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Alessandro Braggio Dipartimento di Fisica, LAMIA-INFM-CNR, Universit` di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 a Genova, Italy Matteo Merlo Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN, LAMIA-INFM-CNR, Universit` di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 a Genova, Italy Nicodemo Magnoli Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN, Universit` di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova, Italy a Maura Sassetti Dipartimento di Fisica, LAMIA-INFM-CNR, Universit` di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 a Genova, Italy
Current statistics of an antidot in the fractional quantum Hall regime is studied for Laughlin’s series. The chiral Luttinger liquid picture of edge states with a renormalized interaction exponent g is adopted. Universal sub-poissonian transport regimes are identiﬁed through an analysis of current cumulants in the sequential tunneling regime. A comparison between noise and skewness is proposed in order to clearly distinguish the charge of the carriers, regardless of possible non-universal interaction renormalizations. Super-poissonian statistics is obtained in the shot limit for g < 1, and plasmonic eﬀects due to the ﬁnite-size antidot are tracked.
The peculiar properties of quasiparticles (QPs) in the fractional quantum Hall eﬀect (FQHE) have received great attention especially for the states at ﬁlling factor ν = 1/p, p odd integer, in which gapped bulk excitations were predicted to exist and to possess fractional charge e∗ = νe (e < 0 electron charge) and statistics.1 A boundary restriction of this theory was subsequently put forward in terms of edge states by Wen.2 This theory recovered the fractional numbers of QPs in the framework of chiral Luttinger Liquids (χLL), and indicated tunneling as an accessible tool to probe them.3 Accordingly, QPs with charge e/p were measured in shot noise experiments with 4 point contact geometries and edge-edge backscattering. A key prediction of χLL theories is that the interaction parameter should be universal and equal to ν. As a consequence, the quasiparticle (electron) local tunneling density of states obeys a power law in energy D(E) ∝ E α with α = ν−1 (α = 1/ν − 1). Several geometries have been set up in experiments to see this power laws through measurements of tunneling current I or conductance G.5 The observations conﬁrm the power-law behaviour but a discrepancy with theory is found in the values of the exponent. This disagreements of χLL predictions with observed exponents are still not completely understood, although several theoretical mechanisms have been put forward to reproduce a renormalized
10 By a gauge transformation. n] = i together with [φ0 (x). One should therefore consider all possibilities for tunneling. A) for the left. encircling a ﬁnite area.3 The electron corresponds to m = 1/ν. φp (x )] = 0 ﬂux quantum. reduces to HA = Ec n2 + ∞ s a † as s s=1 where Ec = πνv/L is the topological charge excitation energy and = 2πv/ L is the plasmonic excitation quantized energy of the neutral sector. all terms like m m t(m) ψA † (x)ψj (x).13 We compare Fano factor ing through an edge state encircling an antidot as in Fig. analysing diﬀerent transport regimes and clearly distinguishing signatures of charge e∗ from eﬀects due to the QP propagators governed by g. Charge ν QP ﬁelds for the l-leads are now deﬁned through exponentiation ψl (x) ∝ eiφl (x) .1 Transport in the antidot setup Antidot Hamiltonian In our model. 1a.6. and skewness for not poissonian transport regimes. it is sensitive to the actual position in the plateau through a coupling to the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ﬂux.12. To do so. This Hamiltonian is expected to describe the antidot anywhere on a ν = 1/p plateau due to the FQHE incompressibility. 2 2. are connected via weak tunnel10.7 Luttinger parameter. 12. j l ensure that the ﬁeld on each edge satisﬁes [φl (x). Each χLL supports several excitations other than the single QP.12 The antidot charged zero mode reads φ0 (x) = 2π νnx − χ with n the excess number of antidot QPs and χ the Hermitian conjugate l L 0 operator of n. φl (x )] = iπνsgn(x−x ). the edge states form at the boundaries of the sample and around the antidot 0 0 0 T T (Fig. right and antidot edge. Nevertheless. The neutral edge modes for the antidot are deﬁned on a ring of length L with periodic boundary conditions. The theory is bosonized with the prescription ρl (x) = ∂x φl (x)/2π where φl (x) = φ0 (x) + φp (x) l l with the scalar ﬁelds comprising both a charged φ0 (x) and a neutral sector φp (x). i.e. given in general by ψlm (x) ∝ exp[imφl (x)]. Renormalization group (RG) ﬂow equations have been set up for the antidot geometry by Geller and Loss. l (1) where ρl (x) aisthe electron excess density and v is the edge magnetoplasmon velocity ( = 1). we choose a geometry where two fractional quantum Hall edges. R. The commutation relation 2 guarantees that the ﬁelds ψl create fractional charge excitations with fractional statistics. 1a). where Φ0 = hc/|e| is the 10 The canonical commutation relation [χ.11.2 Here we choose l l for convenience to set all ﬁelds with the same chirality (right movers) and we consider the lateral right/left leads inﬁnitely extended. at fractional ﬁlling factor ν = 1/p (p odd integer). while the single QP ﬁelds ψl (x) are obtained by setting m = 1. R. 10 One can show that the single-qp tunneling amplitude dominates at intermediate temperature due to antidot ﬁnite size. the Aharonov-Bohm tionary Hamiltonians Hl (AB) coupling with the external magnetic ﬁeld is described by H AB and the tunneling between T the circular antidot and the edges is given by HR/L . including coupling to phonons or dissipative environments.13 This appears to be the 14 case in most experimental observations where single QP tunneling is clearly observed. Our purpose is to discuss fractional Hall edges in an enriched χLL theory where the possibility of a renormalized interaction parameter g = ν is assumed a priori. We describe transport regions where the Fano factor is sensitive to the power laws of the QP propagators and presents super-poissonian correlations. eﬀects of 8 edge reconstruction with smooth conﬁning potentials. it is easy to see that this amounts 0 simply to a shift of n in HA according to Ec n2 → Ec (n − Φ/Φ0 )2 . The antidot Hamiltonian. j = L. The complete Hamiltonian reads H = HL + HR + HA + H AB + HR + HL with the sta0 (l = L. due to ﬁnite size. 9 interaction range.10. The standard Wen’s hydrodynamical Hamiltonian2 for the edges is given by Hl0 = πv ν dx ρ2 (x) . We .11.
with ϕ = Φ/Φ0 + e∗ V /2Ec . 1b) with roman numbers. phonons. . indicated in Fig.6. In this approximation the transport depends only on the incoherent tunneling rates ΓL/R (E). c) Current cumulants as a function ∗ of ϕ in the two state regime (II) for e V = 0. kB T = 0.2 Transport in sequential tunneling regime A ﬁnite source-drain voltage V is applied between the left and right edges. depend only on the energy change of single QP jumps (transitions n → n + 1. 2. † T therefore only retain the dominant term Hj = v(tj ψA (xj )ψj (0) + h. j = L.1Ec . g = 1/3 (dot-dashed line). right (R) and the antidot (A).a) L 0 xL ϕ b) c) 1 tL n+3 A xR n+2 I III II IV V k2 ν k3 ν2 0. Γj (E) = |tj |2 Γ(E) = |tj |2 l wl γ(E − l ) where E is the energy associated to the QP tunneling event and γ(x) = (βωc /2π)1−g |Γ(g/2+iβx/2π)|2 eβx/2 with Γ(x) the Euler Gamma function and β = 1/kB T .004Ec : Fano factor k2 /ν (top lines) and skewness k3 /ν 2 (bottom lines) where ν = (e∗ /e). ϕ) into diamonds. ϕ) plane: roman numbers indicate the number of charge states involved in the n transport. Note ﬁnally that the fractional charge e∗ is solely determined by ν. Note that in the standard χLL theory g = ν.75 0.50 0. Here. Their expression is well known within the 15 Luttinger description of edge states with fully relaxed plasmonic excitations of the antidot. solid lines deﬁne the chiral edge states left (L). producing a backscattered tunneling current I of QPs through the antidot. we will assume g = νF where F describes possible renormalization eﬀects due to coupling of the inﬁnite edges with additional modes (e. Horizontal thin lines indicate the universal limits at 1/2 at 1/4.g. b) Scheme of transport regions in the (V. In the DC limit the sequential tunneling current is obtained through the solution of a standard Master Equation with the states labeled 10 by the number of fractional QPs in the antidot. see Fig.. in the Master Equation. 1(b). where energies E± = 0. thin lines signal the onset of transitions. comparison between diﬀerent values of g: g = 1/5 (solid line). g = 1/2 (dotted line). a It is thus separated from the dynamical behaviour governed by g. n The conditions E± = 0 grid the parameter space (V.c. in black the depleted areas deﬁning tunneling points (dashed lines). where the transport is dominated by ﬁxed number of QP states.50 En R 0 tR n+1 − 0.25 4 6 8 e∗ V /Ec 0.53 ϕ Figure 1: a) Geometry of the system: in white. or to edge reconstruction). that represents the single-QP tunneling between the inﬁnite edges and the antidot.a We estimated the temperature regimes where our sequen13 tial tunneling picture holds and we found them consistent with experimental possibilities. but do not aﬀect the results as we will discuss.9 Renormalizations of the tunneling matrix elements ti → ti are in principle present as well. Processes in the n forward direction deﬁne the energies E± = e∗ V /2 ± 2Ec (ϕ − n − 1/2). Its the explicit value will depend on the de˜ tails of interaction. n + 1 → n for the number of antidot QPs). The sequential tunneling rates. R.47 E+ n n 0 2 0. the Hall ﬂuid.
Our task will be to ﬁnd conditions where N p / N assumes universal values. (2) where Fano factor and normalized skewness correspond to k2. For the skewness we ± + − ﬁnd 2 2 Γ0 Γ0 f+ (e∗ V ) Γ0 Γ0 f 2 (e∗ V ) e∗ 2 k3 = 1 − 6η + − 2 12η 2 + − 4 − .16 They can be expressed in terms of the p-th irreducible moments N p of the number N of charges e∗ transmitted in a ﬁxed amount of time trough the antidot. diﬀerent conditions can be found where this measurement is special in the sense discussed above. 3. as the transport of weak backscattering current in a point contact.3 as functions of few tunnelling 19. We deﬁne therefore special the conditions. the normalized skewness that measures the ﬂuctuations time-reversal asymmetry induced by the current depends b This is the case of fractional charge measurements in noise experiments. We can calculate the Full Counting Statistics in the Markovian Master 18 We have Equation framework. where the statistics of the particle transport is ﬁxed and N p / N takes universal values. we will study higher current moments as a tool to determine the χLL exponent and the carrier charge. From Eq. in accordance with gauge invariance.3 3. We underline the fact that such universality must hold independently of the Luttinger parameter g. (3) n 0 0 with Γn = Γ E± .g. (2). In region I and II (see Fig. in the parameter space. (4) e Γtot Γtot We analyze now the behaviours (3) and (4) in diﬀerent regimes looking for special conditions.1 Results Current moments Hereafter. For these quantities one has the relation kp = e∗ e p−1 N N p . 2 we have that the normalized current cumulant are expressed as a product of two contributions: one coming from the charge of the carrier e∗ and the other from the statistics of the transport process. the tunnelling asymmetry η = |tR |2 /|tL |2 ). independently from any non-universal parameter (e. We remind that for a poissonian process.b k2 = e∗ /e = ν. Thermal limit: e∗ V k2 = 2kB T /eV . Γtot = Γ0 f+ (E+ ) + ηΓ0 f+ (E− ) and f± (x) = 1 ± e−βx . kp = I p /|ep−1 I | where I p is the p-th irreducible current moment (cumulant) and I is the stationary current. kp are the natural observables to look at in order to measure the QP charge e∗ if the conditions are special.4 . and analytically obtain k2.17 . and the linear conductance oscillates with a periodicity of one ﬂux quantum Φ0 for any ν. On the contrary. In the antidot geometry. 1(b)) only two dominant QP states are involved in transport. since renormalization processes are almost invariably present and not controllable.20 for the Fano factor a well-known formula k2 = e∗ e coth βe∗ V 2 − 2η Γ0 Γ0 f− (e∗ V ) + − Γ2 tot .2 Few-state regime If e∗ V ≤ 2Ec the transport involves only few QP states. 1. The Fano factor is independent of the charge fractionalization. Hereafter we will mainly concentrate on noise and skewness because they are more easily experimentally accessible. reﬂecting the ﬂuctuation-dissipation theorem. we will consider the p-th normalized current cumulant. for example n = 0. espressed in terms of particle number irreducible cumulants. kB T . According to Esq. and k3 = (e∗ /e)2 = ν 2 . In particular.3 respectively.
1(c) conﬁrms. 10 (dashed lines). k2. These minimal values do not depend neither on g. We can conclude that in the two-state regime. 3. At the same time. Here. we have always sub-poissonian behaviour k2 /ν > 1 (thin dashed lines) in agreement with previous results. Note that the ϕ dependence can be used to extract the charge ratio (e∗ /e) and η. So regions I 0 constitute an example of special regime. In this conditions we have the strongest anticorrelation that is signalled by a marked sub-poissonian statistics. Indeed. for the non-interacting case (g = 1). Region III : Fano depends on a n n larger set of rates.c Let’s study in detail the Fano in higher voltages (see Fig. We ﬁnd that they both develop a minimum and that for not too strong asymmetries the absolute min values of the minima are kn = (e∗ /e)n−1 /2n−1 .25. A tractable analytical ± c A similar behaviour can be observed for the skewness. including backward rates of the type Γ± = e−βE± Γn . we observe that when g < 1 (bold solid and dashed lines) we can have regions where the Fano is super-poissonian k2 /ν > 1. barrier asymmetry η = 1 (solid lines). k2 and k3 assume their minimal values (e∗ /e)/2 and (e∗ /e)2 /4 in the symmetric case η = 1. dotted (g = 1/3) and dashed (g = 1/2) curves in Fig. ϕ correspond to a special condition where the system shows the same universal subpoissonian statistics for any g ≤ 1. 1c ). A detailed study of Fano factor and skewness in the parameter space (V. as the comparison of solid (g = 1/5). 20 In presence of asymmetry. 0 Shot limit: kB T e∗ V . 13 . For fractional edges g < 1. I ≈ 0. kB T = 0. In the blockade regions I with |βE± | 1. the values of the minima for k2.k2 2 ν 1 0 0 I II III IV V VI 2 4 6 8 e∗V /Ec Figure 2: Fano factor vs V for g = 1/3 (bold lines). 13 Here we limit to consider only the Fano factor at ﬁxed magnetic ﬂux and for diﬀerent asymmetries (Fig. super-poissonian character increases. 1 (thin lines). from a general look of the ﬁgure. Parameter: ϕ = −0. 2). 2). one has k2 = (e∗ /e) ∗ /e)2 .01Ec and ν = 1/3. 12 For Fermi liquid edges g = 1.3 obtained varying η. φ) was previously reported. in the shot limit. In this case the statistics of the transport process is poissonian: the transand k3 = (e port through the antidot is almost completely suppressed. for low voltages V → 0+ one has k3 = (e∗ /e)2 [1 − 3η Sech2 (βEc (ϕ − 1/2))/(1 + η)2 ].3 have a particular functional dependence on ϕ (see Fig. In general many QP states in the antidot can participate to the transport and a numerical approach is necessary. This represents a means of testing fractional charge outside poissonian conditions and insensitive to renormalizations of the Luttinger parameter. nor on η. we have k2 = (e∗ /e)(1+ η 2 )/(1+ η)2 and k3 = (e∗ /e)2 1 − 6η(1 + η 2 )/(1 + η)4 . We consider now the two-state regime (II) for βE± 1. on the carrier charge ratio (e∗ /e) = ν. independently from ϕ. First of all. For higher voltages e∗ V > 2Ec the renormalized interaction parameter g has important eﬀects. We will discuss only the case of ν = 1/3 = (e∗ /e) but similar analysis can be done for other ﬁlling factors.3 Many-state regime We study now the source-drain dependence of the Fano factor. and the residual current is generated only by a thermally activated tunneling that is completely uncorrelated.
9. 166804 (2005). E. ibid. O. Lett. (5) in the limit βE+ . Phys. Rev. B. 13. Yang. Rev. . Phys. 88. ibid. 18. 14. Phis. X. t + t − a fractional g < 1 is necessary. Papa and A. Phys. A. N. de-Picciotto et al Nature (London) 389. R. Kettemann. 20. 12. B 73. 6. 64. Rev. S. ibid. 93. 50. (5) with Γ0 = Γ0 + ηΓ− and Γ1 = ηΓ1 + Γ+ . Rosenow and B. V. Rep. Lett. condmat/0701438 Phys. 77. ibid. Lett. M. Joglekar et al. Rev. 9692 (1997). 085319 (2001). setting η = 1 in Eq. 15. B in press. J. Phys.formula can be derived under the reasonable assumption that only two backward rates. Eggert. Blanter and M. Rev. S. A. Lett. Phys. 16298(R) (2000). Laughlin. survive: one has k2 /ν = 1 − 2η δk2 . H. 80. Lett. An investigation of this eﬀect demonstrates that the rate enhancement due to the onset of the plasmonic collective excitations is responsible of the super-poissonian behaviour at small asymmetries. Phys. Rev. ibid. 041304(R) (2006). u A. Rev. Rev. K. C. Acknowledgments Financial support by the EU via Contract No. 93. 50. Levitov and M. Rev. P. 94. 1583 (1984). Lett. 52. B¨ttiker. N. βE− 1 yields δk2 > 0 for any g (bold solid line). Lett. 115305 (2004). 11025 (1991). 1 0 Indeed. 68. MCRTN-CT2003-504574 and by the Italian MIUR via PRIN05 is gratefully acknowledged. L. Phys. Lett. M. 4. 096404 (2002). M. Grayson et al. Loss. Phys. On the other side. 64. Phys. X. 19. V. B 55. R. B 67. 358 (1996). S. Braggio et al. S. Rev. X. 64. ibid. Phys. 336. S. 77. 233308 (2003). 2. 085316 (2003). Phys. Phys. Rev. 035332 (2003). MacDonald. Y. Y. 125307 (2003). 10. Yang. Braggio et al. Phys. A. 11. 15233 (1992). 045324 (2005). Heinonen and S. Loss. Geller and D. B 74. Merlo et al. 046801 (2004). Phys. R. Roddaro et al. Phys. B. 2206 (1990). B 56. 16. 1 (2000). 075322 (2003). 5. A. Wan et al. R. We note that. 91. Lett. 045331 (2006). 8. References 1. Geller and D. Rev. Kane and M. Halperin. Rev. I. Levitov et al. So it appears that positive correlations are induced by an interplay of η and g. 036802 (2003). I. Khlebnikov. Europhys. M. B 67. Phys. 162 (1997). Nazarov. Rev. 1395 (1983). D. 7. Rev. Wen. Braggio et al. Fisher. ibid. 126801 (2004). 62. Phys. 3. M. ibid. Rev. 236 (2000). Rev. 7. 46 (1961). L. setting g = 1 gives δk2 = 2η/(η 2 + η + 1)2 > 0 independently by the symmetry (thin dashed lines). L. B 68. B 43. Reznikov. in order to have super-poissonian noise. Bagrets and Yu. 17. B 46. Wan et al. B 72. Chang et al. Rev. B. 2538 (1996). with additional conditions on the asymmetry (bold dashed line). Halperin. Γ0 and − Γ1 . 2512 (1997). Rev. A. M. Goldman et al. Rev. Region V : for symmetrical barriers (η = 1) a strongly super-poissonian Fano factor n appears in correspondence of the relation E± (V ) = and disappears for large asymmetries (bold dashed line). B 70. N. with + δk2 = 0 Γ0 Γ1 Γ1 +Γ1 Γ0 Γ0 +Γ0 Γ1 Γ0 −Γ1 t + − t + − − + t t ηΓ0 Γ1 + Γ0 Γ1 + Γ1 − t + t t 1 2 2 2 ηΓ1 −Γ0 − + . Byers and C. G. Phys. Phys. 1062 (1998).
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