of the engine will change (from rated).Table 1-20 Typical rating specifications for a gas turbine engine An alternative model of gas turbine performance is a computer code that includes physically based mathematical models of the compressor. Using physically based computer models to evaluate equipment performance is described later in this chapter under "Model-Based Performance Analysis". There are several ways to obtain the rating data for a plant and its equipment. Such a code would take the operating conditions as inputs and predict the gas turbine power and heat rate at those operating conditions. Table 1-1 lists all of the specifications that are required to state the rating of a gas turbine. combustor and expander. the choice is somewhat arbitrary since a monitoring system tracks changes in performance or degradation over time. 1. . For performance monitoring purposes. Several ways to define equipment ratings are: • • • • Use vendor guarantees Use acceptance test (as-built) data for the plant and equipment Use plant measured data at the time the monitoring system is installed Baseline (tune) the ratings on a regular basis using plant measured data A gas turbine will produce its rated power and heat rate only at the reference operating conditions listed.4 Equipment Ratings The rated performance of plant equipment must include a specification of all the external conditions and control settings that change equipment performance but are not part of the equipment itself. the absolute value of the rating cancels out.

plus a model of performance that predicts how performance changes as the operating conditions change.Table 1-2 Typical rating specifications for a steam turbine/generator Gas Turbine Rating Specifications RATING: Gross Power Gross Heat Rate Example Data 170 MW 9400 Btu/KW-hr 59 deg-F 14. or for any equipment type. Concept of Performance Monitoring . Table 1 -3 lists the rating specifications for a typical heat recovery steam venerator. requires both a set of rating specifications (which includes both the rated performance and the reference operating conditions).0065 lbm H20/lbm air 4 in H20 12 in H20 none Natural Gas 20200 Btu/lbm 86 deg 2300 deg-F none REFERENCE OPERATING CONDITIONS: Ambient Temperature Ambient Pressure Ambient Specific Humidity Inlet Pressure Loss Exhaust Pressure Loss Steam Water Injection Fuel Type Fuel Lower Heating Value Inlet Guide Vane Angle Firing Temperature Inlet Cooling or Heating The expected performance prediction for a gas turbine.65 psia 0. Page 21 1.

Concept of Performance Monitoring .250. a monitoring system must be able to predict the change in HRSG performance as operating conditions change from their reference values.000 lb/hr 70.000 lb/hr REFERENCE OPERATING CONDITIONS: Exhaust Gas Flow Exhaust Gas Temperature Exhaust Gas Composition HP Drum Pressure IP Drum Pressure LP Drum Pressure Inlet Feedwater Temperature HP Steam Temperature Duct Burner Fuel Flow Steam Extraction to Process Water Extraction to Process Once again.000 lb/hr 3. Page 22 1.Table 1-3 Typical rating specifications for a heat recovery steam generator (HRSGj Heat Recovery Steam Generator Rating Specification RATING: HP Steam Flow IP Steam Flow Example Data 415.000 lb/hr 1138 F 3% H20 1900 psia 400 psia 100 psia 140 F HOOF none 20. To predict HRSG expected performance. the rating specifications for an HRSG indicate that the HRSG will produce the rated steam flows only if it is operating at the reference operating conditions.000 lb/hr 30.

Page 23 1. Steam Turbine Rating Specification Example Data RATING: Gross Power 190 MW 930.000 lb/hr 1137 F 1800 psia 0. Any change in these flow conditions or pressures will cause the steam turbine power to change.8 psia 1000 F none 160. Concept of Performance Monitoring .Table 1-4 gives typical rating specifications for a steam turbine.000 lb/hr REFERENCE OPERATING CONDITIONS: Throttle Steam Flow Throttle Steam Temperature Throttle Steam Pressure Condenser Back Pressure Reheat Steam Temperature HP Extraction Flow LP Admission Flow A steam turbine will generate its rated power only at the rated steam flow conditions and condenser pressure.

Page 24 1.000 lb/hr 1000 Btu/lb 6.8 psia 930. Any change in the inlet steam or water flows will be expected to change the condenser pressure.000 lb/hr 80 F A condenser is required to condense all of the incoming steam and transfer the energy released from condensation to the cooling water. The condenser duty.000. The condenser is designed to achieve its rated pressure at a given (reference) set of inlet flow conditions.Table 1-5 Typical rating specifications for a condenser Condenser Rating Specification RATING: Shell (Steam) Pressure REFERENCE OPERATING CONDITIONS: Inlet Steam Flow Inlet Steam Enthalpy Cooling Water Flow Cooling Water Inlet Temperature Example Data 0. Concept of Performance Monitoring . the cooling water flow and the cooling water inlet temperature are imposed upon the condenser by the performance of other equipment in the plant (external to the condenser).

H. S.4.4.Table 1-25 Typical rating specifications for a feedwater heater Table 1-6 Typical rating specifications for a COAL-FIRED BOILER Boiler Rating Specification RATING: Main Steam Generation Boiler Efficiency Example Data 2. Ash) Inlet Feedwater Temperature Inlet Air Temperature Inlet Air Relative Humidity 3374 mmBtu hr 2800 psig 1005 F 1005 F 2.0.2.4.1.9) 475 F 80 F 60 % 1.2.495 Btu/lb (64.4.000 lb/hr 592 psig 11.560. H:0.5.1.19.000 lb/hr 89. N.59% REFERENCE OPERATING CONDITIONS: Fuel Input Energy Steam Drum Pressure Steam Temperature Reheat Steam Temperature Reheat Steam Flow Reheat Steam Inlet Pressure Fuel Higher Heating Value Fuel Composition (C.8.275. Concept of Performance Monitoring page 26 .

Table 1-7 Typical rating specifications for a feedwater heater Feedwater Heater Rating Specification RATING: Outlet Feedwater Temperature Outlet Drain Water Temperature Example Data 420 F 380 F 120.000 lb/hr 890 F REFERENCE OPERATING CONDITIONS: Inlet Steam Flow Inlet Steam Temperature Page 26 1. Concept of Performance Monitoring .

1.600. 1.000 lb/hr 370 F 150. This makes it difficult to track changes in performance. The virtue of corrected performance is that its expected value remains constant and equal to the rated value.000 lb/hr 460 F 1. as the measured values of most performance parameters vary due to changes in plant operating conditions. To cor r ect the performance means to account for the performance variations that would be expected due to the changes in environmental conditions and control set points. the expected performance varies greatly over time. One methodology to make the identification of performance changes over time easier is to "correct" the current performance to a standard operating condition.5 Corrected Performance: The Indicator of Degradation For combined-cycle power plants. The corrected performance is the performance that would be expected if the current (degraded) engine were operating at the reference operating conditions. Thus.Table 1-27 Typical rating specifications for a feedwater heater Inlet Steam Pressure Inlet Feedwater Flow Feedwater Inlet Temperature Inlet Drain Water Flow Inlet Drain Water Temperature 320 psia 2. any change in a corrected value represents a change in equipment performance capability. usually the reference operating conditions. Concept of Performance Monitoring page 26 .

In fact. the degradation in performance from one point in time to another is equal to the change in corrected performance over that time range. The measured power is shown on the plot only when the engine was operating at or above 99% percent of baseload power. If changes in the engine operating conditions were to cause changes in gas turbine power. It goes down when degradation increases and it goes up when degradation decreases. load level. and exhaust delta-P). An overhaul was performed on the gas turbine during October 2002. the corrected power would not change. fuel heating value. Concept of Performance Monitoring .Corrected power is a barometer of engine performance. Notice that measured Page 28 1. ambient conditions. water/steam injection. Figure 1-2 Measured and corrected gas turbine power over a nine-month time period. Figure 1-2 is an actual trend of gas turbine measured and corrected power. this time period is evident on the plot as the time during which there is no measured data. Corrected gas turbine power accounts for changes in engine operating conditions and predicts the equipment performance if the equipment were to operate at the reference operating conditions (including inlet filter delta-P.

The corrected power is a convenient plotting parameter because it shows degradation in the engine. Concept of Performance Monitoring . and is higher in the winter months than in the summer months. It is essentially the current rating of the engine. When the tubes and Page 29 1. Corrected power is a prediction of the power that the engine would generate if operating at reference operating conditions. Each corrected power point shown in Figure 1 -2 is an average of calculated corrected power over a time period of approximately two hours. Notice the slow increase in corrected pressure over 150 days. The trend display of measured power is a history of operation. Figure 1-3 shows corrected condenser pressure at a combined-cycle power plant in the United Kingdom. this plot shows that the overhaul improved the engine's power capability by 3 MW to 4 MW. Cooling water flow through the tubes also decreased about 4° o during this time period (not shown on the figure).baseload power vanes during each day. Notice that the engine corrected power started at over 161 MW in July and degraded to approximately 158 MW by October. indicating fouling of the condenser tubes and/or blockage in the waterboxes. but gives the viewer little information about degradation. or it is a prediction of the power the engine would achieve in a performance test at reference operating conditions. The engine overhaul in October improved the corrected power back up to approximately 162 MW. In other words. a loss of approximately 3 MW over a three-month period.

waterboxes were cleaned during a plant outage. some plant equipment may show may show negative degradation. It is a relative parameter. Thus. The definition of degradation as a change over time instead of the change from vendor guarantee is significant to the concept of performance monitoring because a change over time is an aid in identifying changes in equipment performance. but if sufficient plant data is not available it may be set equal to the vendor guarantee. it is usually assumed that the degradation is over the operational lifetime of the equipment. which is from the time the equipment was put into service to the present. it compares equipment capability at one point in time to that at another time. Page 30 1. Since degradation is defined as a change in performance over time. indicating that the equipment is performing better than the guarantee level. the rated performance should be defined as the actual performance at some given point in time. 1. Since the corrected gas turbine power is a prediction of the current rating of the engine.1. For the value of degradation to be meaningful. the start time and end time of the degradation must be stated. Concept of Performance Monitoring . the equipment may not have ever operated at its rated performance. Degradation will be defined throughout this book as the difference between corrected and rated performance. and the cooling water flow rate also recovered (not shown on the figure). Thus.6 What is My Degradation? Degradation is the reduction in equipment performance capability that has occurred over time. If the degradation is defined as the change from guarantee (a level of performance that the equipment may never have actually operated at). the difference in corrected power from one point in time to another is the degradation that has occurred over the time period. If no time range is stated. Rated performance is often set equal to the vendor guarantee as opposed to a performance test at the beginning of equipment life. while a change from guarantee may be misleading. this definition of degradation is only true if the equipment actually achieved its rated performance at some point in time. Ideally. Often when historical data is not available. degradation may be stated as the difference between the current equipment capability and its rated capability. This is equal to the difference between the rated performance and the corrected performance. the corrected condenser pressure improved back to approximately the same level as the beginning of the trend. degradation may be defined as the change in corrected performance over time.

and/or a MW-hr cost to the power which is not being sold because of the degradation. which can be calculated using an overall plant model. In order to make decisions about which maintenance to perform. but it's not the full story. The heat rate increase of the gas turbine will cause the plant to consume more fuel per MW-hr of power produced. The steam turbine power changes because the gas turbine exhaust flow and temperature normally change as a result of the gas turbine degradation.1. Concept of Performance Monitoring . The definition of a plant impact is the change in plant performance that would be realized if the degradation were to be returned to zero by some maintenance action. This degradation causes a reduction in steam turbine power. This means that the condenser is operating at a pressure 0. and any existing degradation can be looked upon as the source of an operational cost that is potentially avoidable. Page 31 1.1 psi (0. These effects on plant power and heat rate can then be converted to operating costs by applying a fuel cost to the extra fuel being burned. a reduction in gas turbine performance (power and heat rate) has an effect on overall combined-cycle plant performance. The best that the operators can be expected to do is to maintain plant performance at a level that the plant actually operated in the past. as opposed to a change from vendor guarantee. a condenser may have a degradation of 0. which is also a reduction in plant power.7 How Much is Degradation Costing Me? Knowing the amount of degradation is important. For example. This makes it difficult to compare degradations calculated for different parts of the plant or for different equipment types.1 psia (6. is particularly important.69 mbar) higher than it would operate if the degradation were zero. Degradation normally is evaluated in different engineering units for each equipment type: gas turbine degradation is in MW while condenser degradation is in either psia or percent cleanliness. For example. One way to make a meaningful comparison is to calculate the impacts of the degradation on overall plant power. degradation is an estimate of the performance improvement that is possible. plant operators need to know how much the degradation is costing plant operation. Once the plant is accepted and goes into commercial operation it is too late to worry about equipment guarantees. Here is a situation where the definition of degradation as a change in performance over time. The power reduction in the gas turbine reduces plant power because both the gas turbine and the steam turbine power levels will change. Therefore. The impact of the condenser degradation on plant power is equal to the change in plant power caused by the degradation of the condenser. heat rate and operating cost.1.9 mbar).

fuel flow in a Rankine cycle plant with condenser degradation may decrease slightly because the increased condenser pressure will lead to higher feedwater temperature entering the boiler.000 lb/hr 0.2 0. the plant power always decreases and heat rate always increases when condenser pressure increases.The reduction in plant power due to the condenser degradation increases plant heat rate since fuel flow is not changed.8 MW 0.1 16 75 41 31 25 13 191 46 294 169 84 56 22 671 Inlet Air Filter GAS Turbine HRSG Steam Turbine Condenser Cooling Tower Total Plant 1.1 F Page 32 1.9 MW 12. Then these degradations can be compared and evaluated on a consistent (apples to apples) basis. The change in plant revenues minus fuel costs is called the impact of condenser degradation on plant costs.8 0. even so. These changes in plant performance reduce electric sales revenues and increase fuel costs.1 in-H20 1. Table 1-7 below illustrates the concept for a combined-cycle plant.3 2. Concept of Performance Monitoring . The change in plant heat rate caused by the degradation in the condenser is called the impact of condenser degradation on plant heat rate.2 5. resulting in a net operating cost to the plant.2 1. Table 1-8 Example of plant equipment degradations and their impacts on plant performance Equipment Degradation Impact on Plant Performance Power Heat Rate Operating Cost (MW) (Btu/kw-hr) ($/hr) 0.1 psi 2.4 0. which will reduce boiler fuel consumption. The idea behind the overall plant impacts is to convert all of the degradations in the plant to their respective costs on plant performance. Actually.

The steam turbine power would also increase because of the increase in gas turbine exhaust energy. resulting in a gas turbine power increase. This power (394. which is equal to the rated plant power minus the corrected plant power.8 Optimization: "Where You Could Be" Once the degradation of the plant and its equipment is known. the gas turbine inlet pressure would increase. the plant would be expected to now produce only 394. which is defined as the impact of the air filter on plant power. Concept of Performance Monitoring .1 MW. if the plant were rated at 400 MW. The equipment degradation listed in Table 1-8 summarizes maintenance issues. In a similar manner. For example. Overall these changes in plant power and heat rate would yield a net increase of 46 $/hr in plant operating profits (electric sales revenues minus fuel costs). the total of the equipment impacts on plant power is equal to the degradation in plant power. and the total power degradation from rated is 5. Page 33 1.The inlet air filter in Table 1-8 has a pressure-loss degradation equal to 1.9 MW if operated at the plant reference operating conditions. An example of calculated optimization outputs for a combined-cycle power plant with two gas turbines is illustrated in Table 1-9. the plant operator is prepared to answer the question. In other words. Then.1 in-H. Methods to calculate these impacts are reviewed in the chapter 6. The total plant power degradation is equal to the sum of the equipment impacts on plant power. This plant power increase would cause a plant heat rate decrease equal to 16 Btu/kW-hr.9 MW) is called the corrected plant power. The total plant power would increase by 0. when the degradation is calculated from rated. "What is the best way to operate the plant so as to maximize plant profits?" The idea is to adjust the plant set-points that are under the control of the operator to make as much money as possible for the plant. "Impacts of Degradation on Overall Plant Performance". the corrected plant heat rate is equal to the rated plant heat rate plus the total of the equipment degradations in plant heat rate (191 Btu/kW-hr in Table 1-8). but optimization is concerned with actions the operator can take to improve performance without maintenance. 1. If this degradation were eliminated by replacing the air filters. The current plant operating costs (electric sales revenues minus fuel costs at the reference operating conditions) are $671/hr higher than they would be if the plant was performing as rated and was operating at the reference operating conditions.0.3 MW.1.

Finally the C os t Savi ngs column estimates the increase in plant operational profit that would be achieved if the operator took the suggested actions. and the cost savings achieved. No one knows if the degradation in Table 1-8 is fully recoverable.Table 1-9 Example optimization outputs for a combined cycle power plant Controllable Set-point GT l Power GT 2 Power Inlet Chiller #1 Inlet Chiller #2 Duct Burner #1 Duct Burner #2 Number of Cooling Tower Fans On Total Savings Possible Current Value 170 MW 150 MW On On Off Off 7 Optimal Value 161 MW 159 MW Off Off Off Off 6 Cost Savings ($/hr) 90 88 12 11 0 0 21 222 The C ur r ent Val ue column shows current plant operating data. their target values. This screen is different from the degradation screen in Table 1-8 in that no maintenance actions are required. 1. Concept of Performance Monitoring . Controllable loss displays show the current value of selected plant performance parameters. These displays are most often used for Rankine cycle plants where the expected or target values of plant performance parameters do not vary widely with plant operating conditions.1. but the control actions suggested in Table 1-9 can be taken (assuming no environment or other operational limit on plant operation is violated). and the optimal operating conditions are achievable by operator action. and the cost incurred by not operating the plant at these target values.9 Controllable Loss Displays Controllable loss displays are an alternate way to present the degradation and optimization data of tables 1-7 and 1-8. and the Opt i mal Val ue column shows where the plant could operate if the operator took the appropriate control actions. Page 34 1.

For example. but instead report a departure in overall plant performance from the values that the performance parameters would have if the entire plant were "new and clean". the air preheater. The target values for controllable loss displays are generally based upon expected overall plant performance with no equipment degradation anywhere in the plant. the controllable loss display will show small losses and vice versa. the economizers. If there is no degradation in plant equipment. Due to the regenerative nature of a Rankine cycle. controllable loss parameters do not report degradation specific to individual plant equipment. in order to achieve the target main steam temperature in a boiler. degradation in one area of the plant will likely show up as deviations in several controllable loss parameters calculated from measured data in other areas of the plant. Concept of Performance Monitoring .Figure 1-4 Example controllable loss display for a fossil (Rankine cycle) plant The advantage of controllable loss displays is that they are readily understandable summary of the plant performance status. Thus. The disadvantage is that they give little information as to the location of plant performance problems. and the feedwater heaters must all Page 35 1. Controllable loss displays are a very useful way to summarize plant status: they inform the operator if there is a plant performance problem.

and several will likely change when one of them changes. A change in the steam temperature may change the throttle pressure.2 ASME Test Codes ASME Performance Test Codes provide test procedures that yield results of the highest level of accuracy consistent with the best engineering knowledge and practice currently available. the test results will be of the highest quality and the lowest uncertainty available. which might change the steam turbine efficiency and the condenser pressure. The following table lists the test codes that are most closely related to power plant performance monitoring. The focus of the ASME test codes is to provide test specifications appropriate for verification of compliance with guarantee or warranty performance. The test procedures were developed by balanced committees of professional individuals representing all concerned interests. The target values used in controllable loss displays are a very different concept from the equipment degradation calculations described above where the expected performance of each equipment type depends upon the operational conditions that the equipment is exposed to and is independent of the degradation of other equipment in the plant. and uncertainty analysis. instrumentation. 1. equipment operating requirements. When tests are run in accordance with an ASME code. many of the controllable loss parameters are related to each other.operate with their target performance. Thus. the absolute accuracy of measured performance is stressed as opposed to ease of testing. Degradation in any of these may cause the steam temperature to change. The test codes specify procedures. calculation methods. Page 36 1. Concept of Performance Monitoring . As such. In general it is very difficult to implement the AMSE test code procedures as the basis of performance monitoring at an operating power plant.

1984(R1995) PTC 12.1988 (R1995) PTC 8.2 .1998 PTC 22.3 .3 .4.1968 (R1991) PTC 4.1999 PTC 2 . C o n c e p t o f P e r f o r m a n c e Nlonitoring .1993 Description General Instructions Code on Definitions and Values Air Heaters Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generators Steam Turbines Appendix to PTC 6 Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty in Performance Tests of Steam Turbines Procedures for Routine Performance Test of Steam Turbines Centrifugal Pumps Fans Closed Feedwater Heaters Steam Surface Condensers Deaerators Test Uncertainty Performance Test Code on Gas Turbines Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment Overall Plant Performance Performance Monitoring Guidelines for Steam Power Plants page 3" 1 .1 -2000 PTC 12.1998 PTC 12.1980(R1997) PTC 4.2000 PTC 6 Report 1985 (R1997) PTC 6S.1997 PTC 23 .Table 1-10 ASME Performance Test Codes closely related to performance Monitoring ASME Test Code PTC l .1981 (R2003) PTC 6 .1986 (R197) PTC 46.1996 PTC 6A .2 .1990 PTC 11 .1997 PTC PM.1 .1997 PTC 19.

The fact that monitoring evaluations are repeated many times gives the engineer the opportunity to reject results that are not consistent with longterm trends. but is usually acceptable for tracking changes in equipment degradation.3 Performance Testing versus Online Monitoring A performance test is a one-time evaluation of equipment performance that relies on precision instrumentation installed specifically for that test. Page 38 1. monitoring data is usually not adequate for vendor guarantee testing. The objective of performance monitoring is to detect changes in equipment performance (degradation) so that proper corrective action can be taken. The principal differences between testing and monitoring are summarized in Table l-l l below. The tests are often done to verify vendor guarantees on new or upgraded equipment. so that changes over time can be evaluated. The absolute value of performance is not necessarily important to performance monitoring. Table 1-11 Comparison of performance testing and online monitoring Performance Test Objective Instrumentation Type Measurement Requirement Test Interval Test Conditions Absolute Performance Precision Test Instruments Accuracy One Time Event Equipment Isolated and at Full Load Online Monitoring Detect Degradation Whatever Is Available Repeatability Repeated Often Normal Plant Operation The basic difference between performance monitoring and performance testing is that monitoring uses whatever instrumentation is continuously available at the plant to give the operators an indication of plant performance status. As such. The equipment being tested is operated at conditions as close to design and. The objective of a performance test is to measure the absolute capability of the equipment. or guarantee as possible. instead. repeatability of results is most important.1. Concept of Performance Monitoring .

The uncertainty of a measurement is considered to be the sum of two components called the bias and the random uncertainties. Curve based methods are a simple and reliable method to predict equipment performance changes as long as the operating conditions have not changed too much from the reference conditions. The conclusion is that even though installed plant instrumentation may not be adequate for precision tests. Accuracy is achieved only if both the bias and random uncertainties are small.4. the repeatability of performance monitoring results often approaches the accuracy of precision tests. However.1 Performance Curves Performance monitoring involves a comparison of the expected (new and clean) equipment performance to its current (measured) performance. repeatability is the long-term variation in bias error. The basic concept behind curve based methods is to assemble a set of performance or correction curves that plot the variation in a specific equipment performance parameter (such as power. Concept of Performance Monitoring . Two equipment characteristics must be known in order to predict the expected performance of any plant equipment: l. The prediction of expected equipment performance requires both a measurement of equipment operating conditions and a method or model to use to predict how the equipment performance changes as operating conditions change. where each multiplying factor is generated using a separate correction curve. Page 39 1. 1. the ASME Performance Test Code Committee has estimated the repeatability as one-half the overall instrument uncertainty. heat rate or efficiency) when one of the operating conditions changes.4 Curve Based Methods 1. Rating specification for the equipment that includes both the rated performance and the reference operating conditions at which the rating applies. Although the relative contributions of random and bias errors are unknown for most instruments. This means that degradation (change in performance) can be measured more accurately than absolute performance. The total equipment performance fractional change is then computed by multiplying together the fractional changes for each operating condition. The current performance is usually directly measured or is calculated from measured data.

exhaust gas composition. or from measured data. When generating a performance curve it is assumed that all other equipment-operating conditions remain constant and equal to their reference values. HP steam temperature. A method or model. figure 1-5 shows the variation of HP steam flow and HRSG effectiveness as the gas turbine exhaust temperature varies. Concept of Performance Monitoring . and duct burner fuel flow) remain equal to their reference values as stated in Table 1-12. Each curve shows how equipment performance will change if only one of the equipment operating conditions changes. which could be in the form of performance curves. Thus. Page 40 1. Table 1-12 is an example of the rating specifications for a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG).2. drum pressures. of equipment performance that can predict how the performance changes when any of the reference operating conditions change. inlet feedwater temperature. a computer model of the HRSG. These curves may come from vendor performance guarantee tables. but only if the other operating conditions (exhaust gas flow. and Figures 1-5 through 1-8 are example performance curves for that same heat recovery steam generator.

000 lb/hr 1135 F 10% H.0 1900 psia 100 psia 136 F 1000 F 0.4 REFERENCE OPERATING CONDITIONS: Exhaust Gas Flow Exhaust Gas Temperature Exhaust Gas Composition HP Drum Pressure LP Drum Pressure Inlet Feedwater Temperature HP Steam Temperature Duct Burner Fuel Flow 3.Table 1-12 Ratings specification for the example heat recovery steam generator Heat Recovery Steam Generator Rating Specification RATING: HP Steam Flow LP Steam Flow Effectiveness Data 511.700 lb/hr 88.300 lb/hr 93.200. Concept of Performance Monitoring .00 Page 41 1.

Concept of Performance Monitoring page 42 .Figure 1-5 Example HRSG performance (HP steam flow and HRSG effectiveness) versus changes in gas turbine exhaust gas temperature I.

Concept of Performance Monitoring .Figure 1-6 Example HRSG performance (HP steam flow and HRSG effectiveness) versus changes in gas turbine exhaust gas flow rate Page 43 1.

"igure 1-7 Example HRSG performance (HP steam flow and HRSG Effectiveness versus changes in highpressure steam drum pressure Page 44 1. Concept of Performance Monitoring .

Fractional Change from to where Page 45 1.4. Concept of Performance Monitoring .2 Expected Performance from Curves The basic assumption behind the curve-based performance-prediction methodology is that the individual operating conditions impact equipment performance independently. The methodology used to combine the individual impacts into a net impact on performance is to convert all the individual impacts into a fractional or percentage change in the performance parameter. the total impact in performance can be computed by combining the impacts of the individual parameters. to some value is. The fractional change in HP steam flow when the exhaust temperature changes from the reference value.Figure 1-8 Example HRSG performance (HP steam flow and HRSG effectiveness) versus changes in duct burner fuel energy input 1. When this assumption is true.

drum pressure .is the look-up value of the HP steam flow from the HRSG exhaust temperature performance curve. Expected HP Steam Flow from Performance Curves: where is the expected value of the HP steam flow. Concept of Performance Monitoring . and duct burner fuel flow is the rated value of the HP steam flow. Figure 1-5. at temperature is the steam flow at the reference exhaust temperature from the same performance curve The expected HP steam flow is the combination of all the fractional changes from all of the parameters that affect the HP steam flow. which occurs at the reference exhaust temperature is the value read from the exhaust temperature performance curve at temperature is the value read from the exhaust temperature performance curve at temperature is the value from the exhaust flow rate performance curve at temperature is the value from the exhaust flow rate performance curve at temperature is the value from the drum pressure performance curve at temperature is the value from the drum pressure performance curve at temperature is the value from the duct burner fuel flow performance curve at temperature is the value from the duct burner fuel flow performance curve at temperature Page 46 1. at the exhaust temperature exhaust flow .

Thus. The exhaust flow performance curve (Figure 1-6) gives HP steam flow values of 511. and 480. the expected HP steam flow at the new exhaust conditions is equal to: Notice. consider what happens to the HRSG performance when the gas turbine exhaust conditions change. but is not closely related to the power level of the gas turbine without the steam/water injection. An addition of a quantity of energy to a system will likely cause the outputs of the system to increase by an additive amount that is proportional to the quantity of energy added. Concept of Performance Monitoring . such as when the exhaust temperature into the sample HRSG changes from its reference value of 1135 F to 1100 F. The exhaust temperature performance curve (Figure 1-5) gives HP steam flow values of 511. In this situation. except that the calculation must use curve look-up values for the effectiveness instead of the steam flow. i 1. and the exhaust flow reduces from 3200 klb/hr to 2800 klb hr. a given amount of water or steam injected into a gas turbine will increase the gas turbine power by an increment that is proportional to the amount of steam/water injected. For example.4.0). only two terms out of four possible change factors are included in the calculation because the drum pressure and duct burner fuel flow did not change. and their contributions to the calculation would equal unity (1.3 Additive Performance Factors Some operational parameters are not best represented by fractional changes in performance. It would make little sense in this case to use a multiplier on the reference gas turbine power. it would be Page 47 1.7 klb/hr at the reference flow (3200 klb/hr).7 klb/hr at the reference temperature (1135 F). The expected HRSG effectiveness at the new gas turbine exhaust conditions would be calculated in the same manner. and 448.As an example. but instead by incremental changes in performance.6 klb/hr at exhaust temperature equal to 1100 F.5 klb/hr at exhaust flow equal to 2800 klb/hr.

Instead. For example. the performance effect would be multiplicative. steam.n on-intuitive to express this impact as a multiplier on the reference gas turbine power. w F . which equals zero. Cur ve D B (0) is the HRSG performance at the reference duct burner firing level. Thus. and to admission or extraction from a steam turbine where the flow rate is not directly related to the throttle flow. this impact is better presented by adding an increment of power proportional to the amount of steam/water that is injected. instead of firing at the reference duct burner firing level is: Per f or mance Incr ement = { C ur ve D B (w F ) . the performance increment when the duct burner fires at level equal to some value. gas turbine vendors have the option of expressing the effect of water injection on gas turbine performance as an additive factor (when the amount of water injection is plotted versus gas turbine power) or as a multiplicative factor (when water to fuel ratio is plotted versus gas turbine power).5) Where Cur ve D B (w F ) is the value from the HRSG performance versus duct burner firing curve (Figure 18) at the x-axis value equal to w F . Concept of Performance Monitoring . Additive correction factors generally are only used to represent discrete quantities being added to or taken from the equipment or system. Thus. the expected HP steam flow would be: Page 48 1. then the effect on performance is better represented as a multiplicative factor. If the duct burner fuel energy were expressed as a fraction of the input exhaust gas energy. Note also that if the impact of water injection on gas turbine power is expressed using the water-to-fuel ratio as the independent parameter instead of a specified water injection flow rate. HRSG vendors have the same option on duct burner fuel energy. The rated HRSG performance occurs at a duct burner firing level equal to the reference value.C ur ve D B (0) } (1. This is because the water injection has been normalized back to rated conditions by dividing the quantity of water injection by the quantity of fuel flow. If the duct burner in the example HRSG fires at a level equal to 200 mmBTU hr when all other operating conditions remain at their reference values. Additive changes in performance are computed by adding the increment in performance calculated from the performance curves to the reference performance value. This argument also applies to other situations such as adding duct burner fuel energy added to an HRSG.

4.1. the expected equipment performance at actual operating conditions can be calculated from a set of performance curves of the equipment performance versus equipment operating conditions by the following formula. one term for each additive performance increment until terms from all the additive performance increments are included in the final sum. Cur veVal ue(i ) is the value off the performance curve at operating condition i Note that the above formula can be used to predict the performance at any set of operating conditions when the performance is known at any other set Page 49 1. Expected Performance from Performance Curves: wher e Per f or mance e x p is the expected equipment performance at the actual operating conditions. one term for each performance curve until terms from all the performance curves are included in the final product. if the equipment performs with rated capability Per f or mance rated is the expected or rated equipment performance at the reference operating conditions (expected equals rated at the reference operating conditions) is a mathematical operator indicating that all the terms in the following parenthesis are to be multiplied together.4 Expected Performance from Curves In summary. is a mathematical operator indicating that all the following terms are to be added together. Concept of Performance Monitoring .

the expected HP steam flow rate would be: Page 50 1. Concept of Performance Monitoring . Simply define the reference conditions to be equal to the operating conditions where the performance is known.of operating conditions. and with the duct burner consuming 200 mmBtu/hr of fuel. and the rated performance to be equal to that known performance value. Cur veVal ue(i ) is the value off the performance curve at operating condition i If the example HRSG is operated at inlet exhaust gas temperature of 1100 F. and inlet gas flow rate of 2800 Klb/hr. one term for each additive performance increment until terms from all the additive performance increments are included in the final sum. is a mathematical operator indicating that all the following terms are to be added together. one term for each performance curve until terms from all the performance curves are included in the final product. Predicted Performance at ( 1 ) Given Test Performance at ( 2 ) : where Per f or mance(l ) is the predicted equipment performance at the operating conditions (1) if the equipment performs with the same capability as the known or test performance at conditions (2) Per f or mance(2) is the known or test equipment performance at the operating conditions (2) is a mathematical operator indicating that all the terms in the following parenthesis are to be multiplied together.

Page 51 1.0) at the X-axis value equal to the reference value. and to avoid the need to provide the physically based computer models of equipment performance from which the curves are usually derived. For example. Concept of Performance Monitoring . gas turbine base-load power is known to be dependent upon inlet air temperature. Each correction curve would quantify the change or percent change in engine performance that would result when the given operational or environmental condition changes. This method was developed by equipment vendors to enable their customers to predict the performance of the vendor's equipment at various operating conditions. The disadvantage is that the absolute value of performance is not available from the curve. and provide correction curves for each of these operational and environmental effects. The equipment output parameter (Y axis on the performance curve) value is divided by its rated value. The advantage of correction curves is that the value read directly from the plot is equal to the correction factor needed to predict performance at the reference conditions given performance at some other operating condition. inlet air humidity. inlet pressure loss. inlet air pressure.5 Correction Factors The traditional method to account for operational and environmental effects on equipment performance is the correction factor method. This forces the Y-axis value to equal unity (1. There is no need for the user to divide by the rated performance value to obtain a correction factor. steam injection rate. A correction curve is simply a normalized performance curve. This means that the total impact on performance can be computed by combining the individual parameter impacts.1.4. exhaust pressure loss. The methodology is to apply independent correction factors for each operational and environmental effect. water injection rate and fuel type. The basic assumption of this curve-based methodology is that the individual operating conditions have independent impacts on equipment performance. The gas turbine vendor would rate the engine power at a given set of these conditions.

Concept of Performance Monitoring .Figure 1-9 Correction factor curve for the effect of exhaust gas temperature on HP steam flow. this curve is equal to the curve in Figure 1-5 divided by the rated HP steam flow Correction factors are defined as the fractional change in performance from rated when an operational condition changes from the reference conditions. Expected Performance at Test Conditions from Correction Factors: wher e is a mathematical operator indicating the product of all the following terms (each term multiplied by the next term) Page 52 1. This predicted performance at reference conditions is called the corrected performance. They are often used in performance testing to predict the equipment performance at the reference conditions when the performance was measured at conditions other than the reference conditions.

if the equipment performs with the same capability as the known or test performance at operating conditions (2) Per f or mance (2) is the known or test performance at operating conditions (2) Per f or mance rated is the rated performance at the reference operating conditions Cor r ect i onFacot r s (l ) are the values off the correction curves at operating conditions (1) Cor r ect i onFacot r s (2) are the values off the correction curves at operating conditions (2) Page 53 1. Concept of Performance Monitoring . Predicted Performance at Operating Conditions (1): where Per f or mance ( I ) is the predicted performance at operating conditions (1). can be used to predict equipment performance at any operating condition given the performance at one other operating condition.is a mathematical operator indicating the sum of all the following terms (each term added to the next term) Performance Performance rated is the expected or rated performance at the reference operating conditions e x p is the expected performance at test operating conditions if the equipment performs with rated capability C or r ect i onFact or s are the values from the correction curves at the test operating conditions Addit i veC or r ect i ons are the values off the additive correction curves at the test operating conditions The correction factor curves. given known performance at operating condition (2) is below. The formula for the predicted equipment performance at operating condition (1). just like performance curves.

4. and the x-axis is equal to the change in reference condition (current operating condition minus the reference operating condition) divided by the reference condition.6 Percent Change Correction Factors Sometimes the variations in equipment performance with operating conditions are presented as a percentage change in performance versus the percentage change in the operating condition.Addi t i veFacot r s (l ) are the values off the additive correction curve at operating condition (1) Addit i veFacot r s (2) are the values off the additive correction curve at operating condition (2) Because the correction factor curves are based upon a rated performance value at reference operating conditions. . An example of such a performance curve is shown in Figure 1-10. 1. These curves are fully normalized performance curves where the y-axis is equal to the change in equipment performance (equipment performance minus the rated performance) divided by the rated performance. the prediction of performance at some operating conditions (1) requires the knowledge of both the rated performance as well as the performance at operating conditions (2).

physically based models of equipment performance that .5 Model-Based Performance Analysis The correction curves that equipment vendors supply to customers are based upon physically based computer models of the equipment performance. 1. in this time of powerful computers on every desk. Why not use the computer codes directly to calculate expected and corrected performance? Computer software programs like GateCycleIM. Pepse™ and GTMaster™.Figure 1-10 An HRSG percent change correction curve for the HP steam flow versus exhaust gas temperature The use of these percentage change correction curves is essentially the same as that for correction curves. it is not necessary to simplify the analysis into a few curves. However. contain complex. and are a convenient way for vendors to transmit the results of complex computer analysis to their customers. except that the correction factor must be calculated from the curve look-up value in the following manner.

Some advantages of using the computer codes (model-based analysis) instead of performance or correction curves are listed below: • • • • Interaction of varying operating conditions can be modeled. and computer codes are often built specifically to handle these interactions. the interactions between environmental parameters become more and more important. These changes are handled directly by computer models. Physically based models give detailed information about the expected performance. Computer models can compute corrections for parameters that the vendor may not have supplied correction curves for. Page 56 1. the exhaust gas compositions will change. the method words very well. the assumption that the overall effect of changes in all the operating conditions can be computed by multiplying the correction factors together may is not valid over a wide range of operating conditions. For example. but seldom accounted for in correction curves. Physically based models can compute impacts of parameters for which no curves are available. The individual equipment operating conditions may not have independent effects on equipment performance.0. as conditions change over a broad range. which is an assumption of the curve-based method. their product may not represent the true performance change in the equipment. not available from curves. if the gas turbine uses varying amounts of water injection or switches from natural gas to oil fuel. This additional information may help the engineer diagnose problems. equipment vendors often use these computer codes to create the correction curves. As long as each correction factor is near unity. In fact. but when correction factors get far from 1. In particular. Physically based models can allow wide variations (far from reference) in operating conditions. In other words. Concept of Performance Monitoring .can be used in place of correction curves. Computer models can handle wide variations in environmental parameters and operational modes for which curves do not exist or do not accurately model.

2. The procedure to build such a model is specific to the software used. At each performance monitoring calculation interval input the measured equipment operating conditions into the model 4. The following figures illustrate the use of physically based computer code analysis for the example heat recovery steam generator used in the chapter on performance curves. The computer model in Figure 1-11 was constructed to replicate the actual steam/water flow path in an existing HRSG. The actual surface areas of the tube bundles were obtained from vendor information and input into the computer model. Test the model versus vendor guarantee data and/or plant-measured data over a wide range of operating conditions. Then the design-point heat transfer coefficient in each tube bank was adjusted so that the model prediction matches the rating specification for the HRSG. Build a computer model of the equipment being monitored. Page 57 1. Run the model and obtain the expected equipment performance as a model output. 1.The methodology for model-based performance analysis is. Concept of Performance Monitoring . 5. Correct the model where necessary. This resulted in a design point model of the HRSG. Evaluate degradation by comparing the expected performance from the model to the measured performance. 3.

Figure 1-12 is a plot of these temperature distributions. Concept of Performance Monitoring . If necessary.gure 1-11 shows the output of the model when the reference operating conditions from Table 1-12 are input to the computer model. The resulting model can then be used to give predictions of the expected performance of the HRSG as operating conditions change. F-. the model also computes the complete temperature distributions within the HRSG. Notice that the model predicts the rated steam flows to three digits of accuracy or better.Next. and the verification process repeated until the predictions of the HRSG model matched the vendor data to within one percent over the entire operating range of the HRSG. corrections were made to the design-point model. the predictions (off-design mode in GateCycle™) of the HRSG model were compared to vendor warrantee data over a range of operating conditions to verify model accuracy. Page 58 1. In addition to predicting the rated steam flows.

There is one steam/water straight line for each tube bundle modeled in the HRSG. the gas enters at a temperature of 1135 F. where the corresponding steam temperature is 1000 F. The lower set of straight lines is the corresponding steam/water temperature distribution. Concept of Performance Monitoring .Figure 1-12 Temperature profile from GateCycle™ for the example HRSG at reference conditions The upper straight line in Figure 1-12 is the exhaust gas temperature as the gas goes from the HRSG inlet to the stack. The computer code only predicts the inlet and outlet conditions for each tube bundle. and does not predict temperature distributions within a tube bundle. while the inlet feedwater temperature is 136 F. The closer the gas exit temperature is to the feedwater inlet temperature the higher the effectiveness of the HRSG. Page 59 1. A straight line is drawn from one predicted point to another. On the right hand side of the plot the gas exit (stack) temperature is 206 F. Notice on the left hand side of the plot (at zero on the x-axis).

How do these compare to the curve-based method? Table 1-13 below compares the model-based results to the curvebased results for the situation where the exhaust gas temperature and flow change from 1135 F and 3200 klb/hr to 1100 F and 2800 klb/hr respectively.892. and exhaust gas flow equal to 2800 Klb/hr Figure 1-13 shows the predicted HRSG performance when the exhaust gas inlet temperature and flow rate are changed to 1100 F and 2800 mmBtu/hr respectively. Notice that when using model-based analysis. Table 1-13 Comparison of results between curve-based and modelbased methods for a change in HRSG inlet predicted Performance conditions after exhaust gas flow & temperature changeCurve-Based MethodModel Based Method HP Steam Flow (klb/hr) 420421HRSG Effectiveness (%)92. Interactions between the inputs can be predicted only if all changes in operating conditions are input to the model.Figure 1-13 Model-based prediction (from GateCycle™) of the HRSG performance at exhaust gas temperature equal to 1100 F. all operating conditions are input to the model and the output accounts for changes in all the operating conditions at once.9 Page 60 1. Figure 1-13 shows the model-based prediction of HP steam flow and effectiveness. Concept of Performance Monitoring .

exhaust gas flow.Thus. Concept of Performance Monitoring . and duct burner fuel flow all change from reference Now let's add a significant change in duct burner firing level. Table 1-14 Comparison of results between curve-based and modelbased methods for high duct-burner firing situation Predicted Performance after exhaust gas flow & temperature & duct firing level all changeCurve-Based MethodModel Based MethodHP Steam Flow (klb/hr)612614HRSG Effectiveness (%)94.595. the curve-based and the model-based methods yield approximated equal predicted performance values when exhaust gas temperature and flow change over a relatively narrow range. from zero at the reference conditions to the maximum possible for this HRSG (200 mmBtu/hr). Changes in exhaust conditions of this size could be expected to occur as a result of ambient temperature changes on the order of 40 F. and once again compare the predictions of the curvebased method to the model based method. Figure 1-14 Predicted HRSG performance (from GateCycle™) when exhaust gas temperature.1 Page 61 1.

all of the differences in calculated results are due to the simplifying assumptions inherent in the curve-based method. the curve-based method is based upon the model. at least for effectiveness. and is a simplification to the model that makes it possible to predict performance without needing to run the computer code. the curves for this example were calculated from the model. In other words. Concept of Performance Monitoring . as the changes in operating conditions get larger.Notice that differences between the curve-based method and the model-based method begin to become important. Page 62 1. Since.

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