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CIVL 4171

Pipeline, Platform and


Subsea Technology

Mooring Design of Floating Platforms


Mooring Design

1. Introduction
2. System Types
3. Mooring Components
4. Design Considerations
5. Design Criteria
6. Design Methods
• Quasi – Static
• Dynamic
• Model Tests
Station Keeping
System:
System Types:
• Most floating facilities are designed to stay at a single location secured to
the sea floor by a purpose built mooring system
• Some systems are designed to be disconnectable to allow escape from bad
weather such as cyclones (eg BHPB’s Griffin Venture)
• DP & Thruster Assisted station keeping is also used, though much less
frequently
Hull type Vs. Wave
period
Spar - Motions

• Spars are different from both Semis and


TLPs in the mechanism of motion
control.
• The centre of gravity (VCG) is lower
then the centre of buoyancy (VCB) –
unconditionally stable.
• The spar derives no stability from its
mooring system.
• The deep draft is favourable for
minimal heave motions esp. with heave
plates.
• The hull natural period in heave & pitch
is above the range of wave energy
periods.
• The reduced heave & pitch motions
permit the use of dry trees.
TLP Motions

• The vertical forces acting on the TLP must


be in balance ie the fixed & variable loads +
tendon tension equal its displacement.
• The hulls excessive buoyancy causes the
tendons to always be in tension and
restrains the platform in heave.
• The displacement of the hull and the tendon
axial stiffness are chosen such that the
vertical and angular natural periods are well
below the wave excitation periods and the
horizontal natural periods are well above the
wave excitation periods.
• TLPs undergo ‘setdown’, as environmental
forces cause an ‘offset’ displacement ie the
draft increases as the platform is moved
horizontally due to lateral loads thereby
increasing the tendon tensions.
• The reduced heave & pitch motions permit
the use of dry trees.
Semisubmersible -
Motions
• Limited sensitivity to water depth
• Trending to deeper draft to reduce
heave motions esp. in response to low
wave periods (<8 seconds).
• Columns are sized to provide adequate
waterplane area to support all
anticipated loading conditions, spaced
to support topsides modules, and tuned
for a natural period of at least 20
seconds.
• These columns are supported by two
parallel pontoons or a ring pontoon.
Pontoons are sized to provide adequate
buoyancy to support all weights and
vertical loads, and proportioned to
maximize heave damping.
• Taut or spread catenary mooring
system.
Common FPS
Configurations

Spar Platform Spread Moored FPSO CALM Buoy

Mooring

Tensioned
Risers
Common FPS
Configurations
Common FPS
Configurations

Spread Moored Semi-Submersible


FPS Mooring
Configurations
FPSO Turret
Configurations

Bow Mounted External Turret Bow Mounted Internal Turret


Other Station Keeping
Methods

Dynamic Positioning Single Anchor Leg Mooring


(SALM)
Catenary Mooring Basics

• Loads on Floater: • Loads on Mooring lines:


– Steady & fluctuating – Top end surge motions (small
heave)
wind – Wave
– Wave & wave drift – Current
– Current – Sea-bed friction
Mooring Components

Basically the mooring system comprises of:


• Chain
• Wire
• Synthetic line
• Clump weights
• Buoys
• Hardware & Accessories
• Anchor Point
Mooring Components -

Chain
• Chain has proven durability offshore.
• Several grades available (ORQ, K4, U3 etc.. depending upon
classification society)
• Studlink & Studless (studless has greater strength & fatigue life, but
lower mass/m for a given size)
• Corrosion & wear catered for by increasing diameter ~0.4mm/year
service allowance in splash zone & dip zone, ~0.2mm elsewhere.
Mooring Components -
Wire
Wire
• Greater restoring force for a given
pretension
• Costs less per load capacity than chain but
doesn’t have the same restoring effect as
weight is 40% or so.
• Wear issues due to abrasion
• 6-strand, spiral strand, non-rotating

Spiral Strand – Advantages Six Strand – Advantages


•Higher Strength to Weight Ratio •Higher elasticity
•Higher Strength to Diameter •Greater Flexibility
Ratio
•Lower Axial Stiffness
•Torsionally Balanced
•Higher Resistance to corrosion
Mooring Components -
Synthetic lines / Clump
Weights

• Synthetic lines:
– Recent developments in ultra deep water used
them
– Still in development phase for permanent
moorings

• Buoys
– Reduces weight of mooring lines on system
– reduced dynamics in deep water
– increased hardware costs / complexity of
installation

• Clump Weights
– sometimes used to improve performance or
reduce cost
– used in ‘dip zone’ to increase restoring forces
– added installation complexity
Mooring Components - Buoys
/ Connecting Hardware

• Connecting Hardware
– shackles, swivels, link
plates

• Vessel Hardware
Mooring Components -
Anchors
Drag Anchor Types

• Options:
– Drag Embedment
– Driven Piles
– Suction Installed Piles
– Gravity Anchors
• Choice based upon costs as
well as system performance,
soil conditions, reliability,
installation & proof loading
Suction Anchors
Recap of the FPSO Design
Overview
FUNCTIONAL SCHEME Topside Layout and
REQUIREMENTS CONFIGURATION structural support
-Mooring envelope -TLP, FPSO, Spar etc configuration
-Allowable Motions
-Allowable
displacements.

METOCEAN DATA HYDRODYNAMIC Functional Loads: Eg


ANALYSIS crude oil storage,
production equipment etc.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN
-Strength
ANCHOR POINT
-Drag Anchors
This Section
-Fatigue -Driven Pile
-Suction Pile
-Gravity Anchor

MOORING ANALYSIS TURRET / MOORING MOORING


INTERFACES CONFIGURATION

PRELIMINARY
LAYOUT MOORING TYPE
-Spread moored
-Single point mooring
-All Chain
-Wire/ Chain/ Wire
MODEL TESTING -Buoys / clump weights
in-line

N Y
REDESIGN & RERUN DESIGN &
MOORING & PERFORMANCE FINAL DESIGN
STRUCTURAL SATISFACTORY
ANALYSIS
Floating System Analysis

Main Methods of Analysis:

1. Simplified Quasi-Static Methods as per


API RP 2SK
-Suitable for preliminary design

2. Rigorous Analysis
-Frequency Domain, Time Domain
numerical solutions
Simplified Analysis

Simplified analysis is Quasi-Static – What does this mean?

• Dynamic wave loads are taken into account by statically offsetting the vessel
by an appropriately defined induced wave motion
• Vertical fairlead motions and dynamic effects associated with mass, damping
and fluid accelerations are neglected
• Research has shown this to be affected significantly by vessel, water depth, line
configuration
• Simplicity has proven it useful & practical for preliminary studies

Rigorous Analysis – What’s the difference?


• Vessel motions affect the dynamics of the mooring tensions. Eg acceleration
effects and loads as the mooring lines pass through the water
• Typical analysis simplified in so much as the vessel motions are assumed to be
unaffected by the mooring lines – OK for water depths up to 500m or so.
• Ultra deep mooring analysis requires that mooring effect on vessel motions
considered. In some cases even riser systems affect motions considerably
Floating System Analysis
Design Criteria and
Floating Structure Analysis Load Cases Initial
Mooring

Criteria
(Environment, allow Pattern
offsets etc)
Prior to starting Mooring or Structure design,
we need to work out how the vessel reacts to
the environment.

Forces & Offsets


Determine Environmental Effects
How do we predict the response 1. Steady State Environmental
characteristics of the vessel? Forces
2. Determine Low Frequency
Motions
Typically this work is performed by specialist 3. Determine Wave
Frequency Motions
engineers / naval architects.
Work is performed using analysis or obtained

Loads & FoS


from scale model tests

Determine Mooring
Tensions / Offsets
Design Criteria /
Arrangement
Primary Considerations:
• Operations considerations 8 Leg Equispaced
– Mooring / Riser interface = offset
limitations (eg 10% - 20% water
depth)
– Directional Offsets
– Number of Risers / Heading
• Wire / Chain combinations depending
upon mooring depth, loads etc… Mooring
• Pretension affected by allowable
offsets
3 x 3 System

Risers
Design Cases

Basic Load Cases


– Intact (all lines intact)
– Damaged (one line broken)
– Transient (motions after 1 line breaks)

ÎLoad cases have different Factors of Safety


Environmental Criteria

Environment = Principally wind, wave, current & tide


Key aspects for mooring design are Extreme and Operating
Environments

Extreme Environment:
These conditions have a low probability of being exceeded
within the design lifetime of the structure.
Extreme environmental responses are likely to govern the
design of a floating unit.
Eg a 20 year design life system typically uses 100 year Return
Period conditions. These have a probability of occurrence
during the 20 year design life of about 20%
Environmental Criteria

Normal Environment:
These conditions are those that are expected to occur frequently during
the construction and service life.

Since different parameters and combinations affect various responses and


limit operations differently (eg crane usage, installation etc) the designer
should consider appropriate combinations for each situation.

EG On the Banff FPSO in the North Sea, the novel


design exhibited significant roll in moderate seas.
Basically the crew were getting seasick.
Solution → add bilge keels to stabilise roll = £10m in
expenses and lost revenue

Other Conditions
Phenomenon such as tsunamis, icebergs, solitons etc..
May also need consideration for a particular project
Forces and Motions

Environmental forces / motions should be calculated at the


following 3 distinct frequency bands to evaluate their effects on the
system
• Steady Forces: wind, current and wave
drift are constant in magnitude for the
duration of interest
• Low-Frequency cyclic loads can excite
the platform at its natural periods in
surge, sway and yaw. Typical natural
periods are 60 to 180 seconds
• Wave-Frequency cyclic loads are large
in magnitude and are a major
contributor to member forces. Typical
periods are between 5 and 20 seconds
Steady Forces : Wind

Steady Wind Forces


Calculated on each part of the FPSO by summing the contribution of different areas :

Area 3
F = 0.5 ρair.A.Vz2. Cs (kN)
Area 1
where, Area 2

Vz = 1 hour mean wind velocity at specified


height z
SHAPE Cs
Vz = Vh (z/H)0.125 Large Flat Surface (hull, deckhouse) 1.00

Vh = reference wind speed at 10m height Exposed beams, girders 1.30

A= projected area (m2) Isolated shapes (cranes, booms etc) 1.50

Clustered deck houses 1.10


Cs = Shape coefficient
Cylindrical 0.50
ρair = 0.00125 Tonnes/m3

OR - use method of API RP2SK


Steady Forces : Current

Steady Current Forces


Forces on the hull of an FPSO can be estimated by the following equations:

Force on Bow or Stern of FPSO’s:

Fcx = Ccx .S.Vc2 (kN) WETTED SURFACE


AREA = S
where,

Vc = Design Current Speed (m/s)


S= Wetted surface area of the hull (m2)
Ccx = current force coefficient on the bow
= 0.00289 kNsec2/m4
Force on Beam of FPSO’s:
Fcy = Ccy .S.Vc2 (kN)
where,
Ccy = current force coefficient on the beam
= 0.07237 kNsec2/m4
Low Frequency Wave
Forces & Motions
SIMPLE METHOD → Calculate Wave Loading using tables in API RP 2SK.
Other Methods: Analytical Software & Model Tests
Adjust Low frequency motions based upon factoring mooring stiffness value
from the graph by the ratio of : (nominal stiffness / actual stiffness)1/2

1.0 Choose
Vessel Length

2.0 Chose
Wave Height

3.0 Read off values of 5.0 Adjust Values for


4.0 Read off values
# Low Freq. Single •Mooring Stiffness
# Mean drift Force
Amplitude Motion
•Significant & Maxima
Wave Frequency
Forces & Motions
Wave-Induced Vessel
Motion Responses

1st Order: Motions at wave frequencies


(periods approx 5secs to 20 secs) that
are obtained by computer analysis or
model tests. These are the motions that
we are all familiar with (eg roll, pitch,
heave, surge, sway, yaw).
Vessel : Wave Frequency
Response
Predicting 1st Order Response (1)

How do we find vessel response?

•The vessels response functions are called Response


Amplitude Operators (RAO’s) and are different for
all 6 degrees of freedom (surge, sway, heave, roll,
pitch and yaw)

•That is, in simplified form:-


Vessel Response = Fn( Seastate , RAO’s)

•Typical RAO’s for a 100m long vessel with heading RAO's : 30 degree heading
30 degrees to waves for roll, heave, pitch and surge 4
are shown: Surge
•Heave & Surge : metres motion/metre wave height 3
•Pitch and Roll : degrees per metre wave height Heave

•(ie for 2m regular waves at 10 second period, roll is Am plitude


2
Roll
approx 5 degrees and heave is 1.8m)
1
Pitch

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Period (seconds)
Vessel : Wave Frequency
Response

Predicting 1st Order Response (2)


3 main calculation methods AQWA Model
– Time domain
– Frequency Domain
– Model tests

FREQUENCY DOMAIN
These methods are much simpler and less computationally intensive. Most of these methods use
STRIP THEORY in which the vessels motions are treated as forced, damped, low amplitude
sinusoidal motions.
– Vessel is divided into a number of transverse sections (or ‘strips’)
– Hydrodynamic properties are computed assuming 2D inviscid flow with no interference
from upstream sections
– Coefficients of the equations of motions may be found

TIME DOMAIN
Time Domain methods model the wave passing a hull. At small incremental steps the net force on the
hull is calculated by integrating the water pressure and frictional forces on each part of the hull. Using
Newton’s Second Law the acceleration on the hull is computed, then this is integrated over the time
step to compute the new vessel velocity and position

>> Although procedure is relatively straight forward, these methods are not routinely used.
– Software / Hardware advances are making this method more common: Diffracted Water
– Used for “non-standard” vessels such as Semi-submersibles & Spars Surface Contours

Examples of Software: AQWA , MOSES (Aquamarine),WAMIT (DnV)


Vessel : Wave Frequency
Response
Predicting 1st Order Response (3)

MODEL TESTS
Still used today – why?

Because it works!!! – basically numerical computation is good, but still needs work to be suitable

Test 138

1.500

Wave Probe at Wall (CoG)


Average

1.000

Heave & Wave Height (m)


0.500

0.000
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00

-0.500

-1.000
Time (secs)
Quasi – Static Analysis:
Mooring Tensions & Vessel Offset

Mean offset is defined as the vessel displacement due to


the combination of current, mean wave drift and mean
wind forces.
Maximum Offset is defined as mean offset plus
appropriately combined wave frequency and low
frequency vessel motions.
Mean
“static” “dynamic
Offset offset” +/-

Maximum
Steady Forces Offset
Quasi – Static Analysis:
Offset Definition

How do we calculate Maximum Offset?


Let Smean = mean vessel offset
Smax = max vessel offset
Swfmax = max wave frequency motion
Swfsig = significant wave freq. motion
Slfmax = maximum low freq. motion
Slfsig = significant low freq. motion

If Slfmax>Swfmax , then: Smax = Smean+ Slfmax+Swfsig


If Swfmax>Slfmax , then: Smax = Smean+ Swfmax+Slfsig

Note : it has been shown statistically that this method of combining wave frequency and low
frequency motions defined in this manner would be exceeded on average once in every 3 hr
storm. An alternative to this approach is a time domain simulation, usually several
simulations performed with statistical establishment of maximums
Quasi – Static Analysis:
Statistics of Peak Values
• Significant Value = 2 (RMS Value)
• Max Value = Sqrt [2(ln N)] (RMS value)
where N = number of waves during the storm = T / Ta
T= specified storm period in seconds (usually 3hrs)
Ta = average zero crossing period in seconds
eg for 3 hr storm, Tz=10seconds, Maximum =1.86

• Low frequency components - Ta can be taken as the natural


period of the vessel Tn which can be estimated by:
Tn = 2 π Sqrt (m/k)
m= vessel displacement
k = mooring system stiffness at mean position
Quasi – Static Analysis:
Line Tension Definition
Mean Tension is defined as the tension corresponding to the mean offset of
the vessel.
Maximum Tension is defined as mean tension plus appropriately
combined wave frequency and low frequency tensions.
Let Tmean = mean tension
Tmax = maximum tension
Twfmax = maximum wave frequency tension
Twfsig = significant wave frequency tension
Tlfmax = maximum low frequency tension
Tlfsig = significant low frequency tension
If Tlfmax>Twfmax , then:
Tmax = Tmean+ Tlfmax+Twfsig
If Twfmax>Tlfmax , then:
Tmax = Tmean+ Twfmax+Tlfsig
Quasi – Static Analysis:
Line Tension Definition

Where do we get Mooring Tensions and Anchor


Load from?

•Need to calculate force verses offset curves for


the mooring system as a whole as well as
individual line tensions.
•For most highly loaded lines, need to determine
the suspended catenary distance
•Catenary calculations normally performed by
software. Can be done by hand (see over for
catenary formulae)
Î PREPARE GRAPH OF TENSION Vs
OFFSET (& SUSPENDED LINE LENGTH)
Line Tension

• Catenary equation
Th ⎛ ⎛ wx ⎞ ⎞
z+h = ⎜ cosh ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎟
w⎝ ⎝ Th ⎠ ⎠
• Maximum tension

Tmax = Th + wh
• Suspended (Minimum) length
Notation:
T
lmin = g 2 max − 1 T- line tension (N)
wh
h – water depth (m)
w – line weight in water (N/m)
Line Tension
Definition
1. From Total force & vessel
restoring force curve
determine…
2. Mean offset
3. Determine Smax as a function
of Low frequency & Wave
frequency offsets
4. From Smax & Most loaded line
tension force curve determine
Maximum Mooring force
1

2 3
Anchor Load
Definition
Where do we get Anchor Load from?

Max. Anchor Load = Max Line Tension – (unit submerged weight


of mooring line ) x (water depth) - friction
between mooring line and seabed

Where:
Friction between mooring and seabed = friction coefficient x unit
submerged weight of mooring line x Length
on seabed
Mooring Line Design
Criteria

Mooring Line Design Checks:


Anchor Point Criteria

Anchor Point Design Checks:


Factors of safety for various
anchors, conditions and analysis
methods
Recap
Design Criteria
(Environment,
allowable offsets etc)
;

Initial Mooring Pattern ;


Determine Environmental Effects
1. Steady State Environmental Forces
2. Determine Low Frequency
Motions ;
3. Determine Wave Frequency
Motions

Determine Mooring
Tensions / Offsets ;