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Model Homework – 3

Course Code:CAP211

Roll No: A29

Part – A

Q1: Give a comparative study of RISC and CISC architectures.

Ans:- RISC: - Reduced Instruction Set Computer.

Risc have few addressing modes because it deal with register.

Risc has fixed variable length.

Hardware approach used for design the control unit .

CISC: - Means Complex instruction set architecture.

Cisc has complex instruction set.

Software approach used for design for control unit.

Variable length instruction formats.

Q2: Taking a suitable example, illustrate how compiler based optimization is
performed in RISC systems.

Ans:- Compiler optimization is generally implemented using a sequence of

Optimizing transformations, algorithms which take a program and transform

it to produce a semantically equivalent output program that uses less


Example:- Compilation Process of RISC OS GCC

RISC OS has the concept of a 'current directory'. This is a

directory which is looked in when a program wants a file, and

GCC looks there for source files. The first thing to do is to change

the This can be done by opening a menu over the directory window

and choosing >Set Directory. Or you can use the 'Dir' command,

by typing.
Q3: Can instructions be executed in a pipeline? If yes, take a example instruction
and execute it using instruction pipeline.

Ans:- Instruction Pipeline: - An instruction pipeline reads consecutive

instructions from memory while previous instructions are executed in

other segments. This causes the instruction fetch and executes phases to

overlap and perform simultaneous operations.

The following sequence of steps is needed to process each

instruction: -

1. Fetch the instruction from memory.

2. Decode the instruction.
3. Calculate the effective address.
4. Fetch the operands from memory.
5. Execute the instruction.
6. Store the result in the proper place.

Part - B

Q4: How RISC pipelines are implemented in RISC environment?

Ans:- CISC is especially popular in 80x86 type processors. This type of

architecture has an elevated cost because of advanced functions printedon

the silicone.Instructions are of variable length and may sometimes require

more thanone clock cycle. Because CISC-based processors can only process

oneinstruction at a time, the processing time is a function of the size of

the instruction.
RISC Architecture

Processors with RISC

(Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology do not have hardwired,

advanced functions.Programs must therefore be translated into simple

instructions whichcomplicates development and/or requires a more powerful

processor.Such architecture has a reduced production cost compared to

CISCprocessors. In addition, instructions, simple in nature, are executed injust

one clock cycle, which speeds up program execution whencompared to CISC

processors. Finally, these processors can handlemultiple instructions

simultaneously by processing them in parallel.

Q5: Give the super scalar architectures of Pentium processor.

Ans:- Ans: - Super Scalar Architecture: - A superscalar CPU architecture

implements a form of parallelism called instruction level parallelism within a

single processor. It therefore allows faster CPU throughput than would otherwise

be possible at a given clock rate.

The architecture of Pentium Microprocessor:

1.The Pentium family of processors, which has its roots in the Intel486(TM)
processor, uses the Intel486 instruction set (with a few additional instructions).

2.The term ''Pentium processor'' refers to a family of microprocessors that share

a common architecture and instruction set. The first Pentium processors (the

P5 variety) were introduced in 1993

Q6: Is there any difference between the working of vector processors and array
processors? Differentiate between SIMD and MIMD array processors.
Ans:- A CPU that performs computations on more than one number or set of data

simultaneously. A vector processor is known as a "single instruction stream

multiple data stream" (SIMD) CPU. Contrast with scalar processor. See
GPU, vector

and pipeline processing.where as Also called a vector processor. A


that executes one instruction at a time but on an array or table of data at the
same time

rather than on single data elements.

.MIMD (Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data) refers to a parallel computer that runs
an independent separate program.

SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) refers to a parallel computer that runs
the EXACT SAME program.