The Numbers

Children and AIDS through different lenses Dr Sharlene Swartz sswartz@hsrc.ac.za National Press Foundation 15 July 2009

Demographics of South Africa s children
Source: Children s Institute, University of Cape Town. Based on the General Household Survey, 2007.

General
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38% of South Africa s population are under 18 68% live in households with a per capita income below R350 (value set in 2000) 38% (nearly 7 million children) live in households where no adults are working 86% of eligible children (8 million) accessed a Child Support Grant, 1.3 million did not 422,000 children receive the Foster Care Grant

Living arrangements
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34.3% children live in the same household as both their parents 39.9% children live with their mothers only 2.8% live with their fathers only 23% living in households with neither parent - 83% of these children still had one or both parents alive

Orphans
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20% of children (3.7 million)in South Africa are orphans (living without a living biological mother or father or both parents)

y y y

This number has increased by 700,000 since 2002 from 17% to 20% 13% of children are paternal orphans (2.4 million) 3% of children are maternal orphans (600,000) - Maternal orphans more at risk than paternal orphans

y

4% double orphans (701,000) doubled since 2002 largely AIDS-pandemic driven

Child headed households
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0.6% of all households in South Africa are child-headed (oldest resident no older than 17 years) 0.8% of children live in child-headed households (148,000 children live in 79,000 child-headed households)

y y

Frequently temporary, awaiting arrangements or for school during the week No evidence of either an increase or decrease between 2002 and 2007

Summary
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Growing numbers of orphans doubled since 2002, majority orphaned by AIDS Child-headed households are rare and temporary 68% of children are poor and likely vulnerable

HIV (and related) statistics
South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2008 (HSRC/MRC, 2008)

Prevalence
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10.9% HIV prevalence for people aged two years and older (5.2 million people) HIV prevalence levels among adults aged 15-49 has increased between 2002 and 2008* Decline in new infections noted among teenagers aged 15-19* 90% youth (15-24) reported exposure to at least one AIDS prevention programme HIV prevention knowledge has declined among the population 15-49 years from 64.4% in 2005 to 44.8% in 2008

y

Increase in men and women (15-49) having multiple partners (9.4% in 2002 to 19.3% in 2008 for men, and 1.6% to 3.7% for women)

y y

Increase in use of condoms (57% in 2005 to 87% in 2008) Increase in teenage women having sex with older partners ( Intergenerational sex )*

Children and Mother to child transmission (MTCT)
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3.3% HIV infection among children 2-14 years old (2005) HIV prevalence in children 2-14 has declined from 5.6% in 2002 to 2.5% in 2008 28% incidence f HIV infection among pregnant women (2007) 50% of HIV+ pregnant women in public health clinics were taking Nevirapine (single dose ARV) to prevent MTCT (2006)

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