1. What is Doha development Round?

Answer: Doha Development Round is a latest multi lateral trade negotiation round taking place within the World Trade Organization (WTO), which arranges the negotiations among and different member countries on a variety of subjects and other works. The negotiations include those on agriculture and services. Its objective is to liberalization of trade in goods and services among the WTO members (153), which will enhance and pave the way of world trading. The Doha Round was formed at the WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, in December 2001. Subsequent ministerial meetings took place in Cancun, Mexico (2003), and Hong Kong (2005). Related negotiations took place in Geneva, Switzerland (2004, 2006, and 2008); Paris, France (2005); and Postdam, Germany (2007). Why Doha Development Round The conference came after an unsuccessful WTO ministerial conference in Seattle in 1999, where anti-globalization protestors disrupted the talks. There was thus a clear need to show unity and dynamism in the world trading system. Launched against the background of growing skepticism on the merits of that system for developing countries, the round was presented from the beginning as a development oriented round. It was named the ³Doha Development Agenda´ (DDA) in reference to these objectives. Fulfilling the hopes of developing countries in a manner acceptable to industrialized countries has been a constant theme in the round. 2. What are the features of Doha Development Round? Answer: Important Features of Doha Round The negotiations have been characterized by persistent differences between the United States, the European Union, and developing countries on major issues, such as agriculture, industrial tariffs and non-tariff barriers, services, and trade remedies. Depending on the outcome, some U.S. industries may gain access to foreign markets, and others may see increased competition from imports. Likewise, some U.S. workers may be helped through increased access to foreign markets, but others may be hurt by import competition.

20 U. Access to patented Medicines: A major topic at the Doha Ministerial regarded the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). and reductions in trade-distorting domestic support. trade facilitation and other issues. Mode IV relates to the temporary movement of business persons to another country in order to perform a service on-site. currently Pascal Lamy. Non Agriculture Market Access (NAMA): NAMA is one of the issues of Doha Development Round. WTO rules. and tariff escalation. development issues. A third addresses problems that developing countries were having in implementing current trade obligations. Special and Differential (S&D) Treatment: In the Doha Ministerial Declaration. the trade ministers reaffirmed special and differential (S&D) treatment for developing countries and . A second deals with a review of provisions giving special and differential treatment to developing countries. Selected topics under negotiation are discussed below in five groups: market access. goals in the new round were elimination of agricultural export subsidies. One pertains to compulsory licensing of medicines and patent protection. whose chair is the WTO¶s director-general. easing of tariffs and quotas. Market Access Agriculture: Agriculture has become the linchpin in the Doha Development Agenda.29 The issue involves the balance of interests between the pharmaceutical companies in developed countries that held patents on medicines and the public health needs in developing countries. The negotiations are being held in five working groups and in other existing bodies of the WTO.Doha Round talks are overseen by the Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC). It is the negotiation to reduce or eliminate tariffs on industrial and primary product with a focus on tariff peaks. Development Issues Three development issues are most noteworthy.S. The Doha Ministerial Declaration included language on all of these three pillars of agricultural support. high tariffs. Services: Mode IV services negotiation is one of the issues of Doha Development Round.

The Ministerial Declaration included several provisions on trade and environment. In 2004 compromise was reached framework agreement and negotiations held on trade facilitation aiming to improve the efficiency of international trade by harmonizing and streamlining customs procedures such as duplicative documentation requirements. which was unresolved subsequently in 2001. Implementation Developing countries claim that they have had problems with the implementation of the agreements reached in the earlier Uruguay Round because of limited capacity or lack of technical assistance. and (3) the reduction or elimination of trade barriers to environmental goods and services. (2) procedures for the exchange of information between MEA Secretariats and WTO committees. WTO Rules The Doha Round negotiations included Antidumping (AD) and Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM). In the Declaration. 2003 ministerial. Why it failed? Answer: . Among the provisions. trade ministers continued to call for a review of dispute rules. the trade ministers agreed to the following: (1) negotiations on the relationship between existing WTO rules and trade obligations in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). They also claim that they have not realized certain benefits that they expected from the Round. The Ministerial Declaration directed that negotiations be held on improvements and clarifications of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU).agreed that all S&D treatment provisions. customs processing delays. The Doha Ministerial Declaration also calls for clarifying and improving disciplines on fisheries subsidies. and the criteria for granting observer status. such as increased access for their textiles and apparel in developed-country markets. At Doha. They seek a clarification of language relating to their interests in existing agreements Trade Facilitation Trade facilitation was the issue of first WTO conference held in 1996. and nontransparent or unequally enforced importation rules and requirements. Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns (Implementation Decision). 3. the trade ministers endorsed the work program on S&D treatment presented in another Doha document.

Lamy hopes that the drop in world trade of 12% in 2009. Brazil and Pascal Lamy have led this process. Lula da Silva. The European Union Trade Commissioner Peter Mandelson characterized the collapse as a "collective failure".The most recent round of negotiations. A mini-ministerial meeting held in India on September 3 and 4 pledged to complete the round by the end of 2010. In particular. quoted as the largest annual drop since the Second World War. 23±29 July 2008. . At the 2011 annual conference of the World Economic Forum in Davos British Prime Minister David Cameron called for the Doha talks to conclude by the end of the year.S subsidies on cotton. a measure designed to protect poor farmers by allowing countries to impose a special tariff on certain agricultural goods in the event of an import surge or price fall. saying that "We've been at this Doha round for far too long. It's frankly ridiculous that it has taken 10 years to do this deal. Another issue was U. Pascal Lamy said. former president of Brazil. called several countries leaders to urge them to renew negotiations. could be countered by successful conclusion of the Doha round. Current Progress: Some member countries have urged for negotiations of DDR to start again. Lamy visited India to discuss possible solutions to the impasse. broke down after failing to reach a compromise on agricultural import rules. The declaration at the end of the G20 summit of world leaders in London in 2009 included a pledge to complete the Doha round. "Members have simply not been able to bridge their differences. there was insoluble disagreement between India and the United States over the special safeguard mechanism (SSM).

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