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The die from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip. A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, and toys. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at clock rate frequencies as low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption (milliwatts or microwatts). They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt; power consumption while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts, making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power consumption.
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1 Embedded design o 1.1 Interrupts o 1.2 Programs o 1.3 Other microcontroller features 2 Higher integration 3 Volumes 4 Programming environments 5 Types of microcontrollers 6 Interrupt latency 7 History 8 Microcontroller embedded memory technology o 8.1 Data o 8.2 Firmware 9 See also 10 Notes 11 External links
 Embedded design
A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals and can be used as an embedded system. The majority of microcontrollers in use today are embedded in other machinery, such as automobiles, telephones, appliances, and peripherals for computer systems. These are called embedded systems. While some embedded systems are very sophisticated, many have minimal requirements for memory and program length, with no operating system, and low software complexity. Typical input and output devices include switches, relays, solenoids, LEDs, small or custom LCD displays, radio frequency devices, and sensors for data such as temperature, humidity, light level etc. Embedded systems usually have no keyboard, screen, disks, printers, or other recognizable I/O devices of a personal computer, and may lack human interaction devices of any kind.
Microcontrollers must provide real time (predictable, though not necessarily fast) response to events in the embedded system they are controlling. When certain events occur, an interrupt system can signal the processor to suspend processing the current instruction sequence and to begin an interrupt service routine (ISR, or "interrupt handler"). The ISR will perform any processing required based on the source of the interrupt before returning to the original instruction sequence. Possible interrupt sources are device dependent, and often include events such as an internal timer overflow,
completing an analog to digital conversion, a logic level change on an input such as from a button being pressed, and data received on a communication link. Where power consumption is important as in battery operated devices, interrupts may also wake a microcontroller from a low power sleep state where the processor is halted until required to do something by a peripheral event.
Microcontroller programs must fit in the available on-chip program memory, since it would be costly to provide a system with external, expandable, memory. Compilers and assemblers are used to convert high-level language and assembler language codes into a compact machine code for storage in the microcontroller's memory. Depending on the device, the program memory may be permanent, read-only memory that can only be programmed at the factory, or program memory may be field-alterable flash or erasable read-only memory.
 Other microcontroller features
Microcontrollers usually contain from several to dozens of general purpose input/output pins (GPIO). GPIO pins are software configurable to either an input or an output state. When GPIO pins are configured to an input state, they are often used to read sensors or external signals. Configured to the output state, GPIO pins can drive external devices such as LEDs or motors. Many embedded systems need to read sensors that produce analog signals. This is the purpose of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Since processors are built to interpret and process digital data, i.e. 1s and 0s, they are not able to do anything with the analog signals that may be sent to it by a device. So the analog to digital converter is used to convert the incoming data into a form that the processor can recognize. A less common feature on some microcontrollers is a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) that allows the processor to output analog signals or voltage levels. In addition to the converters, many embedded microprocessors include a variety of timers as well. One of the most common types of timers is the Programmable Interval Timer (PIT). A PIT may either count down from some value to zero, or up to the capacity of the count register, overflowing to zero. Once it reaches zero, it sends an interrupt to the processor indicating that it has finished counting. This is useful for devices such as thermostats, which periodically test the temperature around them to see if they need to turn the air conditioner on, the heater on, etc. Time Processing Unit (TPU) is a sophisticated timer. In addition to counting down, the TPU can detect input events, generate output events, and perform other useful operations. A dedicated Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) block makes it possible for the CPU to control power converters, resistive loads, motors, etc., without using lots of CPU resources in tight timer loops.
commonly with the following features: • • • • • • • • • • central processing unit . Integrating the memory and other peripherals on a single chip and testing them as a unit increases the cost of that chip. cheaper package. allowing control or detection of the logic state of an individual package pin serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs) other serial communications interfaces like I²C. event counters. but often results in decreased net cost of the embedded system as a whole. EPROM. . Furthermore. This allows a part to be used in a wider variety of applications than if pins had dedicated functions. resonator or RC circuit many include analog-to-digital converters.ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to complex 32. Dedicated on-chip hardware also often includes capabilities to communicate with other devices (chips) in digital formats such as I2C and Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). the chip can be placed in a much smaller. on low pin count devices in particular. PWM generators.Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) block makes it possible to receive and transmit data over a serial line with very little load on the CPU. EEPROM or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage discrete input and output bits.often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal. micro-controllers may not implement an external address or data bus as they integrate RAM and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU. Even if the cost of a CPU that has integrated peripherals is slightly more than the cost of a CPU and external peripherals. and watchdog clock generator . each pin may interface to several internal peripherals.or 64-bit processors volatile memory (RAM) for data storage ROM. having fewer chips typically allows a smaller and cheaper circuit board. Using fewer pins. some include digital-to-analog converters in-circuit programming and debugging support This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the amount of wiring and circuit board space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips. with the pin function selected by software. and reduces the labor required to assemble and test the circuit board. Microcontrollers have proved to be highly popular in embedded systems since their introduction in the 1970s. Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system interconnect peripherals such as timers.  Higher integration In contrast to general-purpose CPUs. A micro-controller is a single integrated circuit.
so floating point arithmetic is performed by software. where a micro-controller could have a single instruction to provide that commonly-required function. a general purpose processor might require several instructions to test a bit in a register and branch if the bit is set. instruction words for the processor may be a different bit size than the length of internal memory and registers. They can also be found in many electrical devices such as washing machines. and telephones. with one or more ROM. For example. Some designs include general-purpose microprocessor cores. The microcontroller vendors often trade operating frequencies and system design flexibility against time-tomarket requirements from their customers and overall lower system cost. According to Semico. Where a Harvard architecture is used. Other designs are purpose built for control applications. for example: 12-bit instructions used with 8bit data registers. microwave ovens. or I/O functions integrated onto the package.Some microcontrollers use a Harvard architecture: separate memory buses for instructions and data. RAM.  Volumes About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers and microprocessors. Microcontroller architectures vary widely. . The decision of which peripheral to integrate is often difficult. allowing accesses to take place concurrently. A typical mid-range automobile has as many as 30 or more microcontrollers. Microcontrollers typically do not have a math coprocessor. Manufacturers have to balance the need to minimize the chip size against additional functionality. over four billion 8-bit microcontrollers were sold in 2006. A typical home in a developed country is likely to have only four general-purpose microprocessors but around three dozen microcontrollers. A micro-controller instruction set usually has many instructions intended for bit-wise operations to make control programs more compact.
or versions of general purpose languages such as the C programming language. Typically these interpreters support interactive programming. BASIC and FORTH on the Zilog Z8 as well as some modern devices. however these are becoming increasingly rare due to the widespread availability of cheap microcontroller programmers. These languages are either designed specially for the purpose. The use of field-programmable devices on a microcontroller may allow field update of the firmware or permit late factory revisions to products that have been assembled but not yet shipped. Since 1998. Interpreters are often used to hide such low level quirks. Originally these included EPROM versions that have a "window" on the top of the device through which program memory can be erased by ultraviolet light. For example.A PIC 18F8720 microcontroller in an 80-pin TQFP package. Where hundreds of thousands of identical devices are required. such as SDCC for the 8051.  Programming environments Microcontrollers were originally programmed only in assembly language. Simulators are available for some microcontrollers. BASIC on the early microcontrollers Intel 8052. Other versions may be available where the ROM is accessed as an external device rather than as internal memory. Microcontroller vendors often make tools freely available to make it easier to adopt their hardware. Compilers for general purpose languages will typically have some restrictions as well as enhancements to better support the unique characteristics of microcontrollers. at the same time. EPROM versions are rare and have been replaced by EEPROM and flash. Interpreter firmware is also available for some microcontrollers. such as in Microchip's MPLAB environment and the Revolution Education PICAXE range. which are easier to use (can be erased electronically) and cheaper to manufacture. Some microcontrollers have environments to aid developing certain types of applications. but various high-level programming languages are now also in common use to target microcontrollers. using parts programmed at the time of manufacture can be an economical option. These allow a developer to . ready for reprogramming after a programming ("burn") and test cycle. These "mask programmed" parts have the program laid down in the same way as the logic of the chip. Programmable memory also reduces the lead time required for deployment of a new product. Manufacturers have often produced special versions of their microcontrollers in order to help the hardware and software development of the target system. Many microcontrollers are so quirky that they effectively require their own non-standard dialects of C. which prevent using standard tools (such as code libraries or static analysis tools) even for code unrelated to hardware features.
AVR32 (32-bit). First full integration of RISC and DSP on one processor core  ) Infineon Microcontroller: 8. 32 Bit microcontrollers for automotive and industrial applications MIPS (32-bit PIC32) NEC V850 (32-bit) PIC (8-bit PIC16. A simulator will show the internal processor state and also that of the outputs. 16-bit dsPIC33 / PIC24) PowerPC ISE PSoC (Programmable System-on-Chip) Rabbit 2000 (8-bit) Texas Instruments Microcontrollers MSP430 (16-bit). 16. While on the one hand most simulators will be limited from being unable to simulate much other hardware in a system.  Types of microcontrollers See also: List of common microcontrollers As of 2008 there are several dozen microcontroller architectures and vendors including: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Parallax Propeller Freescale 68HC11 (8-bit) Intel 8051 Silicon Laboratories Pipelined 8051 Microcontrollers ARM processors (from many vendors) using ARM7 or Cortex-M3 cores are generally microcontrollers STMicroelectronics STM8 (8-bit). some of which are used in very narrow range of applications or are more like applications processors than microcontrollers. PIC18. as well as allowing input signals to be generated. Recent microcontrollers are often integrated with on-chip debug circuitry that when accessed by an in-circuit emulator via JTAG. and AT91SAM (32-bit) Freescale ColdFire (32-bit) and S08 (8-bit) Hitachi H8. eZ80 (8-bit) and many others. they can exercise conditions that may otherwise be hard to reproduce at will in the physical implementation. and can be the quickest way to debug and analyze problems. and Stellaris (32-bit) Toshiba TLCS-870 (8-bit/16-bit) Zilog eZ8 (16-bit). C2000 (32-bit). The microcontroller market is . ST10 (16-bit) and STM32 (32-bit) Atmel AVR (8-bit). Hitachi SuperH (32-bit) Hyperstone E1/E2 (32-bit.analyze what the behavior of the microcontroller and their program should be if they were using the actual part. allow debugging of the firmware with a debugger.
helping avoid the need for most such continuation/restart logic. interrupt latency is increased by however long that interrupt is blocked.  Interrupt latency In contrast to general-purpose computers. microcontrollers tend to have short pipelines (often three instructions or less). increasing the latency. the intermediate results (registers) have to be saved before the software responsible for handling the interrupt can run. RISC design principles ensure that most instructions take the same number of cycles. When a data structure must be accessed by an interrupt handler. the critical section must block that interrupt. This often based on interrupt priorities. microcontrollers used in embedded systems often seek to optimize interrupt latency over instruction throughput. this technique is used mostly in very constrained environments. When an electronic device causes an interrupt. which tend to not correspond well to the relevant system data structures. technologies. developers often need tools to measure interrupt latencies and track down which critical sections cause slowdowns. with numerous vendors. perhaps supporting a dedicated stack. o Processors may have hardware support for some critical sections. Examples include supporting atomic access to bits or bytes within a word. The length of any critical section that needs to be interrupted. and markets. and ensure that longer instructions are continuable or restartable. If there are more registers. or at least having the hardware not save them all (this fails if the software then needs to compensate by saving the rest "manually"). This is easy to implement. Entry to a critical section restricts concurrent data structure access. Another technique involves spending silicon gates on "shadow registers": one or more duplicate registers used only by the interrupt software. Issues include both reducing the latency. Other factors affecting interrupt latency include: • • Cycles needed to complete current CPU activities. Note that many vendors sell (or have sold) multiple architectures. or other atomic access primitives like the LDREX/STREX exclusive access primitives introduced in the ARMv6 architecture. Accordingly. To minimize those costs. and making it be more predictable (to support real-time control). They must also be restored after that software is finished. When there are hard external constraints on system latency. Accordingly. o One common technique just blocks all interrupts for the duration of the critical section. but sometimes critical sections get uncomfortably long. this saving and restoring process takes more time.extremely fragmented. o A more complex technique just blocks the interrupts that may trigger access to that data structure. small write buffers. . Ways to reduce such context/restore latency include having relatively few registers in their central processing units (undesirable because it slows down most non-interrupt processing substantially).
stated that the (Microcontroller) was one of the most successful in the companies history. . Atmel introduced the first microcontroller using Flash memory.• • Interrupt nesting. microcontrollers may avoid an extra context save/restore cycle by a form of tail call optimization. These however all required external chip(s) to implement a working system. Luke J. Trigger rate. One had an erasable EPROM program memory. In 1993. and some 32-bit microcontrollers around $1 for similar quantities. the introduction of EEPROM memory allowed microcontrollers (beginning with the Microchip PIC16x84) ) to be electrically erased quickly without an expensive package as required for EPROM. Lower end microcontrollers tend to support fewer interrupt latency controls than higher end ones. and expanded the division's budget over 25%. with both memory types. with both RAM and ROM on the same chip. and making it impossible to economically computerize appliances. Nowadays microcontrollers are low cost and readily available for hobbyists. with large online communities around certain processors. At this time Intels President. This chip would find its way into over one billion PC keyboards. The first single-chip microprocessor was the 4-bit Intel 4004 released in 1971. This allows software to manage latency by giving time-critical interrupts higher priority (and thus lower and more predictable latency) than less-critical ones. Other companies rapidly followed suit. with the cheapest 8-bit microcontrollers being available for under $0. When interrupts occur back-to-back. and In System Programming. Some microcontrollers allow higher priority interrupts to interrupt lower priority ones. Most microcontrollers at this time had two variants. released in 1975. which was significantly more expensive than the PROM variant which was only programmable once.  History This section requires expansion. Valenter. Cost has plummeted over time. The first computer system on a chip optimized for control applications was the Intel 8048. and other numerous applications. raising total system cost. The same year. allowing both rapid prototyping. With the Intel 8008 and more capable microprocessors available over the next several years.25 in quantity (thousands) in 2009.
and even ones that do not have any (or not enough) are often connected to external serial EEPROM chip (such as the BASIC Stamp) or external serial flash memory chip. MRAM could potentially be used in microcontrollers as it has infinite endurance and its incremental semiconductor wafer process cost is relatively low. was the first microcontroller to use EEPROM to store firmware Also in 1993. a nonvolatile memory for storing firmware and a read-write memory for temporary data. introduced in 1993. In addition to the SRAM. Later microcontrollers (such as the early versions of the Freescale 68HC11 and early PIC microcontrollers) had quartz windows that allowed ultraviolet light in to erase the EPROM. some microcontrollers also have internal EEPROM for data storage. Almost all microcontrollers have at least two different kinds of memory. Atmel introduced the first microcontroller using NOR Flash memory to store firmware. A few recent microcontrollers beginning in 2003 have "self-programmable" flash memory. introduced in 2002.  See also • • In-circuit emulator List of common microcontrollers . with a few more transistors per bit used in the register file.In the future. six-transistor SRAM is almost always used as the read/write working memory. store firmware in SONOS flash memory.  Firmware The earliest microcontrollers used hard-wired or mask ROM to store firmware. MRAM could potentially be used to store firmware.  Microcontroller embedded memory technology Since the emergence of microcontrollers. many different memory technologies have been used. PSoC microcontrollers. MRAM could potentially replace it as it is 4-10 times denser which would make it more cost effective. The Microchip PIC16C84.  Data From the earliest microcontrollers to today.
3.gov/info/reports/1987/3445602791343. 6.com .com/books?id=BjNZXwH7HlkC&pg=PA11. a reprogrammable EEPROM-based 8-bit microcontroller" 1993  External links Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Embedded Systems Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Microcontrollers • • • • Microcontroller at the Open Directory Project Microcontroller.ornl. Newnes. ^ Easy Way to build a microcontroller project 3. "Optimizing the Zilog Z8 Forth Microcontroller for Rapid Prototyping". ^ Heath. 11–12. http://www.google. ^ www. (July 2008) 1.com/mcu 7. http://books. ^ "8052-Basic Microcontrollers" by Jan Axelson 1994 5.Embedded Systems industry website with tutorials and dedicated resources Microcontroller Embedded Systems Design magazine [show]v · d · eCPU technologies . ^ Microchip unveils PIC16C84. pp. 2. Embedded systems design. ^ Robert Edwards (1987).semico.• • • • • • Microarchitecture Microbotics Programmable logic controller PSoC Single-board microcontroller PIC  Notes This article includes a list of references. ^ http://www.pdf. EDN series for design engineers (2 ed. ISBN 9780750655460. p.).infineon. Steve (2003). Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate.com 4. ^ a b c "Atmel’s Self-Programming Flash Microcontrollers" by Odd Jostein Svendsli 2003 8. but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
wikipedia.Pipeline Level Threads Instruction pipelining · In-order & out-of-order execution · Register renaming · Speculative execution · Hazards Bit · Instruction · Superscalar · Data · Task Multithreading · Simultaneous multithreading · Hyperthreading · Superthreading Flynn's SISD · SIMD · MISD · MIMD taxonomy [show]v · d · e8-bit microcontroller families [show]v · d · eComputer sizes Portable/Mobile data terminal · Electronic organizer · Pocket computer Laptop Tablet computer Desktop replacement computer · Subnotebook (Netbook · Smartbook) Tablet personal computer (Ultra-Mobile PC) · Mobile Internet device (Internet Tablet) Wearable Calculator watch · Wristop · Virtual retinal display · Head-mounted computer display (Head-up display) PDA (Palm-size PC · Handheld PC · Pocket computer) · EDA · Mobile Information appliance phone (Smartphone · Feature phone) · PMP · DAP · E-book reader · Handheld game console Calculators Scientific · Programmable · Graphing Retrieved from "http://en.org/wiki/Microcontroller" .
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made possible by the low cost of production of integrated circuits. as well as passive components. showing the integrated circuit inside. In electronics. logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window. an integrated circuit (also known as IC. Contents [hide] • 1 Introduction . cellular phones. Note the fine silver-colored wires that connect the integrated circuit to the pins of the package. or microchip) is a miniaturized electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices. chip. The window allows the memory contents of the chip to be erased. as well as passive components) that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. by exposure to strong ultraviolet light in an eraser device. bonded to a substrate or circuit board. and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies. A monolithic integrated circuit is made of devices manufactured by diffusion of trace elements into a single piece of semiconductor substrate. Computers.Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks. Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic equipment in use today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. a chip. A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices.
1 Fabrication o 6. are printed as a unit by . and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors.3 Chip labeling and manufacture date 7 Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts 8 Other developments 9 Silicon labelling and graffiti 10 Notable ICs 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links  Introduction Synthetic detail of an integrated circuit through four layers of planarized copper interconnect. and substrate (green). The integrated circuit's mass production capability. wells (greyish).2 Packaging o 6. Integrated circuits were made possible by experimental discoveries which showed that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes and by mid-20thcentury technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. reliability. MSI and LSI o 3. Cost is low because the chips.3 ULSI. SOC and 3D-IC 4 Advances in integrated circuits 5 Classification 6 Manufacturing o 6. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using electronic components.2 VLSI o 3. There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance. with all their components.1 SSI. down to the polysilicon (pink). WSI.• • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 Invention 3 Generations o 3.
1958. 1952. revolutionary design: the IC. which looked very promising in 1957.photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas. Performance is high since the components switch quickly and consume little power (compared to their discrete counterparts) because the components are small and positioned close together.A. Kilby came up with a new. Jack Kilby's original integrated circuit Jack Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 and successfully demonstrated the first working integrated circuit on September 12. was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby. A commercial use of his patent has not been reported. Components could then be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid. Dummer unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956. on May 7. As of 2006.  Invention Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949. who published it at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington. with up to 1 million transistors per mm2. Furthermore. . chip areas range from a few square millimeters to around 350 mm2. Robert Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p-n junction isolation caused by the action of a biased p-n junction (the diode) as a key concept behind the IC. However. Geoffrey W. This idea. A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares (wafers).C. each one containing a single miniaturized component. D. when the German engineer Werner Jacobi (Siemens AG) filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device  showing five transistors on a common substrate arranged in a 2stage amplifier arrangement. Dummer (1909–2002). as the project was gaining momentum. and led to the shortlived Micromodule Program (similar to 1951's Project Tinkertoy). The idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence. much less material is used to construct a packaged IC die than a discrete circuit. Jacobi discloses small and cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent.
the Apollo guidance computer led and motivated the integrated-circuit technology[dubious – discuss].S. The next step in the development of integrated circuits. was made of silicon. as the scale used was large because of the contemporary technology. Both the Minuteman missile and Apollo program needed lightweight digital computers for their inertial guidance systems. while early linear ICs such as the Plessey SL201 or the Philips TAA320 had as few as two transistors. Called "Small-Scale Integration" (SSI). U. and to make a good design became a task to be planned thoroughly. and ULSI. SSI circuits were crucial to early aerospace projects. Government supported the nascent integrated circuit market until costs fell enough to allow firms to penetrate the industrial and eventually the consumer markets. digital circuits containing transistors numbering in the tens provided a few logic gates for example. The term Large Scale Integration was first used by IBM scientist Rolf Landauer when describing the theoretical concept..  SSI. and by 1968. 1959. Integrated Circuits began to appear in consumer products by the turn of the decade. Noyce's chip solved many practical problems that Kilby's had not.. whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium. The Minuteman missile program and various other Navy programs accounted for the total $4 million integrated circuit market in 1962. made at Fairchild Semiconductor. Kilby described his new device as “a body of semiconductor material . only a few transistors could be placed on a chip. while the Minuteman missile forced it into massproduction. MSI and LSI The first integrated circuits contained only a few transistors. millions. a typical application being FM inter-carrier sound processing in television receivers.  Generations In the early days of integrated circuits. the design was done easily. Noyce's chip. VLSI.33 in 1968.S. MSI. As the degree of integration was small. and today billions. Later on. from there came the terms for SSI. The average price per integrated circuit dropped from $50. of transistors could be placed on one chip.”  Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of the integrated circuit. This gave rise to new design methods. and vice-versa. . Robert Noyce also came up with his own idea of an integrated circuit half a year later than Kilby. taken in the late 1960s. called "Medium-Scale Integration" (MSI).In his patent application of February 6. introduced devices which contained hundreds of transistors on each chip. wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely integrated. The demand by the U.00 in 1962 to $2. Government space and defense spending still accounted for 37% of the $312 million total production.
which contained more than one million transistors. among other factors. began to be produced around 1974. The path of process improvements was summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). and continues beyond several billion transistors as of 2009. starting in the 1980s and continuing through the present. Multiple developments were required to achieve this increased density. The final step in the development process. Design tools improved enough to make it practical to finish these designs in a reasonable time. led to "Large-Scale Integration" (LSI) in the mid 1970s. that began to be manufactured in moderate quantities in the early 1970s. True LSI circuits. they allowed more complex systems to be produced using smaller circuit boards. Further development. The development started with hundreds of thousands of transistors in the early 1980s. In 1986 the first one megabit RAM chips were introduced. Better texts such as the landmark textbook by Mead and Conway helped schools educate more designers. avoiding a prohibitive increase in power consumption. had under 4000 transistors. for computer main memories and second-generation microprocessors. with tens of thousands of transistors per chip. was "very large-scale integration" (VLSI). Integrated circuits such as 1K-bit RAMs. calculator chips. The more energy efficient CMOS replaced NMOS and PMOS. so that they could make chips with more transistors and maintain adequate yield. Microprocessor chips passed the million transistor mark in 1989 . driven by the same economic factors. Manufacturers moved to smaller rules and cleaner fabs.They were attractive economically because while they cost little more to produce than SSI devices. and the first microprocessors.  VLSI Main article: Very-large-scale integration Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor die. and a number of other advantages. less assembly work (because of fewer separate components). approaching 10000 transistors.
  ULSI. SOC and 3D-IC To reflect further growth of the complexity. However. WSI. Wafer-scale integration (WSI) is a system of building very-large integrated circuits that uses an entire silicon wafer to produce a single "super-chip".and the billion transistor mark in 2005. Among the most advanced integrated circuits are the microprocessors or "cores". Communication between layers uses on-die signaling. with chips introduced in 2007 containing tens of billions of memory transistors. Digital memory chips and ASICs are examples of other families of integrated circuits that . and building disparate components on a single piece of silicon may compromise the efficiency of some elements.  Advances in integrated circuits The die from an Intel 8742. Judicious use of short vertical wires can substantially reduce overall wire length for faster operation. the term ULSI that stands for "ultra-largescale integration" was proposed for chips of complexity of more than 1 million transistors. 128 bytes of RAM. these drawbacks are offset by lower manufacturing and assembly costs and by a greatly reduced power budget: because signals among the components are kept on-die. The trend continues largely unabated. notably massively parallel supercomputers. which control everything from computers and cellular phones to digital microwave ovens. The name is taken from the term Very-Large-Scale Integration. Through a combination of large size and reduced packaging. WSI could lead to dramatically reduced costs for some systems. The design of such a device can be complex and costly. and I/O in the same chip. an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz. A system-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit in which all the components needed for a computer or other system are included on a single chip. the current state of the art when WSI was being developed. A three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC) has two or more layers of active electronic components that are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit. so power consumption is much lower than in equivalent separate circuits. 2048 bytes of EPROM. much less power is required (see Packaging).
Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of logic gates. as the feature size shrinks. This process. . low power dissipation. and other circuits in a few square millimeters. allowing more circuitry to be packed on each chip. almost everything improves—the cost per unit and the switching power consumption go down. In general. titanium nitride TiN turned out as exceptionally stable and well suited for electrode applications in medical implants.  Classification A CMOS 4000 IC in a DIP Integrated circuits can be classified into analog. states that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years. is well described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). integrated circuits are also developed for sensoric applications in medical implants or other bioelectronic devices. and the speed goes up. While the cost of designing and developing a complex integrated circuit is quite high. However. and the expected progress over the next few years. flipflops. Particular sealing strategies have to be taken in such biogenic environments to avoid corrosion or biodegradation of the exposed semiconductor materials. principal among which is leakage current (see subthreshold leakage for a discussion of this). digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip). In current research projects. multiplexers. although these problems are not insurmountable and will likely be solved or at least ameliorated by the introduction of high-k dielectrics.are important to the modern information society. Since these speed and power consumption gains are apparent to the end user. ICs have consistently migrated to smaller feature sizes over the years. there is fierce competition among the manufacturers to use finer geometries. This increased capacity per unit area can be used to decrease cost and/or increase functionality—see Moore's law which. ICs with nanometer-scale devices are not without their problems. in its modern interpretation. The small size of these circuits allows high speed. As one of the few materials well established in CMOS technology. The performance of ICs is high because the small size allows short traces which in turn allows low power logic (such as CMOS) to be used at fast switching speeds. and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration. typically microprocessors. when spread across typically millions of production units the individual IC cost is minimized. These digital ICs.
DSPs, and micro controllers work using binary mathematics to process "one" and "zero" signals. Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals. They perform functions like amplification, active filtering, demodulation, mixing, etc. Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having expertly designed analog circuits available instead of designing a difficult analog circuit from scratch. ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to create functions such as A/D converters and D/A converters. Such circuits offer smaller size and lower cost, but must carefully account for signal interference.
Main article: Semiconductor fabrication
Rendering of a small standard cell with three metal layers (dielectric has been removed). The sand-colored structures are metal interconnect, with the vertical pillars being contacts, typically plugs of tungsten. The reddish structures are polysilicon gates, and the solid at the bottom is the crystalline silicon bulk.
Schematic structure of a CMOS chip, as built in the early 2000s. The graphic shows LDD-MISFET's on an SOI substrate with five metallization layers and solder bump for flip-chip bonding. It also shows the section for FEOL (front-end of line), BEOL (backend of line) and first parts of back-end process. The semiconductors of the periodic table of the chemical elements were identified as the most likely materials for a solid state vacuum tube. Starting with copper oxide, proceeding to germanium, then silicon, the materials were systematically studied in the 1940s and 1950s. Today, silicon monocrystals are the main substrate used for integrated circuits (ICs) although some III-V compounds of the periodic table such as gallium arsenide are used for specialized applications like LEDs, lasers, solar cells and the highest-speed integrated circuits. It took decades to perfect methods of creating crystals without defects in the crystalline structure of the semiconducting material. Semiconductor ICs are fabricated in a layer process which includes these key process steps:
• • •
Imaging Deposition Etching
The main process steps are supplemented by doping and cleaning. Mono-crystal silicon wafers (or for special applications, silicon on sapphire or gallium arsenide wafers) are used as the substrate. Photolithography is used to mark different areas of the substrate to be doped or to have polysilicon, insulators or metal (typically aluminium) tracks deposited on them.
Integrated circuits are composed of many overlapping layers, each defined by photolithography, and normally shown in different colors. Some layers mark where various dopants are diffused into the substrate (called diffusion layers), some define where additional ions are implanted (implant layers), some define the conductors (polysilicon or metal layers), and some define the connections between the conducting layers (via or contact layers). All components are constructed from a specific combination of these layers. In a self-aligned CMOS process, a transistor is formed wherever the gate layer (polysilicon or metal) crosses a diffusion layer. Capacitive structures, in form very much like the parallel conducting plates of a traditional electrical capacitor, are formed according to the area of the "plates", with insulating material between the plates. Capacitors of a wide range of sizes are common on ICs. Meandering stripes of varying lengths are sometimes used to form on-chip resistors, though most logic circuits do not need any resistors. The ratio of the length of the resistive structure to its width, combined with its sheet resistivity, determines the resistance. More rarely, inductive structures can be built as tiny on-chip coils, or simulated by gyrators.
Since a CMOS device only draws current on the transition between logic states, CMOS devices consume much less current than bipolar devices. A random access memory is the most regular type of integrated circuit; the highest density devices are thus memories; but even a microprocessor will have memory on the chip. (See the regular array structure at the bottom of the first image.) Although the structures are intricate – with widths which have been shrinking for decades – the layers remain much thinner than the device widths. The layers of material are fabricated much like a photographic process, although light waves in the visible spectrum cannot be used to "expose" a layer of material, as they would be too large for the features. Thus photons of higher frequencies (typically ultraviolet) are used to create the patterns for each layer. Because each feature is so small, electron microscopes are essential tools for a process engineer who might be debugging a fabrication process. Each device is tested before packaging using automated test equipment (ATE), in a process known as wafer testing, or wafer probing. The wafer is then cut into rectangular blocks, each of which is called a die. Each good die (plural dice, dies, or die) is then connected into a package using aluminium (or gold) bond wires which are welded and/or Thermosonic Bonded to pads, usually found around the edge of the die. After packaging, the devices go through final testing on the same or similar ATE used during wafer probing. Test cost can account for over 25% of the cost of fabrication on lower cost products, but can be negligible on low yielding, larger, and/or higher cost devices.
NEC. using finer lead pitch with leads formed as either gull-wing or J-lead.a carrier which occupies an area about 30 – 50% less than an equivalent DIP. Surface mount packaging appeared in the early 1980s and became popular in the late 1980s. Commercial circuit packaging quickly moved to the dual in-line package (DIP). which continued to be used by the military for their reliability and small size for many years. Intel and AMD are currently transitioning from PGA packages on high-end microprocessors to land grid array (LGA) packages. first in ceramic and later in plastic. . leading to pin grid array (PGA) and leadless chip carrier (LCC) packages. Copper interconnects where copper wiring replaces aluminium for interconnects. a fabrication facility (commonly known as a semiconductor lab) costs over $1 billion to construct. The most advanced processes employ the following techniques: • • • • • • The wafers are up to 300 mm in diameter (wider than a common dinner plate). IBM and AMD are in development of a 45 nm process using immersion lithography. with a typical thickness that is 70% less. though PGA packages are still often used for high-end microprocessors.As of 2005. Silicon on insulator (SOI) Strained silicon in a process used by IBM known as strained silicon directly on insulator (SSDOI)  Packaging Main article: Integrated circuit packaging Early USSR-made integrated circuit The earliest integrated circuits were packaged in ceramic flat packs. and AMD are using 45 nanometers for their CPU chips. because much of the operation is automated. Use of 65 nanometer or smaller chip manufacturing process. In the 1980s pin counts of VLSI circuits exceeded the practical limit for DIP packaging. Low-K dielectric insulators. as exemplified by small-outline integrated circuit -. In the late 1990s. plastic quad flat pack (PQFP) and thin small-outline package (TSOP) packages became the most common for high pin count devices. IBM.050 inches. This package has "gull wing" leads protruding from the two long sides and a lead spacing of 0. Intel.
Flip-chip Ball Grid Array packages. or Multi-Chip Module. such as watches. both in terms of the time of highly qualified experts. a part production batch number and/or serial number. There is a continuing need for the creation of new layout-designs which reduce the dimensions of existing integrated circuits and simultaneously increase their functions.  Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts Main article: Integrated circuit layout design protection Like most of the other forms of intellectual property. Extremely small surface mount technology parts often bear only a number used in a manufacturer's lookup table to find the chip characteristics. and financially. which allow for much higher pin count than other package types. etc. such that a part bearing the code 8341 was manufactured in week 41 of 1983. the part number. The possibility of copying by photographing each layer of an integrated circuit and preparing photomasks for its production on the basis of the photographs obtained is the main reason for the introduction of legislation for the protection of layout-designs. television sets. and a four-digit code that identifies when the chip was manufactured. washing machines. They are usually the result of an enormous investment. were developed in the 1990s. The boundary between a big MCM and a small printed circuit board is sometimes fuzzy. The smaller an integrated circuit. . including articles of everyday use. When multiple dies are put in one package. for System In Package. often ceramic. the less the material needed for its manufacture. In an FCBGA package the die is mounted upside-down (flipped) and connects to the package balls via a package substrate that is similar to a printedcircuit board rather than by wires. Integrated circuits are utilized in a large range of products.  Chip labeling and manufacture date Most integrated circuits large enough to include identifying information include four common sections: the manufacturer's name or logo. and into the printed circuit board have very different electrical properties.Ball grid array (BGA) packages have existed since the 1970s. as well as sophisticated data processing equipment. They require special design techniques and need much more electric power than signals confined to the chip itself. Traces out of the die. automobiles. it is called SiP. The manufacturing date is commonly represented as a two-digit year followed by a twodigit week code. FCBGA packages allow an array of input-output signals (called Area-I/O) to be distributed over the entire die rather than being confined to the die periphery. it's called an MCM. or approximately in October 1983.. When multiple dies are combined on a small substrate. through the package. compared to on-chip signals. IC layout designs are creations of the human mind. and the smaller the space needed to accommodate it.
The techniques perfected by the integrated circuits industry over the last three decades have been used to create microscopic machines. "not for commercial sale" chip that bears 80 microprocessors. which adopted a Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits (IPIC Treaty).11 card. This design provides a new challenge to chip programming. National laws protecting IC layout designs have been adopted in a number of countries.C. programmable integrated circuits were developed. known as MEMS. adders and registers. The Treaty on Intellectual Property in respect of Integrated Circuits. a large number of radio chips have been developed using CMOS processes. some chip designers have used the silicon surface area for surreptitious. already used by the Intel and AMD dual-core processors. Silicon Art. . in 1989. 1989) is currently not in force. This is in response to the heat-versus-speed limit that is about to be reached using existing transistor technology. But since 1998. Intel recently unveiled a prototype. These devices are used in a variety of commercial and military applications. Examples include Intel's DECT cordless phone. In the past.A diplomatic conference was held at Washington. nonfunctional images or words. rather than being fixed by the integrated circuit manufacturer.  Other developments In the 1980s.  Silicon labelling and graffiti To allow identification during production most silicon chips will have a serial number in one corner. but was partially integrated into the TRIPs agreement. It is also common to add the manufacturer's logo. radios could not be fabricated in the same low-cost processes as microprocessors. or Atheros's 802. Current devices named FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) can now implement tens of thousands of LSI circuits in parallel and operate up to 1. inkjet printers. These devices contain circuits whose logical function and connectivity can be programmed by the user. Silicon Graffiti or Silicon Doodling. Parallel programming languages such as the open-source X10 programming language are designed to assist with this task. This allows a single chip to be programmed to implement different LSI-type functions such as logic gates. and accelerometers used to deploy automobile airbags.5 GHz (Achronix holding the speed record). Each core is capable of handling its own task independently of the others. D. Example commercial applications include DLP projectors. also called Washington Treaty or IPIC Treaty (signed at Washington on May 26.. These are sometimes referred to as Chip Art. Future developments seem to follow the multi-core multi-microprocessor paradigm. Ever since ICs were created.
the CMOS counterpart to the 7400 series (see also: 74HC00 series) Intel 4004. Light-emitting diode Red. The MOS Technology 6502 and Zilog Z80 microprocessors. green and blue LEDs of the 5mm diffused type Type Passive. leading to the 68000 and 88000 series (used in some Apple computers and in the 1980s Commodore Amiga series). the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. 486 etc. the world's first microprocessor. which led to the famous 8080 CPU and then the IBM PC's 8088. search "LED" redirects here. see LED (disambiguation). used in many home computers of the early 1980s The Motorola 6800 series of computer-related chips.  See also Light-emitting diode From Wikipedia. Notable ICs • • • • • • • The 555 common multivibrator sub-circuit (common in electronic timing circuits) The 741 operational amplifier 7400 series TTL logic building blocks 4000 series. optoelectronic Working principle Electroluminescence Invented Nick Holonyak Jr. 80286. (1962) Electronic symbol Pin configuration Anode and Cathode . For other uses.
An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2). and are increasingly used for lighting. and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. with very high brightness. smaller size. improved robustness. early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. longer lifetime. releasing energy in the form of photons. L-E-D) is a semiconductor light source. When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on). electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. but modern versions are available across the visible. and greater durability and reliability.Parts of an LED LED spotlight using 38 individual diodes for mains voltage power A light-emitting diode (LED) (pronounced /ˌɛl iː ˈdiː/. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. faster switching. LEDs powerful . LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption.
2.3 High power o 4.1 RGB systems 3.3 Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) o 3.1 Power sources o 5.enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.3 Safety and health o 5. The compact size.2.4 Quantum dot LEDs (experimental) 4 Types o 4.2.1 Miniature o 4. switching speed.4 Application-specific variations 5 Considerations for use o 5. DVD players.2 Practical use o 1.4 Advantages o 5.1 Discoveries and early devices o 1.4 Lifetime and failure 3 Colors and materials o 3.5 Disadvantages .2 Phosphor-based LEDs 3.3 Continuing development 2 Technology o 2. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting. turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals.2 White light 3. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 History o 1.1 Ultraviolet and blue LEDs o 3. and extreme reliability of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed.2 Refractive Index 2.2 Electrical polarity o 5.1 Physics o 2.3 Efficiency and operational parameters o 2. while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. and other domestic appliances. automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps. the possibility of narrow bandwidth.2.3 Other white LEDs o 3. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions.2 Mid-range o 4.1 Transition coatings o 2.
indium phosphide (InP).• • • 6 Applications o 6. and silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvin. American experimenters Robert Biard and Gary Pittman working at Texas Instruments.2 Further reading 9 External links •  History  Discoveries and early devices Green electroluminescence from a point contact on a crystal of SiC recreates H.4. GaAs. . His research was distributed in Russian.1 Notes o 8. found that GaAs emitted infrared radiation when electric current was applied and received the patent for the infrared LED. Russian Oleg Vladimirovich Losev reported on the creation of a first LED in 1927.2 Economically sustainable o 6. Round's original experiment from 1907. Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide (GaSb).4 Sustainable lighting 6. using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat'swhisker detector. Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H.1 Energy consumption 6.6 Light sources for machine vision systems 7 See also 8 References o 8. German and British scientific journals. Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductor alloys in 1955. but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades. In 1961.5 Non-visual applications o 6. J.4. Round of Marconi Labs.1 Indicators and signs o 6.2 Lighting o 6. J.3 Smart lighting o 6.
high efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunications by inventing new semiconductor materials specifically adapted to optical fiber transmission wavelengths.P. Until 1968. then later in such appliances as TVs. radios. calculators. The combination of planar processing for chip fabrication and innovative packaging methods enabled the team at Fairchild led by optoelectronics pioneer Thomas Brandt to achieve the needed cost reductions. George Craford. M. As LED materials technology grew more advanced. invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In the 1970s commercially successful LED devices at under five cents each were produced by Fairchild Optoelectronics. first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment. using gallium arsenide phosphide in 1968 to produce red LEDs suitable for indicators. T. light output rose.. Holonyak is seen as the "father of the light-emitting diode". a former graduate student of Holonyak. and even watches (see list of signal uses). Readouts in calculators were so small that plastic lenses were built over each digit to make them legible. The Monsanto Company was the first organization to mass-produce visible LEDs. These methods continue to be used by LED producers. These devices employed compound semiconductor chips fabricated with the planar process invented by Dr. Hewlett Packard (HP) introduced LEDs in 1968. These red LEDs were bright enough only for use as indicators. The invention and development of the high power white light LED led to use for illumination (see list of illumination applications). and so had little practical use.The first practical visible-spectrum (red) LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak Jr. Later. visible and infrared LEDs were extremely costly. telephones. it has grown increasingly necessary to shed excess heat to maintain reliability. as the light output was not enough to illuminate an area. In 1976. while working at General Electric Company. while maintaining efficiency and reliability at acceptable levels. Jean Hoerni at Fairchild Semiconductor. The technology proved to have major uses for alphanumeric displays and was integrated into HP's early handheld calculators. on the order of US $200 per unit. but with rising power output. initially using GaAsP supplied by Monsanto. Most LEDs were made in the very common 5 mm T1¾ and 3 mm T1 packages. Pearsall created the first high-brightness. Packages for state-ofthe-art high power LEDs bear little resemblance to early LEDs.  Practical use The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements for incandescent and neon indicator lamps. so more complex packages have been adapted for efficient heat dissipation. . other colors grew widely available and also appeared in appliances and equipment. and in seven-segment displays.
in a way similar to Moore's law.  Continuing development The first high-brightness blue LED was demonstrated by Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation and was based on InGaN borrowing on critical developments in GaN nucleation on sapphire substrates and the demonstration of p-type doping of GaN which were developed by Isamu Akasaki and H. Amano in Nagoya. Light output per LED as a function of production year. a process for growing gallium nitride (GaN) LEDs on silicon has been reported. Roland Haitz. The development of LED technology has caused their efficiency and light output to rise exponentially. This trend is normally called Haitz's Law after Dr.  In February 2008. Epitaxy costs could be reduced by up to 90% using six-inch silicon wafers instead of two-inch sapphire wafers. which employed a Y3Al5O12:Ce. In 2009. with a doubling occurring about every 36 months since the 1960s. or "YAG".  Technology . Alberto Barbieri at the Cardiff University Laboratory (GB) investigated the efficiency and reliability of highbrightness LEDs and demonstrated a very impressive result by using a transparent contact made of indium tin oxide (ITO) on (AlGaInP/GaAs) LED. 300 lumens of visible light per watt luminous efficacy (not per electrical watt) and warm-light emission was achieved by using nanocrystals.Illustration of Haitz's Law. In 1995. The existence of blue LEDs and high efficiency LEDs quickly led to the development of the first white LED. note the logarithmic scale on the vertical axis. Nakamura was awarded the 2006 Millennium Technology Prize for his invention. phosphor coating to mix yellow (down-converted) light with blue to produce light that appears white. The advances are generally attributed to the parallel development of other semiconductor technologies and advances in optics and material science.
An LED will begin to emit light when the on-voltage is exceeded. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide. it falls into a lower energy level. As in other diodes. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared. and thus its color depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. Typical on voltages are 2–3 volts  Physics The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. emitting light in a variety of colors. In silicon or germanium diodes. to the nside. When an electron meets a hole. or cathode. The wavelength of the light emitted. Advances in materials science have enabled making devices with ever-shorter wavelengths. or anode. because these are indirect band gap materials.The inner workings of an LED I-V diagram for a diode. visible or near-ultraviolet light. but not in the reverse direction. . the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition which produces no optical emission. Charge-carriers—electrons and holes— flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. and releases energy in the form of a photon. current flows easily from the p-side.
so the areas between the cones shows the large amount of trapped light energy that is wasted as heat. P-type substrates. while the right illustration shows the half-cones formed when the bottom layer is fully opaque. Across this 2D plane. Many commercial LEDs. Typically the light emission zone is a 2D plane between the wafers. there is effectively a separate set of emission cones for every atom. The light emission cones of a real LED wafer are far more complex than a single pointsource light emission. Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. while less common. Drawing the billions of overlapping cones is impossible. also use sapphire substrate. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface.LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate. Thus. The larger side cones are clipped . The left illustration is for a fully translucent wafer. for a single point-source emission zone. occur as well. especially GaN/InGaN. so this is a simplified diagram showing the extents of all the emission cones combined. light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production. subject to much research and development. The light is actually emitted equally in all directions from the point-source. with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface.  Refractive Index Idealized example of light emission cones in a semiconductor.
resulting in no internal reflections. The plastic shell has three purposes: 1.00002926 Generally a flat-surfaced uncoated LED semiconductor chip will only emit light perpendicular to the semiconductor's surface. they would extend to the opposite edges of the 2D emission plane. All light rays emanating from the center would be perpendicular to the entire surface of the sphere. The maximum angle of incidence is referred to as the critical angle. Mounting the semiconductor chip in devices is easier to accomplish. The tiny fragile electrical wiring is physically supported and protected from damage 3. The ideal shape of a semiconductor with maximum light output would be a microsphere with the photon emission occurring at the exact center. . The plastic acts as a refractive intermediary between the relatively high-index semiconductor and low-index open air. When this angle is exceeded photons no longer penetrate the semiconductor. while air is 1. but are instead reflected both internally inside the semiconductor crystal.24.to show the interior features and reduce image complexity. The refractive index of silicon is 4. and externally off the surface of the crystal as if it were a mirror. This property affects both the light-emission efficiency of LEDs as well as the light-absorption efficiency of photovoltaic cells.  Internal reflections can escape through other crystalline faces. A convoluted chip surface with angled facets similar to a jewel or fresnel lens can increase light output by allowing light to be emitted perpendicular to the chip surface while far to the sides of the photon emission point. In this case the light can not escape and is lost as waste heat in the crystal. Bare uncoated semiconductors such as silicon exhibit a very high refractive index relative to open air. in a cone shape referred to as the light cone. which prevents passage of photons at sharp angles relative to the aircontacting surface of the semiconductor. the faces all act as equal angle mirrors. if the incidence angle is low enough and the crystal is sufficiently transparent to not re-absorb the photon emission.  Transition coatings Many LED semiconductor chips are potted in clear or colored molded plastic shells. 2. with electrodes penetrating to the center to contact at the emission point. with the flat back-surface serving as a mirror to back-scattered photons. or the escape cone. and a few degrees to the side. But for a simple square LED with 90-degree angled surfaces on all sides. cone of light. A hemispherical semiconductor would also work.
raising heating more than light output for higher current. Around 1999. Nichia Corporation has developed a white LED with luminous efficacy of 150 lm/W at a forward current of 20 mA. One of the key advantages of LED-based lighting is its high efficiency. and standard fluorescent lights emit up to 100 lm/W. Practical general lighting needs high-power LEDs. A recurring problem is that efficiency falls sharply with rising current. Philips Lumileds introduced power LEDs capable of continuous use at one watt [W]. than the bare chip is able to emit alone. 2010 about a laboratory prototype LED achieving 208 lumens per watt at room temperature. Also. Lumileds made five-watt LEDs available with a luminous efficacy of 18–22 lumens per watt [lm/W]. The correlated color temperature was reported to be 4579 K. For comparison. to provide 24 mW at 20 milliamperes [mA]. a new type of blue LED was demonstrated by the company Cree Inc. . a conventional 60–100 W incandescent light bulb emits around 15 lm/W. Cree issued a press release on February 3. Lighting works at higher temperature and with drive circuit losses. White LEDs quickly matched and overtook the efficiency of standard incandescent lighting systems. United States Department of Energy (DOE) testing of commercial LED lamps designed to replace incandescent lamps or CFLs showed that average efficacy was still about 46 lm/W in 2009 (tested performance ranged from 17 lm/W to 79 lm/W). so efficiencies are much lower. the semiconductor dies were mounted onto metal slugs to allow for heat removal from the LED die. Typical operating currents for such devices begin at 350 mA. held at low temperature in a lab. of one watt or more. These LEDs used much larger semiconductor die sizes to handle the large power inputs. In September 2003. This produced a commercially packaged white light giving 65 lm/W at 20 mA.The third feature helps to boost the light emission from the semiconductor by acting as a diffusing lens. as measured by its light output per unit power input. allowing light to be emitted at a much higher angle of incidence from the light cone. This effect is known as droop and effectively limits the light output of a given LED. In 2006. becoming the brightest white LED commercially available at the time. Also. In 2002. Note that these efficiencies are for the LED chip only.  Efficiency and operational parameters Typical indicator LEDs are designed to operate with no more than 30–60 milliwatts [mW] of electrical power. and more than four times as efficient as standard incandescents. they demonstrated a prototype with a record white LED luminous efficacy of 131 lm/W at 20 mA. Seoul Semiconductor plans for 135 lm/W by 2007 and 145 lm/W by 2008. which would be nearing an order of magnitude improvement over standard incandescents and better than even standard fluorescents.
With the development of highpower LEDs the devices are subjected to higher junction temperatures and higher current densities than traditional devices. LED performance is temperature dependent. could result in low signal intensities or even failure. Early red LEDs were notable for their short lifetime.  Colors and materials Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials.000 hours but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly. voltage drop and material: Color Infrared Wavelength (nm) λ > 760 Voltage (V) ΔV < 1. Like other lighting devices. Because LEDs emit less heat than incandescent bulbs. Sudden failures. Consequently. LEDs used outdoors.9 Semiconductor material Gallium arsenide (GaAs) Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) . LED light output actually rises at colder temperatures (leveling off depending on type at around −30C).000 to 100. LED technology may be a good replacement in uses such as supermarket freezer lighting and will last longer than other technologies. Many of the LEDs made in the 1970s and 1980s are still in service today. because they emit little heat. This causes stress on the material and may cause early light-output degradation. the following table shows the available colors with wavelength range. and that are utilized in climates where the temperature within the luminaire gets very hot. However. To quantitatively classify lifetime in a standardized manner it has been suggested to use the terms L75 and L50 which is the time it will take a given LED to reach 75% and 50% light output respectively. they are an energyefficient technology for uses such as freezers. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25. This lack of waste heat generation has been observed to cause sometimes significant problems with street traffic signals and airport runway lighting in snow-prone areas. such as traffic signals or in-pavement signal lights. although rare. can occur as well. ice and snow may build up on the LED luminaire in colder climates. Most manufacturers’ published ratings of LEDs are for an operating temperature of 25 °C. Lifetime and failure Main article: List of LED failure modes Solid state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limited wear and tear if operated at low currents and at low temperatures. although some research has been done to try to develop heat sink technologies to transfer heat to other areas of the luminaire.  The most common symptom of LED (and diode laser) failure is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency.
76 < ΔV < Violet 400 < λ < 450 Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) 4.48 < ΔV < Purple multiple types blue with red phosphor.18 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) / Gallium(III) nitride (GaN) 1.48 < ΔV < Blue 450 < λ < 500 Silicon carbide (SiC) as substrate 3.0 Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP) Aluminium gallium phosphide (AlGaP) Zinc selenide (ZnSe) Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) 2.10 < ΔV < Aluminium gallium indium phosphide Yellow 570 < λ < 590 2.9 < ΔV < Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Green 500 < λ < 570 4.4 Aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) Aluminium gallium indium nitride (AlGaInN) — (down to 210 nm) White Broad spectrum ΔV = 3.10 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) 2.63 < ΔV < Red 610 < λ < 760 Aluminium gallium indium phosphide 2.1 < ΔV < Aluminium nitride (AlN) (210 nm) Ultraviolet λ < 400 4.03 < ΔV < Aluminium gallium indium phosphide Orange 590 < λ < 610 2. 3.Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) 1.7 Silicon (Si) as substrate — (under development) 2. 2.7 or white with purple plastic Diamond (235 nm) Boron nitride (215 nm) 3.03 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) 2.5 Blue/UV diode with yellow phosphor  Ultraviolet and blue LEDs .0 Dual blue/red LEDs.
while substantially more expensive. . Shorter wavelength diodes. instead of alloyed InGaN or AlGaN.Blue LEDs. With nitrides containing aluminium. AlGaN aluminium gallium nitride of varying AlN fraction can be used to manufacture the cladding and quantum well layers for ultraviolet LEDs. The first blue LEDs were made in 1971 by Jacques Pankove (inventor of the gallium nitride LED) at RCA Laboratories. UV LED emitting at 250–270 nm are to be expected in prospective disinfection and sterilization devices. These devices had too little light output to be of much practical use. the light emission can be varied from violet to amber. They can be added to existing red and green LEDs to produce the impression of white light. are commercially available for wavelengths down to 247 nm. Ultraviolet LEDs in a range of wavelengths are becoming available on the market. as black light lamp replacements for inspection of anti-counterfeiting UV watermarks in some documents and paper currencies. Building upon this foundation. blue LEDs had become widely available. By varying the relative InN-GaN fraction in the InGaN quantum wells. Near-UV emitters at wavelengths around 375–395 nm are already cheap and often encountered. though white LEDs today rarely use this principle. with a peak at about 260 nm. Blue LEDs are based on the wide band gap semiconductors GaN (gallium nitride) and InGaN (indium gallium nitride). in 1993 high brightness blue LEDs were demonstrated. most often AlGaN and AlGaInN. called cladding layers. They have an active region consisting of one or more InGaN quantum wells sandwiched between thicker layers of GaN. but these devices have not yet reached the level of efficiency and technological maturity of the InGaN-GaN blue/green devices. In the late 1980s. key breakthroughs in GaN epitaxial growth and ptype doping ushered in the modern era of GaN-based optoelectronic devices. If the active quantum well layers are GaN. Recent research has shown that commercially available UVA LEDs (365 nm) are already effective disinfection and sterilization devices. even shorter wavelengths are achievable. for example. By the late 1990s. the device will emit near-ultraviolet light with wavelengths around 350–370 nm. As the photosensitivity of microorganisms approximately matches the absorption spectrum of DNA. Green LEDs manufactured from the InGaN-GaN system are far more efficient and brighter than green LEDs produced with non-nitride material systems.
Nevertheless. it is possible to have quite different spectra that appear white. presenting a trade off between the luminous efficiency and color rendering.  White light There are two primary ways of producing high intensity white-light using LEDs. and luminous efficacy. much in the same way a fluorescent light bulb works. One is to use individual LEDs that emit three primary colors—red. Several key factors that play among these different methods. and high brightness red solid-state semiconductor LEDs. in principle. Due to metamerism.Deep-UV wavelengths were obtained in laboratories using aluminium nitride (210 nm). White light can be formed by mixing differently colored lights.  RGB systems Combined spectral curves for blue. For example. Hence the method is called multi-colored white LEDs (sometimes referred to as RGB LEDs). these are seldom used to produce white lighting. color rendering capability. and blue—and then mix all the colors to form white light. the most common method is to use red. yellow-green. and tetrachromatic white LEDs. green. and. include color stability. this mechanism also has higher quantum efficiency in producing white light. The other is to use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light. the dichromatic white LEDs have the best luminous . tri-. Often higher efficiency will mean lower color rendering.  boron nitride (215 nm) and diamond (235 nm). this method is particularly interesting in many uses because of the flexibility of mixing different colors. FWHM spectral bandwidth is approximately 24–27 nm for all three colors. green and blue (RGB). There are several types of multi-colored white LEDs: di-. Because these need electronic circuits to control the blending and diffusion of different colors.
This allows precise dynamic color control. If several phosphor layers of distinct colors are applied.  Phosphor-based LEDs Spectrum of a “white” LED clearly showing blue light which is directly emitted by the GaN-based LED (peak at about 465 nm) and the more broadband Stokes-shifted light emitted by the Ce3+:YAG phosphor which emits at roughly 500–700 nm. several technical problems need solving. although tetrachromatic white LEDs have excellent color rendering capability. Thus. As more effort is devoted to investigating this method. Depending on the color of the original LED. However. resulting in a substantial change in color stability. many new package designs aimed at solving this problem have been proposed and their results are now being reproduced by researchers and scientists. they often have poor luminous efficiency. Most perceivable colors can be formed by mixing different amounts of three primary colors. before this type of LED can play a role on the market. multi-color LEDs should have profound influence on the fundamental method which we use to produce and control light color. A fraction of the blue light undergoes the Stokes shift being transformed from shorter wavelengths to longer. the resultant LEDs are called phosphor-based white LEDs. effectively raising the color rendering index (CRI) value of a given LED. but a new means to form light of different colors. Such problems inhibit and may preclude industrial use. phosphors of different colors can be employed. Trichromatic white LEDs are in between. the emitted spectrum is broadened. This method involves coating an LED of one color (mostly blue LED made of InGaN) with phosphor of different colors to form white light. These include that this type of LED's emission power decays exponentially with rising temperature. Conversely. . Multi-color LEDs offer not merely another means to form white light. but the lowest color rendering capability.efficacy (120 lm/W). having both good luminous efficacy (>70 lm/W) and fair color rendering capability.
the phosphor method is still the most popular method for making high intensity white LEDs. both methods offer comparable brightness. However. Due to the higher radiative output of the ultraviolet LEDs than of the blue ones.Phosphor based LEDs have a lower efficiency than normal LEDs due to the heat loss from the Stokes shift and also other phosphor-related degradation issues. and the majority of high intensity white LEDs presently on the market are manufactured using phosphor light conversion. The design and production of a light source or light fixture using a monochrome emitter with phosphor conversion is simpler and cheaper than a complex RGB system. which render color better.  Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) Main article: Organic light-emitting diode . so more energy is converted to heat. but yields light with better spectral characteristics. as the Stokes shift is larger. This is a method analogous to the way fluorescent lamps work. With development ongoing. Philips Lumileds' patented conformal coating process addresses the issue of varying phosphor thickness. For instance. White LEDs can also be made by coating near ultraviolet (NUV) emitting LEDs with a mixture of high efficiency europium-based red and blue emitting phosphors plus green emitting copper and aluminium doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu.  Other white LEDs Another method used to produce experimental white light LEDs used no phosphors at all and was based on homoepitaxially grown zinc selenide (ZnSe) on a ZnSe substrate which simultaneously emitted blue light from its active region and yellow light from the substrate. The greatest barrier to high efficiency is the seemingly unavoidable Stokes energy loss. giving the white LEDs a more homogeneous white light. Al). the efficiency of phosphor based LEDs generally rises with each new product announcement. However. much effort is being spent on optimizing these devices to higher light output and higher operation temperatures. the efficiency can be raised by adapting better package design or by using a more suitable type of phosphor. A common yellow phosphor material is cerium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Ce3+:YAG). The phosphor based white LEDs encapsulate InGaN blue LEDs inside phosphor coated epoxy. This method is less efficient than the blue LED with YAG:Ce phosphor. A concern is that UV light may leak from a malfunctioning light source and cause harm to human eyes or skin.
Demonstration of a flexible OLED device In an organic light emitting diode (OLED). digital cameras. OLEDs have been used to make visual displays for portable electronic devices such as cellphones. wide viewing angle and high contrast and colour gamut. Polymer LEDs have the added benefit of printable and flexible displays. In September 2009 Nanoco Group announced that it has signed a joint development agreement with a major Japanese electronics company under which it will design and develop quantum dots for use in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in liquid crystal display (LCD) televisions. the electroluminescent material comprising the emissive layer of the diode is an organic compound. This provides more color options and better color rendering than white LEDs. This allows quantum dot LEDs to create almost any color on the CIE diagram.  Quantum dot LEDs (experimental) A new method developed by Michael Bowers.  Types . The potential advantages of OLEDs include thin. or polymers. yellowish-white light similar to that made by incandescent bulbs. low cost displays with a low driving voltage. involves coating a blue LED with quantum dots that glow white in response to the blue light from the LED. The organic material is electrically conductive due to the delocalization of pi electrons caused by conjugation over all or part of the molecule. The organic materials can be small organic molecules in a crystalline phase. and the material therefore functions as an organic semiconductor. Their emission color can be tuned from the visible throughout the infrared spectrum. Quantum dot LEDs are available in the same package types as traditional phosphor based LEDs. and MP3 players while possible future uses include lighting and televisions. This method emits a warm. a graduate student at Vanderbilt University in Nashville. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that possess unique optical properties.
.  Miniature Different sized LEDs. They are usually simple in design. fifth from the left) is the most common. estimated at 80% of world production. The small scale sets a natural upper boundary on power consumption due to heat caused by the high current density and need for heat sinking. Main article: Miniature light-emitting diode These are mostly single-die LEDs used as indicators. not requiring any separate cooling body. 8 mm. The 5 mm cylindrical package (red. The color of the plastic lens is often the same as the actual color of light emitted. There are also LEDs in SMT packages. with a wooden match-stick for scale.LEDs are produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. The main types of LEDs are miniature. and they come in various-sizes from 2 mm to 8 mm. and most blue devices have clear housings. through-hole and surface mount packages. such as those found on blinkies and on cell phone keypads (not shown). but not always. high power devices and custom designs such as alphanumeric or multi-color. purple plastic is often used for infrared LEDs. 5 mm and 3 mm. Typical current ratings ranges from around 1 mA to above 20 mA. For instance.
Due to the larger amount of metal in the LED. emergency lighting and automotive tail-lights. These LEDs are most commonly used in light panels.A green surface-mount LED mounted on a circuit board.  High power See also: Solid-state lighting and LED lamp High-power light emiting diodes (Luxeon. they are able to handle higher currents (around 100 mA). Some can emit over a thousand lumens. An example of this is the Superflux package. or be set in an array to form a powerful LED lamp. now exceed 105 lm/W  (e. Osram Opto Semiconductors Golden Dragon and Cree X-lamp. the device will fail in seconds. One HPLED can often replace an incandescent bulb in a torch. Since overheating is destructive. two anode leads) for better heat conduction and carry an integrated lens.  Mid-range Medium power LEDs are often through-hole mounted and used when an output of a few lumen is needed. If the heat from a HPLED is not removed. Some well-known HPLEDs in this category are the Lumileds Rebel Led.g. compared with the tens of mA for other LEDs. Lumileds) High power LEDs (HPLED) can be driven at currents from hundreds of mA to more than an ampere. They sometimes have the diode mounted to four leads (two cathode leads. As of September 2009 some HPLEDs manufactured by Cree Inc. The higher current allows for the higher light output required for tail-lights and emergency lighting. from Philips Lumileds. the XLamp XP-G LED chip . the HPLEDs must be mounted on a heat sink to allow for heat dissipation.
a red/green LED operated in this fashion will color blend to emit a yellow appearance. as LEDs grow more cost competitive. and current in the opposite direction emits the other color. The low power dissipation of these LEDs affords them more flexibility than the original AC LED design.emitting Cool White light) and are being sold in lamps intended to replace incandescent. Tri-color LEDs are two LEDs in one case. and even fluorescent lights. have only two leads (positive and negative) and have a built in tiny electronic control unit. halogen. In diffused lens LEDs this is visible as a small black dot. In 2009 Seoul Semiconductor released a high DC voltage capable of being driven from AC power with a simple controlling circuit. but the two LEDs are connected to separate leads so that the two LEDs can be controlled independently and lit simultaneously.  Application-specific variations • Flashing LEDs are used as attention seeking indicators without requiring external electronics. For example. They consist of two dies connected to the same two leads antiparallel to each other. A large number of LED elements in series may be able to operate directly from line voltage. • • . RGB LEDs contain red. green and blue emitters. Calculator LED display. Flashing LEDs resemble standard LEDs but they contain an integrated multivibrator circuit which causes the LED to flash with a typical period of one second. part of the LED emits light and part is dark. generally using a four-wire connection with one common lead (anode or cathode). A three-lead arrangement is typical with one common lead (anode or cathode). LEDs have been developed by Seoul Semiconductor that can operate on AC power without the need for a DC converter. 1970s. Most flashing LEDs emit light of one color. The efficacy of this type of HPLED is typically 40 lm/W. Others however. Current flow in one direction emits one color. but more sophisticated devices can flash between multiple colors and even fade through a color sequence using RGB color mixing. and this is reversed during the next half cycle. These LEDs can have either common positive or common negative leads. For each half cycle. • Bi-color LEDs are actually two different LEDs in one case. Alternating the two colors with sufficient frequency causes the appearance of a blended third color.
 . the current rating may be exceeded by a large amount. "Class 2". and so are classified as "Class 2". However. However. and so are classified as "Class 1 LED product"/"LED Klasse 1". If the maximum voltage rating is exceeded by a small amount. This means that a small change in voltage can cause a large change in current. system—also apply to LEDs. or driving the LED at a voltage much below the maximum rating. with their lower power needs and greater display flexibility. only a few LEDs—extremely bright LEDs that also have a tightly focused viewing angle of 8° or less—could. in theory. mains) are not constant current sources. no current flows and no light is emitted if a small voltage is applied in the reverse direction. Since most common power sources (batteries. If the reverse current is sufficiently limited to avoid damage.  Safety and health The vast majority of devices containing LEDs are "safe under all conditions of normal use".  Electrical polarity Main article: Electrical polarity of LEDs As with all diodes. At present. potentially damaging or destroying the LED. etc. The typical solution is to use constant current power supplies. In general.• Alphanumeric LED displays are available in seven-segment and starburst format. the reverse-conducting LED is a useful noise diode. laser safety regulations—and the "Class 1". a large current flows and the LED may be damaged. in that the current is dependent exponentially on the voltage (see Shockley diode equation). Seven-segment LED displays were in widespread use in the 1970s and 1980s. If the reverse voltage grows large enough to exceed the breakdown voltage. Seven-segment displays handle all numbers and a limited set of letters. Starburst displays can display all letters. current flows easily from p-type to n-type material. cause temporary blindness. but rising use of liquid crystal displays. making it possible to power a nitride-based LED from a 3 V battery such as a coin cell without the need for a current limiting resistor. the I/V curve of nitride-based LEDs is quite steep above the knee and gives an If of a few milliamperes at a Vf of 3 V. most LED fixtures must include a power converter.  Considerations for use  Power sources Main article: LED power sources The current/voltage characteristic of an LED is similar to other diodes. has reduced the popularity of numeric and alphanumeric LED displays.
A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in under a microsecond. regulatory limit: 5). Slow failure: LEDs mostly fail by dimming over time. nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg.000– 2.". being solid state components. rather than the abrupt failure of incandescent bulbs. Cool light: In contrast to most light sources. Wasted energy is dispersed as heat through the base of the LED.While LEDs have the advantage over fluorescent lamps that they do not contain mercury. unlike fluorescent light bulbs or tubes. which leached Pb [lead] at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L. Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. Dimming: LEDs can very easily be dimmed either by pulse-width modulation or lowering the forward current. This is more efficient and can lower initial costs.  Advantages • • • • • • • • • • • Efficiency: LEDs emit more light per watt than incandescent light bulbs. LEDs are not hazardous except for lowintensity red LEDs. On/Off time: LEDs light up very quickly. or HID lamps that require a long time before restarting. and incandescent light bulbs at 1.000 hours. Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg. excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg. Shock resistance: LEDs.000 to 15. are difficult to damage with external shock. Cycling: LEDs are ideal for uses subject to frequent on-off cycling. limit: 1000). limit: 2000). though time to complete failure may be longer. One report estimates 35. LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. However. limit: 500) render all except lowintensity yellow LEDs hazardous. unlike fluorescent and incandescent bulbs which are fragile. Color: LEDs can emit light of an intended color without using any color filters as traditional lighting methods need. limit: 2500).000 hours of useful life. they may contain other hazardous metals such as lead and arsenic.000 to 50. according to California regulations. Focus: The solid package of the LED can be designed to focus its light. A study published in 2011 states: "According to federal standards. Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a usable manner. or silver (up to 721 mg/kg. Their efficiency is not affected by shape and size. Size: LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm2) and are easily populated onto printed circuit boards. Fluorescent tubes typically are rated at about 10. LEDs used in communications devices can have even faster response times. depending partly on the conditions of use. unlike fluorescent lamps that fail faster when cycled often.000 hours.  Disadvantages .
 Blue hazard: There is a concern that blue LEDs and cool-white LEDs are now capable of exceeding safe limits of the so-called blue-light hazard as defined in eye safety specifications such as ANSI/IESNA RP-27.000 K. lasers can emit beams with divergences of 0. the color rendering properties of common fluorescent lamps are often inferior to what is now available in state-of-art white LEDs. red surfaces being rendered particularly badly by typical phosphor based cool-white LEDs. but rather a lambertian distribution. Over-driving an LED in high ambient temperatures may result in overheating the LED package. The spike at 460 nm and dip at 500 nm can cause the color of objects to be perceived differently under cool-white LED illumination than sunlight or incandescent sources. and need low failure rates.2 degrees or less. on an initial capital cost basis.  • • •  Applications . This is especially important in automotive. price per lumen. Blue pollution: Because cool-white LEDs (i. The additional expense partially stems from the relatively low lumen output and the drive circuitry and power supplies needed.1–05: Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety for Lamp and Lamp Systems. The International Dark-Sky Association discourages using white light sources with correlated color temperature above 3. Temperature dependence: LED performance largely depends on the ambient temperature of the operating environment.. LEDs cannot provide divergence below a few degrees. medical. due to metamerism. This can involve series resistors or currentregulated power supplies. So LEDs are difficult to apply to uses needing a spherical light field. the strong wavelength dependence of Rayleigh scattering means that cool-white LEDs can cause more light pollution than other light sources. LEDs with high color temperature) emit proportionally more blue light than conventional outdoor light sources such as high-pressure sodium vapor lamps. Voltage sensitivity: LEDs must be supplied with the voltage above the threshold and a current below the rating. Area light source: LEDs do not approximate a “point source” of light.e. Light quality: Most cool-white LEDs have spectra that differ significantly from a black body radiator like the sun or an incandescent light. Droop: The efficiency of LEDs tends to decrease as one increases current. High initial price: LEDs are currently more expensive. Electrical Polarity: Unlike incandescent light bulbs. In contrast. Adequate heat sinking is needed to maintain long life. and military uses where devices must operate over a wide range of temperatures. LEDs will only light with correct electrical polarity. than most conventional lighting technologies. However. which illuminate regardless of the electrical polarity. eventually leading to device failure.• • • • • • • Fluorescent lamps are typically more efficient than LEDs (for lamps with the same CRI).
A large LED display behind a disc jockey.LED lighting in the aircraft cabin of an Airbus A320 Enhanced. LED destination signs on buses. LED digital display that can display 4 digits along with points. one with a colored route number. .
Traffic light using LED Western Australia Police car using LED Printhead of an Oki LED printer LED daytime running lights of Audi A4 .
Illumination where light is reflected from objects to give visual response of these objects. ships' navigation lights or lanterns (chromacity and luminance standards being set under the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972.LED panel light source used in an experiment on plant growth.  Indicators and signs The low energy consumption. exit signs. The findings of such experiments may be used to grow food in space on long duration missions. buses. Largearea LED displays are used as stadium displays and as dynamic decorative displays. to convey a message or meaning. and ferries. instead of emitting light. Annex I and the CIE) and LED-based Christmas lights. emergency vehicle lighting. One-color light is well suited for traffic lights and signals. low maintenance and small size of modern LEDs has led to uses as status indicators and displays on a variety of equipment and installations. Narrow band light sensors where LEDs operate in a reverse-bias mode and respond to incident light. LED Illumination. LED traffic lights may remain snow covered. LED uses fall into four major categories: • • • • Visual signals where light goes more or less directly from the source to the human eye. trams. and as destination displays for trains. Red or yellow LEDs are used in indicator and alphanumeric displays in environments where night vision must be retained: aircraft . Measuring and interacting with processes involving no human vision. Thin. In cold climates. lightweight message displays are used at airports and railway stations.
Screens for TV and computer displays can be made thinner using LEDs for backlighting. LEDs have been used in brake lights for cars high-mounted brake lights. LEDs are used as street lights and in other architectural lighting where color changing is used. but many vehicles now use LEDs for their rear light clusters. White LED headlamps are starting to be used. as well as dedicated fixtures and LED lamps. LED street lights are employed on poles and in parking garages. they can create a phantom array. Replacement light bulbs have been made. trucks. Weather/all-hazards radio receivers with Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) have three LEDs: red for warnings. Using LEDs has styling advantages because LEDs can form much thinner lights than incandescent lamps with parabolic reflectors. Due to the relative cheapness of low output LEDs. or faster rise time. In 2007. LEDs are used in aviation lighting. e. The mechanical robustness and long lifetime is used in automotive lighting on cars. Airbus has used LED lighting in their Airbus A320 Enhanced since 2007. motorcycles and on bicycle lights. RGB LEDs raise the color gamut by as much as 45%. taxiway centerline & edge lights. LEDs are also being used now in airport and heliport lighting. astronomy observatories. and in the field.  Lighting Main article: LED lamp With the development of high efficiency and high power LEDs it has grown possible to use LEDs in lighting and illumination. and the photonic textile Lumalive. this equals one car length equivalent in increased time to react. the Italian village Torraca was the first place to convert its entire illumination system to LEDs. LEDs are also suitable for backlighting for LCD televisions and lightweight laptop displays and light source for DLP projectors (See LED TV).. and Boeing plans its use in the 787. .5 second faster than an incandescent bulb. In a dual intensity circuit (i. up to 0. It is reported that at normal highway speeds. night time animal watching and military field use. guidance signs and obstruction lighting. Because of their long life and fast switching times.cockpits. throwies. Artists have also used LEDs for LED art. due to a great reduction in the time needed to light fully. rear markers and brakes) if the LEDs are not pulsed at a fast enough frequency.g. runway centerline lights. and buses. The use in brakes improves safety. and yellow for advisories & statements whenever issued.e. orange for watches. and in turn signals for some time. they are also used in many temporary uses such as glowsticks. submarine and ship bridges. LED airport fixtures currently include medium-intensity runway lights. This gives drivers behind more time to react. where ghost images of the LED will appear if the eyes quickly scan across the array.
as well as medical lighting where IR-radiation can be harmful. and utility trucks. conversion vans. LEDs are used for infrared illumination in night vision uses including security cameras. clams. fish. so they are used in hand held devices such as flashlights. Particularly for reef aquariums. RVs. LEDs are small. A ring of LEDs around a video camera.  Energy consumption . automobiles. they can be wireless transmitters and access points for data transport. limousines. anemones. cargo trailers. Because LEDs can cycle on and off millions of times per second. which is already implemented in IrDA standards using infrared LEDs. This is especially useful in cameras on mobile phones.000 hours. durable and need little power. Lasers can also be modulated in this manner. LED strobe lights or camera flashes operate at a safe. A 13 watt LED lamp emits 450 to 650 lumens. instead of the 250+ volts commonly found in xenon flashlamp-based lighting.  Smart lighting Light can be used to transmit broadband data. and invertebrates while optimizing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) which raises growth and sustainability of photosynthetic life such as corals. and macroalgae. which is equivalent to a standard 40 watt incandescent bulb. LEDs are used for decorative lighting as well. aimed forward into a retroreflective background. LED lights provide an efficient light source with less heat output to help maintain optimal aquarium temperatures. reflecting phases of the sun and moon for a dynamic reef experience.  Sustainable lighting Efficient lighting is needed for sustainable architecture. LED-based aquarium fixtures also have the advantage of being manually adjustable to emit a specific color-spectrum for ideal coloration of corals. Decorative LED lighting can also come in the form of lighted company signage and step and aisle lighting in theaters and auditoriums. where space is at a premium and bulky voltageraising circuitry is undesirable. The lack of IR/heat radiation makes LEDs ideal for stage lights using banks of RGB LEDs that can easily change color and decrease heating from traditional stage lighting. allows chroma keying in video productions. low voltage.  A standard 40 W incandescent bulb has an expected lifespan of 1. LED fixtures typically cost up to five times as much as similarly rated fluorescent or high-intensity discharge lighting designed for reef aquariums and are not as high output to date. Uses include but are not limited to indoor/outdoor decor. cruise ships. 50 times longer than the incandescent bulb.000 hours while an LED can continue to operate with reduced efficiency for more than 50. These fixtures can be electronically programmed to simulate various lighting conditions throughout the day. boats.LEDs are used increasingly commonly in aquarium lights.
one 40-watt incandescent bulb will cause 196 pounds (89 kg) of CO2 emission per year. since more heating is needed to compensate for the lower temperature. for example in optical computer mice. Having independent control of three illuminated colors allows the scanner to calibrate itself for more accurate color balance.34 pounds (610 g) of CO2 emission. Assuming the average light bulb is on for 10 hours a day. Further.  Non-visual applications The light from LEDs can be modulated very quickly so they are used extensively in optical fiber and Free Space Optics communications. In pulse oximeters for measuring oxygen saturation. and there is no need for warm-up. its sensors only need be monochromatic. This could be used in for example a touch-sensing screen that register reflected light from a finger or stylus. The 13-watt LED equivalent will only cause 63 pounds (29 kg) of CO2 over the same time span. LEDs are used as movement sensors.One kilowatt-hour of electricity will cause 1.  Economically sustainable LED light bulbs could be a cost-effective option for lighting a home or office space because of their very long lifetimes. This include remote controls. Opto-isolators use an LED combined with a photodiode or phototransistor to provide a signal path with electrical isolation between two circuits. The sapphire apparatus must be coupled with a mirror-like collector to reflect light that would otherwise be wasted. such as for TVs and VCRs. An optoisolator also allows information to be transferred between circuits not sharing a common ground potential. Some flatbed scanners use arrays of RGB LEDs rather than the typical cold-cathode fluorescent lamp as the light source. LEDs are often ideal as a light source due to the requirements of the sensors. In cold climates. This is especially useful in medical equipment where the signals from a low-voltage sensor circuit (usually battery powered) in contact with a living organism must be electrically isolated from any possible electrical failure in a recording or monitoring device operating at potentially dangerous voltages. The Nintendo Wii's sensor bar uses infrared LEDs. The high initial cost of the commercial LED bulb is due to the expensive sapphire substrate which is key to the production process. 2009 DOE testing results showed an average efficacy of 35 lm/W. Consumer use of LEDs as a replacement for conventional lighting system is currently hampered by the high cost and low efficiency of available products. Touch sensing: Since LEDs can also be used as photodiodes. Many sensor systems rely on light as the signal source. the energy saving may be lower.  . and as low as 9 lm/W. since at any one time the page being scanned is only lit by one color of light. worse than standard incandescents. they can be used for both photo emission and detection. below that of typical CFLs. A building’s carbon footprint from lighting can be reduced by 68% by exchanging all incandescent bulbs for new LEDs in warm climates. where infrared LEDs are often used.
LEDs have also been used as a medium quality voltage reference in electronic circuits. Grow lights use LEDs to increase photosynthesis in plants and bacteria and viruses can be removed from water and other substances using UV LEDs for sterilization. However. the LED products will become cheaper. LED elements tend to be small and can be placed with high density over flat or evenshaped substrates (PCBs etc. helping to achieve high light densities with control over lighting levels and homogeneity. and this is likely to remain one of their major uses until price drops low enough to make signaling and illumination uses more widespread. ring lights for coaxial illumination. Zener diodes are not widely available below voltages of about 3 V. about 1.Many materials and biological systems are sensitive to. or dependent on light. dome sources for diffused. and can provide the optimum light frequency for plant growth and bloom periods compared to currently used grow lights: HPS (high pressure sodium). flat. The forward voltage drop (e. omnidirectional illumination). Barcode scanners are the most common example of machine vision.) so that bright and homogeneous sources can be designed which direct light from tightly controlled directions on inspected parts. Optical computer mice are also another example of LEDs in machine vision. as it is used to provide an even light source on the surface for the miniature camera within the mouse. Red LEDs have the flattest I/V curve above the knee. it might not be easy to replace a broken light source placed within complex machinery. so the cost of the light source is usually a minor concern. .. However. This can often be obtained with small. Plant growers are interested in LEDs because they are more energy efficient. large format panels. and in LED printers. back lights for contour illumination. Nitride-based LEDs have a fairly steep I/V curve and are useless for this purpose. LEDs are often used for this purpose. so features of interest are easier to process. LED sources can be shaped in several configurations (spot lights for reflective illumination. and here the long service life of LEDs is a benefit. linear assemblies. low-cost lenses and diffusers. emit less heat (can damage plants close to hot lamps). LEDs have not replaced these grow lights due to higher price. MH (metal halide) or CFL/low-energy. LEDs constitute a nearly ideal light source for machine vision systems for several reasons: The size of the illuminated field is usually comparatively small and machine vision systems are often quite expensive. and many low cost ones use red LEDs instead of lasers. Other uses are as UV curing devices for some ink and coating methods. Although LED forward voltage is far more current-dependent than a good Zener. As mass production and LED kits develop.g.7 V for a normal red LED) can be used instead of a Zener diode in low-voltage regulators.  Light sources for machine vision systems Machine vision systems often require bright and homogeneous illumination.
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wikipedia.[show]v · d · eDisplay technology Electroluminescent display (ELD) · Vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) · Light emitting diode display (LED) · Cathode ray tube (CRT) · Liquid crystal Current display (LCD) (Thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT LCD)) · generation Plasma display panel (PDP) · Digital light processing (DLP) · Liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) · Surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) · Field emission display (FED) · Laser TV (Quantum dot laser · Next Liquid crystal laser) · Ferro liquid display (FLD) · Interferometric modulator generationdisplay (iMoD) · Thick-film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) · Quantum dot display (QD-LED) · Telescopic pixel display (TPD) · Organic lightemitting transistor (OLET) · Laser phosphor display (LPD) [show]v · d · eElectronic components Retrieved from "http://en.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode" Categories: Optical diodes | Lighting | Signage | Semiconductor devices | 1907 introductions | Light-emitting diodes | American inventions Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2010 Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants .
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Collected together. Basically. transmit information from remote controls. How Can a Diode Produce Light? 4. they form the numbers on digital clocks. LED Advantages 5. are real unsung heroes in the electronics world. Related Technology . they don't have a filament that will burn out. See more solid state electronics pictures. But unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs. they can form images on a jumbo television screen or illuminate a traffic light. What is a Diode? 3. light up watches and tell you when your appliances are turned on. commonly called LEDs. LEDs are just tiny light bulbs that fit easily into an electrical circuit. See all Solid State Electronics articles Battery Videos • More Tech Videos » Solid State Electronics Image Gallery Light emitting diodes form the numbers on digital clocks. and they don't get especially hot. Lots More Information 6. They are illuminated solely by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material. Light emitting diodes. send data from remote controls and light up traffic signals. and they last just as long as a standard transistor.2. Among other things. They do dozens of different jobs and are found in all kinds of devices.
Your Browser Does Not Support iFrames VIDEO: Check out revealing videos of electronics deconstructed and 6 fundamental VOIP videos. >> Next Page 48 .• • • Semiconductors Fabric Displays OLEDs In this article. illuminating some cool principles of electricity and light in the process. we'll examine the simple principles behind these ubiquitous blinkers.
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