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Using JMP® Student Edition

For Windows and Macintosh

The User’s Guide to Statistics with JMP® Student Edition

The correct bibliographic citation for this manual is as follows: SAS Institute Inc. 2009. Using JMP® Student Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

Using JMP® Student Edition

Copyright © 2009, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA ISBN 978-1-60764-190-2 All rights reserved. Produced in the United States of America. For a hard-copy book: No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, SAS Institute Inc. For a Web download or e-book: Your use of this publication shall be governed by the terms established by the vendor at the time you acquire this publication. U.S. Government Restricted Rights Notice: Use, duplication, or disclosure of this software and related documentation by the U.S. government is subject to the Agreement with SAS Institute and the restrictions set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights (June 1987). SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina 27513. 1st printing, April 2009 SAS® Publishing provides a complete selection of books and electronic products to help customers use SAS software to its fullest potential. For more information about our e-books, e-learning products, CDs, and hard-copy books, visit the SAS Publishing Web site at support.sas.com/publishing or call 1-800-727-3228. SAS® and all other SAS Institute Inc. product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute Inc. in the USA and other countries. ® indicates USA registration. Other brand and product names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective companies. For more information about this or any other JMP product, contact:

SAS INSTITUTE INC. SAS Campus Drive Cary, NC 27513 USA

**For permission to use this work, contact us:
**

www.jmp.com/se fax: 919.677.4444 phone: 919.677.8000

Technical Support is provided by the publisher of the work that JMP-SE is bundled with, and to registered instructors.

Table of Contents

1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition

Prerequisites For This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer and Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Learning JMP Student Edition with its Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conventions Used in This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting JMP Student Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JMP Student Edition Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macintosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finding Means, Medians, and Standard Deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Where to Go from Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 15 15 16 19

2

**The Distribution Platform
**

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launching the Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing a Mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annotating Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Modeling Type of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous Variable Graphs and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Histogram Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Quantile Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outlier Box Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quantile Box Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stem and Leaf Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CDF Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fit Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Categorical Variable Graphs and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing a Mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 21 22 22 24 25 26 28 29 30 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 35

Testing a Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing Categorical Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Confidence Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Whole-Platform Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35 36 36 37 38 39

3

**The Fit Y by X Platform
**

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launching the Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computing a t-test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pooled t test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting and Marking Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitting Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disclosure Icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two-Way Contingency Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Logistic Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Formula Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scatterplots—The Continuous by Continuous Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Summary of Fit Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Lack of Fit Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis of Variance Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameter Estimates Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Fitting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One Way ANOVA—The Continuous by Categorical Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Script Submenu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contingency Analysis—The Categorical by Categorical Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Logistic Regression—The Categorical by Continuous Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Whole Model Test Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Platform Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 45 46 47 48 50 50 51 53 53 53 54 55 56 58 59 60 60 60 61 61 66 66 67 68 69

4

**The Matched Pairs Platform
**

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Preparing the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Launching the Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Make Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examining Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Current Estimates Table . . . . . . . . . . 73 Interpreting the Matched Pairs Plot . . . . . Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Re-running an Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exploring the Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 The Control Chart Launch Dialog . . . 99 The Stepwise Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Step History Table . . . . . . Save Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . . Fit Model Report Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Matched Pairs Launch Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Fit Model Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Run Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effect Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Least Squares Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 79 80 81 82 82 84 85 85 86 86 87 88 88 88 89 91 93 93 95 96 6 Stepwise Regression Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regression Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 5 The Fit Model Platform Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leverage Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Process Information . . . . 102 Stepwise Regression Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emphasis Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 The Matched Pairs Scatterplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Titles . . . . . . . . Row Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitting Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launching the Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 7 Control Charts Introduction . . . . . . Linear Contrasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 All Possible Regressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Effects . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tests for Special Causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Deleted Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Autocorrelation . . Number of Forecast Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c-Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 114 114 115 115 116 118 119 120 122 124 124 125 125 126 127 129 130 131 132 133 133 135 136 137 8 Time Series Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Specified Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shewhart Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shewhart Control Charts for Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Window Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Westgard Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Autocorrelation . . . The Time Series Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameters . . . . . . . . Tailoring the Horizontal Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 147 147 148 149 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Time Series Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Western Electric Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time Series Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Excluded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and np-Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shewhart Control Charts for Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hidden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cusum Chart Options . . . . . . . . Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chart Type Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display Options . . . . . . . . . .Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XBar-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launch Options for Cusum Charts . . . . . . . Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Summary Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Individual Measurement Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Chart Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling Reports . . . . . . . Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameter Estimates Table . . . . . . . . . . u-Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Run Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Charting Data Introduction . . . . . Inverse Correlations and Partial Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Winters Method (Additive) . . . . . . Smoothing Model Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results from Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Damped-Trend Linear Exponential Smoothing . . . . . . . Pearson Product-Moment Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear (Holt) Exponential Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Double (Brown) Exponential Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launch the Platform and Select Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing Microsoft Excel Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inverse Correlation Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Covariance Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 163 163 163 164 166 167 167 168 169 169 169 170 10 Importing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARIMA Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonparametric Measures of Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pairwise Correlations . . . Simple Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 153 153 154 154 155 156 157 157 158 158 158 159 9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . Iteration History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scatterplot Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Overlay Plot Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macintosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computations and Statistical Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 171 173 175 175 176 177 179 180 . . . . . . . . . . . . .Forecast Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Exponential Smoothing . . . . . . . Smoothing Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Report Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exporting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonparametric Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing Text Files . . . . . Seasonal Exponential Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlations Multivariate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Chart Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . Platform Options . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single-Chart Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Chart Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Making the Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Response Surface Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a Design . . . . . . . . . . Level Options . . Continuing the Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Output Options . . . Entering Responses and Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single-Plot Options . . . . Continuing the Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying Axial Value (Central Composite Designs Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Table . . . . . . . . . . Displaying and Modifying the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 218 219 219 220 221 221 222 14 Prospective Power and Sample Size Prospective Power Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 One-Sample and Two-Sample Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 195 195 196 197 12 Screening Designs Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Screening Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering Responses and Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Platform Options . Creating a Factorial Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Overlay Plot Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 201 202 203 203 207 210 211 211 13 Response Surface Designs Introduction . . . . . . . . . . Frame Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Design Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 182 183 184 185 185 186 186 11 Full Factorial Designs Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counts per Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two-Sample Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sigma Quality Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Single-Sample Mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One-Sample Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . k-Sample Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Notices Technology License Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One-Sample and Two-Sample Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 229 230 231 232 233 235 236 Index JMP-SE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power and Sample Size Animation for a Single Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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To use it. Statistics Since JMP Student Edition is specially-made for the beginning statistics student.1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition Welcome to JMP Student Edition—the version of SAS Institute’s award-winning JMP Statistical Discovery software tailor-made for the introductory statistics student. closing. especially use of the mouse. . all the data tables. All of the statistics are accessible in a familiar. JMP Student Edition is easy to learn and easy to use. JMP Student Edition is equipped with context-sensitive help. and saving files should also exist before reading this guide. It can be read like a book. minimal knowledge about computers and statistics is necessary. See the reference books for the operating system and computer for more information on these topics. familiarity with standard computer operations and operating system terminology is assumed. point-and-click format. and the statistical concepts are supported with both graphs and appropriate numerical results. We hope that this visualization makes learning statistics more fun and easier than it has ever been before. or it can be used to search for a specific topic. Prerequisites For This Book To use JMP Student Edition. since it contains a complete table of contents. and charts are dynamically linked together. it requires no formal statistics knowledge. select the help tool (see Figure 1. and commands. Learning JMP Student Edition with its Documentation JMP Student Edition includes an extensive online help system. like those in all introductory statistics texts. JMP Student Edition opens help specific to the item you clicked. The specific prerequisites are as follows: Computer and Operating System In this manual. whenever they present themselves. allowing for interactive exploration of patterns and outliers. graphs. In addition.1) and click anywhere inside a data table or report. standard menus. In addition. This book shows how to accomplish simple statistical tasks. Knowledge of opening.

2).12 1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition Conventions Used in This Book Figure 1. or other unique features. Certain paragraphs are meant to be carried out while reading the text. • The notation File > Open means to select the Open command from the File menu. called the JMP Starter (see Figure 1. • Variables under study are arranged in columns in the data spreadsheet. all the “Introduction” sections could be read from each chapter before reading the rest of the material in the book. Starting JMP Student Edition JMP Student Edition can be started in two ways: • Double-click the JMP Student Edition icon • Double-click a JMP Student Edition data set or script. buttons. • New or important words are emphasized. so the words variable and column are often used interchangeably. which is intended primarily as a reference. special typefaces are used to designate commands. By default. menu items. Select View > JMP Starter. In fact. If the JMP Starter is not automatically opened. They are separate from the rest of the material in the chapter. Each “Introduction” section explores the Denim. . JMP Student Edition begins by opening a special navigation window.jmp sample data set using a specified platform or function. and report titles are usually set by JMP Student Edition and are not alterable by the user. • Menu items. They are designated by a mouse on the left. • Sections titled “Introduction” provide a hands-on approach to learning the basics of JMP Student Edition. • File names are opened and saved to disk or network folders.1 The JMP Student Edition Help Tool Help Tool Conventions Used in This Book Throughout this manual.

• The Measure group contains tools for capability analysis. JMP Student Edition Toolbars An alternative way of accessing JMP Student Edition commands is by using toolbars. • The Control group contains commands for control charts.4). • The Survival group contains reliability and survival commands. the Tools toolbar (Figure 1.2 The JMP Starter Window This window provides quick and easy access to all the menu commands of JMP Student Edition. the Analyze toolbar (Figure 1. • The Tables tab contains commands used to manipulate data tables. • The DOE group contains commands for designing an experiment. There are nine tabs groups that partition the commands based on their function: • The File group contains commands related to opening and closing several types of files. Although these commands are accessible through menus and toolbars. they are also presented in the JMP Starter in a logical.5). the Graph toolbar (Figure 1.6).3). • The Basic group contains commands that perform analyses for one-variable and two-variable situations. • The Model group contains commands for matched pairs (a special two-variable situation) and multivariate models. Windows Toolbars that duplicate the JMP Starter’s commands include the File/Edit toolbar (Figure 1. and the .1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition JMP Student Edition Toolbars 13 1 Introduction to JMP Student Edition Figure 1. organized way. • The Graph group contains commands for charts and 3D graphics.

6 The Graph Toolbar Overlay Pareto Plot Bar and Plot Pie Spinning Charts Plot Figure 1. as well as user-customizable toolbars.7 The Tables Toolbar Subset Summary Stack Sort Split Some of these toolbars are not displayed by default.8) . There is also a Data Files toolbar.14 1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition JMP Student Edition Toolbars Tables toolbar (Figure 1. used to switch between open data tables. Figure 1. To activate toolbars that are not showing.5 The Analyze Toolbar Distribution Survival/ Fit Reliability Fit Y By X Model Multivariate Matched Time Series Pairs Figure 1.4 The Tools Toolbar CrossArrow Hand Simple hair Lines Shapes Help Brush Selection Zoom Polygon Scroller Lasso Annotate Figure 1. • Select View > Toolbars > Show Toolbars to open the Show Toolbars window (Figure 1. Each of these commands is explained fully in later chapters.3 The File/Edit Toolbar Run New Script Cut Data Open Copy Save Table New Paste Print Script Figure 1.7).

and closing a data table. Figure 1. toolbars are not set in groups. The data should appear like the listing in Figure 1. First Session This section is a guide through a few simple steps that demonstrate opening a data table. To open a data table. To see the definitions of each button on the toolbar. From the window that appears. Control-click on the toolbar area of a window. or click the Open button on the File/Edit toolbar. or to add and subtract buttons from the toolbar.jmp and click Open. drag buttons onto the toolbar to add them. requesting an analysis.9. but are all available to be added to a single toolbar. Select the file Denim. Those that are unchecked are hidden. select Open Data Table from the JMP Starter. select File > Open. .1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition First Session 15 1 Introduction to JMP Student Edition Toolbars that are checked become visible.8 Show Toolbars Window Macintosh On the Macintosh.

16

1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition First Session

Figure 1.9 Partial Listing of the Denim Data File

This data set contains data on the starch content of processed denim. In this example, we examine the data for the Starch Content (%) variable and answer the following questions: • What is the mean of the data? • What is its median? • What is its standard deviation? • Also, produce a histogram of the data.

**Finding Means, Medians, and Standard Deviations
**

To answer these questions, use the Distribution platform. Select Analyze > Distribution. This brings up the launch dialog as seen in Figure 1.10.

1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition First Session

17 1 Introduction to JMP Student Edition

Figure 1.10 The Distribution Dialog

Select the variable Starch Content (%), then click the Y, Columns button. This step tells JMP Student Edition the variable to analyze. Since Starch Content (%) is the only variable of interest, we are finished with this dialog. Click OK. The report is presented in its default vertical format. However, some people prefer a horizontal layout for the Distribution report. To change the layout to horizontal, Click on the red triangle next to the word Starch Content (%) in the report (see Figure 1.11). Figure 1.11 Red Triangles Reveal Popup Menus

Popup Menus

All of these red triangles reveal popup menus when they are clicked. Watch closely for them—they reveal further options and explorations available during the data exploration process. The menu next to Starch Content (%) shows the options for this single variable, although there are cases (seen later) where the Distribution platform operates on several variables. Options available to all the variables in the report are in the menu next to the word Distributions. Select Display Options > Horizontal Layout to see the report in Figure 1.12.

18

1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition First Session

Figure 1.12 The Starch Content Distribution Report

The answers to the four questions are all in this report. Read off the mean (25.516634), the median (24.349), and the standard deviation (9.6568876). The histogram is shown on the left. If a printed copy of this report is needed, Select File > Print. Alternatively, this output may be included in a lab report written using a word processor. To move the report into another program, use the cut and paste features of JMP Student Edition: Select the Selection tool, which looks like a fat plus.

Selection tool

Hold down the Shift key and click on each part of the report that needs to be copied. In Figure 1.13, all the text columns and the histogram have been selected. None of the headings have been, nor has the box plot. Note that the histogram’s axis is selected separately from the histogram itself. Figure 1.13 Selection of Report Parts

Select Edit > Copy.

1 Getting Started with JMP Student Edition First Session

19 1 Introduction to JMP Student Edition

In the word processor, select Edit > Paste. Now that the analysis is completed, close JMP Student Edition. Select File > Exit.

**Where to Go from Here
**

This simple example has shown all the steps needed to complete a JMP Student Edition analysis. From here, feel free to explore any of the sample data files that came with JMP Student Edition, explore the online help, or continue reading this book.

and computes hypothesis tests for these variables. However. with each roll identified in the Lot Number column. and is referred to in each introductory section of this book. in actuality. are as follows: • Alpha Amalyze is an enzyme added to the wash water that eats the starch.2 The Distribution Platform Single-variable statistics are the domain of JMP Student Edition’s Distribution platform. . some customers say that jeans have a “breaking in” period before they become truly comfortable. displays graphs. • Pumice Stone are a physical abrasive that is added to the wash water that literally pounds the starch out. These abrasive pebbles are the source of the so-called stone-washed jeans. After treating the jeans. This breaking in period is. About the Data This file contains information from an experiment with blue jeans. When blue jeans are manufactured. The three different treatments. creating stiffness and stability in the fabric. most people find this stiffness undesirable—in fact. recorded in the Thread Wear Measured column). after the initial washing process. some jeans are sand blasted. recorded in the Method column.jmp.” p. The samples came from several different rolls of fabric. see “First Session. the time it takes for some of the starch present in the jeans to wear away and wash out. • Caustic Soda is a chemical dissolved in the wash water that chemically destroys the starch. It calculates summary statistics. In addition. denim manufacturers subject the fabric to a variety of treatments to remove some of the starch. Whether or not the fabric was sand blasted is recorded in the Sand Blasted? column. they usually contain a fair amount of starch. This experiment used three such treatments in differently-sized wash loads. The measured thread wear has been converted into an ordinal variable in the Thread Wear column by using the Formula Editor. In an effort to minimize the amount of time needed to break in a new pair of jeans. Introduction Open the data file Denim. two measurements were taken: one to quantify the starch content of the fabric (measuring stiffness. For information on opening a file. recorded as a percentage of weight) and one as a count of destroyed threads (measuring wear-and-tear. 15.

” p. Sometimes. Figure 2. and clicking on the second variable name. Columns button. . it is desirable to change these settings. Select Analyze > Distribution from the menu bar. 34. suppose the bar widths and positions of the Starch Content (%) histogram need modifying. and are seen in Figure 2.1 Distribution Launch Dialog Select the variables Method and Starch Content (%) from the list on the left by clicking on the first variable name. Select the hand tool (Figure 2. Histograms and textual information on all the variables now appear.9 on page 29. Many descriptive statistics can be read directly off the text reports accompanying these histograms. Figure 2. For details on these reports. Click OK. holding down the Control (Windows) or Option (Macintosh) key.2) from the Tools toolbar. This brings up the Distribution platform launch dialog.2 Hand Tool Hand Tool Position the hand tool over the Starch Content (%) histogram and press the mouse button. Click the Y.22 2 The Distribution Platform Introduction Launching the Platform In this example. To change them. Move the mouse horizontally (assuming the histogram is in its default vertical layout) to change the bar widths of the histogram. Two of the histograms from this report are used later in this chapter. For example. 30 and “Categorical Variable Graphs and Reports. Using Histograms Histograms appear with bar widths and positions calculated internally by JMP Student Edition. the variables are examined one at a time.” p. see “Continuous Variable Graphs and Reports.

Click on the histogram corresponding to Alpha Amalyze in the Method histogram. The bar for Alpha Amalyze is highlighted. Highlight and explore the other wash methods. for example. Try to determine if one of the methods results in lower starch content than the others. colors. paying attention to the starch content that gets highlighted with each one. Data rows are highlighted in the data table so that they can be assigned row states—specific markers. These histograms are also useful in looking at some relationships among the variables. Look at the corresponding points that are highlighted in the Starch Content (%) histogram. For example. Notice that the corresponding rows in the data table are also highlighted. as are the bars in the other histograms for all the data points that have Alpha Amalyze as their method. select Window > Denim-Distribution. It is often useful to have confidence intervals on the means or levels in these histograms. To bring the data table to the front. Whenever a row is selected in any plot. or labels—that persist in all of JMP Student Edition’s active plots.2 The Distribution Platform Introduction 23 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics Move the mouse vertically to change the position of the bars. a 95% confidence interval on the levels of Method and Starch Content (%). select Window > Denim. To get. . To bring the Distribution report to the front. Click in the histogram bars for Caustic Soda and Pumice Stone. its selection status ripples through all of JMP Student Edition’s open windows.

24 2 The Distribution Platform Introduction Select Confidence Interval > . To accomplish these two steps. with the corresponding level indicated in the title bar of the histogram. Columns button. Select Starch Content (%) in the list of variables and click the Y. Figure 2. Testing a Mean Continuing the analysis. Click OK. To test that the mean of the Alpha Amalyze denim has a mean of 20%.3 Test Mean . • Make separate histograms for each of the three levels of the Method variable.95 from the drop-down menu next to the variable names in the histograms’ title bar. select Test Mean from the drop-down list next to Starch Content (%). In the Method=Alpha Amalyze section. • Test the mean using the Alpha Amalyze histogram. Bring up the Distribution launch dialog by again selecting Analyze > Distribution from the menu bar. Three histograms should appear. Select Method in the list of variables and click the By button. suppose that prior research claims that the mean starch content of Alpha Amalyze-washed denim is 20%. two steps are required.

31.5 Normal Quantile Plot . examine the p-value listed beside Prob > |t|.5740.” p.4 Test Mean Dialog The true standard deviation is not known. leave the box for the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test unchecked. Normality Many statistical tests make an assumption that the data is approximately normally distributed. which in this case is a non-significant 0.2 The Distribution Platform Introduction 25 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics Since the hypothesized mean is 20%. the t-test is two tailed. Figure 2. To produce a Normal Quantile Plot. Also. Although there are usually more important things to worry about than the exact normality of the data. since the percentage could be higher or lower than 20%. Figure 2. a z-test would be performed. JMP Student Edition provides a quick way of assessing normality through the Normal Quantile Plot. This tells JMP Student Edition to compute a t-test of the mean. Therefore. Type 20 in the entry field for Specify Hypothesized Mean. so leave the other entry field blank. The results of the test are appended to the Distribution report. If the standard deviation had been known and entered. The online help contains further information on these topics. Complete details of the Normal Quantile Plot are in the section “Normal Quantile Plots. Select Normal Quantile Plot from the drop-down list next to one of the variable’s name. This is a nonparametric test that is not usually covered in an introductory course. In this case. Click OK.

26 2 The Distribution Platform Introduction Scroll down the report to see that this command only added a Normal Quantile Plot for one variable in the report. in fact. then performing a goodness-of-fit test. Make sure the original Denim data table is the front window. Testing Probabilities Another question that could be asked about this data is whether the three levels of Thread Wear occur with equal frequency. . Many times. Normal. using the Control (Windows) or (Macintosh) key. If not. This shortcut works for most commands in drop-down menus. You can also test for Normality by fitting a Normal distribution. JMP Student Edition therefore provides a way to “broadcast” a command throughout a report. When the report appears. Hold down the Control (Windows) or (Macintosh) key and again select Normal Quantile Plot from the drop-down list next to the variable’s name. Small p-values indicate a non-normal distribution. a distribution of the Thread Wear variable is necessary. Select Fit Distribution > Normal from the platform drop-down list. To test this assumption. This produces a report showing the parameters of the distribution. select Window > Denim. a command needs to be sent to all the variables in the report.jmp. a Normal Quantile plot is appended to every histogram. yet it is tedious to select the same command many times. along with a goodness-of-fit statistic testing the null hypothesis that the distribution is. This time. select Goodness of Fit from the fitted distribution report.

in Figure 2. A screen shot of the addition appears later in this chapter. An addition to the report appears. Figure 2. Make sure Fix omitted at estimated values. rescale hypothesis is selected. After the histogram appears. Enter 1 into each Hypoth Prob entry field in the Test Probabilities section of the report.16 on page 36. Click Done.6 Test Probabilities Results .2 The Distribution Platform Introduction 27 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics Request a Distribution of Thread Wear (not Thread Wear Measured). JMP Student Edition automatically scales the numbers entered into the entry fields so that they sum to one. This allows an easy way to test for equal probabilities—simply enter 1 in each entry field. select Test Probabilities from the drop-down list next to Thread Wear in the title bar of the histogram.

To add comments to any JMP Student Edition output.8. Click somewhere outside the annotation box.3333” in the blank space to the right of the Test Probabilities table. . Select Tag Line. there may be some annotation necessary.001). you may wish to annotate the tested probabilities from above to state that the results of the test were significant. shown to the right. Click and drag the corner to resize the annotation. Click and drag inside the annotation box to reposition it with the tag line anchored. For example. Figure 2. Control-click (Windows) or together. Right-click in the yellow annotation to bring up a formatting menu. The initial click point is used in the Tag Line option below.7 The Annotate Tool Annotate Tool Select the Annotate tool. Move the mouse over the lower right corner until the cursor turns into a double arrow. or to turn in as a homework assignment). Click next to the top “0.28 2 The Distribution Platform Introduction The results of the test are listed in the column labeled Prob>Chisq.7.8 Final Annotation -click (Macintosh) and drag to move the annotation and tag line The final annotation is shown in Figure 2. use the Annotate tool from the Tools toolbar. Type “These results are highly significant” in the box that appears. Annotating Results If these results are to be cut and pasted into a word processing program (for a lab report. as shown in Figure 2. so it is safe to say that the three levels occur with different probabilities. This test shows some highly significant results (p<0. Figure 2. The annotation turns yellow.

temperature measurements are often on a continuous scale. the variable Size of Load is a continuous variable. Method is a nominal variable in the Denim.461 years. There is no order in the scale.9 Distribution Graphs Histograms Outlier Box Plot • Categorical variables show a histogram.jmp. Variables can have one of three modeling types: • Continuous variables are numeric and measured on a continuous scale. but appends other graphs based on variable types. yet it is obvious that some ages are older than others. . Figure 2. limited only by the exactness of the measuring instrument. Ordinal and Nominal variables are often referred to collectively as categorical variables. • Nominal variables simply name data. There is an implicit order in the measuring scale. “moderate”. for example. but are instead combined within their respective reports as a single graphic. The modeling type of a variable determines what analyses JMP Student Edition performs. The Modeling Type of Variables JMP Student Edition bases its reports on the modeling type of the variables it analyzes. In the Denim. For example.jmp data set. • Ordinal variables are measured on a discrete scale. the age of people is often recorded on an ordinal scale — seldom do people report their age as 24. choose Edit > Paste Special and choose one of the graphic formats. are represented as a nominal variable in JMP Student Edition. is an ordinal variable.jmp data set. People’s names. To paste a report with annotations into another document. For example. and “severe”. Identical platforms often result in different reports and graphs because the variables analyzed were of differing types. although the data are not necessarily numerical.2 The Distribution Platform The Modeling Type of Variables 29 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics Annotations are not preserved in standard (RTF) cut and paste. Thread Wear. with values “low”. In the example data set Denim. The Distribution platform shows exactly this behavior. It produces histograms in any case.

10) shows the options available for continuous variables. 31. standard error of the mean. and quantiles. variance.30 2 The Distribution Platform Continuous Variable Graphs and Reports • Continuous variables have an outlier box plot. such as the mean. The popup menu for continuous variables (Figure 2. constructed to show possible outliers in continuous variables. number of data points. This table displays the mean. . Continuous Variable Graphs and Reports Initially. and data set size. upper and lower 95% confidence limits for the mean. Histogram Options The Histogram Options menu contains the following items: • Histogram shows or hides the histogram.” p. • Horizontal Layout arranges text reports to the right of their corresponding graphs and shows the histogram as a horizontal bar chart. • Moments shows or hides the Moments table. Selecting this option again returns the report to a vertical layout. Outlier plots are discussed in the section “Outlier Box Plot. and the coefficient of variation. confidence interval on the mean. standard deviation. Figure 2.10 Continuous Variable Popup Menu Display Options The Display Options menu contains the following items: • Quantiles shows or hides the Quantiles table. The text reports for continuous variables summarize typical univariate statistics. standard deviation. skewness. kurtosis. JMP Student Edition produces graphs and text reports to give information from the analysis. • More Moments adds to the Moments table the variable’s sum.

• The Density Axis is the length of the bars in the histogram. extending from both ends of the box. relatively easy. the data are approximately normal. the Count and Prob axes change. If the data fall within these confidence bounds. The difference between the quartiles is the interquartile range. sometimes called outliers. or q-q plot. also called the quartiles. The ends of the box are the 25th and 75th quantiles.2 The Distribution Platform Continuous Variable Graphs and Reports 31 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics • Std Err Bars draws the standard error bar on each level of the histogram. The Normal Quantile plot also shows confidence bounds. If a variable is normal.5×(interquartile range). The dashed lines in the outlier box plot are sometimes called whiskers. Normal Quantile Plots The Normal Quantile Plot option adds a graph to the report that is used to visualize the extent to which the variable is normally distributed. Outlier Box Plot The Outlier Box Plot is a schematic that shows the dispersion of a variable. and the means diamond indicates the sample mean and 95% confidence interval. This makes the identification of points with extreme values.5×(interquartile range) or below the lower quartile – 1. The line across the middle of the box identifies the median sample value. The standard error bar automatically adjusts to reflect the histogram’s bar widths and positions when you change them using the hand tool. Any combination of these axes can be added to categorical or continuous histograms. This kind of plot is sometimes also called a quantile-quantile plot. . Outliers are often identified as points that fall above the upper quartile + 1. The whiskers extend to the outermost data point that falls within the distances computed for judging outliers. • Prob Axis adds an axis that shows the proportion of each value represented by histogram bars. • Count Axis adds an axis that shows the frequency of each value represented by the histogram bars. As the length of the bars is changed with the hand tool. the normal quantile plot is approximately a diagonal straight line. but the Density axis remains constant.

This is useful when determining the shape of underlying distributions. the Quantile Box Plot is useful for seeing normality in a graphical way. Stem and Leaf Plots The Stem and Leaf command constructs a plot that is essentially a variation on the histogram. . in that they highlight corresponding data points in the data table when they are selected in the plot. the quantiles are approximately equidistant from each other. half the data are below the 50th percentile (median).11. If a distribution is normal. Values are reconstructed by using the legend at the bottom of the plot. Like the Normal Quantile Plot. Quantiles are values that divide a distribution into two groups — where the pth quantile is larger than p% of the values. For example. Figure 2. if the quantile marks are grouped closely at one end. Quantile Box Plots The Quantile Box Plot command shows additional quantiles (sometimes called percentiles) on the axis of the histogram. if one exists). the distribution is skewed toward the end with more spacing. It was developed for tallying data in the days when computer printouts were neither graphical nor easy to produce. For example. They remain useful because they show the actual data at the same time as the shape of the data. In the example pictured in Figure 2.11 Stem and Leaf Plot Stem and leaf plots have similar interactive capabilities to JMP Student Edition’s graphics plots. the smallest length that contains 50% of the data.32 2 The Distribution Platform Continuous Variable Graphs and Reports The red bracket along the edge of the box identifies the shortest half. Note that the quantile box plot is not the same as the outlier box plot from page 31. the third line of the table reveals that there are data points with values 40 and 41. The leaf values are made from the remaining digits of the values. but have greater spacing at the other end (as in this picture). The data values can be reconstructed by joining the stem and leaf (and multiplying by the scale factor. Each line of the plot has a stem value that is the leading digit of a range of column values.

Lognormal. Consult a statistics text for a definition of a density function.2 The Distribution Platform Continuous Variable Graphs and Reports 33 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics CDF Plot The CDF Plot command plots a cumulative distribution function step plot using the observed data (with weights or frequencies if specified). including a Goodness of Fit test. . you can select among several options. A CDF plot (Figure 2. Figure 2. Weibull) to the data.12) estimates the area under the density curve up to each data point. After fitting.12 CDF Plot for Size of Load Fit Distribution The Fit Distribution menu allows you to fit certain distributions (Normal.

Figure 2. The standard error of these probabilities (StdErr Prob) and the cumulative probabilities (Cum Prob) for the data are also computed.15) work the same as those for continuous variables (see “Continuous Variable Graphs and Reports.15 Drop-down Menu for Categorical Variables Statistical Tests JMP Student Edition contains numerous statistical tests for single variables. To see them.13). the count (sometimes called the frequency) of each level. and the probability associated with each variable. but are not initially shown in the results table.34 2 The Distribution Platform Categorical Variable Graphs and Reports Categorical Variable Graphs and Reports The only text report that appears by default in categorical distribution reports is a frequencies table (Figure 2. Select the column to be shown or hidden.) Figure 2.14) Select Columns to reveal a popup menu of all possible columns for the table. Tables that are currently shown have a check mark beside them.” p.13 Frequencies Table This table lists the levels of a categorical variable. 30.14 Table Popup Menu The options listed in the drop-down menu for categorical variables (Figure 2. Figure 2. Right-click on the table to bring up a popup menu (Figure 2. This probability is simply the ratio of each level’s count to the total count. including: .

If a value is entered for the standard deviation. This is the p-value for observed significance of a one-tailed t-test.2 The Distribution Platform Statistical Tests 35 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics • a test of the mean of a continuous variable • a test of the standard deviation of a continuous variable • a test of the probabilities of a categorical variable These tests are all accessed through the popup menu next to the variable’s name at the top of the report. Use the Test Mean command repeatedly to test different values. This is the p-value for observed significance of the two-tailed t-test. Testing a Mean The Test Mean command prompts for a test value to compare to the sample mean. the Test Mean table is appended to the bottom of the reports for that variable. The test assumes nothing about the normality of the distribution. This is the p-value for observed significance of a one-tailed t-test. only that it is symmetric. • Prob > t is the probability of obtaining a t value greater than the computed sample t ratio by chance alone when the sample mean is not the hypothesized value. The value of this probability is 1 – Prob>t. Otherwise. • Prob < t is the probability of obtaining a t value less than the computed sample t ratio by chance alone when the sample mean is not the hypothesized value. The Test Std Dev command can be used repeatedly to test different values. Each time the mean is tested. Each time a standard deviation is tested. After clicking OK. After clicking OK. and the probabilities associated with that Chi Square value: . a z-test is computed. The Test Mean command calculates and displays the following statistics: • t Test (or z test) lists the value of the test statistic and the p-values for the two-sided and one-sided alternatives. The test assumes the distribution is normal. a new Test Mean table is appended to the text report. the Test Standard Deviation table is appended to the bottom of the reports for that variable. The probability values given in the Test Mean table are defined: • Prob > |t| is the probability of obtaining a greater absolute t value by chance alone when the sample mean is not different from the hypothesized value. The value of this probability is half of Prob > |t|. Testing a Standard Deviation The Test Std Dev command requests a test value for statistical comparison to the sample standard deviation. the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test can be requested. Optionally. a new table is appended to the text report. • Signed-Rank lists the value of the Wilcoxon signed-rank statistic followed by the p-values for the two-sided and one-sided alternatives. The Test Standard Deviation table shows the computed Chi Square statistic that tests whether the hypothesized standard deviation is the same as the computed sample standard deviation. the sample standard deviation is used to compute a t-statistic.

The Likelihood Ratio and Pearson Chi Square tests are calculated for those probabilities.16. Therefore. confidence intervals for a mean are automatically displayed in the Moments table (Figure 2.16 Test Probabilities Test Probabilities can scale the hypothesized values so that the probabilities sum to one. .36 2 The Distribution Platform Confidence Intervals • Prob>|ChiSq| is the probability of obtaining a greater absolute Chi Square value by chance alone when the sample standard deviation is not different from the hypothesized value. Confidence Intervals For continuous variables. This is the p-value for observed significance of a one-tailed t-test. where hypothesized probabilities are entered. Figure 2. • Prob<ChiSq is the probability of obtaining a Chi Square value less than the computed sample Chi Square by chance alone when the sample standard deviation is not the hypothesized value. leave the levels that are not involved blank. JMP Student Edition substitutes estimated probabilities for those left blank. This is the p-value for observed significance of the two-tailed t-test.17). • Prob>ChiSq is the probability of obtaining a Chi Square value greater than the computed sample Chi Square by chance alone when the sample standard deviation is not the hypothesized value. the easiest way to test that all the probabilities are equal is to enter a one in each field. The radio buttons on the dialog allow a choice between rescaling hypothesized values to sum to one or using the entered value without rescaling. Testing Categorical Probabilities The Test Probabilities option displays the dialog shown in Figure 2. This is the p-value for observed significance of a one-tailed t-test. To test a subset of the probabilities.

0. This enables the same statistic to be saved multiple times under different circumstances. use the Save menu commands. A dialog box appears that lets you specify which confidence interval to display.18 Confidence Intervals for Continuous Variables To obtain the equivalent table for categorical variables. select Confidence Interval > Other and enter the desired level.19 Confidence Intervals for Categorical Variables Saving Information To save information computed from continuous response variables. such as before and after combining histogram bars. To obtain a confidence interval alpha that is not listed on the Confidence Interval menu.95. An example is shown in Figure 2. Select Confidence Interval from the popup menu next to the variable name in the title bar. Select the desired level to see. Figure 2. Figure 2. If the Save com- . for example.19.2 The Distribution Platform Saving Information 37 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics Figure 2. select Confidence Interval > 0.95.17 The Moments Table for Continuous Variables To calculate confidence intervals for a specific value of α. The Save commands can be used repeatedly. Each command generates a new column in the current data table named by appending the response column name (denoted colname in the following definitions) to the saved statistic’s name.

The level number of each observation corresponds to the histogram bar that contains the observation. and so forth.38 2 The Distribution Platform Whole-Platform Options mand is used multiple times. If a value is unique. you can edit it. they are assigned consecutive ranks in order of their occurrence in the spreadsheet. • Script lets you rerun or save the JSL script that produced the platform results. The Save menu contains the following commands: • Level Numbers creates a new column. This column is similar to the empirical cumulative distribution function. called Std colname. • Level Midpoints creates a new column. the column name for the statistic is named colname1. colname2. beginning with 1. These normal scores are Van Der Waerden approximations to the expected order statistics for the normal distribution. This option applies to reports for all response variables when selected. • Ranks averaged creates a new column. • Ranks creates a new column called Ranked colname that contains a ranking for each of the corresponding column’s values. If the script is saved to a file. • Stack lets you orient all the output in the report window as either portrait or landscape. its average rank is computed as the sum of its value’s ranks divided by k. called Midpoint colname. If a value occurs k times. its averaged rank is the same as the rank. • Normal Quantiles creates a new column. . called Level colname. The whole-platform options for the Distribution platform include the following: • Uniform Scaling scales all axes with the same minimum. if it is saved with the current data table. and intervals so that the distributions are easily compared. the probability score of a value is computed as the averaged rank of that value divided by N+1. This contains the original column’s standardized values (each value in the column has had the column mean subtracted. The midpoint value for each observation is computed by adding half its level width to its lower level bound. The JSL generated by Save Script for All Objects is the same as Save Script to Script Window if there are no By-Groups. Whole-Platform Options Each statistical platform has a popup menu in the outermost outline level next to the platform name. If there are duplicates in the column. starting at 1. maximum. • Standardized creates a new column. it is available to run the next time you open the table. The histogram bars are numbered from low to high. When there are By-Groups the script includes JSL Where clauses that identify the By-Group levels. called N-Quantile colname. • Prob Scores creates a new column. to create unique column names. Options and commands in this menu affect all text reports and graphs on the platform. called RankAvgd colname. which is then divided by the column standard deviation). called Prob colname. For N non-missing scores.

grouped by a column or a fixed sample size. the process standard deviation. and Target. Only those fields you enter are part of the resulting Capability Analysis table.20 The Script Menu • Data Table Window gives a view of the underlying data table. you can enter a known value for sigma. These options for sigma can be explained as: • Long-term uses the overall sigma.2 The Distribution Platform Capability Analysis 39 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics Figure 2. This is the option used for Ppk statistics. The Dialog box shown in Figure 2. After requesting a Distribution. select Capability Analysis from the popup menu on the outline bar for the variable of interest. allowing specification of long-term or one or more short-term sigmas.21 Capability Analysis Dialog Box All capability analyses use the same formulas. A dialog prompts you for Lower Spec Limit. The difference between the options lies in how sigma is computed. which is especially useful when there are By-Groups. Upper Spec Limit. and has sigma computed as .21 appears. You only have to enter one of the three values. The capability study measures the conformance of a process to given specification limits. Capability Analysis The Capability Analysis option gives a capability analysis for quality control applications. Optionally. Capability Analyses can calculate capability indices using several different short-term estimates for σ. Figure 2.

Grouped by Column brings up a column list dialog from which you choose the grouping column. In this case. . 2 i=1 ----------------------------------n–r–1 (Note that this is the same formula for Short Term. You can remove and redo a Capability Analysis as many times as you want. When you save the specification limits. sigma is computed as n ∑ σ = ( x ij – x ) i.40 2 The Distribution Platform Capability Analysis n σ = ∑ i=1 • Specified Sigma allows the user to enter a specific. 2 i=1 ----------------------------------n–r–1 • Short Term. • Short Term. user-specified and is therefore not computed. obviously. To do this.22. where the sigma used in the chart is entered (in the dialog) as the specified sigma. choose Spec Limits from the Save command menu. In this case. Grouped by fixed subgroup size and is commonly referred to as the Root Mean Square Error or RMSE. the platform appends a Capability Analysis table. like the one in Figure 2. The specification limits can be stored and automatically retrieved as a column property. at the bottom of the text reports. Grouped by fixed subgroup size computes σ using the following formula. they appear on the histogram when opened at a later time. with r equal to the number of subgroups.) Note: There is a preference for Distribution called Ppk Capability Labeling that will label the long-term capability output with Ppk labels. known sigma used for computing capability ( xi – x ) ------------------n–1 2 analyses. This option is found using File > Preferences. sigma is computed as n ∑ σ = ( x ij – x ) i. Sigma is. When you click OK. if r is the number of subgroups and each ith subgroup is defined by the order of the data. This is the option used for control chart-generated capability analyses.

000. and Spec Target. Table 2. The above and below columns do not sum to the total column because Sigma Quality uses values from the Normal distribution. their values. • The Value column lists the values you specified for each limit and the target • %Actual is the observed percent of data falling outside the specification limits. This Sigma Quality measurement is frequently used in Six Sigma methods.22 The Capability Analysis Table The Capability Analysis table is organized into two parts. Table 2. 41. and is also referred to as the process sigma.The PPM column (parts per million) is the Percent column multiplied by 10.5 -----------------------------------------------⎠ ⎝ n For example.000 observations. It also lists the percent and PPM for areas outside the spec limits. They are Lower Spec Limit. describes these indices and gives computational formulas. the formula yields 6. The upper part of the table shows these quantities: • The Specification column lists the names of items for which values are shown. Upper Spec Limit.1 “Capability Index Names and Computations.” p.2 The Distribution Platform Capability Analysis 41 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics Figure 2. Cp (USL – LSL)/6s where USL is the upper spec limit LSL is the lower spec limit . The lower portion of the Capability Analysis table lists five basic process capability indexes.03 Sigma process.000. if there are 3 defects in n=1. Sigma Quality = Normal Quantile ⎛ 1 – Expected ( # defects )⎞ + 1.03. and their upper and lower Confidence Intervals. or a 6.1 Capability Index Names and Computations Index Index Name Computation CP process capability ratio. and is therefore not additive.

.-------------------. n – 1 - CPK (PPK for AIAG) CIs for CPK process capability index.exp ⎛ ⎛ – c -⎞ – 2c ( 1 – 2Φ ( – c ) )⎞ ⎞ ------⎝ ⎝⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠⎠ π 2 2 Lower CI Upper CI ˆ ˆ E ⎛ C pk⎞ – k Var ( C pk ) ⎝ ⎠ ˆ ˆ E ⎛ C pk⎞ + k Var ( C pk ) ⎝ ⎠ .1 Capability Index Names and Computations CIs for Lower CI 2 χ1 – α CP on CP w CP --------------------------n–1 ------------. Then the expected value is n–2 Γ ⎛ -----------⎞ 2 1 n – 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎛ 2 -.42 2 The Distribution Platform Capability Analysis Table 2.d n – 2 -.⎠ ⎝ 2 c = -----------------------------------------------σ denote the noncentrality parameter and d = USL – LSL ------------------------σ represent the specification limit in σ units.--------------. n – 1 (continued) Upper CI on CP χ1 – (1 – α) 2 w ---------------------------------------n–1 ------------------------.exp ⎛ ⎛ – c -⎞ – 2c ( 1 – 2Φ ( – c ) )⎞ ⎞ ------⎝⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠⎠ 6 2n ⎛ n – 1⎞ ⎝ π Γ ----------⎝ 2 ⎠ Variance Var ⎛ C pk⎞ ⎝ ⎠ Using c and d from above.⎛ n – 1⎞ – --------. the variance is d .exp ⎛ -------⎞ + c ( 1 – 2Φ ( – c ) ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ π 2 n–2 2 Γ ⎛ -----------⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 1 ------------------n–1 n – 1⎞ -------------------⎛ -----------+ (1 + c ) – ⎝ 9 n(n – 3) 72n ⎠ ⎛ n – 1⎞ Γ ----------⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎛ d n – 2 -. Cpk Expected Let Value ˆ E ⎛ C pk⎞ ⎝ ⎠ min(CPL.⎛ n – 1⎞ 36 ⎝ n – 3⎠ 9 n ⎝ n – 3⎠ 2 –c 2 -. CPU) n ⎛ µ – USL + LSL⎞ ------------------------.----------.----------d .

USL – target ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------capability 2 2 3 s + ( mean – target ) index. who point out that the 100(1 – α) lower confidence limit for CPL (denoted by CPLLCL) satisfies the equation Pr { T n – 1 ( δ = 3 n )CPLLCL ≤ 3CPL n } = 1 – α where Tn–1(δ) has a non-central t-distribution with n – 1 degrees of freedom and noncentrality parameter δ. Exact 100(1 – α)% lower and upper confidence limits for CPU are also computed using a generalization of the method of Chou et al. (1990). Z statistics are reported..2 The Distribution Platform Capability Analysis 43 2 Distribution: Single-Variable Statistics Table 2. a capability index of 1. At the bottom of the report.mean)/3s capability ratio of one-sided upper specification In Japan. For a normal distribution. Exact 100(1 – α)% lower and upper confidence limits for CPL are computed using a generalization of the method of Chou et al. this gives an expected number of nonconforming units of about 6 per 100. γ - CPL CPU process (mean – LSL)/3s where s is the estimated standard deviation capability ratio case of one-sided lower specification process (USL .1 Capability Index Names and Computations (continued) CPM process min ( target – LSL. Z represents (according to the AIAG Statistical Process Control manual) the number of standard deviation units from the process average to a value of .000. γ 2 CPM -------------------γ 2 Upper CI on CPM χ1 – (1 – α) 2 CPM -------------------------------γ ------------------------.33 is considered to be the minimum acceptable. who point out that the 100(1 – α) lower confidence limit for CPU (denoted CPULCL) satisfies the equation Pr { T n – 1 ( δ = 3 n ) ( CPULCL ≥ 3CPL n ) } = 1 – α where Tn–1(δ) has a non-central t-distribution with n – 1 degrees of freedom and noncentrality parameter δ. Cpm CIs for Lower CI 2 χ1 – α CPM on CPM ------------. (1990).

When used in capability assessment. Z USL is the distance to the upper specification limit and Z LSL is the distance to the lower specification limit. described in the next section. Z USL = (USL-Xbar)/sigma = 3 * CPU Z LSL = (Xbar-LSL)/sigma = 3 * CPL Z Bench = Inverse Cumulative Prob(1 .Cum Prob(Z LSL) P(USL) = Prob(X > USL) = 1 .44 2 The Distribution Platform Capability Analysis interest such as an engineering specification.Cum Prob(Z USL) Note: You can also do a non-normal capability analysis through Fit Distribution options. After you fit a distribution.P(LSL) . . you have the option to generate quantiles and a target value for the fitted distribution. a capability analysis is automatically generated by using the quantile values and target you specified.P(USL)) where P(LSL) = Prob(X < LSL) = 1 . If you give a target value.

Introduction After starting JMP Student Edition. Details about this data are found in Chapter 2. and contingency table analysis—most of the two-variable analyses seen in an introductory statistics course.1 Fit Y By X Launch Dialog Notice the word “Contextual” in the title bar. scatterplots.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Any time two variables need to be compared. Open the data file Denim. Launching the Platform In this introduction section. This brings up the Fit Y By X platform launch dialog as seen in Figure 3. More . This single platform produces one way ANOVA. the Fit Y by X platform is the choice to make. Select Analyze > Fit Y By X from the menu bar. 21. the variables are examined in pairs. It is there because this dialog launches other platforms depending on the modeling types (continuous or categorical) of the variables in the analysis.jmp.” p.1 Figure 3. “The Distribution Platform” in the section “About the Data.

To select all three X variables.3 t-test Results Some things should be noticed about this report. Click OK. 29. Computing a t-test As a simple example. Figure 3. Factor button. Figure 3.” p. Method.46 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction information on modeling types is found in “The Modeling Type of Variables. JMP Student Edition produces a scatterplot of two continuous variables. Note that these dialog boxes respond to dragging as well as button clicks. with Starch Content (%) as the Y variable in all of them. a situation leading to fitting lines and curves. Three plots appear as in Figure 3. Response button. hold down the Shift key. click on Method. Size of Load (lbs).2. and Sand Blasted? are the X variables. Is the starch content different for the two levels of Sand Blasted? This is a typical situation examined with a two-sample t-test. this example consists of three analyses. Select t test from the drop-down menu in the plot’s title bar. These analyses would be equally valid if performed separately. The t-test report appears in the outline beneath the plot labeled t test. relating starch content to whether the fabric was sand blasted or not. . dot plots of each level of a nominal variable are plotted side by side. To conduct the t-test. a situation leading to one-way ANOVAs. Select Starch Content (%) from the list of columns and click the Y. Initially.2 Fit Y by X Results On the far left and far right. In the middle plot. then click Sand Blasted?. as in the next step. All three analyses are requested at the same time to illustrate some of JMP Student Edition’s interactive capabilities. Drag these highlighted variables to the box to the right of the X. examine the plot on the far right.

JMP Student Edition has tested the same hypothesis twice. Denim washed with Alpha Amalyze appears to have a lower starch content than denim washed with . Select the Means/Anova/Pooled t command from the report’s drop-down menu. with two different methods. not a matched pairs t-test. In essence. Here.” p. Notice that this is the same value as listed in the new Analysis of Variance report in the column labeled Prob>F. In fact. use the Matched Pairs platform. the square of the t statistic (listed under t-Test) is equal to the value of the F statistic (listed in the ANOVA table as F Ratio).3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction 47 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables • There is a statement on the second line of the t-test report that says “Assuming unequal variances”.” p. All of these are discussed later in this tutorial in “Analysis of Variance (anova). This test is also known as the unpooled t-test. Method. and other text tables. the before-and-after measurements of a patient taking an experimental medication).2. 71 in the “The Matched Pairs Platform” chapter. examine the plot on the left side in the report in Figure 3. Pooled t test Now. and both methods agree (as they always should!). select Means/Anova/t test to remove the pooled t report. From the drop-down menu in the Oneway Analysis title bar. note that the p-value for the unpooled t-test is listed beside Prob>|t| in the original t test report. • This is a two sample t-test. 50. Details on matched pairs are found in “The Matched Pairs Platform. If you want the pooled version (where the variances are assumed to be equal). If the data from the two groups have a natural pairing (for example. select the Means/Anova/Pooled t command. of Starch Content (%) vs. • The plot gets embellished with means diamonds.

Text reports appear below the plot. From the drop-down menu in the Oneway Analysis title bar. These additions can also be removed. The “captured” points become selected. 61. Select the Lasso tool from the Tools toolbar.” p. Box plots are superimposed on the plot. standard deviation.48 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction Caustic Soda or Pumice Stone. examining the mean. and quantiles for the three levels of the Method variable.4 Lasso Tool Lasso Tool The Lasso tool is used to draw curves around points. select Means and Std Dev. For more specificity. Figure 3. mean error bars and standard deviation lines appear on the plot. giving clues to the underlying distribution of each level. . From the same drop-down menu. it is helpful to look at text reports of these results. see the section titled “Quantile Box Plots.” p. Selecting and Marking Points This plot is not only useful for computing results. which are produced as follows. 32. select Quantiles and Means and Std Dev again. or the online help.4. For details on box plots. select Quantiles. median. and box plots are superimposed on the plot. but also for selecting results in other plots. Details on these additions are found in “One Way anova—The Continuous by Categorical Case. as shown in Figure 3. In addition to the new text reports. In the same drop-down menu.

5. and Make Window with Legend checkboxes are checked. and in the data table. The Alpha Amalyze points change to the triangle in all the plots. drag the Lasso tool completely around the points for Alpha Amalyze. there is an easier way to change the colors and markers of points in a plot if there is a certain column that divides up the data. Release the mouse button. To make these points distinctive. . The Lasso tool works with all plots that show individual points. select Color or Mark by Column. like scatterplots and leverage plots. In the resulting dialog box. Figure 3. In fact. With the points selected. From the Rows menu. and choose a red color from the color palette. Unique colors and markers are assigned to each level of the Method variable in all the plots. right-click inside the plot.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction 49 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables While holding down the mouse button. select Row Colors from the popup menu. Notice that these points are highlighted in all the plots. Select the small triangle from the markers palette. The Alpha Amalyze points turn red in all the plots. suppose that plots are needed that clearly distinguish the three levels of the Method variable. Again. right-click inside the plot and select Row Markers. assign them a unique color and marker. as shown in Figure 3.5 Selecting Points with the Lasso Tool JMP Student Edition briefly flashes how many points are contained in the selection region (32 in this case) and selects the points. For example. Make sure that the Set Color by Value. To mark all the data at once. Set Marker by Value. select Method from the list of variables.

Overlap marks are drawn above and below the group mean. they show differences among levels of a variable. overlapping overlap marks indicate that the two group means are not significantly different at the 95% confidence level. A means diamond illustrates a sample mean and its 95% confidence interval. The vertical span of each diamond represents the 95% confidence interval for each group.6. Select Compare Means > Each Pair. In other words. corresponding to Alpha Amalyze. Click on the bottom comparison circle. For groups with equal sample sizes. JMP Student Edition uses comparison circles to explore this. at least one level of the Method variable has a significantly higher or lower starch content than the others. as shown by the schematic in Figure 3.50 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Is knowledge of the wash method useful in predicting starch content of the denim? The statistical test to answer this question is called a one-way ANOVA. Comparison Circles To show comparison circles. levels that are not significantly different from it turn red. so is not available on the menu.6 Means Diamonds Illustrated Group Mean Overlap Marks 95% CI Examining the ANOVA table shows that Method is a highly significant predictor of starch content. and is produced in the same way as the t-test above. Student’s t Complete details of comparison circles are on page 63. and are clickable. and means diamonds appear on the plot. The horizontal line across each diamond represents the group mean. it turns red. In all other cases (like this one). Note that his command reads Means/Anova/t test when the categorical variable only has two levels. Put simply. Figure 3. . An ANOVA table appears beneath the plots. the t test is not appropriate. and levels that are significantly different from it turn gray. The obvious question is which levels are different from each other. Select Means/Anova from the drop-down menu next to Oneway Analysis. When a circle is clicked. To see this.

Select Fit Mean from the drop-down list in the title bar of the plot. To see this mean. From the popup menu in the Oneway title bar.2 is of two continuous variables. Click on the other two circles to discover their relationships. select Set α Level > . This shows that Alpha Amalyze is significantly different from the other two wash methods.7 Starch Content Comparison Circles The display changes to the one shown in Figure 3.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction 51 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables Figure 3. Figure 3.7.8 Fit Mean Results Platform Menu Fit Menu . By default. Notice that Fit Mean below the plot has its own drop-down menu. However. a situation that allows fitting of lines and curves through least-squares regression. which is itself based on the α level. A line representing the mean appears on the plot. and Fit Mean appears in a legend below the plot. These comparison circles are based on the confidence interval around the mean. Notice that the comparison circles change diameter when the α-level changes.10. as shown in Figure 3.8. For example. A good guess may simply be the mean starch content from all the data points. suppose you want to predict starch content based on the size of the wash load. it can be changed. the α-level is 5%. Fitting Lines The middle plot of the report in Figure 3.

A line is superimposed on the graph. are found in the Linear Fit report.0045. . the p-value is 0. Figure 3. To fit a regression line to this data. It is statistically sound to use the fitted line in predictions. reinforcing the graphical results above. Therefore. as well as several computed statistics. If these confidence intervals do not contain the horizontal mean. JMP Student Edition can draw confidence intervals for the fit around the fitted line. Values of the slope and intercept are also printed in the Parameter Estimates section of the report. then the fitted line is helpful. One is the p-value associated with the slope of the line.9. As seen in Figure 3.9 Fit Line Results There is also an option to produce shaded confidence curves. Select Fit Line from the platform menu in the plot’s title bar. there are numerical measures of the significance. the dotted confidence interval around the linear fit does not contain the mean.52 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction A more interesting statistical question is whether a line or a curve is a better predictor of starch content than this simple mean. significant by almost any standard. also found in the Parameter Estimates report. Select Confid Curves Fit from the Linear Fit menu in the legend below the plot. The equation of the line. using the Confid Shaded Fit command. In this case. This line should be compared with the simple mean to see if it is helpful in prediction. Aside from the graphical confidence-curve method detailed above. To do this comparison. the linear fit is statistically significant.

.10).95 from the platform menu on the plot’s title bar. Of course. Another interesting question is whether a single line (like this model) is enough to describe starch content for all wash methods. frequently denoted by r. so residuals commands are found in the fit menus in the legends below the plots. although the square of its value (r2) is listed beside RSquare in the Summary of Fit text report. there are different residuals for each fit.10 The Disclosure Icon Click here. . To see residuals for the linear fit.to reveal this report The correlation coefficient is listed under the word Correlation. All (good) introductory statistics textbooks discuss interpretation of residuals.. Residuals One of the best diagnostic tools for a linear fit is its residuals. be near zero). but can be opened by clicking on the blue disclosure icon (Figure 3. request a density ellipse. A new report named Correlation appears at the bottom of the text reports. Its value does not appear on any of the reports so far.. Select Plot Residuals from the fit popup menu in the legend below the plot.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction 53 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables Correlation Coefficient Another measure of fit is the correlation coefficient. select Remove Fit from the fit popup menu.0045) is the same as that listed for the slope coefficient in the Parameter Estimates table. However. Disclosure Icon Figure 3. ideally. The red horizontal line on the plot shows the mean of the residuals (which should. In other . It is interesting to note that its significance (p=0. which is not duplicated here. Select Density Ellipse > . A plot of the residuals appears at the bottom of the report. For each of the fits below the plot. To compute the value of r itself. or if a different line is needed for each level of the Method variable. Figure 3.. so before continuing. and the same as the Prob>F value in the Analysis of Variance table. It is initially closed. the first step in interpretation of residuals is to see them plotted.11 Residual Plot The plot is getting cluttered. remove the fits that are there now.

Since both variables are categorical.12. Response role. instruct JMP Student Edition to group its calculations for each level of the Method variable. Two-Way Contingency Tables In the next example. Select Fit Line from the Platform popup menu on the title bar above the plot. select Method as the grouping variable. Figure 3. Assign Thread Wear (not Thread Wear Measured) to the Y. Factor role.12 Group By and Linear Fits The statistical question is whether these lines are different enough to warrant the extra trouble in reporting all three. some initial investigation is easy with this platform. Separate lines for each wash method appear on the plot. is starch content related to load size in the same way when washed in Alpha Amalyze as when washed in Caustic Soda or Pumice Stone? Although this question is more in the realm of the Fit Model platform (detailed in “The Fit Model Platform” chapter). followed by a contingency table. From the platform menu on the plot’s title bar. Assign Method to the X. The analysis uses contingency tables—orderly ways of arranging count data. In the resulting dialog box. both X and Y are categorical variables. First. Now. Select Analyze > Fit Y by X from the menu bar. like all plots in JMP Student Edition. For example. Click OK. as shown in Figure 3. request JMP Student Edition to fit a line as before. To generate a contingency table for this problem. The question is whether the method of washing denim has an effect on thread count. instead of the more compact (but possibly less accurate) reporting of the single line found previously.54 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction words. Note that the mosaic plot is clickable. a mosaic plot appears. to select all rows washed in Alpha Amalyze with a low thread wear. 66. red section in the mosaic plot in the bar above Alpha Amalyze (see Figure 3.13) .” p. Details of these displays are in the section “Contingency Analysis—The Categorical by Categorical Case. select Group By. Click in the lower.

There is a distinction between nominal and ordinal responses on this platform: • Nominal logistic regression estimates a set of curves to partition the attributed probability among the responses. which in this case is the non-significant 0. • Ordinal logistic regression models the probability of being less than or equal to a given response. and is recommended for ordered responses. There is not enough evidence to say that these two variables are not independent—in other words. As an example. The report that appears shows the probability that the thread wear is low. . This model is less general but more parsimonious.13 Mosaic Plot Click in this area to select Alpha Amalyze-washed jeans with low thread wear Just below the contingency plot are tests for the independence of the two variables. or severe for each load size. Logistic Regression The Logistic platform fits the probabilities for response categories to a continuous x predictor. Select Analyze > Fit Y By X Assign Thread Wear as Y.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction 55 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables Figure 3. which is shifted horizontally to produce probabilities for the ordered categories. This has the effect of estimating a single logistic curve. Response and Size of Load (%) as X. there is not enough evidence to say that the thread count of denim is affected by wash method. The fitted model estimates probabilities attributed to each x value. Factor. The logistic platform is the nominal/ordinal by continuous personality of the Fit Y by X command.76. The p-value for this test appears in the column labeled Prob>ChiSq. Click OK. moderate.

and severe categories. from assigning simple values to computing complex calculations with parameters and conditional clauses. Click Cancel to return to the data table. It is locked so that its data values cannot be edited individually. displays. Right-click in the heading of the column Thread Wear. A column whose values are computed by a formula is both linked and locked.56 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction The p-value of 0. A new column is needed to store the new values in. They are especially useful when transforming data. It is linked to (and dependent on) all other columns that are part of its formula.0657 hints at a weak association between these two variables. There are two methods to create a new column. moderate. Select Formula from the menu that appears.jmp sample data table. Example The essential features of the formula editor are best seen through an example. The Formula Editor A powerful (and often under used) feature of JMP Student Edition is its formula editor. Formulas serve a wide variety of purposes. Suppose that it is necessary to calculate the logarithm of the values in the Starch Content (%) column (This calculation is common in real-world statistics). Its values are automatically recomputed whenever the values in these columns are edited. the ordinal variable Thread Wear is computed with a formula that partitions the values of Thread Wear Measured into low. The Formula Editor window operates like a pocket calculator with buttons. In the Denim. . To see the formula. and an extensive list of easy-to-use features.

Click OK to close the Formula Editor and apply the formula. Change the title of the new column to Log Starch. Select Formula from the menu that appears. Note that Log is the natural logarithm (base e). Now. Select Starch Content (%) from the columns list. . Further examples. are found in JMP Student Edition’s online help. as well as complete documentation of all the formula editor functions. Alternatively. When a new column is created.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Introduction 57 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables From the main menu bar. Common (base 10) logs are computed using the Log10 function. then select Log from the resulting menu. Click on Transcendental from the Functions list. add a formula to the column. select Cols > New Column. Right-click in the heading of the column Log Starch. double-click in the area to the right of the last column in the data table. the default title is highlighted and ready to be changed. When the formula editor appears.

Its drop-down menu (accessed as in Figure 3. As with all the fitting commands in this platform. .15 Fit Commands The Fit Line command adds a straight-line fit to the plot using least squares regression.The Fit Mean Fit table shows the value of the mean.14) Figure 3. a legend appears below the plot with its own drop-down menu.58 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Scatterplots—The Continuous by Continuous Case Scatterplots—The Continuous by Continuous Case If both the X and Y variables are continuous.14 Bivariate Popup Menu Show Points alternately hides or displays the points in the plot. It is often useful to first fit the mean as a reference line for other fits. its standard deviation. The Fit Mean command adds a horizontal line to the plot at the mean of the response variable (Y). There are a number of options once the scatterplot appears. JMP Student Edition produces a bivariate analysis that initially shows a scatterplot. all accessed through the popup menu beside the variable name in the title bar (Figure 3. where additional commands for each fit are accessed. its standard error. and the sum of squared errors around the mean Figure 3.15) has commands to save predicted values and residuals for the linear fit as new columns in the current data table.

if weighted variables are involved. the curve is fit to the data points using least squares regression. . options can save predicted values and residuals as new columns in the current data table for each polynomial fit. The Fit Polynomial command fits a polynomial curve of the degree selected from the Fit Polynomial submenu. As with the linear fit. see “The Lack of Fit Table. Each time a linear or polynomial fit is chosen.16 Linear Fit Text Reports The Summary of Fit Table The summary of fit table shows the following information: • R2 (RSquare). A Lack of Fit table also appears if there are replicates. The Fit Polynomial option can be selected multiple times with different polynomial degrees for comparison. used to compare models with different numbers of variables • The Root Mean Square Error. three additional tables are appended to the report (see Figure 3. After selecting the polynomial degree.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Scatterplots—The Continuous by Continuous Case 59 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables If the confidence area around this line (produced through the Confid Curves Fit command) includes the horizontal line at the response mean. For details of the lack of fit test. then the slope of the line of fit is not significantly different from zero at the 0.16). 90 or the online help.05 significance level. an estimate of the standard deviation of the random error • The mean of the response variable • The number of observations (or.” p. the sum of the weights). 95% confidence limits are plotted with the Confid Curves Fit and Confid Curves Indiv display options. a measure of how well the line fits • The adjusted R2 (RSquare Adj). Figure 3.

The “C” in C Total stands for corrected. However. • Prob>|t| lists the observed significance probability calculated from each t ratio.16) are the intercept and the single X variable. They are used in constructing tests and confidence intervals. Parameter Estimates Table The terms in the Parameter Estimates table for a linear fit (seen previously in Figure 3. JMP Student Edition uses the following: • Source lists the three sources of variation. These estimates are the coefficients in the linear model. Often. It is a test to see if a different form of the model would fit the data better. The underlying hypothesis of the fit is that all the regression parameters (except the intercept) are zero. For details of the lack of fit test. Looking for a t ratio greater than 2 in absolute value is a common rule of thumb for judging significance. the F Ratio is usually higher than expected by chance alone. • Std Error lists the estimates of the standard errors of the parameter estimates.05 significance level. The Parameter Estimates table displays the following: • Term lists the name of each parameter in the requested model. 90 or the online help. It is the probability of getting. It is the ratio of the parameter estimate to its standard error. . see “The Lack of Fit Table. given a true hypothesis. Analysis of Variance Table This table look similar to the ANOVA tables in most textbooks.05 is interpreted as evidence that the parameter is significantly different from zero. as in corrected for the mean. • Mean Square is a sum of squares divided by its associated degrees of freedom. • F Ratio is the model mean square divided by the error mean square. A significant F statistic in this table indicates that a different model should be examined. a t ratio greater (in absolute value) than the computed value. If a parameter is a significant model effect.” p. • Prob > F is the observed significance probability (p-value) of obtaining a greater F value by chance alone if the specified model fits no better than the overall response mean. • t Ratio lists the test statistics for the hypothesis that each parameter is zero. Error. by chance alone. The intercept is a constant term in all models.60 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Scatterplots—The Continuous by Continuous Case The Lack of Fit Table The Lack of Fit table shows a special diagnostic test that appears only when the data and the model provide the opportunity. • DF records the associated degrees of freedom (DF) for each source of variation • Sum of Squares records an associated sum of squares (SS for short) for each source of variation. a value below 0. • Estimate lists the parameter estimates of the linear model. and C Total. because it approximates the 0. there may be some differences in the terminology for the ANOVA table’s parts. called Model.

The ellipsoid collapses diagonally as the correlation between the two variables approaches either 1 or –1. select the Group By command again and respond to its dialog as before. The regression report is shown with the transformed variables. One Way ANOVA—The Continuous by Categorical Case If the X variable is categorical and the Y variable is continuous. but in the continuous by continuous bivariate platform. with individual popup menus to save or remove fitting information. Transformations include log. . Fitting each value is like doing a one-way analysis of variance. so it appears as a curve on the plot. The Group By command is checked in the fitting menu when a grouping variable is in effect. but an extra report shows measures of fit transformed in the original Y scale (if there was a Y transformation). Compare it to other fitted lines to see the concept of lack of fit. Select the Group By command to remove (uncheck) the existing variable. all accessed through the popup menu beside the variable name in the title bar (Figure 3. The Group By command in the fitting menu displays a dialog. square root. The Other selection allows the specification of any probability greater than zero and less than or equal to one. When a grouping variable is selected. The Density Ellipse command draws an ellipse that contains the specified mass of points.17). Then. JMP Student Edition produces a one way ANOVA. The fitted line is plotted on the original scale.3 The Fit Y by X Platform One Way anova—The Continuous by Categorical Case 61 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables Other Fitting Commands The Fit Special command displays a dialog with choices for transformations of both the Y and X variables. square. and overlays the regression curves or ellipses on the scatterplot. allowing selection of a classification (grouping) variable. There are a number of options once this scatterplot appears. initially displaying a plot that shows a vertical distribution of Y points for each X value. determined by the probability chosen from the Density Ellipse submenu. The density ellipsoid is a good graphical indicator of the correlation between two variables. The Fit Each Value command fits a value to each unique X value. The Density Ellipse table that accompanies each Density Ellipse fit shows the correlation coefficient (r) for the X and Y variables and the probability that the correlation between the variables is significant. The fit for each level of the grouping variable is identified beneath the scatterplot. To change a grouping variable that is already in effect. the Fit Y by X platform computes a separate analysis for each level of the grouping variable. reciprocal. and exponential. The ellipsoid is more circular (less diagonally oriented) if the two variables are uncorrelated.

75%. • With Best. • With Control. • Each Pair. and 100% (maximum) quantiles for each group. . and Std Dev Lines display options. Compare Means has a submenu that provides the following four multiple comparison methods for comparing sets of group means. Hsu’s MCB displays a table that shows Hsu’s MCB (Multiple Comparison with the Best) comparisons of group means to the best (maximum or minimum) group mean. If there are only two groups. Student’s t displays a table with Student’s t statistics for all combinations of group means.62 3 The Fit Y by X Platform One Way anova—The Continuous by Categorical Case Figure 3. 50 for a detailed description of means diamonds. and a table that lists group frequencies. means. The Means/Anova/t test command fits means for each group and performs a one-way analysis of variance to test if there are differences among the means. This command also displays Means Dots. and standard errors computed with the pooled estimate of the error variance. a one-way analysis of variance table. This option automatically activates the Means Diamonds display option. 50% (median). Dunnett’s displays a table showing Dunnett’s comparisons of group means with a control group. Three tables are produced: a summary table. a t-test also shows. The Means and Std Dev command fits means for each group. It also activates Box Plots from the Display Options menu. Error Bars. 25%. which lists the 0% (minimum). See “Analysis of Variance (anova). 90%.17 One Way ANOVA Popup Menu The Quantiles command displays the Quantiles table. but uses standard deviations computed within each group rather than the pooled estimate of the standard deviation used to calculate the standard errors of the means.” p. Tukey HSD displays a table that shows the Tukey-Kramer HSD (honestly significant difference) comparisons of group means. 10%. All activate the Comparison Circles display option. • All Pairs.

Circles representing means that are significantly different show with a thick gray pattern. Circles for means that are significantly different either do not intersect or barely intersect. a visual representation of group mean comparisons.18 Alignment of Comparison Circles Compare each pair of group means visually by examining how the comparison circles intersect. so that the outside angle of intersection is less than 90°. The highlighted circle appears with a thick solid line. click in the graph outside the circles. To deselect circles.19). Figure 3. The illustration in Figure 3. If the circles intersect by an angle of more than 90°. it is easy to verify whether the means are significantly different by clicking on the comparison circle. Figure 3. If the intersection angle is close to 90°.19 Angles in Comparison Circles angle greater than 90 degrees angle equal to 90 degrees angle less than 90 degrees not significantly different borderline significantly different significantly different . The plot follows with a table of means comparisons. thus highlighting it.3 The Fit Y by X Platform One Way anova—The Continuous by Categorical Case 63 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables Each multiple comparison test begins with a comparison circles plot.20). or if they are nested. the means are not significantly different.18 shows the alignment of comparison circles with the confidence intervals of their respective group means. The outside angle of intersection tells whether group means are significantly different (see Figure 3. Circles representing means that are not significantly different from the highlighted circle show with thin lines (see Figure 3.

called rank scores.20 Comparison Circles after Clicking The Nonparametric submenu allows computation of three nonparametric tests: the Wilcoxon.21). The UnEqual Variances command tests for equality of group variances. the usual analysis of variance assumptions are not satisfied. Changing the alpha level recalculates any confidence lim- its. • Van der Waerden rank scores are the ranks of the data divided by one plus the number of observations transformed to a normal score by applying the inverse of the normal distribution function. Along with the standard normality-assessing capabilities of the single-variable Normal Quantile Plot. Nonparametric tests are useful to test whether group means or medians are located the same across groups. the Brown-Forsythe test. Normal Quantile Plot shows overlaid normal quantile plots for each level of the X variable. • Wilcoxon rank scores are the simple ranks of the data.64 3 The Fit Y by X Platform One Way anova—The Continuous by Categorical Case Figure 3. this plot shows both the differences in the means (vertical position) and the variances (slopes) for each level of the categorical X factor (Figure 3. However. Levene’s test. the usual analysis of variance assumption of normality is not made. • Median rank scores are either 1 or 0 depending on whether a rank is above or below the median rank. and Bartlett’s test. called the Welch ANOVA. When the variances across groups are not equal. . Median. or the specification of any level with the Other selection. and van der Warden tests. Nonparametric tests use functions of the response variable ranks. adjusts the means diamonds on the plot if they are showing. The Median test is the most powerful rank test for errors with doubly exponential distributions. There is a valid variant of the standard ANOVA. and modifies the upper and lower confidence level values in reports. The Van der Waerden test is the most powerful rank test for errors with normal distributions. The Wilcoxon test is the most powerful rank test for errors with logistic distributions. so the standard ANOVA F test is not valid. Set Alpha Level has a submenu that allows a choice from the most common alpha levels. which is displayed. It uses (and reports) four different tests: O’Brien’s test.

• Means Diamonds draws Means Diamonds. Save has a submenu of commands to save the following quantities as new columns in the current data table: • Save Centered saves values computed as the response variable minus the mean of the response variable within each level of the factor variable. • Probability Labels shows probabilities on the right axis of the Quantile by Actual plot and on the top axis of the Actual by Quantile plot.3 The Fit Y by X Platform One Way anova—The Continuous by Categorical Case 65 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables Figure 3.21 Normal Quantile Plot Slopes show standard deviations Separations show differences in means Normal Quantile Plot has these additional options: • Plot Actual by Quantile generates a quantile plot with the response variable on the y-axis and quantiles on the x-axis. The plot shows quantiles computed within each level of the categorical X factor. .21. Display Options allows addition or removal of plot elements. Complete details of means diamonds is found in “Analysis of Variance (anova). • Mean Lines draws a line at the mean of each group. • Points shows data points on the scatterplot. This is the centered response divided by the standard deviation within each level. • Save Standardized saves standardized values of the response variable computed within each level of the factor variable. • Plot Quantile by Actual reverses the x. • Box Plots shows outlier box plots for each group. • All Graphs shows or hides all graphs. • Save Normal Quantiles saves normal quantile values computed within each level of the categorical factor variable. 50. • Mean Error Bars identifies the mean of each group with a large marker and shows error bars one standard error above and below the mean.and y-axes.” p. as shown in Figure 3. • Grand Mean draws the overall mean of the Y variable on the scatterplot. • Mean CI Lines draws lines at the upper and lower 95% confidence levels for each group. • Line of Fit draws the straight diagonal reference lines for each level of the X variable. CDF plots the cumulative distribution function for all the groups in the Oneway report. • Std Dev Lines shows dotted lines one standard deviation above and below the mean of each group.

• Points Spread spreads points over the width of the interval. contingency table (sometimes referred to as a crosstabs table). or from several variables in a single Distribution report— are in the same window. Figure 3. • Connect Means connects the group means with a straight line. and attaches it to the data table. • Save Script to Script Window produces a script that can re-create the report in a text window. Script Submenu The Script submenu contains commands related to saving a script to redo an analysis. • Mean of Means • X-Axis Proportional makes spacing on the x-axis proportional to the sample size of each level. • Save Script to Data Table generates a script that can redraw the report.22 Contingency Analysis . • Redo Analysis repeats the analysis represented in the report. • Points Jittered adds random horizontal jitter so that points that overlay on the same Y value can be seen. • Data Table Window brings the data table to the front of the display.66 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Contingency Analysis—The Categorical by Categorical Case • Comparison Circles show comparison circles computed for the multiple comparison method selected in the platform menu. Contingency Analysis—The Categorical by Categorical Case If both the X and Y variables are categorical. and a table of chi-square tests. This script can then be edited or saved to an external file. JMP Student Edition produces a contingency analysis that initially shows a mosaic plot. The resulting script generates all reports in the window. • Save Script for All Objects is useful when several analyses — like those from a By group. • Save Script to Report appends a script to the top of the report.

Mosaic Plot. At each x value.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Logistic Regression—The Categorical by Continuous Case 67 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables The popup menu for contingency analyses contains items to turn parts of the report on and off. Display Options > Horizontal Mosaic rotates the mosaic plot 90 degrees. is explained in the section “Script Submenu.23 Contingency Popup Menu The contingency table itself has a popup menu to turn its cell contents on and off. • Row % is the percentage of each cell count to its row total • Col % is the percentage of each cell count to its column total • Expected is the expected frequency of each cell under the assumption of independence. Figure 3. • Total % is the percentage of cell counts and margin totals to the grand total. Contingency Table. divided by the grand total • Deviation is the observed (actual) cell frequency minus the expected cell frequency • Cell ChiSq is the Chi Square values computed for each cell as ( Observed – Expected ) -------------------------------------------------------Expected 2 Logistic Regression—The Categorical by Continuous Case If the Y variable is categorical and the X variable is continuous. and Tests all operate as toggles. The final item.” p. Figure 3. and grand total (total sample size). 66. The cumulative logistic probability plot gives a complete picture of what the logistic model is fitting. Script. It is computed as the product of the corresponding row total and column total.24 Contingency Table Popup Menu • Count is the cell frequency. JMP Student Edition produces a logistic analysis that initially shows a logistic plot and text reports. margin total frequencies. the probability scale in the y direction is divided up (partitioned) into probabilities for .

66 for details on scripting options. and allow the curves to get close together where there is no data. and Script options. This table is analogous to the Analysis of Variance table for a continuous response model.” p. There are only a couple of options in the Logistic drop-down menu (see Figure 3. The . (See “Script Submenu.26)—turning the plot on and off through the Logistic Plot command. It is a specific likelihood-ratio Chi-square test that evaluates how well the categorical model fits the data. Figure 3. with the y position jittered randomly within the range corresponding to the response category for that row. The data pushes the curves because the criterion that is maximized is the product of the probabilities fitted by the model.) The Whole Model Test Table The Whole Model Test table shows if the model fits better than constant response probabilities. You can see that the points tend to push the lines apart and make vertical space where they occur in numbers. The fit tries to avoid points attributed to have a small probability. The probabilities are measured as the vertical distance between the curves. with the total across all Y category probabilities sum to 1. The negative sum of logs of the observed probabilities is called the negative log-likelihood (–LogLikelihood). which are points crowded by the curves of fit.25 Interpreting the Logistic Plot P(thread wear is severe) at load size 250 P(thread wear is moderate) at load size 250 P(thread wear is low) at load size 250 These three probabilities sum to one Markers for the data are drawn at their x-coordinate.68 3 The Fit Y by X Platform Logistic Regression—The Categorical by Continuous Case each response category.

The difference in the log-likelihood from the model fitted by the data and the model with equal probabilities is a Chi-square statistic. Platform Options The menu of platform options is shown in Figure 3.26.26 Logistic Plot Popup Menu . the standard Script menu appears. They turn various plot elements on and off. the p-value of the Chi-square statistic is 0. and allow adjustment of the line color.3 The Fit Y by X Platform Logistic Regression—The Categorical by Continuous Case 69 3 Fit Y by X: Comparing T wo Variables negative log-likelihood for categorical data plays the same role as sums of squares in continuous data.25. In Figure 3.3657. This test statistic examines the hypothesis that the x variable has no effect on the response. In addition. Figure 3. which is not statistically significant.

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However. type “Paired Denim” to name the new data table. having split Starch Content (%) into two columns based on the value in the Sand Blasted? column. To use the Matched Pairs platform. The examination is of jeans that come from the same lot. 21 in the “The Distribution Platform” chapter. In the Output table name box. Details about this data are found in “About the Data. To drop the unnecessary variables. the split command is set to make a new data table. In the forthcoming example analysis. and call for the Matched Pairs platform. Select Lot Number and Method and click Group.” p. Select Tables > Split. Data in this form are handled by the Matched Pairs platform. in the Denim file.jmp. Select Starch Content(%) from the list of columns and click Split Columns. all of the original variables are not used. Therefore. Open the data file Denim. Select the Drop All radio button at the bottom of the Split dialog. Introduction After starting JMP Student Edition. A classic example is a before-and-after study of the effect of a medication. and the other not. At this point. based on whether the denim was sand blasted or not. all the starch data is in the single column Starch Content (%). In the dialog that results. The dialog should appear like the one in Figure 4. In fact. no variables other than the ones already in the dialog need to be retained. Preparing the Data This example examines the starch content of blue jeans. so they form a paired situation.1. so they do not need to be included in this new table. . select Sand Blasted? from the list of columns and click Split By. the paired data must be in two columns. with one group having been sand blasted. To split the data in this way. the column needs to be split into two starch columns.4 The Matched Pairs Platform Some two-variable data have a natural pairing to them.

72 4 The Matched Pairs Platform Introduction Figure 4.1 Split Columns Dialog Click OK to create the data table. . with new columns no and yes containing starch information. Figure 4.2.2 Paired Denim Data Launching the Platform Select Analyze > Matched Pairs from the menu bar. This brings up the Matched Pairs platform launch dialog as shown in Figure 4. The data table appears as in Figure 4.4.

3 Paired Denim Matched Pairs Report The red line is the difference given by the data The horizontal gray line represents zero The dotted lines are a 95% confidence interval on the difference. Select the no and yes variables from the columns list and click the Y. Figure 4. See the online help for an example using a grouping variable.002.4 The Matched Pairs Platform Introduction 73 4 Paired Variables To launch the dialog. These two variables are the values that are paired. If it doesn’t contain zero. select the two paired variables to be analyzed. with a p-value of 0. Grouping role to have JMP Student Edition estimate means for the groups. and test both between and among the pairs. The Matched Pairs Scatterplot After it is launched. and the mean of the two responses on the x-axis.3. Paired Response button. This graph is the same as a scatterplot of the two original variables.4 Matched Pairs Launch Dialog Optionally. the difference is significant The text reports below this plot show the same result—there is a difference in starch content of denim based on sand blasting. the Matched Pairs platform displays a scatterplot and numerical results.4) requires at least two variables to be entered. . a grouping variable can be entered in the X. Figure 4. as shown in Figure 4. The primary graph in the platform is a plot of the difference of the two responses on the y-axis. The resulting report is easily interpretable. The Matched Pairs Launch Dialog The Matched Pairs platform launch dialog (Figure 4.

7 The Matched Pairs Men .6. • The mean of the mean of pairs is shown by the vertical line. or plotting the difference by the row number. shown in Figure 4. Figure 4.6.7. allows two plot options — plotting the difference by the mean. If the confidence region includes the horizontal line at zero. as in Figure 4. See “Script Submenu.” p. In the example shown in Figure 4.74 4 The Matched Pairs Platform Introduction but turned 45° clockwise (see Figure 4. A 45° rotation turns the original coordinates into a difference and a sum. Figure 4. • The mean difference is shown as the horizontal line. 66 for details on the Script submenu.5).6 The Matched Pairs Scatterplot 95% Confidence Interval Mean Difference Line where the two variables are equal Mean of Means The Matched Pairs menu. and the mean of the two variables. and standard scripting items are available. with the 95% confidence interval above and below. then the means are not significantly different at the 0. the difference is significant. Figure 4. The square reference frame can also be toggled on and off. By rescaling. See the online help for more details of this transformation.05 level.5 Comparison of Scatterplot and Matched Pairs Plot Notice the following in Figure 4. this plot shows the difference between the two variables.6: • The 45° tilted square shows the frame of the scatterplot of the original columns.

The examples below show six different situations and their interpretations.9 Highly Significant Shift Down The Y2 score is consistently lower than Y1 across all subjects. . Figure 4. This is the high-positive-correlation pattern that is the typical situation.4 The Matched Pairs Platform Interpreting the Matched Pairs Plot 75 4 Paired Variables Interpreting the Matched Pairs Plot There are many possibilities for making statements regarding the patterns to be discovered in the new. Figure 4. The change from Y1 to Y2 is not significant.8 No Change The distribution vertically is small and centered at zero. rotated coordinates.

Figure 4. and low variance of the mean of the two values within a subject. but the high Y1s are associated with low Y2s. and vice-versa. the mean is the same from Y1 to Y2. Overall. and high variance of the mean of the two values within a subject. But Amplified Relationship This situation shows a low variance of the difference. and is unusual. the mean is the same from Y1 to Y2.76 4 The Matched Pairs Platform Interpreting the Matched Pairs Plot Figure 4. Overall. This is a high-negative-correlation pattern.10 No average Shift. but individually. . the high scores got higher and the low scores got lower. But Reverse Relationship This example shows a high variance of the difference.11 No Average Shift.

the mean is the same from Y1 to Y2. .4 The Matched Pairs Platform Interpreting the Matched Pairs Plot 77 4 Paired Variables Figure 4. and low scores increase a little. Positive Correlation. but Damped Instead of Accelerated Overall.12 No Average Shift. but the high scores drop a little.

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21 in the “The Distribution Platform” chapter. Standard least squares fitting.5 The Fit Model Platform General linear models—those that have more complicated forms than can be fit with simple linear regression—are fit with the Fit Model platform. To select all the model effects together. Launching the Platform Select Analyze > Fit Model from the menu bar. and which are predictors of thread wear in denim. click on Sand Blasted?. In this introduction. Open the data file Denim. Details about this data are found in “About the Data. This brings up the Fit Model dialog. To begin with. Click Window in the top menu bar to see a list of open windows. then click the Add button. Unlike the other platform launchers in JMP Student Edition. are fit using this single platform. In the list of columns. models are developed to determine which variables (if any) are predictors of the starch content of denim. the Fit Model dialog does not go away once the model is run. which is illustrated in Figure 5. click on Method. Introduction After starting JMP Student Edition. no powers.jmp. . select Starch Content (%) and click the Y button. Click Run Model.” p.1. To see that it is still available. hold down the Shift key. including stepwise procedures. fit a simple model with only main effects—no interactions.

change its title to something meaningful as follows. Title bars within the reports are also editable. Again type “Main Effects Only” and press Enter.80 5 The Fit Model Platform Introduction Figure 5. type “Main Effects Only”. To make identification easy. Make sure the report window is the front window. Select Window > Set Title. Double click on the title bar that says Response Starch Content (%). (Window > Set Report Title on Macintosh) In the resulting dialog box. so it will need to be identified among the other windows.1 The Fit Model Dialog Setting Titles This report generated here is used later in this presentation. .

scroll the window until each effect is visible. Move the Scroller tool over the results report. There is a lot of information in this report. JMP Student Edition reverts back to the arrow tool after other tools’ first use. The first leverage plot is for the entire model. 91. Without Shift-clicking. and although only a portion is used in this example. Shift-clicking a tool keeps the tool active for multiple clicks. all of it is documented in sections that follow. Then. In this initial look at the data. printed in several places.” p. Figure 5.2 The Scroller Tool Scroller Tool To scroll using the Scroller tool. To examine the p values for the individual effects. examine these results. including just below each leverage plot. and its p value indicates that the model is significant. first check if the model as a whole is significant. or by using the Scroller tool.5 The Fit Model Platform Introduction 81 5 Fit Model Examining Results Now. Leverage plots are detailed in “Leverage Plots. look at the p values associated with each effect. Shift-click the Scroller tool in the Tools toolbar. Scrolling is accomplished using scroll bars along the edges of the window. .

repeatedly. By default. However. so that the effect of each variable can be examined. this analysis is fairly primitive. Select one of the variables and click the Remove button located above the effects list. Least Squares Means Least squares means. Re-running an Analysis After moving around the report a bit and observing the p-values for each effect. We want to remove all the effects in this case. The response values are adjusted for the other terms in the model. called LSMeans by JMP Student Edition. Try moving the mouse while releasing the mouse button. Select Method and Size of Load (lbs) in the list of columns and click the Cross button. the plot suggests that when controlled for the other effects in the model. Click on the Window menu and select the Fit Model dialog.3 LS Means Table and Plot In this case. the LSMeans are displayed in this example model. in short movements. it should be clear that they are all significant at the 0. which is in turn higher than Alpha Amalyze. Double-click on each of the other variables.) This illustrates the “inertia” that the scroller tool imparts on reports. There are two ways to remove effects from the model. (That is. several short click-and-drags. Remove the existing effects from the model and re-run the analysis with interactions by doing the following. To see a plot of the LSMeans. since it does not consider any interactions among the variables. the starch content for Caustic Soda is higher than Pumice Stone. Figure 5. . Now.82 5 The Fit Model Platform Introduction Hold the mouse button and move the scroller tool to see the window move. show the values of the response (starch content in this case) for levels of a nominal effect. add in an interaction effect.05 level. Select LSMeans Plot from the drop-down menu on the title bar of an effect.

For now. . The appropriate effects appear in the effects list. Click the Macros button and select Full Factorial from the popup menu. request a full factorial model—all main effects with all possible interactions. Make sure Starch Content (%) is still in the Y role at the top of the launch dialog. Size of Load (lbs). remembering that the Control (Windows) or (Macintosh) key allows for multiple selections. Select Method. 86.5 The Fit Model Platform Introduction 83 5 Fit Model Since it is rather tedious to specify all main effects and all crossed effects one at a time. These macros are completely discussed in “Macros. JMP Student Edition provides some pre-defined macros to add popular effects combinations to models.” p. and Sand Blasted? in the model effects list.

remove them one at a time from the model. For example. This is accomplished by using linear contrasts. then re-run the model to repeat the process until all effects are significant. where details of the linear contrast are specified. Many models have to be tweaked after initial results are examined. at this point. Again bring the Fit Model dialog to the front using the Window menu. you see that the Method*Size of Load effect levels are not significant. this time much larger. This iterative procedure may be repeated several times. Select LS Means Contrast from the drop-down menu in the title bar of the Method variable. This is exactly the reason that the Fit Model dialog persists. Figure 5. Another report appears.4 Contrast Dialog Click the + button once next to Alpha Amalyze. JMP Student Edition attaches a Contrast Dialog (Figure 5. Linear Contrasts Another common task is to test that levels within an effect are different from each other. examine the p values of each effect. A prudent model maker would. Click Run Model. . Remove the Method*Size of Load*Sand Blasted effect. For example. noting that neither of the levels of the Method*Size of Load*Sand Blasted effect are significant at the 0.05 level. even after clicking the Run Model button.84 5 The Fit Model Platform Introduction Click Run Model. so it can be removed from the model as well.4) to the report. If you examine the new model results. to test that the Alpha Amalyze wash method is significantly different from the Pumice Stone wash method.

To remove a variable from its role. it can be removed and the model re-run quickly. If one of the variables is not significant. Click Done. This is where the roles of each variable get specified and the type of fit is selected. This facilitates experimentation with the model. The Fit Model Dialog Box Regardless of the model to be fit. double-click on the variable’s name.1 on page 80.button once next to Pumice Stone. highlight it and click Remove. or. the type of fit (standard least squares. which identifies one or more response variables (the dependent variables) • Weight. alternatively. nominal logistic.5 The Fit Model Platform The Fit Model Dialog Box 85 5 Fit Model Click the . an optional role that identifies a column whose values signify the importance of each row in the model . the Fit Model dialog box is the first step. This test shows a highly significant p-value. The Fit Model dialog is different from JMP Student Edition’s other launch dialogs in that it does not disappear after the model is launched. In JMP Student Edition. The roles a variable can take are: • Y. Roles To assign a variable to a role. giving confirmation that Alpha Amalyze is significantly different from Pumice Stone in affecting the resulting starch content of denim. or ordinal logistic) is referred to as the fitting personality. select the variable name and click the appropriate button. The dialog box is completely illustrated in Figure 5.

To add a nested effect. Factorial to Degree To create a limited factorial. C. and C. an optional role that identifies a column whose values designate the frequency of rows in the analysis Model Effects Effects are added to the model by using the buttons in the Construct Model Effects section of the dialog. select it again.5 Macros drop-down list The following models are available: Full Factorial To look at many crossed factors. the Full Factorial selection places A. and A*B*C in the Model Effects list. For example. A*B. To add a simple regressor to the model. B.86 5 The Fit Model Platform The Fit Model Dialog Box • Freq. -click When levels of an effect (call it B) only occur within a single level of an effect (call it A). . • When the outside effect appears in the Model Effects list. with selected variables A. such as in a factorial design. It creates the set of effects corresponding to all crossings of all variables selected in the columns list. B*C. • Select the outside effects in the column selection list and click Add or Cross. B. • Select the nested variable in the column selection list and click Nest. and A is called the outside effect. use Full Factorial. A*C. Figure 5. A second degree factorial is a very common analysis. To add a crossed effect to a model. Macros Common models can be generated using the macros drop-down list. select the two variables to be crossed (use Control-click or for multiple selections) in the Select Columns list and click the Cross button. then B is said to be nested within A. select the variable name and click the Add button. select Factorial to Degree and enter the degree of interactions in the Degree box.

To specify a polynomial effect. • Stepwise regression is an approach to selecting a subset of effects for a regression model. select the variable name. Select Mixture Response Surface from the Attributes menu after selecting a variable name. The critical values for the surface are calculated from the parameter estimates and presented with a report on the shape of the surface. This is accomplished by fitting a collection of terms in a quadratic model. Response surface effects appear with an ampersand (&) appended to their name. To specify a Response Surface effect. then select Response Surface Effect from the Attributes menu. Mixture Response Surface Mixture response surface variables are selected in the same way as Response Surface Effect variables. Fitting Personalities The three available personalities for model fitting are available in the Personality drop-down list. but lists them in order of degree. then all three-way interactions. Figure 5.6 Fitting Personalities • Standard Least Squares models one or more continuous responses in the usual way through fitting a linear model by least squares. and so forth. followed by all two-way interactions.6. Response Surface Response surface models find the values of the terms that produce a maximum or a minimum expected response. The Stepwise feature computes estimates that are the same as those of the Standard Least Squares . All main effects are listed first. See the JMP help if you are interested in Scheffe cubics.5 The Fit Model Platform The Fit Model Dialog Box 87 5 Fit Model Factorial Sorted The Factorial Sorted selection creates the same set of effects as Full Factorial. • click one or more variables in the column selection list • enter the degree of the polynomial in the Degree box • select the Polynomial to Degree command in the Macros popup menu. shown in Figure 5. Scheffe Cubic Cubic Models are an advanced topic not usually covered in an advanced course. Polynomial to Degree Polynomial effects are a series of terms that are powers of a single variable.

but it facilitates searching and selecting among many models. Select effect details and other statistical reports from the report itself. Fit Model Report Items When a model is fit with the Standard Least Squares or Stepwise personality. Multiple categorical responses call for MANOVA or other advanced methods. several reports appear based on the Emphasis selected in the Fit Model dialog. . Request plots and reports from the report itself. or make changes to the data and then refit the same model. • Minimal Report suppresses all plots. only available in the professional version of JMP. The Stepwise personality allows only one continuous Y. Use the dialog to make changes to the model for additional fits. Run Model The Run Model button submits the model to the fitting platform.88 5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items personality. Emphasis Choices The Emphasis popup menu controls which plots and tables are initially shown in the analysis report: • Effect Leverage initially displays leverage and residual plots for the whole model. Any report that does not appear by default can be requested from the platform menu. • Effect Screening shows whole-model information. followed by a scaled parameter report and the Prediction Profiler. but does not close the dialog window.

• The Error DF is the difference between the C Total DF and the Model DF. DF records an associated degrees of freedom for each source of variation. ters. Root Mean Square Error estimates the standard deviation of the random error. If there are no missing values and no excluded rows. and it is commonly denoted as s. and C Total. Observations (or Sum of Weights) records the number of observations used in the fit. An R2 of 1 occurs when there is a perfect fit (the errors are all zero). It is important as a base model for prediction because all other models are compared to it. so the C Total DF is always one less than the number of observations.5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items 89 5 Fit Model Regression Reports Regression reports give textual information about the fit. Since adding terms to an existing model always increases R2. Weights are used in weighted least squares — an advanced topic. It is the square root of the mean square for error in the corresponding analysis of variance table. The table compares the model to a model containing only the mean: Source lists the three sources of variation. . The total degrees of freedom are partitioned into the Model and Error terms: • The Model degrees of freedom is the number of parameters (except for the intercept) used to fit the model. The C Total degrees of freedom is for the simple mean model. An R2 of 0 means that the fit predicts the response no better than the overall response mean. rather than to random error. Sum of Squares records an associated sum of squares for each source of variation. Rsquare Adj adjusts R2 to make it more comparable over models with different numbers of parame- The Mean of Response is the overall mean of the response values. If there is a column assigned the role of weight. The Summary of Fit Table The Summary of Fit table appears first and shows the following numeric summaries of the response for the multiple regression model: Rsquare (R2) estimates the proportion of the variation in the response around the mean that can be attributed to terms in the model. Error. • The Total (C Total) SS is the sum of squared distances of each response from the sample mean. There is only one degree of freedom used (the estimate of the mean parameter) in the calculation of variation. called Model. It is also the square of the correlation between the actual and predicted response. It is a ratio of mean squares instead of sums of squares. this is the same as the number of rows in the data table. this adjustment compensates for adding terms to a model that already has terms in it. Each is the sum of squares of the differences between the fitted response and the actual response. The variance measured around this mean is the Corrected Total (C Total) mean square in the Analysis of Variance table. The Analysis of Variance Table The Analysis of Variance table shows the basic calculations for a linear model. this is the sum of that column’s values.

Most practitioners check this F test first and make sure that it is significant before delving further into the details of the fit. the maximum R2 that can be achieved by using only the variables in the model. 91. and therefore there are no degrees of freedom for pure error. The only additional information is the Max RSq.05 or less are often considered evidence that there is at least one significant regression factor in the model. Significance probabilities of 0. there are no degrees of freedom for lack of fit. Prob>F is the probability of obtaining a greater F value by chance alone if the specified model fits no better than the overall response mean. The remaining portions of the Lack of Fit table are similar to those of the Analysis of Variance Table.90 5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items • The Error SS is the sum of squared differences between the fitted values and the actual values. Pure Error. Note that the pure error DF is pooled from each group where there are multiple rows with the same values for each effect. Sometimes. and Total Error. • The model is saturated. This occurs when observations are exact replicates of each other in terms of the X variables. It tests the hypothesis that all the regression parameters (except the intercept) are zero. In these cases. The error for these exact replicates is called pure error. consider adding interaction terms. This sum of squares corresponds to the unexplained error (residual) after fitting the regression model. it is possible to estimate the error variance independently of whether the right form of the model is the one under consideration. . If there is a significant effect in the model. The Lack of Fit Table The Lack of Fit table shows a special diagnostic test and appears only when the data and the model provide the opportunity. if appropriate. A lack of fit error can be significantly greater than pure error if a regressor is in the model with the wrong functional form. meaning that the model itself has a degree of freedom for each different X value. The F Ratio is the model mean square divided by the error mean square. The difference between the residual error from the model and the pure error is called lack of fit error. A Mean Square is a sum of squares divided by its associated degrees of freedom. There are two common situations where there is no lack of fit test: • There are no exactly replicated points with respect to the X data. the F Ratio is higher than expected by chance alone. Note that large values of Model SS and small values of Error SS lead to large F ratios and low p values— desirable if the goal is to declare that terms in the model are significantly different from zero. The Lack of Fit table shows information about the error terms: Source lists the three sources of variation called Lack of Fit. This is the portion of the sample error that cannot be explained or predicted no matter which form the model uses for the X variables. to try to better capture the functional form of a regressor. This computation converts the sum of squares to an average. therefore. or if too few interaction effects exist in an analysis of variance model. described in “Leverage Plots. This significance is also shown graphically by the whole-model leverage plot.” p.

Estimate lists the parameter estimates for each term. Simple continuous regressors have only one parameter. This is the two-tailed test against the alternatives in each direction. It is the ratio of the mean square for the effect divided by the mean square for error. The first parameter is always the intercept. F Ratio is the F statistic for testing that the effect is zero. It is the ratio of the estimate to its standard error.7. Models with complex classification effects have a parameter for each anticipated degree of freedom. Continuous effects have 1 parameter. The fitting platform produces a leverage plot for each effect in the model. a larger F statistic would only occur due to random error. except for the last level. no part of the effect is testable. Simple regressors show as the name of the data table column. which is coded as –1 across all the other dummy variables for that effect. Crossed effects multiply the number of parameters for each term. It is the probability that if the null hypothesis is true. the note Lost DFs appears to the right of the line in the report. an estimate of the standard deviation of the distribution of the parameter estimate. DF is the degrees of freedom for the effect test. t Ratio is a statistic that tests whether the true parameter is zero. The dummy variables are coded as 1. Regressors that are dummy indicator variables constructed from nominal or ordinal effects are labeled with the names of the levels in brackets.05 are often considered as significant evidence that the parameter is not zero.8). These plots show point-by-point what the residual would be both with and without that effect in the model (See Figure 5. Note that if DF is zero. Nested effects depend on how levels occur.5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items 91 5 Fit Model The Parameter Estimates Table The Parameter Estimates table shows the estimates of the parameters in the linear model and a t-test for the hypothesis that each parameter is zero. Whenever DF is less than Nparm. Prob>|t| is the probability of getting an greater t statistic (in absolute value). An example leverage plot is shown in Figure 5. Nparm is the number of parameters associated with the effect. given the hypothesis that the parameter is zero. Std Error is the standard error. Nominal effects have one less parameter than the number of levels. Values less than 0. Leverage Plots Leverage plots reveal the significance of an effect in the model.0000. . The Effect Test Table The Effect Test table shows the following information for each effect: Source lists the names of the effects in the model. The Parameter Estimates table shows these quantities: Term names the estimated parameter. Sum of Squares is the sum of squares for the hypothesis that the listed effect is zero. Probabilities less than 0. Prob>F is the significance probability for the F ratio.0005 appear as 0. This is the value used to construct t-tests and confidence intervals for the parameter.

The sloped line represents the values of the model with the effect included.8 General Leverage Plot residual residual constrained by hypothesis points farther out pull on the line of fit with greater leverage than the points near the middle Figure 5.9 Significance of Effects Significant Borderline Not Significant confidence curve crosses horizontal line confidence curve asymptotic to horizontal line confidence curve does not cross horizontal line . Figure 5. there is a special leverage plot titled Whole Model that shows the actual values of the response plotted against the predicted values. as in Figure 5. This Whole Model leverage plot dramatizes the test that all the parameters (except intercepts) in the model are zero.92 5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items Figure 5.9.7 Example Leverage Plot from Denim Data In addition. This illustrates the same test reported in the Analysis of Variance report. Significance of the effect is seen by comparing the slope of the sloped line with that of the horizontal one. the horizontal line on the plot represents what the values of the model would be if the effect was removed from the model. In general.

10 Effect Details • LS Means Table shows predicted values from the specified model across the levels of a categorical effect.11. Exploring the Estimates The following commands allow you to further explore the estimated coefficients of the model.11 Parameter Estimates Table The Expanded Estimates command shows the same information. Figure 5. Least squares means shows which levels produce higher or lower responses. More detailed descriptions of each command are available in the online help.5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items 93 5 Fit Model Effect Details In a Standard Least Squares analysis. the following effect details are available. The other model factors are controlled —that is. To construct a contrast. Expanded Estimates The standard Fit Model output includes a Parameter Estimates Table. dealing with least squares means. the estimates are the coefficients of dummy variables whose value is 1 for all levels of the variable except the last. the estimates are the (estimated) coefficients of each term in the linear model. For nominal effects. (See “Linear Contrasts. • LS Means Contrast displays a dialog for specifying contrasts with respect to an effect. which gets the value -1. Least squares means are also called adjusted means or population marginal means.buttons beside the levels to be compared. Figure 5. designated LS Means by JMP Student Edition. • The LS Means Student’s t command requests multiple comparison tests. holding the other variables in the model constant. • LS Means Plot plots the LSMeans for nominal and ordinal main effects and two-way interactions. as seen in Figure 5. 84 for an example of using contrasts. Ordinal effects show coefficients for dummy variables that measure the difference at levels of the variable from the mean of all levels of the effect. . set to neutral values. the dialog normalizes after each click to make the sum for a column zero and the absolute sum equal to two after each click. For continuous effects.” p. but with a coefficient for each continuous variable and each level of other variables. click the + and . If possible. It adds to the plus or minus score proportionately.) This command is enabled only for categorical effects.

or another value. null hypotheses are often about one variable at a time.12 Expanded Estimates Table Compare the expanded estimates with the prediction formula for this model. and are tested using JMP’s Custom Test command.13. For example. or that some parameters are equal to others.94 5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items Figure 5. shown here. one. . Custom Test In introductory statistics courses. These tests are known in statistics as a general linear hypotheses. which displays the dialog shown in Figure 5. However.13 Custom Test Launch You can enter a descriptive label for this test—useful if you are doing several tests The space beneath the Custom Test title bar is an editable area for entering a test name. frequently hypothesizing that a parameter is zero. it is possible to test far more complicated null hypotheses than this. select Custom Test from the Estimates popup menu. Figure 5. To test a custom hypothesis. it is reasonable to test that several parameters are zero.

which tests hypotheses about the least squares means. Sample output for a custom test (that the Size of Load coefficient is equal to 1) is shown in Figure 5. click Done to see the test performed. Use the Add Column button to add as many columns to the test as needed. To the right of the list of parameters are columns of zeros corresponding to these parameters. A joint F test for all columns is at the bottom. One of the parameters is labeled “=”. you may be testing that a certain combination of the factors sums to 1.14 Custom Test Output Note: For tests within a categorical effect. instead of using a Custom test. Add Column adds another column of zeros so that several linear functions of the parameters can be jointly tested. In the edit box to its right.14. 91. When the test is specified.” p. . The results are appended to the bottom of the dialog. You would enter a 1 beside the “=” in this dialog. For example. the report lists the test name. consider using the contrast dialog. and other statistics for each test column in the dialog. Correlation of Estimates The Correlation of Estimates option in the Estimates platform menu produces a correlation matrix for the all effects in a model.5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items 95 5 Fit Model Parameter lists the names of the model parameters. enter the value that you are testing the contrast against. the standard error. Click in these cells to enter a new hypothesized parameter value corresponding to the desired test. When the custom test is done. Row Diagnostics Leverage Plots (the Plot Actual by Predicted and Plot Effect Leverage commands) are covered previously in this chapter under “Leverage Plots. Figure 5. the function value of the parameters tested.

The new columns contain the lower and upper 95% confidence limits for the line of fit. . you are prompted to enter an α-level for the computations. The new col- umn values are the residuals divided by their standard error. Note: If you hold down the Shift key and select Save Individual Confidence Interval.96 5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items • Plot Actual by Predicted displays the observed values by the predicted values of Y. Mean Confidence Interval creates two new columns called Lower 95% Mean colname and Upper 95% Mean colname. Predicted Values creates a new column called Predicted colname that contain the predicted val- ues computed by the specified model. where colname is the name of the response variable: Prediction Formula creates a new column. called Pred Formula colname. The prediction formula can require considerable space if the model is large. This is useful for predicting values in new rows or for obtaining a picture of the fitted model. • Plot Residual By Row displays the residual value by the row number of its observation. Note: If you hold down the Shift key and select Save Mean Confidence Interval. you are prompted to enter an α-level for the computations. This is the leverage plot for the whole model. Std Error of Predicted creates a new column. This Durbin-Watson table is only appropriate for time series data when you suspect that the errors are correlated across time. The autocorrelation of the residuals is also shown. You typically want to see the residual values scattered randomly about zero. containing the standard errors of the predicted values. The Durbin-Watson table has a popup command that computes and displays the exact probability associated with the statistic. • Durbin-Watson Test displays the Durbin-Watson statistic to test whether or not the errors have first-order autocorrelation. use the Save Predicted Values option. called StdErr Pred colname. • Plot Residual By Predicted displays the residual values by the predicted values of Y. Residuals creates a new column called Residual colname containing the residuals. Save Commands The Save submenu offers the following choices. Use the Column Info command and click the Edit Formula button to see the prediction formula. The new columns contain lower and upper 95% confidence limits for individual response values. which are the observed response values minus predicted values. Studentized Residuals creates a new column called Studentized Resid colname. Individual Confidence Interval creates two new columns called Lower95% Indiv colname and Upper95% Indiv colname. • Plot Effect Leverage produces a leverage plot for each effect in the model showing the point-by-point composition of the test for that effect. If you do not need the formula with the column of predicted values. It differs from the Save Predicted Values column in that the prediction formula is saved with the new column. Each selection generates one or more new columns in the current data table titled as shown. containing the predicted values computed by the specified model.

Std Error of Individual creates a new column. then the new column names are X Leverage of X1 for R X Leverage of X2 for R Y Leverage of X1 for R Y Leverage of X2 for R. StdErrResid colname.5 The Fit Model Platform Fit Model Report Items 97 5 Fit Model Std Error of Residual creates a new column called. containing the stan- dard errors of the residual values. The columns are named as follows. . called StdErr Indiv colname. If the response column name is R and the effects are X1 and X2. containing the stan- dard errors of the individual predicted values. The new columns consist of an X and Y column for each effect in the model. Effect Leverage Pairs creates a set of new columns that contain the values for each leverage plot.

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Open the Fitness. measurements of age. you need to compare many different regression models. recognizing that the true significance probability could be nowhere near the reported one. The approach is somewhat controversial.6 Stepwise Regression Stepwise regression is an approach to selecting a subset of effects for a regression model.jmp data table. This chapter uses the term “significance probability” in a mechanical way to represent that the calculation would be valid in a fixed model.jmp data table in the Sample Data folder. On the positive side. The book Subset Selection in Regression.6 on page 87). brings statistical sense to model selection statistics. To identify such an equation. it would be more economical to find a formula that uses simpler measurements that evaluate fitness and predict oxygen uptake. Miller (1990). and pulse were taken for 31 participants who ran 1. in desperation. To find a good oxygen uptake prediction equation. weight. stepwise regression is a personality of the Model Fitting platform—it is one of the selections in the Fitting Personality popup menu on the Model Specification dialog (see Figure 5. This data shows results from an aerobic fitness study. Figure 6. The Stepwise feature computes estimates that are the same as those of other least squares platforms. wants to use whatever seems to provide a good fit. However. the approach has been of practical use for 30 years in helping to trim out models to predict many kinds of responses. As an example.1 shows a partial listing of the Fitness. but it facilitates searching and selecting among many models. runtime. The significance levels on the statistics for selected models violate the standard statistical assumptions because the model has been selected rather than tested within a fixed model.5 miles. Introduction In JMP. The Stepwise platform lets you search through models with combinations of effects and choose the model you want. by A. . Aerobic fitness can be evaluated using a special test that measures the oxygen uptake of a person running on a treadmill for a prescribed distance. It is used when there is little theory to guide the selection of terms for a model and the modeler. J.

. RstPulse.1 The Fitness Data Table Note: For purposes of illustration. Click Run Model. Select Fit Model in the Analyze menu. p. and MaxPulse as Effects.100 6 Stepwise Regression Introduction Figure 6. certain values of MaxPulse and RunPulse have been changed from data reported by Rawlings (1988. In the Model Specification dialog. Figure 6.2 Model Specification Dialog for a Stepwise Model To do stepwise regression.105). RunPulse. Select Stepwise from the Fitting Personality popup menu. Runtime. Choose Oxy as the Y response Choose Weight.

3). Backward (where effects are removed as they become noon-significant) or Mixed. The bottom table in Figure 6. We now want to add significant effects. To add the first detected effect.25 as the Prob to Enter.25 specified in the Stepwise Regression Control Panel.3 Current Estimates Table After one step After all steps Now that we have selected the effects that contribute to explaining Oxy. Click Make Model. To automatically add all the detected effects automatically (rather than manually with the Step button) Click Go to see the stepwise process run to completion. . used to specify how effects should enter or exit the model. We now have a choice of three stepwise methods: Forward (where effects are added as they become significant). Click the Step button. Click Run Model. This example uses forward selection. a combination of the two detailed below. so Leave the default Forward selection method. Figure 6. you are presented with a control panel. Leave 0. After one step. A Fit Model dialog appears.25 level or better.3 shows that all the terms have been added except RstPulse and Weight which are not significant at the Prob to Enter value of 0. This produces a report identical to those seen in “The Fit Model Platform” chapter. we to add any effects that are significant at the 0. the most significant term Runtime is entered into the model (top Current Estimates table in Figure 6. In this example. we can make a model and examine its analysis.6 Stepwise Regression Introduction 101 6 Stepwise Regression When the report appears.

buttons and a popup menu. and create a model. the stepwise platform displays a window that shows three areas: • The Stepwise Regression Control panel. You use these dialog features to limit regressor effect probabilities. Click the field to enter a value. which is an interactive control panel for operating the platform • The Current Estimates table. • Forward brings in the regressor that most improves the fit. The following sections describe the components of these areas and tell how to use them. Stepwise Regression Control Panel The Stepwise Regression Control Panel (Control Panel for short). and provides additional control features • The Step History table. given that term is significant at the level specified by Prob to Enter. • Prob to Leave is the significance probability that must be attributed to a regressor term in order for it to be considered as a backward step and removed from the model.102 6 Stepwise Regression The Stepwise Window The Stepwise Window When launched. You use the Control Panel as follows: • Prob to Enter is the significance probability that must be attributed to a regressor term for it to be considered as a forward step and entered into the model. Click the field to enter a value. shown next. which lets you choose how you want variables to enter the regression equation. which lists the steps in the stepwise selection. has editable areas. begin or stop the selection process. which shows the current status of the specified model. • Direction accesses the popup menu shown here. . determine the method of selecting effects.

You can click a term’s check box to manually bring an effect into or out of the model. It continues removing terms until the remaining terms are significant and then it changes to the forward direction. The intercept is permanently locked into the model. • Stop stops the background selection process. Lock does not permit a term that is checked to be entered or removed from the model. Current Estimates Table The Current Estimates table lets you enter.) if the effect is not currently in the model. Make Model can create new data table columns to contain terms that are needed for the model. The process continues to run in the background until the model is finished. • Entered shows whether a term is currently in the model. . remove. as is shown here. In cases where there are nominal or ordinal terms. You use check boxes to define the stepwise regression process: • Lock locks a term in or out of the model. • Make Model forms a model for the Model Specification Dialog from the model currently showing in the Current Estimates table. The following quantities update continually during the fitting process and are used in determining the final model. It includes the most significant term that satisfies Prob to Enter and removes the least significant term satisfying Prob to Leave. The platform begins with no terms in the model except for the intercept. • Mixed alternates the forward and backward steps. Click an effect’s check box to change its lock status. • Step stops after each step of the stepwise process • Enter All enters all unlocked terms into the model. • Remove All removes all terms from the model. • Parameter lists the names of the regressor terms (effects). and lock in model effects. • Estimate is the current parameter estimate. Buttons on the controls panel let you control the stepwise processing: • Go starts the selection process.6 Stepwise Regression The Stepwise Window 103 6 Stepwise Regression • Backward removes the regressor that affects the fit the least. given that term is not significant at the level specified in Prob to Leave. It is missing (.

The adjusted R2 is useful in stepwise procedure because you are looking at many different models and want to adjust for the number of terms in the model. the Model Specification dialog appears as shown in Figure 6. It is in quotation marks because it does not have an F-distribution for testing the term because the model was selected as it was fit. DFE.4 without a fitting personality selection. For example. the model seen in the Current Estimates table appears in the Model Specification dialog. • “F Ratio” is the traditional test statistic to test that the term effect is zero. Make Model When you click Make Model. the Step History table records the effect of adding a term to the model. if you click Make Model after the backward selection in Figure 6. the number of parameters in the model. it could have a reported SS of zero.104 6 Stepwise Regression The Stepwise Window • nDF is the number of degrees of freedom for a term. If a term is restricted in some fashion. • SS is the reduction in the error (residual) SS if the term is entered into the model or the increase in the error SS if the term is removed from the model. and mean square error (residual) of the current model. • AIC is Akaike’s Information Criterion. select the model where Cp approaches p. degrees of freedom. . • RSquare is the proportion of the variation in the response that can be attributed to terms in the model rather than to random error. In this example.4. Step History Table As each step is taken. The Step History table for the Fitness data example shows the order in which the terms entered the model and shows the effect as reflected by R2 and Cp. It is the square of a t-ratio. three or four variables appear to be a good choice for a regression model. • “Prob>F” is the significance level associated with the F-statistic. • Cp is Mallow’s Cp criterion. A term has more than one degree of freedom if its entry into a model also forces other terms into the model. If you use Mallow’s Cp as a model selection criterion. Statistics for the current model appear above the list of effects: • SSE. Like the “F Ratio. • RSquareAdj adjusts R2 to make it more comparable over models with different numbers of parameters by using the degrees of freedom in its computation. MSE are the sum of squares.” it is in quotation marks because it is not to be trusted as a real significance probability.

6. Figure 6.5 All Possible Models When selected. . Note that this report is for a three-variable model consisting of Runtime. all possible models of the regression parameters are run. resulting in the report seen in Figure 6. and MaxPulse. RunPulse. It is accessible from the red triangle drop-down menu on the stepwise control panel (see Figure 6.5).4 New Model Specification dialog from Forward Stepwise Procedure All Possible Regressions Stepwise includes an All Possible Models command.6 Stepwise Regression All Possible Regressions 105 6 Stepwise Regression Figure 6.

. Right-click (Control-click on the Macintosh) and select Columns > Cp from the menu that appears. We suggest that no more than about 15 variables be used with this platform. To make it visible.106 6 Stepwise Regression All Possible Regressions Figure 6. Note: Mallow’s Cp statistic is computed. More may be possible. The model with the highest R2 for each number of parameters is highlighted.6 All Models Report The models are listed in decreasing order of the number of parameters they contain. but can strain computer memory (and human patience). but initially hidden in the table.

• Graph > Control Chart subcommands create control charts that can be updated dynamically as samples are received and recorded or added to the data table.jmp data in the Quality Control sample data folder (taken from the ASTM Manual on Presentation of Data and Control Chart Analysis).7 Control Charts Control charts are a graphical and analytic tool for deciding whether a process is in a state of statistical control and for monitoring an in-control process. • The vertical axis of a control chart is scaled in the same units as the summary statistic. An X -chart and an R-chart for the process are shown in Figure 7.1. Introduction Control charts have the following characteristics: • Each point represents a summary statistic computed from a subgroup sample of measurements of a quality characteristic. • The upper and lower control limits. The quality characteristic of interest is the Weight column. A subgroup sample of four is chosen. . give the range of variation to be expected in the summary statistic when the process is in statistical control. • A point outside the control limits signals the presence of a special cause of variation. This monitoring process is often called quality control or QC. Choose the Graph > Control Chart > XBar command. out of control point measurement axis UCL centerline LCL subgroup sample axis The following example uses the Coating. labeled UCL and LCL. • The center line on a Shewhart control chart indicates the average (expected) value of the summary statistic when the process is in statistical control. • The horizontal axis of a control chart identifies the subgroup samples. To replicate this example.

. Click OK. Change the Sample Size Constant from 5 to 4.108 7 Control Charts Introduction Note the selected chart types of XBar and R. Specify Weight as the Process variable. Sample six indicates that the process is not in statistical control. To check the sample values. Since our example has four samples in each subgroup. The corresponding rows highlight in the data table. click the sample six summary point on either control chart.

Figure 7.7 Control Charts Introduction 109 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Figure 7. The box plots in Figure 7.2 Quantiles Option in Fit Y By X Platform all values in sample six are high . change the modeling type of Sample to Nominal. First.2 show that the sixth sample has a small range of high values. Specify the interval variable Weight as Y and the nominal variable Sample as X.1 Variables Charts for Coating Data { You can use Fit Y by X for an alternative visualization of the data.

Figure 7. . for measurement variable selection • chart type information • limits specification.4 Control Chart Launch Dialog process information chart type information limits specification enter or remove known statistics Add capability analysis to report Through interaction with the Launch dialog.3 Control Chart Menu Specific information shown for each section varies according to the type of chart you request. the dialog shows three kinds of information: • process information. you specify exactly how you want your charts created. Figure 7.) Initially.4. you see a Control Chart Launch dialog similar to the one in Figure 7.110 7 Control Charts The Control Chart Launch Dialog The Control Chart Launch Dialog When you select a Control Chart from the Graph > Control Chart menu (Figure 7.3). (The exact controls vary depending on the type of chart you choose. The following sections describe the panel elements.

• For attribute charts. If no sample label variable is specified. check the Sample Size Constant radio button and enter the size into the text box. you specify the variables to be analyzed and the subgroup sample size. and u-charts). the samples are identified by their subgroup sample number. check the Sample Grouped by Sample Label radio button and enter the sample identifying column as the sample label. this variable is the subgroup sample size. When the chart type is IR.5 shows an X -chart for a process with unequal subgroup sample sizes. a Range Span text box appears. it identifies the sample. using the Coating. specify the defect count or defective proportion as the process. • If the sample subgroups have an unequal number of rows or have missing values and you have a column identifying each sample. Process selects variables for charting. If you entered a Sample Label variable. The illustration in Figure 7. c-. • If the sample subgroups are the same size. Here. specify measurements as the process. For attribute charts (p-.jmp sample data from the Quality Control sample data folder. its values are used to label the horizontal axis. Sample Label enables you to specify a variable whose values label the horizontal axis and can also identify unequal subgroup sizes. . • For variables charts. In Variables charts. np-.7 Control Charts The Control Chart Launch Dialog 111 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Process Information The Launch dialog displays a list of columns in the current data table. The range span specifies the number of consecutive measurements from which the moving ranges are computed.

for each level of the specified Phase variable.5 Variables Charts with Unequal Subgroup Sample Sizes Phase The Phase role enables you to specify a column identifying different phases. a new sigma. or sections. Phases generate. A phase is a group of consecutive observations in the data table.112 7 Control Charts The Control Chart Launch Dialog Figure 7. phases might correspond to time periods during which a new process is brought into production and then put through successive changes. and resulting tests. set of limits. zones. . For example.

r. Moving average charts and cusum charts can be thought of as special kinds of variables charts. and Median moving range charts. • The IR menu selection has checkbox options for the Individual Measurement. X . • The Cusum chart is a special chart for means or individual measurements.7 Control Charts The Control Chart Launch Dialog 113 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Chart Type Information Shewhart control charts are broadly classified as variables charts and attribute charts. and S checkboxes. R. Moving Range.and s- IR CUSUM • XBar charts menu selection gives XBar. .

. Figure 7.114 7 Control Charts The Control Chart Launch Dialog • P.6 compare the X -chart for the Coating. K Sigma allows specification of control limits in terms of a multiple of the sample standard error. Reasonable choices for α are 0. and U charts. NP. click K Sigma and enter a positive k value into the textbox. a tab with editable fields is appended to the bottom of the launch dialog. The dialog default for K Sigma is 3. assuming that the process is in control.jmp data with control lines drawn with K Sigma = 3 and K Sigma = 4. The example here shows 1 as the standard deviation of the process variable and 20 as the mean measurement. and Run Charts. the number of sigmas. This lets you enter historical statistics (statistics obtained from historical data) for the process variable. The examples shown in Figure 7. which is three standard deviations. There must be a specification of either K Sigma or Alpha. have no additional specifications.6 K Sigma =3 (left) and K Sigma=4 (right) Control Limits Alpha specifies control limits (also called probability limits) in terms of the probability α that a single subgroup statistic exceeds its control limits. The Control Chart platform uses those entries to construct control charts.001 Using Specified Statistics If you click the Specify Stats (when available) button on the Control Chart Launch dialog. Parameters You specify computations for control limits by entering a value for k (K Sigma) or by entering a probability for α(Alpha). K Sigma specifies control limits at k sample standard errors above and below the expected value. To specify k. click the Alpha radio button and enter the probability you want. which shows as the center line. C. To specify alpha. The usual choice for k is three.01 or 0.

the x-axis is labeled at every other tick.7. Sometimes this gives redundant labels. • There is a menu of items on the chart type title bar with options that affect each chart individually. After entering the specification limits and clicking OK.JMP data lists eight measures a day for three days. number of ticks. as shown in the chart on the right. the X Axis Specification dialog appears for you to specify the format. by default. gridline and reference lines to display on the x-axis. as shown to the left in Figure 7. If you specify a label at an increment of eight. a dialog appears as the platform is launched asking for specification limits.7 Example of Labeled x-Axis Tick Marks Display Options Control Charts have popup menus that affect various parts of the platform: • The menu on the top-most title bar affects the whole platform window. The standard deviation for the control chart selected is sent to the dialog and appears as a Specified Sigma value. . Its items vary with the type of chart you select. capability output appears in the same window next to the control chart. which is the default option.4). the Pickles. it is labeled in the plot as µ0. Figure 7. Tailoring the Horizontal Axis When you double-click the x-axis. with seven ticks between them. In this example. axis values. If you check the Capability option on the Control Chart launch dialog (see Figure 7. the x-axis is labeled once for each day. For example.7 Control Charts Tailoring the Horizontal Axis 115 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Note: When the mean is user-specified.

75th percentile. Connect Points toggles between connecting and not connecting the points. minimum. Box Plots superimposes box plots on the subgroup means plotted in a Mean chart. It is most appropriate for larger subgroup sample sizes (more than 10 samples in a subgroup). and median.116 7 Control Charts Display Options Single Chart Options The popup menu of chart options appears when you click the icon next to the chart name. You can use this option to suppress the markers denoting subgroup means when the Box Plots option is in effect. or right-click the chart space. . The box plot shows the subgroup maximum. Show Points toggles between showing and not showing the points representing summary statistics. Needle connects plotted points to the center line with a vertical line segment. Initially. The Box Plots option is available only for X -charts. Markers for subgroup means show unless you deselect the Show Points option. 25th percentile. The control limits displayed apply only to the subgroup mean. the points show.

These spe- . Tests 1 to 4 apply to Mean. Limits Color displays the JMP-SE color palette for you to choose the color of the line segments used in the upper and lower limits lines. Individual and attribute charts. Tests apply only for charts whose limits are 3σ limits. Center Line Color displays the JMP-SE color palette for you to choose the color of the line segments used to draw the center line. Tests 5 to 8 apply to Mean charts and Individual Measurement charts only. If tests do not apply to a chart. until the sample sizes become equal.8 Box Plot Option and Needle Option for Airport. the Tests option is dimmed. Deselecting Show Center Line removes the center line and its legend from the chart. but will not appear for charts whose control limits vary due to unequal subgroup sample sizes. Medium. Tests apply. Line Width allows you to pick the width of the control lines. Options are Thin. Show Center Line initially displays the center line in green. Show Control Limits toggles between showing and not showing the chart control limits and their legends. Tests shows a submenu that enables you to choose which tests to mark on the chart when the test is positive.7 Control Charts Display Options 117 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Figure 7.jmp Data Connect Color displays the JMP-SE color palette for you to choose the color of the line segments used to connect points. or Thick.

and C as shown here in the Mean plot for weight in the Coating. if you had unequal sample sizes. UCL. LCL. For example.jmp sample data. you could use this command. The curve shows how the probability of accepting a lot changes with the quality of the sample. c-. B.118 7 Control Charts Display Options cial tests are also referred to as the Western Electric rules. centered on the center line. The zones are labeled A. and regardless of the size of k or the width of the limits. OC curves are defined in JMP-SE only for X -. and sample size. Sigma. Show Zones toggles between showing and not showing the zone lines with the tests for special causes. K. Test Beyond Limits flags as a “*” any point that is beyond the limits. Westgard Rules are detailed in a later section. Alternatively. and wanted to flag any points beyond the limits of an r-chart. For more information on special causes tests. using all the calculated values directly from the active control chart. . regardless of the sample size being constant. Select the chart on which you want the curve based. OC Curve gives Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for specific control charts. see “Tests for Special Causes” on page 119 later in this chapter. When you choose the OC Curve option from the control chart option list. JMP-SE opens a new window containing the curve. then a dialog prompts you for Target. The example menu shown here appears if you request XBar and R at the same time.” p. p-. Control Chart tests use the zone lines as boundaries. This test works on all charts with limits. You can check each chart to show or hide it. The seven zone lines are set one sigma apart. you can run an OC curve directly from the QC tab on the JMP-SE Starter window. and u-charts. 122. Window Options The popup menu on the window title bar lists options that affect the report window. np-. See the text and chart in “Westgard Rules.

The left-hand chart in Figure 7. Tests for Special Causes The Tests option in the chart type popup menu displays a submenu for test selection. You can select one or more tests for special causes with the options popup menu. where the sequence is the moving set of points evaluated for that particular test. the label of the numerically lowest test specified appears beside the point.7 Control Charts Tests for Special Causes 119 7 Quality Control with Control Charts The specific options that are available depend on the type of control chart you request. and 10 missing with the points not connected. The following options show for all control charts except Run charts: Show Limits Legend shows or hides the Avg. UCL. Details are found in Figure 2. Unavailable options show as grayed menu items. which is the default.20 on page 39. 9. The middle chart has samples 8. the last point in the test sequence is labeled with the test number.9 Example of Connect thru Missing Option Script has a submenu of commands available to all platforms that let you redo the analysis or save the JSL commands for the analysis to a window or a file. Connect thru Missing connects points when some samples have missing values. When you select several tests for display and more than one test signals at a particular point.9 is a control chart with no missing points. If a selected test is positive. and LCL values to the right of the chart. Capability launches a capability analysis. Nelson (1984) developed the numbering notation used to identify special tests on control charts. . The right-hand chart appears if you use the Connect thru Missing option. Figure 7.

5. each with a width of one standard deviation. C. Tests 1 through 4 can also apply to p-. . or operators. Test 4 Fourteen points in a row detects systematic effects such as two alteralternating up and down nately used machines. 1985) Table 7. and 6 apply to the upper and lower halves of the chart separately. • A point lies in Zone B or beyond if it lies beyond the line separating zones C and B. • Any point lying on a line separating two zones lines is considered belonging to the outermost zone. and u-charts. A with zones C nearest the center line. For interpreting Test 1. an increase in the standard deviation. 2. B. Note: All Tests and zones require equal sample sizes in the subgroups of nonmissing data.1 Description and Interpretation of Special Causes Tests Test 1 One point beyond Zone A detects a shift in the mean. vendors.1 on page 120 lists and interprets the eight tests. 7. Tests 1. Tests 1 through 8 apply to Mean ( X ) and individual measurement charts. np-. or a single aberration in the process. 1985) for further recommendations on how to use these tests. 4. B. 3σ limits zones centerline Nelson (1984. and 8 apply to the whole chart. c-. • The zones are labeled A. The following rules apply to each test: • The area between the upper and lower limits is divided into six zones. Small trends will be signaled by this test before Test 1. C. Test 2 Nine points in a row in a sin. the R-chart can be used to rule out increases in variation. Tests 3. gle (upper or lower) side of Zone C or beyond Test 3 Six points in a row steadily detects a trend or drift in the process increasing or decreasing mean.120 7 Control Charts Tests for Special Causes Western Electric Rules Western Electric rules are implemented in the Tests submenu.10 illustrates the tests. Table 7. That is. and Figure 7. if it is more than one standard deviation from the centerline. See Nelson (1984.detects a shift in the process mean.

above and below the the observations in a single subgroup center line come from various sources with different means. but subgroups come from different sources with different means. Test 7 Fifteen points in a row in detects stratification of subgroups when Zone C. Test 6 Four out of five points in detects a shift in the process mean. Any Zone B or beyond four out of five points provide a positive test. Test 8 Eight points in a row on both detects stratification of subgroups when sides of the center line with the observations in one subgroup come none in Zones C from a single source.1 Description and Interpretation of Special Causes Tests Test 5 Two out of three points in a detects a shift in the process average or row in Zone A or beyond increase in the standard deviation. .7 Control Charts Tests for Special Causes 121 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Table 7. Any two out of three points provide a positive test.

1 2s refers to a test that one point is two standard deviations away from the mean. 1985) Westgard Rules Westgard rules are implemented under the Westgard Rules submenu of the Control Chart platform. The different tests are abbreviated with the decision rule for the particular test. For example.122 7 Control Charts Tests for Special Causes Figure 7. .10 Illustration of Special Causes Tests Test 1: One point beyond Zone A UCL A B C C B A Test 2: Nine points in a row in a single (upper or lower) side of Zone C or beyond UCL A B C C B A Avg 2 Avg LCL LCL 1 Test 3: Six points in a row steadily increasing or decreasing A 3 UCL B C C B A Test 4: Fourteen points in a row alternating up and down A B C C B A UCL Avg LCL Avg LCL 4 Test 5: Two out of three points in a row in Zone A or beyond UCL A 5 5 B C C B A Test 6: Four out of five points in a row in Zone B or beyond UCL A 6 B C C B A Avg 5 LCL Avg LCL Test 7: Fifteen points in a row in Zone C (above and below the centerline) UCL A B C C B A Test 8: Eight points in a row on both sides of the centerline with none in Zone C UCL A B C C B A 7 Avg LCL Avg 8 LCL Nelson (1984.

7 Control Charts Tests for Special Causes 123 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Because Westgard rules are based on sigma and not the zones.+3s +2s tive measurements are more than one +1s standard deviation from the mean.2 Westgard Rules Rule 1 2s is commonly used with Levey-Jennings plots. -1s -2s -3s Rule 2 2s is triggered when two consecu+3s +3s +2s +1s -1s -2s -3s UCL Avg LCL UCL Avg LCL UCL Avg LCL UCL Avg LCL UCL Avg LCL UCL Avg LCL tive control measurements are farther than +2s +1s two standard deviations from the mean. Rule 1 3s refers to a rule common to +3s Levey-Jennings plots where the control limits are set 3 standard deviations away +2s +1s from the mean. The rule is triggered when any one point goes beyond these limits. where control limits are set 2 standard deviations away from the mean. -1s -2s -3s Rule 10 X is triggered when ten consecu. they can be computed without regard to constant sample size. -1s -2s -3s Rule 4s is triggered when one measure- ment in a group is two standard deviations above the mean and the next is two standard deviations below. The rule is triggered when any one point goes beyond these limits.+3s +2s tive points are on one side of the mean. Table 7. +3s +2s +1s -1s -2s -3s Rule 4 1s is triggered when four consecu. +1s -1s -2s -3s .

but does after creating the chart. not appear on the graph. Some additional notes: 1 Exclude and Hide operate only on the row state of the first observation in the sample. Sample is both excluded and hidden Sample is not included in the calculation of the limits. the sample label will still appear on the axis. and before creating the chart. it appears on the graph. but does chart. The Control Chart platform in JMP-SE implements a variety of control charts: . Hidden. The sample marker will disappear from the graph.3 Excluded. and it chart. appears in the graph. Sample is hidden after creating the Sample is included in the calculation of the limits. not appear on the graph. Sample is both excluded and hidden Sample is included in the calculation of the limits. For example. but limits remain the same. the sample label will still appear on the axis. does not appear on the graph. the graph will shift. Sample is hidden before creating the Sample is included in the calculation of the limits. but chart. The sample marker will disappear from the graph. Nothing will change on the output by excluding a sample with the graph open. The sample marker will disappear from the graph. Data set is subsetted with Sample Sample is not included in the calculation of the limits. the sample will still appear on the chart.124 7 Control Charts Excluded. the deleted before creating chart. and Deleted Samples Sample is excluded before creating the Sample is not included in the calculation of the limits. and Deleted Samples The following table summarizes the effects of various conditions on samples and subgroups: Table 7. but will not flag if a sample is hidden. the sample label will still be removed from the axis. and the limits will change. but does chart. and deleted after creating chart. Moving average charts are special kinds of control charts for variables. if the second observation in the sample is hidden. 2 An exception to the exclude/hide rule: Tests for Special Causes can flag if a sample is excluded. not appear on the graph. axis will not include a value for the sample. Hidden. Hidden. but limits remain the same. while the first observation is not hidden. Shewhart Control Charts Shewhart control charts are broadly classified into control charts for variables and control charts for attributes. Sample is excluded after creating the Sample is included in the calculation of the limits. and Deleted Samples Excluded. Data set is subsetted with Sample Sample is not included in the calculation of the limits. it does not appear on the graph. and the sample marker does not appear on the graph.

• The Sample Size option should automatically change to Sample Grouped by Sample Label. • p-. different from other platforms in JMP-SE. and u. np-. np-. R-. An X -chart and an S chart for the process are shown in Figure 7. the individual measurement chart shows above its corresponding moving range chart. • Specify Weight 2 as the Process variable. and S. • Choose the Graph > Control Chart > XBar command. • Individual and Moving Range charts. . R-. in the Quality Control sample data folder. • Run charts display data as a connected series of points. XBar-. is that they update dynamically as data is added or changed in the table. c-. and u-charts. • Click OK. and S-charts. Shewhart Control Charts for Variables Control charts for variables are classified according to the subgroup summary statistic plotted on the chart: • X -charts display subgroup means (averages) • R-charts display subgroup ranges (maximum – minimum) • S-charts display subgroup standard deviations. a typical analysis shows both the process mean and its variability with a mean chart aligned above its corresponding R.charts One feature special to Control Charts. if you are charting individual measurements. r-. • Specify the column. IR-. Or. This time the quality characteristic of interest is the Weight 2 column. The IR selection gives two additional chart types: • Individual Measurement charts display individual measurements • Moving Range charts display moving ranges of two or more successive measurements. To replicate this example. p-.7 Control Charts Shewhart Control Charts for Variables 125 7 Quality Control with Control Charts • X -.11.and S-charts with varying subgroup sizes This example uses the same data as example 1. • Phase Control Charts for X -.s Example.Charts For quality characteristics measured on a continuous scale.or S-chart. Sample as the Sample Label variable. Coating. • Select the chart types of XBar and S. c-.jmp. X .

5. each sample has the same number of observations.126 7 Control Charts Shewhart Control Charts for Variables Figure 7. . the zones and/or tests will be applied immediately and appear on the chart. no zones or tests will appear on the chart until all samples are equally sized. samples 1. The following example is a Run chart for the Weight variable from Coating. and the zone and/or test option is selected. so you may notice the chart has uneven limits. as neither are valid on charts with unequally sized samples. If the samples change while the chart is open and they become equally sized. Run Charts Run charts display a column of data as a connected series of points. Note: Although they will turn on and appear checked.11 X and S charts for Varying Subgroup Sizes Weight 2 has several missing values in the data.jmp. Although. and 7 each have a missing value. 3.

The dialog in Figure 7. Because moving ranges are correlated. When saving limits to a file. the median is used as the center line. 2. and acidity measurements. Otherwise. Run charts can also plot the group means when a sample label is given. Example. The default range span is 2. Individual Measurement and Moving Range Charts The Pickles. Individual Measurement Charts Individual Measurement Chart Type displays individual measurements. When Use Median is selected. . Moving ranges are computed for the number of consecutive measurements you enter in the Range Span box. The acidity in four vats is measured each day at 1. both the overall mean and median are saved.7 Control Charts Shewhart Control Charts for Variables 127 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Figure 7. the mean is used. time. these charts should be interpreted with care. and 3 PM. a line is drawn through the center value of the column. Individual Measurement charts are appropriate when only one measurement is available for each subgroup sample.12 Run Chart When you select the Show Center Line option in the Run Chart drop-down.13 creates Individual Measurement and Moving Range charts with date labels on the horizontal axis. The data table records day. either on the dialog or through a script. Moving Range Chart Type displays moving ranges of two or more successive measurements.jmp data in the Quality Control sample data folder contains the acid content for vats of pickles. Because the pickles are sensitive to acidity and produced in large vats.The center line is determined by the Use Median setting of the platform drop-down. high acidity ruins an entire pickle vat.

• Select both Individual Measurement and Moving Range chart types. . The individual measurement and moving range charts shown in Figure 7.13 Launch Dialog for Individual Measurement and Moving Range Chart To complete this example. • Click OK. • Specify Date as the Sample Label variable.14 monitor the acidity in each vat produced. • Specify Acid as the Process variable. • Choose the Graph > Control Chart > IR command.128 7 Control Charts Shewhart Control Charts for Variables Figure 7.

Shewhart Control Charts for Attributes In the previous types of charts. it is important when comparing charts to determine whether you have similar number of items in the subgroups between the charts. rather than the Average Moving Range. the number of defects is counted non-conforming The subgroups are a The subgroups vary in The subgroups are a The subgroups vary in constant size size constant size size np-chart p-chart c-Chart u-chart . where the variable of interest is a discrete count of the number of defects or blemishes per subgroup. Another type of data is count data. For discrete count data. the limits on the Individuals chart use the Median Moving Range as the sigma. attribute charts are applicable. Attribute charts.7 Control Charts Shewhart Control Charts for Attributes 129 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Figure 7. like variables charts. as they are based on binomial and poisson models. are classified according to the subgroup sample statistic plotted on the chart: Table 7. Since the counts are measured per subgroup. measurement data was the process variable. This data is often continuous. and the charts are based on continuous theory.4 Determining which Attribute Chart to use Each item is judged as either conforming or For each item.14 Individual Measurement and Moving Range Charts for Pickles Data Note: If you choose a Median Moving range chart.

• c-charts display the number of nonconformities (defects) in a subgroup sample that usually consists of one inspection unit. the maximum number of nonconforming items in a subgroup is N. The example here illustrates an np-chart for the number of defects. we can specify a sample size variable. Since each subgroup for a np-chart consists of Ni items. Thus. • Click OK. Since each subgroup for a p-chart consists of N items. Figure 7. the maximum number of nonconforming items in subgroup i is Ni.15 np-Chart Example. p-Charts Again. . which would allow for varying sample sizes. • u-charts display the number of nonconformities (defects) per unit in subgroup samples that can have a varying number of inspection units.and np-Charts Example. To replicate this example. using the Washers.jmp data. • np-charts display the number of nonconforming (defective) items in constant sized subgroup samples. np-Charts The Washers. • Change the Constant Size to 400. and an item is judged as either conforming or nonconforming. the defect count represents how many washers were defective for each lot of size 400. it was deemed nonconforming or defective. The washers were inspected for finish defects such as rough galvanization and exposed steel. follow these steps: • Choose the Graph > Control Chart > NP command. p.jmp data in the Quality Control sample data folder contains defect counts of 15 lots of 400 galvanized washers.130 7 Control Charts Shewhart Control Charts for Attributes • p-charts display the proportion of nonconforming (defective) items in subgroup samples which can vary in size. • Choose # defects as the Process variable. and an item is judged as either conforming or nonconforming. If a washer contained a finish defect.

• Click OK. shown here. Figure 7. • Choose Lot Size as the Sample Size variable. .16 p-Chart Note that although the points on the chart look the same as the np-chart. Follow these steps or submit the JSL script below: • Choose the Graph > Control Chart > P command. the y-axis. and select Capability.jmp data in the Quality Control sample data folder records the defect count in boxes of automobile support braces. Avg and limits are all different since they are now based on proportions u-Charts The Braces. • Choose # defects as the Process variable. A box of braces is one inspection unit. The number of boxes inspected (per day) is the subgroup sample size. JMP-SE launches the Poisson Fit in Distri- bution and gives a Poisson-specific capability analysis.7 Control Charts Shewhart Control Charts for Attributes 131 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Note: This data contains all constant sample sizes. The chart shown here illustrates a p-chart for the proportion of defects. • Choose Lot as the Sample Label variable. which can vary. Note:When you generate a u-chart. The upper and lower bounds vary according to the number of units inspected. is monitoring the number of brace defects per subgroup sample size. The u-chart.

they require constant subgroup sizes.jmp data in the Quality Control sample data folder. JMP-SE launches the Poisson Fit in Distribu- tion and gives a Poisson-specific capability analysis. • Choose Box as the Sample Label. follow these steps or submit the JSL below. u-Charts To replicate this example. the number of flaws found in each box is divided by ten and then recorded. To replicate this example.132 7 Control Charts Shewhart Control Charts for Attributes Figure 7. • Choose the Graph > Control Chart > C command. Example 10. However. • Choose Date as the Sample Label. c-Charts c-charts are similar to u-charts in that they monitor the number of nonconformities in an entire subgroup. • Click OK. made up of one or more units.17 u-Chart Example. a clothing manufacturer ships shirts in boxes of ten. • Choose Box Size as the Sample Size. Since the manufacturer is interested in the average number of flaws per shirt. c-charts can also be used to monitor the average number of defects per inspection unit. • Choose # Defects as the Process variable. Prior to shipment. c-Charts for Noncomformities per Unit In this example. • Choose # defects as the Process variable. . and select Capability. • Open the Shirts.jmp data in the Quality Control sample data folder. • Choose the Graph > Control Chart > U command. • Choose Unit size as the Unit Size variable. follow these steps or submit the JSL below. • Open the Braces. Note:When you generate a c-chart. each shirt is inspected for flaws.

18 c-Chart Phases A phase is a group of consecutive observations in the data table. • Click OK. a Phase variable button appears. a new sigma. s-. np-. Presummarized. found in the Quality Control sample data folder. zones. u-. p-. c-. Saving to a limits file reveals the sigma and specific limits calculated for each phase. the phase variable is examined. Example Open Diameter. and Phase as the Phase. to identify to which phase each row belongs. For example. r-. . DAY as the Sample Label. and Levey-Jennings charts. and resulting tests. • Select Graph > Control Chart > XBar. phases might correspond to time periods during which a new process is brought into production and then put through successive changes. for each level of the specified Phase variable. This data set contains the diameters taken for each day. Figure 7. both with the first prototype (phase 1) and the second prototype (phase 2). On the dialog for X -. If a phase variable is specified. set of limits.JMP. row by row. IR-.7 Control Charts Phases 133 7 Quality Control with Control Charts • Click OK. Phases generate. • Choose DIAMETER as the Process.

20 Phase Control Chart .134 7 Control Charts Phases Figure 7.19 Launch Dialog for Phases The resulting chart has different limits for each phase Figure 7.

horizontal control limits define whether a point signals an out-of-control condition. JMP cusum charts can be one-sided. or two-sided to detect a shift in either direction. Points crossing the lower arm signal an increasing process mean. In cusum charts. Figure 7. . Cusum charts are graphical and analytical tools for deciding whether a process is in a state of statistical control and for detecting a shift in the process mean. Both charts can be specified in terms of geometric parameters (h and k described in Figure 7. the limits can be either in the form of a V-mask or a horizontal decision interval. The origin of a V-mask is the most recently plotted point.21).7 Control Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts 135 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) charts display cumulative sums of subgroup or individual measurements from a target value. you compare the points with limits that compose a V-mask. A condition is out-of-control if one or more of the points previously plotted crosses the upper or lower arm of the V-mask. There are major differences between cusum charts and other control (Shewhart) charts: • A Shewhart control chart plots points based on information from a single subgroup sample. On a cusum chart. which detect a shift in one direction from a specified target mean.21. As data are collected. as in Figure 7.21 Illustration of a V-Mask for a Two-Sided Cusum Chart upper arm vertex lower arm d h the rise in the arm corresponding to the distance (d) from origin to vertex 1 unit k. the cumulative sum sequence is updated and the origin is relocated at the newest point. and points crossing the upper arm signal a downward shift. two-sided charts allow specification in terms of error probabilities α and β. • On a Shewhart control chart. To interpret a two-sided Cusum chart. A V-mask is formed by plotting V-shaped limits. The point where the slope changes is the point where the shift occurs. and the arms extended backward on the x-axis. each point is based on information from all samples taken up to and including the current subgroup. the rise in the arm corresponding to one sampling unit Shifts in the process mean are visually easy to detect on a cusum chart because they produce a change in the slope of the plotted points.

Launch Options for Cusum Charts When you choose Graph > Control Charts > Cusum. Choose H as a multiple of the standard error.26). For a one-sided scheme. a one-sided scheme is used and no V-mask appears. If an H value is specified. When you click H. . Data Units specifies that the cumulative sums be computed without standardizing the subgroup means or individual values so that the vertical axis of the cusum chart is scaled in the same units as the data. H is the decision interval. from error probabilities. Note: The following items pertain only to cusum charts: Two Sided requests a two-sided cusum scheme when checked. Beta specifies the probability of failing to discover that the specified shift occurred. the Control Charts Launch dialog appears. Beta is the probability of a Type II error and is available only when you specify Alpha. H is the vertical distance h between the origin for the V-mask and the upper or lower arm of the V-mask for a two-sided scheme. Lucas (1976) comments that a V-mask detects a 1σ shift about four times as fast as a Shewhart control chart. including appropriate options and specifications as shown here. On a cusum chart. the Beta entry box is labeled K. Note: Data Units requires that the subgroup sample size be designated as constant. You also enter a value for the increase in the lower V-mask per unit change on the subgroup axis (See Figure 7. A cusum chart is more efficient for detecting small shifts in the process mean. If it is not checked. which lets you enter the process variable specifications. a decision interval is displayed. Specify Stats appends the panel shown here to the Control Charts Launch dialog. or from an economic design.136 7 Control Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts • The control limits on a Shewhart control chart are commonly specified as 3σ limits. the limits are determined from average run length.

Delta is an alternative to the Shift option (described next). and n is the (common) subgroup sample size. Connect Points connects the sample points with a straight line. the Control Chart platform estimates sigma from the data. σ0. Cusum Chart Options Cusum charts have these options (in addition to standard chart options). and you interpret it as a shift in the mean of the sampling distribution of the subgroup mean. ∆ represents the shift. By default. Enter Head Start as a multiple of standard error. S0. Show Points shows or hides the sample data points. Delta specifies the absolute value of the smallest shift to be detected as a multiple of the process standard deviation or of the standard error. Head Start specifies an initial value for the cumulative sum. Sigma specifies a known standard deviation.7 Control Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts 137 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Target is the target mean (goal) for the process or population. You can use Sigma instead of the Alpha option on the Control Charts Launch dialog. σ represents the process standard deviation. respectively. for the process standard deviation. The relationship between Shift and Delta is given by ∆ δ = ----------------------(σ ⁄ ( n)) where δ represents Delta. The target mean must be scaled in the same units as the data. depending on whether the shift is viewed as a shift in the population mean or as a shift in the sampling distribution of the subgroup mean. . You can choose either Shift or Delta. You enter the shift value in the same units as the data. Shift is the minimum value you want to detect on either side of the target mean. σ. for a one-sided cusum scheme (S0 is usually zero).

µ0. The filling process is believed to be in statistical control. is 0. .26) that summarizes the Cusum charting parameters. • Choose the Graph > Control Chart > CUSUM command. Show Shift shows or hides the shift you entered. The Control Chart platform assumes that the data are sorted in increasing order.10 ounces. Center Line Color displays the JMP color palette for you to select a color for the center line. • Click the H radio button and enter 2 into the text box. Subgroup samples of four cans are selected and weighed every hour for twelve hours. Show V Mask shows or hides the V-mask based on the parameters (statistics) specified on the Control Charts Launch dialog when Cusum is selected as the Chart Type. To create a Cusum chart for this example. A machine fills 8-ounce cans of two-cycle engine oil additive. or center line.jmp data table contains one value of weight along with its associated value of hour. is 8.10 ounces. Two-Sided Cusum Chart with V-mask To see an example of a two-sided cusum chart. • Specify hour as the Sample Label. The observations are sorted so that the values of hour are in increasing order. open the Oil1 Cusum. A two-sided cusum chart is used to detect shifts of at least one standard deviation in either direction from the target mean of 8.jmp file from the Quality Control sample data folder. σ0.138 7 Control Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts Mask Color displays the JMP color palette for you to select a line color for the V-mask. Show Parameters displays a Parameters table (see Figure 7. • Specify weight as the Process variable.05 ounces. Connect Color displays the JMP color palette for you to select a color for the connect line when the Connect Points option is in effect. • Click the Two Sided check box if it is not already checked. Each observation in the Oil1 Cusum. Previous analysis shows that the standard deviation of fill weights. Show ARL displays the average run length (ARL) information. Example 1. The process is set so that the average weight of a filled can.

Figure 7.1.22. there is no evidence that a shift in the process has occurred.7 Control Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts 139 7 Quality Control with Control Charts • Click Specify Stats to open the Known Statistics for CUSUM chart tab. The finished dialog should look like the one in Figure 7. the chart in Figure 7. Because none of the points cross the arms of the V-mask.05. Figure 7. . • Enter a Delta value of 1. • Set Sigma to the standard deviation of 0.23 Cusum Chart for Oil1 Cusum.jmp Data You can interpret the chart by comparing the points with the V-mask whose right edge is centered at the most recent point (hour=12).23 appears. • Set Target to the average weight of 8.22 Dialog for Cusum Chart Example When you click OK.

. and a downward shift is signaled by points crossing the upper arm. Anything 0. • Click the H radio button and enter 0. where the machine fills 8-ounce cans of engine oil. and not so concerned about under-filling. • Set Sigma to the standard deviation 0.25.1 is considered a problem. • Enter a Delta value of 1. The time at which the shift occurred corresponds to the time at which a distinct change is observed in the slope of the plotted points.140 7 Control Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts A shift or out-of-control condition is signaled at a time t if one or more of the points plotted up to the time t cross an arm of the V-mask. • Deselect the Two Sided check box.24 is the previous chart with additional points. One-Sided Cusum Chart with no V-mask Consider the data used in Example 1. An upward shift is signaled by points crossing the lower arm. To do this example. Consider also that the manufacturer is now concerned about significant over-filling in order to cut costs.25 ounces beyond the mean of 8. • Set Target to the average weight of 8. The Cusum chart in Figure 7.24 Updated Cusum Chart for the OIL Data Example 2. • Click Specify Stats to open the Known Statistics for CUSUM chart tab.25 into the text box.05. The cusum chart automatically updates when you add new samples. Figure 7. A one-sided Cusum Chart can be used to identify data approaching or exceeding the side of interest.1. The resulting output should look like the picture in Figure 7. The center line and V-mask adjust to reflect the process condition at that point. • Specify hour as the Sample Label. You can move the origin of the V-mask by using the hand to click a point. • Choose the Graph > Control Chart > CUSUM command. • Specify weight as the Process variable.

26 Show Parameters and Show ARL Options .25 One-Sided Cusum Chart for the OIL Data Notice that the decision interval or horizontal line is set at the H-value entered (0. The average run length is the expected number of samples taken before an out-of-control condition is signaled: • ARL (Delta). Also note that no V-mask appears with One-Sided Cusum charts. is the average run length for detecting a shift the size of the specified Delta • ARL(0).26. The Show Parameters option in the Cusum chart popup menu shows the Parameters report in Figure 7. Figure 7. Show ARL. adds the average run length (ARL) information to the report. An additional chart option. sometimes denoted ARL1.25).7 Control Charts Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Charts 141 7 Quality Control with Control Charts Figure 7. is the in-control average run length for the specified parameters (Montogomery (1985)). sometimes denoted ARL0. The parameters report summarizes the charting parameters from the Known Statistics for CUSUM chart tab on the Control Chart Launch dialog.

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sorted ascending. y2. The time series variable is Passengers and the time ID is Time. For this example. Optionally.1 Launch Dialog . autoregressive integrated moving-average. analyze.1). and forecast univariate time series. evenly spaced. and without missing values. you can specify a time ID variable. Time Series and Time as X. Figure 8. Note: The Time Series Launch dialog requires that one or more continuous variables be assigned as the time series. It also lets you specify the number of future periods to forecast using each model fitted to the data. Introduction The data for the next examples are in the Seriesg. which is used to label the time axis. The analysis begins with a plot of the points in the time series..8 Time Series The Time Series platform lets you explore.. . If a time ID variable is specified. it must be continuous.jmp table found in the Time Series sample data folder (Box and Jenkins 1976). assign Passengers as Y. the platform displays graphs of the autocorrelations and partial autocorrelations of the series. often called Box-Jenkins models • Smoothing Models. This dialog allows you to specify the number of lags to use in computing the autocorrelations and partial autocorrelations. several forms of exponential smoothing and Winter’s method. The model types include • ARIMA.yN of observations taken over a series of equally-spaced time periods. Time ID. A time series is a set y1. These indicate how and to what degree each point in the series is correlated with earlier values in the series and can be used to identify the type of model appropriate for describing and predicting (forecasting) the evolution of the time series. Select Analyze > Time Series to display the Time Series Launch dialog (Figure 8. . In addition.

This should be accounted for before modeling the series. A column containing a count of Log Passengers is already included in the table. Time Series and Time as X. .144 8 Time Series Introduction The first thing you see is a graph showing the time series.2 Initial Time Series Report The graph shows that the series has an increasing spread over time. Figure 8. In general. Again select Analyze > Time Series Assign Log Passengers as Y. Time ID. and its partial autocorrelation graph. its autocorrelation graph. increasing variances are transformed using logarithms. The series now has an acceptable appearance for modeling.

JMP Student Edition estimates the model and displays a model summary. and a forecast graph. . but the partial autocorrelation graph drops off drastically after lag 1.3 Log Passenger Series Since the autocorrelation graph decreases slowly and steadily. Moving Average Order. a reasonable guess for a model is an MA(1). Click Estimate. is the residuals. Enter a 1 beside q. To try this model. parameter estimates. Select ARIMA from the platform menu. however. which is initially closed.8 Time Series Introduction 145 8 Time Series Figure 8. The most important graph.

4 Model Results Open the Residuals node to reveal a graph and autocorrelation plots for the model residuals.5 MA(1)Model Results . Figure 8.146 8 Time Series Introduction Figure 8.

7). the MA(2) is a worse fit than the MA(1). highlight points with the cursor or brush tool. In fact. The Time Series Platform First.8 Time Series The Time Series Platform 147 8 Time Series The expected reduction in spikes did not occur. along with appropriate fit statistics. select it in the role box and click Remove. has features to resize the graph. can be run in the same way. Moving Average Order. note that JMP is accumulating a list of models. assign columns for analysis with the dialog in Figure 8. A second model. The selector list at the left of the dialog shows all columns in the current table. or row number if no time ID is specified (Figure 8. Some reflection is necessary. Enter a 2 beside q. drag variables from the column selector list to one of the following role boxes: X. Time ID for the x-axis. and label points. where n is the number of observations. an MA(2). By default. select one or more columns in the column selector list and click a role button. one or more time series variables. JMP uses 25 lags and 25 forecast periods The Time Series Graph The Time Series platform begins with a plot of each times series by the time ID. . This is the maximum number of periods between points used in the com- putation of the correlations. To cast a column into a role. Figure 8. click OK to see the analysis for each time series variable versus the time ID. It must be more than one but less than the number of rows. Or. Click Estimate. You set the number of lags for the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation plots in the Autocorrelation Lags box. The plot. The Forecast Periods box allows you to set the number of periods into the future that the fitted models are forecast. Similar unsatisfactory results appear. Time Series for the y-axis. in the Model Comparison table. like others in JMP. A commonly used rule of thumb for the maximum number of lags is n/4. After assigning roles. Select ARIMA from the platform menu. so an MA(1) is not an appropriate model.1.6 Model Comparison Table Examine the R2 for the two models in this table. However. To remove an unwanted variable from an assigned role. one variable used for labeling the time axis Y.

The platform popup menu. The ARIMA and Smoothing Model commands are for fitting various models to the data and producing forecasts. These are typically used to determine the nature of the model to be fitted to the series. You can select the model fitting commands repeatedly. also has fitting commands and options for displaying additional graphs and statistical tables. 151). discussed next.148 8 Time Series Time Series Commands Figure 8.7 Time Series Plot of Seriesg (Airline Passenger) Data By default. The result of each new fit is appended to the report. The following sections describe options and model fits. graphs of the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation (Figure 8.” p. Time Series Commands The popup menu next to the time series name has the commands shown here. discuss statistical results. The first three items in this menu control the descriptive and diagnostic graphs and tables. but can be hidden with commands from the platform popup menu on the Time Series title bar. a summary of all the models is inserted just above the first model report (an example is shown in “Model Comparison Table. . After the first model has been fit. and cover additional platform features.5) of the time series are also shown.

• Show Points hides or displays the points in the time series graph. In addition. confidence curves show twice the large-lag standard error (± 2 standard errors). Partial Autocorrelation The Partial Autocorrelation command alternately hides or displays the graph of the sample partial autocorrelations. The autocorrelation plot for the Seriesg data is shown on the left in Figure 8. The plot on the right in Figure 8. You can examine the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelations plots to determine whether the time series is stationary (meaning it has a fixed mean and standard deviation over time) and what model might be appropriate to fit the time series. often called the sample autocorrelation function. By definition. like the one shown previously in Figure 8. This graph describes the correlation between all the pairs of points in the time series with a given separation in time or lag. Autocorrelation The Autocorrelation command alternately hides or displays the autocorrelation graph of the sample.8 Time Series Time Series Commands 149 8 Time Series Graph The Time Series platform begins by showing a time series plot. The Graph command on the platform popup menu has a submenu of controls for the time series plot with the following commands. • Time Series Graph hides or displays the time series graph. The solid black lines represent ± 2 standard errors for approximate 95% confidence limits . the first autocorrelation (lag 0) always has length 1. • Connecting Lines hides or displays the lines connecting the points in the time series graph.8.7.8 shows the partial autocorrelation function for the Seriesg data. • Mean Line hides or displays a horizontal line in the time series graph that depicts the mean of the time series.

using a Kalman filter to compute the likelihood function. as discussed previously in their respective sections. These commands also produce statistics and residuals that allow you to ascertain the adequacy of the model you have elected to use. Each time you select a model.8 Autocorrelation and Partial Correlation Plots Number of Forecast Periods The Number of Forecast Periods command displays a dialog for you to reset the number of periods into the future that the fitted models will forecast. seasonal ARIMA. and smoothing models begin with the following report tables. a report of the results of the fit and a forecast is added to the platform results. . All existing and future forecast results will show the new number of periods with this command. You can select the modeling commands repeatedly. The initial value is set in the Time Series Launch dialog. Modeling Reports The time series modeling commands are used to fit theoretical models to the series and use the fitted model to predict (forecast) future values of the series. Each general class of models has its own dialog. The models are fit by maximizing the likelihood function. The fit of each model begins with a dialog that lets you specify the details of the model being fit as well as how it will be fit. The ARIMA.150 8 Time Series Modeling Reports Figure 8.

The Model Comparison table shown above summarizes the ARIMA models (1. The numerical values in the table are drawn from the Model Summary table for each fitted model. 154. Smaller values are better fits. where values closer to 1 indicate a better fit.8 Time Series Modeling Reports 151 8 Time Series Model Comparison Table The Model Comparison table summarizes the fit statistics for each model. Schwartz’s Bayesian Criterion [SBC or BIC] are goodness of fit statistics. • Invertible indicates whether the moving average operator is invertible. Model Summary Table Each model fit generates a Model Summary table. • DF is the number of degrees of freedom in the fit. Note: The φ and θ operators are defined in the section “ARIMA Model. This is a sample estimate of the standard deviation of at. n – k. • –2LogLikelihood is minus two times the natural log of the likelihood function evaluated at the best-fit parameter estimates. and (1. whether all the roots of θ ( z ) = 0 lie outside the unit circle. • Standard Deviation is the square root of the variance estimate. That is. detailed in the online help. described in the section “ARIMA Model. whether all the roots of φ ( z ) = 0 lie outside the unit circle. SSE / (n – k). • Stable indicates whether the autoregressive operator is stable. 1). 0. Smaller values of these criteria indicate better fit. 0. 0. • RSquare and RSquare Adj are also goodness of fit statistics. 1) respectively. SSE. 154. This is the sample estimate of the variance of the random shocks at. 0). In the formulae below. • Sum of Squared Errors is the sum of the squares of the prediction errors. Each row corresponds to a different model.” p.” p. (0. • Variance Estimate is the unconditional sum of squares (SSE) divided by the number of degrees of freedom. which summarizes the statistics of the fit. n is the number of nonmissing observations and k is the number of fitted parameters in the model. You can use it to compare several models fitted to the same time series. . That is. the random shocks • Akaike’s Information Criterion [AIC].

• t Ratio lists the test statistics for the hypotheses that each parameter is zero. which gives the estimates for the time series model parameters. Looking for a t-ratio greater than 2 in absolute value is a common rule of thumb for judging significance because it approximates the 0. It is the ratio of the parameter estimate to its standard error. by chance alone. . • Prob>|t| lists the observed significance probability calculated from each t-ratio. Each type of model has its own set of parameters. The Parameter Estimates table has these terms: • Term lists the name of the parameter.05 significance level. Factor 1 is nonseasonal and Factor 2 is seasonal. the related constant estimate is also shown. given a true hypothesis. then this statistic has an approximate Student’s t-distribution. Often.05 (or sometimes 0. They are described in the sections on specific time series models. • Estimate lists the parameter estimates of the time series model. 154.01) is interpreted as evidence that the parameter is significantly different from zero. In the multiplicative seasonal models. a value below 0. They are used in constructing tests and confidence intervals. If the hypothesis is true. for models that contain an intercept or mean term. • Std Error lists the estimates of the standard errors of the parameter estimates.” p. These are described below for each model type.152 8 Time Series Modeling Reports Parameter Estimates Table There is a Parameter Estimates table for each selected fit. In those models. The definition of the constant estimate is given under the description of ARIMA models. The Parameter Estimates table also gives the Constant Estimate. • Lag lists the degree of the lag or backshift operator that is applied to the term to which the parameter is multiplied. a t-ratio greater (in absolute value) than the computed value. It is the probability of getting. This is only shown for multiplicative models. Some models contain an intercept or mean term. The definition of the constant estimate is given under “ARIMA Model. • Factor (Seasonal ARIMA only) lists the factor of the model that contains the parameter.

This can be useful for diagnosing problems with the fitting procedure. Iteration History The model parameter estimation is an iterative procedure by which the log-likelihood is maximized by adjusting the estimates of the parameters. You can control the number of forecast values by changing the setting of the Forecast Periods box in the platform launch dialog or by selecting Number of Forecast Periods from the Time Series drop-down menu. If it is. These are the actual values minus the one-step-ahead predicted values. The data and confidence intervals can be toggled on and off using the Show Points and Show Confidence Interval commands on the model’s popup menu. The Forecast plot shows the values that the model predicts for the time series. To the right of the line are the future values forecast by the model and the confidence intervals for the forecasts. the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation of these residuals are shown. the points in the residual plot should be normally distributed about the zero line and the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation of the residuals should not have any significant components for lags greater than zero.8 Time Series Modeling Reports 153 8 Time Series Forecast Plot Each model has its own Forecast plot. Residuals The graphs under the residuals section of the output show the values of the residuals based on the fitted model. It is divided by a vertical line into two regions. To the left of the separating line the one-step-ahead forecasts are shown overlaid with the input data points. In addition. These can be used to determine whether the fitted model is adequate to describe the data. . The iteration history for each model you request shows the value of the likelihood function for each iteration. Attempting to fit a model which is poorly suited to the data can result in a large number of iterations that fail to converge on an optimum value for the likelihood.

For a response series { y i } . 2 p 2 q The a t are assumed to be independent and normally distributed with mean zero and constant variance. The ARIMA command performs a maximum likelihood fit of the specified ARIMA model to the time series. however. The model can be rewritten as φ ( B )w t = δ + θ ( B )a t where the constant estimate δ is given by the relation .154 8 Time Series ARIMA Model Model Report Options The title bar for each model you request has the popup menu shown to the right. Show Confidence Interval hides or shows the confidence intervals in the forecast graph. 148. they are applied to the residual series (the one-step-ahead model predictions minus the input series). ARIMA Model An AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model predicts future values of a time series by a linear combination of its past values and a series of errors (also known as random shocks or innovations). with the following options for that model: Show Points hides or shows the data points in the forecast graph. Save Columns creates a new data table with columns representing the results of the model. Residual Statistics controls which displays of residual statistics are shown for the model. the autoregressive operator and the moving average operator and are written φ ( B ) = 1 – φ 1 B – φ 2 B – … – φ p B and θ ( B ) = 1 – θ 1 B – θ 2 B – … – θ q B a t are the sequence of random shocks.” p. φ ( B ) and θ ( B ) . respectively. the general form for the ARIMA model is: φ ( B ) ( w t – µ ) = θ ( B )a t where t is the time index B is the backshift operator defined as B y t = y t – 1 w t = ( 1 – B ) y t is the response series after differencing d µ is the intercept or mean term. These displays are described in the section “Time Series Commands.

Smoothing Models JMP offers a variety of smoothing techniques. s ( t ) is one of the s time-varying seasonal terms. which allows you to specify the ARIMA model you want to fit. If any of p.q). The Moving Average Order is the order (q) of the differencing operator θ ( B ) .d. The results appear when you click Estimate.d. If the Constrain fit check box is checked. the corresponding letters are often dropped. You can check the Model Summary table to see if the resulting fitted model is stable and invertible. a t are the random shocks.8 Time Series Smoothing Models δ = φ ( B )µ = µ – φ 1 µ – φ 2 µ – … – φ p µ . The Confidence Intervals box allows you to set the confidence level between 0 and 1 for the forecast confidence bands. For example. Smoothing models represent the evolution of a time series by the model: y t = µ t + β t + s ( t ) + a t where µ t is the time-varying mean term. the fitting procedure will constrain the autoregressive parameters to always remain within the stable region and the moving average parameters within the invertible region. 155 8 Time Series The ARIMA command displays the Specify ARIMA Model dialog. then model would be denoted MA(q). The Differencing Order is the order (d) of the differencing operator. . The Intercept check box determines whether the intercept term µ will be part of the model. Use the Specify ARIMA Model dialog for the following three orders that can be specified for an ARIMA model: 1 2 3 4 The Autoregressive Order is the order (p) of the polynomial ϕ ( B ) operator. β t is the time-varying slope term. or q are zero. You might want to uncheck this box if the fitter is having difficulty finding the true optimum or if you want to speed up the fit. if p and d are zero. An ARIMA model is commonly denoted ARIMA(p.

1. The Confidence Intervals box allows you to set the confidence level for the forecast confidence bands. the trend smoothing weight ϕ. Each smoothing model has an ARIMA model equivalent. You may not be able to specify the equivalent ARIMA model using the ARIMA command because some smoothing models intrinsically constrain the ARIMA model parameters in ways the ARIMA command will not allow. The dialog also lets you to specify what type of constraint you want to enforce on the smoothing weights during the fit. These ARIMA equivalents are used to estimate the smoothing weights and provide forecasts. s – 1 are the estimates of the s ( t ) . Custom expands the dialog to allow you to set constraints on individual smoothing weights. Each smoothing model defines a set of recursive smoothing equations that describes the evolution of these estimators. Smoothing Model Dialog The Smoothing Model dialog appears in the report window when you select one of the smoothing model commands. . The estimators for these time-varying terms are L t smoothed level that estimates µ t T t is a smoothed trend that estimates β t S t – j for j = 0. The dialogs for seasonal smoothing models include a Periods Per Season box for setting the number of periods in a season. …. Stable Invertible constrains the parameters such that the equivalent ARIMA model is stable and invertible. The smoothing equations are written in terms of model parameters called smoothing weights. the level smoothing weight γ. While these parameters enter each model in a different way (or not at all). the trend damping weight δ. Unconstrained allows the parameters to range freely. They are α.156 8 Time Series Smoothing Models Models without a trend have βt = 0 and nonseasonal models have s ( t ) = 0 . the seasonal smoothing weight. The constraints are: Zero To One keeps the values of the smoothing weights in the range zero to one. they have the common property that larger weights give more influence to recent data while smaller weights give less influence to recent data.

2 2 The moving average form of the model is . is defined in terms of a single smoothing weight α. defined in terms of a single smoothing weight α are L t = αy t + ( 1 – α )L t – 1 and T t = α ( L t – L t – 1 ) + ( 1 – α )T t – 1 . 1. Simple Exponential Smoothing The model for simple exponential smoothing is y t = µ t + α t . 1 = θ 2. This model is equivalent to an ARIMA(0. Lt = αyt + (1 – α)Lt-1. In this case. 1. 1) model where ( 1 – B )y t = ( 1 – θ B )α t with θ = 1 – α . or Unconstrained as determined by the setting of the popup menu next to the weight’s name. The moving average form of the model is ∞ yt = at + ∑ j–1 αa t – j Double (Brown) Exponential Smoothing The model for double exponential smoothing is y t = µ t + β 1 t + a t . Fixed. The example shown here has the Level weight (α) fixed at a value of 0. 1 with θ = 1 – α . 1)1 model ( 1 – B ) y t = ( 1 – θ B ) a t where θ 1. 1.3.8 Time Series Smoothing Models 157 8 Time Series Each smoothing weight can be Bounded. 1)(0. none of the weights would be estimated from the data although forecasts and residuals would still be computed. the value of the Trend weight is allowed to move within the range 0 to 1 while the Level weight is held at 0. When you click Estimate. The smoothing equation. Note that you can specify all the smoothing weights in advance by using these custom constraints.3 and the Trend weight (γ) bounded by 0 and 1. the results of the fit appear in place of the dialog. The smoothing equations. In that case. This model is equivalent to an ARIMA(0.

2) model where ( 1 – B ) y t = ( 1 – θ B – θ 2 B )a t with θ = 2 – α – αγ and θ 2 = α – 1 . The smoothing equations in terms of smoothing weights α. The smoothing equations in terms of smoothing weights α and δ are L t = α ( y t – S t – s ) + ( 1 – α )L t – 1 and S t = δ ( y t – L t – s ) + ( 1 – δ )ϕS t – s This model is equivalent to a seasonal ARIMA(0. and θ 3 = – θ 1. The smoothing equations defined in terms of smoothing weights α and γ are L t = αy t + ( 1 – α ) ( L t – 1 + T t – 1 ) and T t = γ ( L t – L t – 1 ) + ( 1 – γ )T t – 1 This model is equivalent to an ARIMA(0. 1 .158 8 Time Series Smoothing Models ∞ yt = at + ∑ j=1 ( 2α + ( j – 1 )α )a t – j 2 Linear (Holt) Exponential Smoothing The model for linear exponential smoothing is y t = µ t + β t t + a t . s . 1 θ 2. s . 1. s = θ 2. 2) model where ( 1 – ϕ B ) ( 1 – B )y t = ( 1 – θ 1 B – θ 2 B )a t with θ 1 = 1 + ϕ – α – αγϕ and θ 2 = ( α – 1 )ϕ . γ. 2. 2 2 The moving average form of the model is ∞ yt = at + ∑ j=1 ( α + jαγ )a t – j Damped-Trend Linear Exponential Smoothing The model for damped-trend linear exponential smoothing is y t = µ t + β t t + a t . and ϕ are L t = αy t + ( 1 – α ) ( L t – 1 + ϕT t – 1 ) and T t = γ ( L t – L t – 1 ) + ( 1 – γ )ϕT t – 1 This model is equivalent to an ARIMA(1. 0)S model where we define θ 1 = θ 1. 1)(0. θ 2 = θ 2. 1. 2 The moving average form of the model is ∞ yt = αt + ∑ j=1 ⎛ α + αγϕ ( ϕ – 1 )⎞ ⎜ ---------------------------------------⎟ α t – j ϕ–1 ⎝ ⎠ j Seasonal Exponential Smoothing The model for seasonal exponential smoothing is y t = µ t + s ( t ) + a t . 1.

8 Time Series Smoothing Models 159 8 Time Series so ( 1 – B ) ( 1 – B )y t = ( 1 – θ 1 B – θ 2 B – θ 3 B s 2 s+1 )a t with θ 1 = 1 – α . θ 2 = δ ( 1 – α ) . and This model is equivalent to a seasonal ARIMA(0. 0)s model The moving average form of the model is ∞ yt = at + ∑ j=1 Ψj at – j where ⎧ α + jαγ for jmods ≠ 0 ψ = ⎨ ⎩ α + jαγ + δ ( 1 – α ) forjmods = 0 . The moving average form of the model is ∞ yt = at + ∑ j=1 ψj at – j ⎧ α for jmods ≠ 0 ⎪ where ψ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ α + δ ( 1 – α ) forjmods = 0 Winters Method (Additive) The model for the additive version of Winter’s method is y t = µ t + β t t + s ( t ) + a t . γ. and θ 3 = ( 1 – α ) ( δ – 1 ) . The smoothing equations in terms of weights α. s+1 ⎛ ⎞ i ⎜1 – ( 1 – B ) ( 1 – B )y t = ⎜ ∑ θi B ⎟ at ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ i=1 2 . 1. T t = γ ( L t – L t – 1 ) + ( 1 – γ )T t – 1 . s+1)(0. and δ are Lt = α ( yt – St – s ) + ( 1 – α ) ( Lt – 1 + Tt – 1 ) S t = δ ( y t – L t ) + ( 1 – δ )S t – s . 1.

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and pairwise correlations • a covariance matrix • nonparametric measures of association • simple statistics (such as mean and standard deviation) All plots and the current data table are linked. The Multivariate platform popup menu gives the additional correlations options and other techniques for looking at multiple variables such as • a scatterplot matrix with normal density ellipses • inverse. You can highlight points on any scatterplot in the scatterplot matrix. you see correlations and a scatterplot matrix. or the outlier distance plot. partial.9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques The Multivariate platform specializes in exploring how many variables relate to each other. Open Solubility. When the report appears. The points are highlighted on all other plots and are selected in the data table. . Introduction For a short tour of the Multivariate platform.jmp from the sample data folder. Select Analyze > Multivariate to bring up the launch dialog. The platform begins by showing a standard correlation matrix.

Principal Components would confirm this. Select Principal Components > on Correlations from the platform’s drop-down list. We can express 95% of the variation of these six dimensions in only two dimensions.945. corresponding to the eigenvalues of 4.162 9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Introduction From here. Note that the first two variables (1-Octonol and Ether) are correlated with each other. In addition. including nonparametric correlations (se below for instances of each kind. . indicates that there are two strong directions of variation. shown here. the last four variables are similarly correlated. This suggests that the variability in these six variables could be explained in fewer dimensions. The principal components report.785 and 0. you can calculate several different kinds of correlations.

provides useful multivariate information. a standard correlation matrix and scatterplot matrix appears first. In most of the following analysis options. shown at the top in the next figure. This correlation matrix only uses the observations that have nonmissing values for all variables in the analysis. which is a matrix of correlation coefficients that summarizes the strength of the linear relationships between each pair of response (Y) variables. The platform popup menu shown here lists additional correlation options and other techniques for looking at multiple variables. which exclude rows that are missing on either of the variables under consideration. and Simple Statistics > Univariate. In the inverse correlation. The diagonal elements of the matrix are a function of how closely the variable is a linear function of the other variables. The exceptions are in Pairwise Correlations. Correlations Multivariate The Correlations Multivariate option gives the Correlations table. without regard to missing values in other columns. Inverse Correlations and Partial Correlations The inverse correlation matrix (Inverse Corr table). The following sections describe the tables and plots offered by the Multivariate platform. the diagonal is 1/(1 – R2) for the fit of that variable by all the other variables.jmp sample data table. If the multiple correlation is zero. which calculates its statistics column-by-column. a missing value in an observation causes the entire observation to be deleted. Many of the following examples use the Solubility. the diagonal inverse .9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Launch the Platform and Select Options 163 9 Correlations and Multivariate Statistics Launch the Platform and Select Options When you choose Analyze > Multivariate.

1. If the scatterplots are not showing. If the variables are bivariate normally distributed. If the ellipse is fairly round and is not diagonally oriented. This is the negative of the inverse correlation matrix scaled to unit diagonal. The scatterplot matrix is shown by default. a scatterplot for each pair of response variables displays in a matrix arrangement. the variables are uncorrelated. The cells of the scatterplot matrix are size-linked so that stretching a plot from any cell resizes all the scatterplot cells. If the multiple correlation is 1. . By default.164 9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Launch the Platform and Select Options element is 1. The partial correlation table (Partial Corr table) shows the partial correlations of each pair of variables after adjusting for all the other variables. Scatterplot Matrix To help you visualize the correlations. The correlation of the variables is seen by the collapsing of the ellipse along the diagonal axis. this ellipse encloses approximately 95% of the points. as shown in Figure 9. then the inverse element becomes infinite and is reported missing. a 95% bivariate normal density ellipse is imposed on each scatterplot. select Scatterplot Matrix from the platform popup menu.

By default they are 95% ellipses.1 Example of a Scatterplot Matrix Two clusters of correlations: The first two variables and the next four. The popup menu next on the Scatterplot Matrix title bar button lets you tailor the matrix with color and density ellipses and by setting the α-level. terplot.9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Launch the Platform and Select Options 165 9 Correlations and Multivariate Statistics Figure 9. Density Ellipses toggles the display of the density ellipses on the scatterplots constructed by the α level that you choose. In addition. These histograms can be specified as Horizontal or Vertical. Show Correlations shows the correlation of each histogram in the upper left corner of each scatShow Histogram draws histograms in the diagonal of the scatterplot matrix. . you can toggle the counts that label each bar with the Show Counts command.

166 9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Launch the Platform and Select Options Show Correlations Show Counts Show Histogram (Horizontal in this case) Ellipse α lets you select from a submenu of standard α-levels or select the Other command and specifically set the α level for the density ellipses. Ellipse Color lets you select from a palette of colors to change the color of the ellipses. . Figure 9.2. you clearly see the variables cluster into groups based on their correlations. the columns reorder as shown in Figure 9. You can reorder the scatterplot matrix columns by dragging a diagonal (label) cell to another position on the diagonal. When you look for patterns in the whole scatterplot matrix with reordered columns. as illustrated previously by the two groups showing in Figure 9. For example.2 Reorder Scatterplot Matrix Drag cell diagonally Covariance Matrix The Covariance Matrix command displays the covariance matrix for the analysis.1. if you drag the cell of the column labeled 1-octanol diagonally down one cell.

3. and so on) for each column.9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Launch the Platform and Select Options 167 9 Correlations and Multivariate Statistics Pairwise Correlations The Pairwise Correlations table lists the Pearson product-moment correlations for each pair of Y variables. Univariate Simple Statistics are calculated on each column. as shown in Figure 9. using all available values.3 Pairwise Correlations Report Simple Statistics The Simple Statistics submenu allows you to display simple statistics (mean. These are values produced by the Density Ellipse option on the Fit Y by X platform. . Figure 9. These values match the ones that would be produced using the Distribution platform. The count values differ if any pair has a missing value for either variable. regardless of values in other col- umns. standard deviation. The Pairwise Correlations report also shows significance probabilities and compares the correlations with a bar chart. These statistics can be calculated in two ways that differ when there are missing values in the data table.

5 to 1. Kendall’s Tau is based on the number of concordant and discordant pairs of observations. Hoeffding’s D is a statistical scale that ranges from –0. with large positive values indicating dependence. A pair is concordant if the observation with the larger value of X also has the larger value of Y.” p. The Nonparametric Measures of Association report also shows significance probabilities for all measures and compares them with a bar chart similar to the one in Figure 9. There is a correction for tied pairs (pairs of observations that have equal values of X or equal values of Y). and detects more general departures from independence. the Nonparametric Measures of Association table is shown. A pair is discordant if the observation with the larger value of X has the smaller value of Y.168 9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Launch the Platform and Select Options Multivariate Simple Statistics are calculated by dropping any row that has a missing value for any column in the analysis. See “Computations and Statistical Details. .The statistic approximates a weighted sum over observations of chi-square statistics for two-by-two classification tables.3. for computational information. 169. Nonparametric Correlations When you select Nonparametric Correlations from the platform popup menu. These are the statistics that are used by the Multivariate platform to calculate correlations. The Nonparametric submenu offers these three nonparametric measures: Spearman’s Rho is a correlation coefficient computed on the ranks of the data values instead of on the values themselves.

If a weight variable is specified. and –1 if z < 0 . Otherwise they are discordant. Note that sgn ( z ) is equal to 1 if z > 0 . the data are first ranked. n is the number of observations. Computations are then performed on the ranks of the data values. . ∑ (x – x) ∑ (y – y) 2 2 If there is an exact linear relationship between two variables. Average ranks are used in case of ties. T1 = T2 = ∑ ( ( ti ) ( ti – 1 ) ) ⁄ 2 . Spearman’s ρ (rho) Coefficients Spearman’s ρ correlation coefficient is computed on the ranks of the data using the formula for the Pearson’s correlation previously described. or tied. Kendall. If there is no linear relationship. The formula ∑ sgn ( x i – xj ) sgn ( y i – y j ) i<j τ b = --------------------------------------------------------------( T0 – T1 ) ( T0 – T2 ) computes Kendall’s τb where T0 = ( n ( n – 1 ) ) ⁄ 2 . depending on whether the variables are positively or negatively related. it is ignored. 0 if z = 0 . For response variables X and Y. the correlation is 1 or –1. A pair of rows for two variables is concordant if they agree in which variable is greater. Kendall’s τb Coefficients Kendall’s τb coefficients are based on the number of concordant and discordant pairs. and ∑ ( ( ui ) ( ui – 1 ) ) ⁄ 2 . the correlation tends toward zero. The ti (the ui) are the number of tied x (respectively y) values in the ith group of tied x (respectively y) values. and Kendall’s τb ranges from –1 to 1.. or Hoeffding correlations. it is denoted as r and computed as ∑ (x – x)(y – y) r = --------------------------------------------------------. Nonparametric Measures of Association For the Spearman.9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Computations and Statistical Details 169 9 Correlations and Multivariate Statistics Computations and Statistical Details Pearson Product-Moment Correlation The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient measures the strength of the linear relationship between two variables.

• The number of interchanges of the first variable is used to compute Kendall’s τb.e. but not on both. the diagonal element is denoted r and is computed as r ii 1 = VIF i = --------------. If a weight variable is specified. it is ignored. Specifically. When there are no ties among observations. the D statistic has values between –0. D2 = Si ( Ri – 1 ) ( Si – 1 ) ( Si – 2 ) D3 = ( Ri – 1 ) ( Si – 2 ) ( Qi – 1 ) The Ri and Si are ranks of the x and y values. Note that the definition of R2 changes for no-intercept models. are a function of how closely the variable is a linear function of the other variables. with 1 indicating complete dependence. JMP uses the R2 from the uncorrected Sum of Squares. sometimes called the variance inflation factors (VIF). from the mean model. The diagonal elements of the inverse correlation matrix. contributes 1/2 to Qi if the other value is less than the corresponding value for the ith point. i. rather than the corrected sum of squares.170 9 Correlations and Multivariate Techniques Computations and Statistical Details Computations proceed in the following way: • Observations are ranked in order according to the value of the first variable..5 and 1. • The observations are then re-ranked according to the values of the second variable. Inverse Correlation Matrix The inverse correlation matrix provides useful multivariate information. Hoeffding’s D Statistic The formula for Hoeffding’s D (1948) is ( n – 2 ) ( n – 3 )D 1 + D 2 – 2 ( n – 2 )D 3 D = 30 ⎛ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------⎞ where ⎝ n( n – 1)( n – 2 )(n – 3)( n – 4) ⎠ D1 = Si ( Qi – 1 ) ( Qi – 2 ) . from the zero model. A point that is tied on its x value or y value. 2 1 – Ri where Ri2 is the coefficient of variation from the model regressing the ith explanatory variable on the other explanatory variables. A point tied on both x and y contributes 1/4 to Qi. . For no-intercept and hidden-intercept models. Thus. a large rii indicates that the ith variable is highly correlated with any number of the other variables. and the Qi (sometimes called bivariate ranks) are one plus the number of points that have both x and y values less than the ith points. if the correlation matrix is ii denoted R and the inverse correlation matrix is denoted R-1.

Click on the Statistics button and select Max. shown later in this chapter.10 Importing. Open the data file Denim. Graphs and charts are usually used to summarize results. Click the Categories. so this chapter also describes copying and pasting results from JMP Student Edition into word processors. Therefore. In addition to techniques for accomplishing these tasks. and Charting Data This chapter shows you how to use JMP to interact with the rest of the world. it illustrates ways of importing data from various formats into JMP for analysis. produce a bar chart showing the mean starch content and the maximum thread wear for each of the wash methods. Select Method from the list of variables.jmp. Select Graph > Chart from the menu bar. Click on the Statistics button and select Mean from the drop-down list. and Overlay Plot platforms are documented.” p. Select Starch Content (%) from the list of columns. X Levels button. Using the Chart Platform To begin with. No statistics package is useful unless its results can be communicated to others. Introduction After starting JMP Student Edition. .7 on page 181. Select Thread Wear Measured from the list of columns. Details about this data are found in “About the Data. This brings up a dialog like the one in Figure 10. or web authoring tools. some of the variables’ statistics are charted. 21 in the “The Distribution Platform” chapter. In this introduction. presentation managers. the Chart. Exporting.

select Overlay Color. do not feel that they all must be.172 10 Importing. A bar chart like the one in Figure 10. and choose a color from the resulting palette. The bars for Mean(Starch Content (%)) change to a needle chart. . and Charting Data Introduction Click OK. Simple charts are almost always the most effective. Exporting.1 appears. or even change to another chart type. With Mean(Starch Content (%)) still selected: From the drop-down list in the title bar next to Chart. as shown in Figure 10. Right-Click on Mean(Starch Content (%)) in the legend to the right of the plot.2. Please note that merely because JMP Student Edition allows for a great many chart options to be changed. Figure 10. select Y Options > Needle Plot. The colors of the bars for starch content change to the selected color.1 Bar Chart The Chart platform makes it easy to format this chart.

two charts are produced: • A plot of starch content and thread wear against wash method. select Y Options > Line Chart. and Method to the Categories. Exporting.2 Half Needle Chart Click somewhere in the blank area above the legend to deselect all columns. and Charting Data Introduction 173 10 Graphs Figure 10. Using the Overlay Plot Platform In this example. • A plot of starch content versus thread wear for each level of wash method. The entire chart changes to a line plot.10 Importing. Select Graph > Overlay Plot from the menu bar. . Assign Thread Wear Measured and Starch Content (%) to the Y role. From the drop-down list in the title bar next to Chart. X Level role. Therefore. charting options can be applied to individual levels as well as entire charts.

Exporting. Figure 10. select Y Options > Connect Points. From the drop-down list in the title bar next to Overlay Plot. and Charting Data Introduction Click OK.3 Final Overlay Plot . This produces a plot with both variables plotted on the y-axis.174 10 Importing. To connect the points and produce the plot shown in Figure 10.3.

The example in Figure 10. if they exist. . and flat-file database files. Select Size of Load from the list of columns and click the X button. If *. one for each level of the Method variable.10 Importing. and Charting Data Importing Data 175 10 Graphs To produce the plot of starch content versus load size for each level of wash method. Windows The Files of Type selection filters the list of files displayed in the dialog. The Open command then reads the file into a JMP Student Edition data table. Again select Graph > Overlay Plot from the menu bar. If applicable. Select Starch Content (%) from the list of columns and click the Y button. This works as long as the file has the structure indicated by its name. text files with any column delimiter. JMP Script files. JMP Student Edition gives additional information about the file in the File Open dialog. Exporting. SAS transport files. This produces three separate plots.* is chosen from the Files of Type menu.4 shows an Open Data File dialog when the Files of Type drop-down list is changed from the default to JMP data table. Importing Data The File > Open command displays a specialized open file dialog used to locate a file to open and tell JMP Student Edition the file format of the incoming file. and Excel files. The graphs shown here have been reduced in size by holding down the control or key and dragging on the corner of one graph. Select Method from the list of columns and click the By button. JMP looks at the type of file given by the 3-character extension appended to its file name and opens it accordingly. JMP Student Edition directly reads JMP data tables. JMP journal files. They all resize. The dialog shows the table notes.

. If you select a text document to open. Exporting.176 10 Importing.4 The Open Data File Dialog to Read a JMP table Macintosh The Open window allows you to open any type of file into JMP. the Open As menu appears in the window (see the next section for details on text importing). and Charting Data Importing Data Figure 10.

and shows a preview of the resulting data table. Exporting. depending on the operating system you are working with.5. and Charting Data Importing Data 177 10 Graphs Importing Text Files You import text be doing one of three things. and an end-of-line delimiter . • Data (Using Preferences) opens the file and uses default rules (set in the preferences panel) to interpret end of field and end of line delimiters to create a JMP data table All Platforms JMP Student Edition attempts to discern the arrangement of text data. This is adequate for a rectangular text file with no missing fields. • Data (Using Preview) presents a dialog similar to the one shown in Figure 10. Then choose one of the three text commands: • Text opens the file in a simple text editing window • Data (Best Guess) opens the data in a format that JMP thinks is appropriate based on the contents of the file. Choose Text from the Files of Type drop-down list to import the data based on your current preference settings. This displays the Open As menu in the lower part of the dialog.10 Importing.5 for specification of delimiters and other import details. that lets you designate delimiters and other information. Select the Data With Preview checkbox to see a preview of an incoming text file. select a text file to open. You then see the dialog shown in Figure 10. Macintosh On the Macintosh. Windows Under Microsoft Windows. a consistent field delimiter.

Exporting. sex. are ignored and treated as part of a text string. If no column names are indicated.178 10 Importing. and the first two rows of data. JMP changes the delimiter rules to look for an end double-quote. Column 2. preferences are set that indicate the incoming table contains column headers to be used as the column names. and the ability to set how many rows and columns will be read are additional options presented in the dialog. and height.5 Import Text File . Figure 10. including spaces embedded within the quotes. and so on. end-of-line delimiters. In Figure 10. The initial settings in the delimited import dialog are taken from the current Preferences file. age. One or more end-of-field delimiters. the Name fields are called Column 1.5. The dialog also shows the column names. the column names are name. Other text delimiters. and Charting Data Importing Data Note: If double-quotes are encountered when importing text data. the option to Strip enclosing quotes. data types.

Importing Microsoft Excel Files JMP Student Edition has the ability to directly import Microsoft Excel worksheets and workbooks under Macintosh and Microsoft Windows. .6 Excel Open Choice JMP Student Edition can also import Excel workbooks that contain several data tables inside them. each variable uses a set number of columns in the text file).xls) from the Open dialog and double-clicking on the desired workbook.6. click the Try Fixed Width button to specify the separations of each column to be imported. After selecting Excel Files(*. JMP Student Edition opens all the worksheets in the workbook. and Charting Data Importing Data 179 10 Graphs Fixed-Width Text If your data is fixed width (that is. Exporting.10 Importing. Figure 10. Excel worksheet and workbooks are imported simply by choosing Excel Files from the Files of Type (Windows) or Enable (Macintosh) lists as shown in Figure 10.

180 10 Importing. Exporting. Don’t worry too much about getting the orientation and chart type correct initially — they can be changed after the chart has been generated. needle. use the drop-down list to select the orientation of the chart (vertical or horizontal) and the type of chart (bar. It is used to report the results from other explorations. what is going to be reported should be known before the Chart platform is used. In the word processor. The Chart Platform The Chart platform computes and plots data and statistics about the data. select Edit > Paste. complete the following steps after bringing up the Chart launch dialog (Figure 10. In essence. Note that axes frequently need to be selected in addition to the graphs they accompany. through standard cut and paste facilities. Select Edit > Copy. Unlike the statistical platforms in JMP. line. Hold down the Shift key and click on each part of the report that needs to be copied. and Charting Data Results from Platforms Results from Platforms The results from JMP Student Edition’s platforms can be cut and pasted into other programs using the system’s clipboard. To copy results into another program. . Click the Statistics button (revealing the menu shown in Figure 10. From the section labeled Options. the plots in the Chart platform do not “bristle with interactivity” to the degree that other platforms do. For that reason. To plot descriptions of data.8) and select the statistic to be charted. Select the Selection tool ( ).7) Figure 10. pie. the Chart platform is not intended as an exploratory device. or point chart) to be generated.7 Chart Launch Dialog Select the data column in the column list.

9 Chart Example Many of the options on the launch dialog can be changed using the platform popup menu. plotting the mean of Starch Content (%) using Method as Categories.10 Importing.8 Plottable Statistics Figure 10. or a Grouping variable to generate separate graphs for each level of the column. . some options can be applied to individual charts. Click OK. either in separate windows or overlaid in the same window. X Levels is shown in Figure 10. Level column to be plotted on the horizontal axis. Weight. Figure 10. include an X. and By options work as in other platforms. An example bar chart. Exporting. Freq.9. Platform options affect all charts in the report window. and Charting Data The Chart Platform 181 10 Graphs Optionally. However.

• Needle Chart replaces each bar with a line drawn from the axis to the plotted value. and Charting Data The Chart Platform Single-Chart Options To apply the following options to individual charts. • Pen Style allows the choice of a line style from the palette shown in Figure 10. The default chart is a bar chart. • Overlay Pattern assigns bars a fill pattern to identify them in overlaid charts. without connecting them. . Choose the Show Points option to show or hide the points. • Show Points toggles the point markers on a line or needle chart off and on.10. without any legends highlighted. right-click on a chart legend to see the popup menu shown in Figure 10. leaving a point chart. • Overlay Color assigns color to a variable to identify it when overlaid with other charts. the commands apply to all charts.10. • Overlay Marker assigns plot points a marker to identify them in overlaid charts. • Connect Points toggles the line connecting points on and off. Exporting. Figure 10. • Line Chart replaces a bar chart with a line chart and connects each point with a straight line.10 Chart Options • Bar Chart displays a bar for each level of the chart variables. • Std Error Bars overlays needles at plus or minus one standard error from the mean. When accessed through the platform popup menu. When this menu is accessed through a chart legend.182 10 Importing. the commands apply only to the individual chart. • Point Chart shows only the plot points.

The marker size applies to the plot point and its associated rows. and tick marks for the axis. . minimum. • Size/Scale allows changes in axes and plot frames. which can also be shown by double-clicking in the Y axis. X Scale is only active on platforms where the X axis is numeric (the X axis for the Charts platform is categorical). and draws tailored reference lines or a grid on the plot. • Marker Size allows selection of the marker from a palette of six point sizes that range from dot to very large. • Border lets you turn border lines on or off. Figure 10. and Charting Data The Chart Platform 183 10 Graphs Frame Options Frame options allow control of the plot frame’s elements as a whole. usually to tailor the graphics output in ways not provided with commands and options. The Preferred Size is set in the Preferences. Fast mode is useful for graphs with large number of points. The Frame Size command displays a dialog to enter the exact pixel size for the plot frame.10 Importing. Y Scale shows the standard axis scale dialog. and redraw the plot. See the JMP Scripting Language Guide for documentation of JSL commands. • Marker Drawing Mode lets you adjust the way markers are drawn. The axis scale dialog allows the specification of the maximum.11 Frame Options • Background Color colors the background of the plot with the color chosen from the JMP Student Edition color palette. • Add Graphics Script displays a text entry box to enter JSL commands. • DisplayBox lists the commands to conveniently select and deselect the plot area. so that they re-draw quickly after adjustments. increment. Outlined mode is often used in presentations. Exporting.

• Level Options accesses the color. which can be overlaid. 184.184 10 Importing.10. (See “Script Submenu. Separate Axes is only enabled on the menu when there are multiple Y variables that are not overlaid.” p. 182. with one as a bar chart and one as a needle chart. By default. Right-clicking on a highlighted legend shows the commands for the Colors and Markers palettes.” p. • Separate Axes duplicate the axis notation for each chart when there are multiple charts. For example. which are identical to their Overlay equivalents in Figure 10. 66. the chart shown in Figure 10. the platform shows duplicate axis notation for each chart. their drop-down menu has the following options. Figure 10. These options affect the variable whose legend is highlighted. • Y Options accesses the options described in “Single-Chart Options. When Overlay is not checked. marker. Exporting.12 has two overlaid variables.” p. The commands affect only the highlighted level and its associated rows in the data table. Each chart can have its own chart type. These options affect highlighted bars. and Charting Data The Chart Platform Level Options Click on a value in the legend to highlight it.12 Different Chart Types • Vertical changes a horizontal bar chart or a pie chart to a vertical bar chart.) . • Horizontal changes a vertical bar chart or a pie chart to a horizontal bar chart • Pie changes a horizontal or vertical chart into a pie chart. • Overlay displays a single overlaid chart when the chart has more than one Y (statistics) variable. or save the JSL commands for the analysis to a window or a file. Platform Options After the charts appear. • Script has a submenu of commands available to all platforms that redo the analysis. the axis notation only shows for the last chart displayed if the charts are not overlaid. and pattern palettes options described in “Level Options.

• Connect Through Missing connects adjacent points in the plot. with points plotted and connected in that order. Each Y variable’s plot can be modified by right-clicking on the variable name to bring up a menu. (See “Script Submenu. 186. • Show Points alternately shows or hides points. and Range option cannot be selected at the same time. • Overlay overlays plots for all columns assigned the Y role. When Overlay option is turned off. • Needle draws a vertical line from each point to the X axis. on the last plot in the window. regardless if there are missing values between them. Connect Points can be activated when Show Points is not.” p. Platform Options Platform options affect every plot in the report window. the X axes for other Y variables show tick marks but show no scale values. • Separate Axes lets the X axis scale values be printed only once. and Charting Data The Overlay Plot Platform 185 10 Graphs The Overlay Plot Platform The Overlay Plot platform overlays numeric Y variables with a single numeric or character X variable. 66. Optionally.10 Importing. the values of the X variable appear in ascending order.” p. The Overlay Plot platform has platform plotting options accessed by the popup menu icon on the Overlay Plot title bar. There is also a single-plot options menu for each Y variable.) Single-Plot Options Each Y variable is labeled beneath the plot. • Ungroup Plots creates a separate chart for each level of a grouping variable • Arrange Plots allows you to specify the number of plots in each row • Script has a submenu of commands available to all platforms that redo the analysis or save the JSL commands for the analysis to a window or a file. When one of these options is selected at the platform level. The individual plot options are the same as those in the Y Options submenu at the platform level. it affects all plots in the report if no legends are highlighted. . When Separate Axes is selected. • Range Plot connects the lowest and highest points at each X value with a line with bars at each end. describes Y options for each individual variable. Exporting. Note: The Needle option. the plots show separately. Plots initially appear overlaid with the Connect Points option in effect. described below. • Connect Points is a toggle that alternately connects the points with lines. which show when the Y variable legend beneath the plot is right-clicked. If one or more plot legends are highlighted. allowing for greater flexibility in plot displays. the options affects all those plots. • Uniform Y Scale makes the Y scales the same on grouped plots. • Y Options has a submenu of options that apply to all variables and plots in the report window when selected from the main platform window. showing its name and symbol. The section “Single-Plot Options.

186

10 Importing, Exporting, and Charting Data The Overlay Plot Platform

• Step joins the position of the points with a discrete step by drawing a straight horizontal line from each point to the X value of the following point, and then a straight vertical line to that point. Step, without showing points, is illustrated in Figure 10.13. Note: Only one of Connect Points, Needle, and Step can be chosen at a time. Figure 10.13 Overlay Step Plot

• Function Plot plots a formula (stored in the Y column) as a smooth curve. To use this function, store a formula in the Y column that is a function of a single X column. For example, the following column contains a formula involving the sine function. When used in an overlay plot, the function is plotted as a curve rather than individual points.

Note: Overlay Plot normally assumes you want a function plot when the Y column contains a formula. However, formulas that contain random number functions are more frequently used with simulations, where function plotting is not often wanted. Therefore, the Function Plot option is off (by default) when a random number function is present, but on for all other functions. • Connect Color displays the standard JMP color palette (see Figure 10.10) for assigning colors to lines that connect points. • Overlay Marker assigns markers to plotted points using the standard JMP marker palette (see Figure 10.10). • Overlay Marker Color lets you select the color of the overlay marker. • Line Style and Line Width let you adjust the appearance of the lines drawn on the plot.

10 Importing, Exporting, and Charting Data The Overlay Plot Platform

187 10 Graphs

11

Full Factorial Designs

Designing Experiments

A full factorial design contains all possible combinations of a set of factors. This is the most conservative design approach, but it is also the most costly in experimental resources. The full factorial designer supports both continuous factors and categorical factors with up to nine levels. In full factorial designs, you perform an experimental run at every combination of the factor levels. The sample size is the product of the numbers of levels of the factors. For example, a factorial experiment with a two-level factor, a three-level factor, and a four-level factor has 2 x 3 x 4 = 24 runs. Factorial designs with only two-level factors have a sample size that is a power of two (specifically 2f where f is the number of factors). When there are three factors, the factorial design points are at the vertices of a cube as shown in the diagram below. For more factors, the design points are the vertices of a hypercube. Full factorial designs are the most conservative of all design types. There is little scope for ambiguity when you are willing to try all combinations of the factor settings. Unfortunately, the sample size grows exponentially in the number of factors, so full factorial designs are too expensive to run for most practical purposes.

Introduction

The following example, adapted from Meyer et al. (1996) and Box, Hunter, and Hunter (1978), shows a five-factor reactor example. To follow along with this example, open the folder Sample Data that was installed when you installed JMP. Within this folder, open Design Experiment > Reactor 32 Runs.jmp. Suppose you have used the screening designer to investigate the effects of five factors on the percent reaction of a chemical process. The factors (Feed Rate, Catalyst, Stir Rate, Temperature, and Concentration) are all two-level continuous factors. 1 Select DOE > Full Factorial Design. 2 Click the red triangle icon on the Full Factorial Design title bar and select Load Responses. 3 Open Reactor Response.jmp to load the responses by opening the Sample Data folder that was installed with JMP. In the Sample Data folder, open Design Experiment > Reactor

Response.jmp.

4 Click the red triangle icon on the Full Factorial Design title bar and select Load Factors. 5 Open Reactor Factors.jmp to load the responses by opening the Sample Data folder that was installed with JMP. In the Sample Data folder, open Design Experiment > Reactor Factors.jmp.

190

11 Full Factorial Designs Introduction

The completed dialog is shown in Figure 11.1. Figure 11.1 Full-Factorial Example Response and Factors Panels

6 Click Continue to see Output Options panel. A full factorial design includes runs for all combinations of high and low factors for the five variables, giving 32 runs. 7 Click Make Table. The design data table (Figure 11.3) contains a run for every combination of high and low values for the five variables. Since there are five variables, there are 25=32 runs. This covers all combinations of a five factors with two levels each. Initially, the table has an empty Y column named Percent Reacted for entering response values when the experiment is complete. The values in your table may be different from those shown below. Figure 11.2 25 Factorial Reactor Data

To see the completed experiment and continue following this example, open the folder Sample Data that was installed when you installed JMP. Within this folder, open Design Experiment > Reactor 32

Runs.jmp.

and brings up the Stepwise control panel.3 Reactor 32 Runs. Figure 11. The data table has a script stored with it that automatically defines an analysis of the model that includes main effects and all two-factor interactions.jmp Begin the analysis with a quick look at the data before fitting the factorial model. 2 Highlight Percent Reacted and click Y. 3 Click the red triangle icon on the Percent Reacted title bar and select Normal Quantile Plot. 3 The probability to remove a factor (Prob to Leave) should be 0.11 Full Factorial Designs Introduction 191 11 DOE: Full Factorial Designs Figure 11. 1 Click the red triangle icon next to the Fit Model script and select Run Script. 2 The probability to enter a factor (Prob to Enter) in the model should be 0.4. . The results are shown in Figure 11. Then click OK.05.1. 1 Select Analyze > Distribution.4 Distribution of Response Variable for Reactor Data Start the formal analysis with a stepwise regression. Columns.

Note that the Feed Rate and Stir Rate factors are no longer in the model.7 Model After Mixed Stepwise Regression 7 Click the Make Model button. To do this. 6 Click Go.6. The Model Specification window that appears is automatically set .6 Starting Model For Stepwise Process The mixed stepwise procedure removes insignificant main effects and adds important interactions. The end result is shown in Figure 11. 5 Check the boxes for the main effects of the factors as shown in Figure 11.7. make sure the menu beside Direction specifies Mixed.192 11 Full Factorial Designs Introduction Figure 11.5 Run JSL Script for Stepwise Regression 4 A useful way to use the Stepwise platform is to check all the main effects in the Current Estimates table. Figure 11. Figure 11.

8). . Figure 11.3311%. All effects selected by the stepwise process are highly significant.11 Full Factorial Designs Introduction 193 11 DOE: Full Factorial Designs up with the appropriate effects (Figure 11.9). which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the range of predictions. Figure 11. The figure on the left in Figure 11.8 Fitting a Prediction Model 8 Click Run Model to see the analysis for a candidate prediction model (Figure 11.9 shows a table of model coefficients and their standard errors (labeled Parameter Estimates). The size of the random noise as measured by the RMSE is only 3.9 Actual by Predicted Plot and Prediction Model Estimates The factor Prediction Profiler also gives you a way to compare the factors and find optimal settings. The figure on the right in Figure 11.9 shows the actual by predicted plot for the model. as shown in Figure 11. The predicted model covers a range of predictions from 40% to 95% reacted.10. This is strong evidence that the model has good predictive capability. 1 Open the Prediction Profiler by clicking the red triangle on the Response Percent Reacted title bar and selecting Factor Profiling > Profiler.

11 Viewing the Profiler 2 Click the red triangle on the Prediction Profiler title bar and select Maximize Desirability to see the profiler in Figure 11.10 Selecting the Profiler Figure 11. . The reaction is unfeasible economically unless the Percent Reacted is above 90%. Figure 11.11 shows the profiler’s initial display. Figure 11. therefore the Desirability for values less than 90% decreases and finally becomes zero.194 11 Full Factorial Designs Introduction Figure 11.12 Viewing the Maximum Desirability The plot of Desirability versus Percent Reacted shows that the goal is to maximize Percent Reacted.12. Desirability increases linearly as the Percent Reacted increases.

11 Full Factorial Designs Creating a Factorial Design

195 11 DOE: Full Factorial Designs

The maximum Desirability is 0.945 when Catalyst and Temperature are at their highest settings and Concentration is at its lowest setting. Percent Reacted increases from 65.5 at the center of the factor ranges to 95.875 at the most desirable setting.

**Creating a Factorial Design
**

To start a full factorial design, select DOE > Full Factorial Design, or click the Full Factorial Design button on the JMP Starter DOE page. Then, follow the steps below.

**Entering Responses and Factors
**

To enter responses, follow the steps in Figure 11.13. Then, enter factors as shown in Figure 11.14 Figure 11.13 Entering Responses Click to enter lower and upper limits and importance weights. 4 To enter one 1 response at a time, click then select a goal type: Maximize, Match Target, Minimize, or None.

2 Double-click to edit the response name, if desired.

3 Click to change the response goal, if desired.

Tip: To quickly enter multiple responses, click the N Responses button and enter the

number of responses you want.

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11 Full Factorial Designs Creating a Factorial Design

Figure 11.14 Entering Factors in a Full Factorial Design To enter factors, click either the Continuous button or the Categorical button and select a factor type, level 2 - 9.

Double-click to edit the factor name.

Click to enter values or change the level names. To remove a level, click it, press the delete key on the keyboard, then press the Return or Enter key on the keyboard.

When you finish adding factors, click Continue.

**Selecting Output Options
**

Use the Output Options panel to specify how you want the output data table to appear:

• Run Order—Lets you designate the order you want the runs to appear in the data table when it is created. Choices are:

Keep the Same—the rows (runs) in the output table appear as they do in the Design panel. Sort Left to Right—the rows (runs) in the output table appear sorted from left to right. Randomize—the rows (runs) in the output table appear in a random order. Sort Right to Left—the rows (runs) in the output table appear sorted from right to left.

• Number of Center Points—Specifies additional runs placed at the center of each continuous factor’s range. • Number of Replicates—Specify the number of times to replicate the entire design, including centerpoints. Type the number of times you want to replicate the design in the associated text box. One replicate doubles the number of runs.

11 Full Factorial Designs Creating a Factorial Design

197 11 DOE: Full Factorial Designs

**Making the Table
**

When you click Make Table, the table shown in Figure 11.15 appears. Figure 11.15 Factorial Design Table The name of the table is the design type that generated it. values in the Pattern column describe the run each row represents for continuous factors, a plus sign represents high levels for continuous factors, a minus sign represents low levels level numbers represent values of categorical factors

This script allows you to easily fit a model using the values in the design table.

12

Screening Designs

Designing Experiments

Screening designs are arguably the most popular designs for industrial experimentation. They examine many factors to see which have the greatest effect on the results of a process. Compared to other design methods, screening designs require fewer experimental runs, which is why they are cheap. Thus, they are attractive because they are a cheap and efficient way to begin improving a process. Often screening designs are a prelude to further experiments. It is wise to spend only about a quarter of your resource budget on an initial screening experiment. You can then use the results to guide further study. The efficiency of screening designs depends on the critical assumption of effect sparsity. Effect sparsity results because real-world processes usually have only a few driving factors; other factors are relatively unimportant. To understand the importance of effect sparsity, you can contrast screening designs to full factorial designs: • Full factorial designs consist of all combinations of the levels of the factors. The number of runs is the product of the factor levels. For example, a factorial experiment with a two-level factor, a three-level factor, and a four-level factor has 2 x 3 x 4 = 24 runs. • By contrast, screening designs reduce the number of runs by restricting the factors to two (or three) levels and by performing only a fraction of the full factorial design. Each factor in a screening design is usually set at two levels to economize on the number of runs needed, and response measurements are taken for only a fraction of the possible combinations of levels. In the case described above, you can restrict the factors to two levels, which yield 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 runs. Further, by doing half of these eight combinations you can still assess the separate effects of the three factors. So the screening approach reduces the 24-run experiment to four runs. Of course, there is a price for this reduction. This chapter discusses the screening approach in detail, showing both pros and cons. It also describes how to use JMP’s screening designer, which supplies a list of popular screening designs for two or more factors. These factors can be continuous or categorical, with two or three levels. The list of screening designs you can use includes designs that group the experimental runs into blocks of equal sizes where the size is a power of two.

Introduction

Suppose an engineer wants to investigate a process that uses an electron beam welding machine to join two parts. The engineer fits the two parts into a welding fixture that holds them snugly together. A voltage applied to a beam generator creates a stream of electrons that heats the two parts, causing them

as shown in Figure 12. but the goal of this process is to get a target value of 0. This reveals an area where the two parts have fused.). Speed. Then click the Upper Limit text edit area and enter 0. 7 Set high and low values for Speed to 3 and 5 rpm.1.12 as the lower limit (minimum acceptable value). and Current. Figure 12.17 inches with a lower bound of 0. Click the Goal text edit area and choose Match Target. The engineer wants to study the welding process to determine the best settings for the beam generator to produce the desired depth in the fused region.22. 4 Add the categorical factor by clicking the Add button beside 2-Level Categorical.17 inches To begin this example. the engineer wants to explore the following three inputs. 6 Double-click the factor names and rename them Operator. The goals of the study are to: • find which factors affect the depth of the weld • quantify those effects • find specific factor settings that predict a weld depth of 0. which are the factors for the study: • Operator. Change the default response as follows: 1 Double-click the response name and change it to Depth (In. as shown in Figure 12. This example has one categorical factor (Operator) and two continuous factors (Speed and Current). who is the technician operating the welding machine • Rotation Speed. there is a single default response called Y. This depth of penetration is the response for the study. The ideal depth of the fused region is 0. The Length of this fused area is the depth of penetration of the weld. which is the speed at which the part rotates under the beam • Beam Current. and assign Mary and John as values for the categorical factor called Operator.1 Screening Design Response With Match Target Goal 3 Click the Lower Limit text edit area and enter 0. For this study. 2 The default goal for the single default response is Maximize. select DOE > Screening Design from the main menu. which is a current that affects the intensity of the beam After each processing run. Set high and low values for Current to 150 and 165 amps. the engineer cuts the part in half. . Note that in the Responses panel.12 and an upper bound of 0. 5 Add two continuous factors by typing 2 in the Continuous box and clicking the associated Add button.2.200 12 Screening Designs Introduction to fuse.22 as the upper limit (maximum acceptable value).17 inches.

Figure 12. . Then.2 Screening Design with Two Continuous and One Categorical Factor 8 Click Continue. 10 View the table produced in this example by selecting Help (View on the Macintosh) > Sample Data Directory > Design Experiment > DOE Example 1. 9 Select Full Factorial in the list of designs. The Pattern variable shows the coded design runs. and then click Continue.3.12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design 201 12 DOE: Screening Designs Figure 12. follow the steps below. and levels you specified. as shown in Figure 12. or click the Screening Design button on the JMP Starter DOE page.3 List of Screening Designs for Two Continuous and One Categorical Factors When the design details are complete. factors. click Make Table to create a JMP table that contains the specified design. The table uses the names for responses. Figure 12. The table in Figure 12. select DOE > Screening Design.4 The Design Data Table Creating a Screening Design To start a screening design.4 appears.jmp.

if desired.5. In the data table. if desired. • The Match Target goal supports the objective when the best value for a responses is a specific target value. A goal of Maximize supports this objective. 2 Double-click to edit the response name. Specifying Goal Types and Lower and Upper Limits When entering responses. click then select a goal type: Maximize. 4 To enter one 1 response at a time. follow the steps in Figure 12. The default target value is assumed to be midway between the lower and upper limits. or None. Minimize. the best value is usually the largest possible. and enter an asymmetric target value. such as when the response is impurity or defects. • The Minimize goal supports an objective of having the best objective be the smallest value. click the N Responses button and enter the number of responses you want. such as with part dimensions. you can alter the default target after you make a table from the design.5) and the lower and upper limits (step 4 in Figure 12. to match a specific value. . Match Target. The following description explains the relationship between the goal type (step 3 in Figure 12. open the response’s Column Info dialog by double-clicking the column name.5): • For responses such as strength or yield. or that there is no goal. Figure 12.5 Entering Responses Click to enter lower and upper limits and importance weights. 3 Click to change the response goal.202 12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design Entering Responses To enter responses. Note: If your target range is not symmetric around the target value. Tip: To quickly enter multiple responses. you can tell JMP that your goal is to obtain the maximum or minimum value possible.

in Figure 12. To remove a level.6 Entering Factors To enter factors. • Categorical Categorical factors (either numerical or categorical data types) have no implied order. click Continue. The settings of a categorical factor are discrete and have no intrinsic order. With two responses you can give greater weight to one response by assigning it a higher importance value. you can set a continuous factor to any value between the lower and upper limits you supply. operator. Mixture Design.12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design 203 12 DOE: Screening Designs Understanding Importance Weights When computing overall desirability. Below is a description of factor types from which you can choose when creating screening designs: • Continuous Continuous factors have numeric data types only.5) as the weight of each response. and gender. . the order is the numeric magnitude. Click to enter factor values. Space Filling Design. After your responses and factors are entered. If the values are character. JMP uses the value you enter as the importance weight (step 4 in Figure 12. Entering factors is the same in Screening Design. If the values are numbers. then press the Return or Enter key on your keyboard. This process is described below.6. Double-click to edit the factor name. Entering Factors After entering responses. Highlight the factor and click the Remove Selected button to remove a factor in the list. enter factors. click it. Examples of categorical factors are machine. Choosing a Design The list of screening designs you can use includes designs that group the experimental runs into blocks of equal sizes where the size is a power of two. then specifying importance is unnecessary. Types of Factors In general. press the delete key on your keyboard. you can enter different types of factors in the model. and Response Surface Design. Highlight the type of screening design you would like to use and click Continue. If there is only one response. type the number of factors and click Add. the order is the sorting sequence. Figure 12. The Factors panel’s appearance depends on the design you select. In theory. when designing experiments.

This can be expensive if the number of factors is greater than 3 or 4. But because running experiments costs time and money. These higher-order interactions are assumed to be zero. the values of the other estimates remain the same. two-factor interactions are confounded with other two-factor interactions. The fraction of the full factorial is 2-p. Most empirical modeling involves first. this is 2k where k is the number of factors. Their p-values change slightly. fractional factorial designs are orthogonal. you typically only run a fraction of all possible levels. The samples size is the product of the levels of the factors. If you remove an effect in the analysis. Two-Level Fractional Factorial A fractional factorial design also has a sample size that is a power of two. If k is the number of factors.204 12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design Figure 12. fractional factorials are designed by deciding in advance which interaction effects are confounded with the other interaction effects. Experiments can therefore be classified by resolution number into three groups: • Resolution = 3 means that main effects are confounded with one or more two-way interactions. If price is no object. few experimenters worry about interactions higher than two-way interactions. you can run several replicates of all possible combinations of m factor levels. These designs are orthogonal. Full factorial designs allow the estimation of interactions of all orders up to the number of factors. including interaction effects to the mth degree. because the estimate of the error variance and the degrees of freedom are different. However. This means that the estimates of the effects are uncorrelated. In fact.7 Choosing a Type of Screening Design The screening designer provides the following types of designs: Two-Level Full Factorial A full factorial design contains all combinations of the levels of the factors. the number of runs is 2k – p where p < k. • Resolution = 4 means that main effects are not confounded with other main effects or two-factor interactions.8 is a geometric representation of a two-level factorial. which must be assumed to be zero for the main effects to be meaningful. This causes some of the higher-order effects in a model to become nonestimable. The trade-off in screening designs is between the number of runs and the resolution of the design.or second-order approximations to the true functional relationship between the factors and the responses. An effect is nonestimable when it is confounded with another effect. . This provides a good estimate of everything. Resolution Number: The Degree of Confounding In practice. Like the full factorial. The figure to the left in Figure 12. For two-level designs.

-1 1. 1. 1. listed below. This is different from resolution-three fractional factorial where two-factor interactions are indistinguishable from main effects. One useful characteristic is that the sample size is a multiple of four rather than a power of two. In cases of effect sparsity. For pure three-level factorials. The main effects are orthogonal and two-factor interactions are only partially confounded with main effects. Mixed-Level Designs If you have qualitative factors with three values. 1 Plackett-Burman Designs Plackett-Burman designs are an alternative to fractional factorials for screening.8 is geometric representation of a two-level fractional factorial design. -1. 24-run. Figure 12. 1. 1 L18 John L18 Chakravarty L18 Hunter L36 1 3 8 11 7 6 4 12 .1 Design Two–Level Factors Three–Level Factors -1. or between main effects and two-factor interactions. The figure on the right in Figure 12. For DOE experts. there are 20-run.8 Representation of Full Factorial (Left) and Two-Level Fractional Factorial (Right) Designs –1. All the fractional factorial designs are minimum aberration designs. –1 -1. Table 12. -1 1. then none of the classical designs discussed previously are appropriate. There are no two-level fractional factorial designs with sample sizes between 16 and 32 runs. JMP offers complete factorials and specialized orthogonal-array designs. between two-factor interactions. For mixed two-level and three-level designs. -1. However.12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design 205 12 DOE: Screening Designs • Resolution ≥ 5 means there is no confounding between main effects. JMP offers fractional factorials. –1. the minimum aberration design of a given resolution minimizes the number of words in the defining relation that are of minimum length. and 28-run Plackett-Burman designs. -1 1. a stepwise regression approach can allow for removing some insignificant main effects while adding highly significant and only somewhat correlated two-factor interactions.

The danger is that several active effects with mixed signs will cancel and still sum to near zero and give a false negative.7). 2 Select Supress Cotter Designs. click the red triangle icon in the Screening Design title bar. Then follow k runs each with one factor in turn at its low level. . However. even though they are all orthogonal. Because Cotter designs have a false-negative risk. Changing the setting via the red triangle menu applies only to the current design. In the example of factors listed above. The design is similar to the “vary one factor at a time” approach many books call inefficient and naive. Cotter Designs Cotter designs are used when you have very few resources and many factors. For k factors. and you believe there may be interactions. AEven estimates the sum of the even terms involving A. Cotter designs are easy to set up. How to Run a Cotter Design By default. When you use JMP to generate a Cotter design. if you would like to make a Cotter design: 1 Immediately after entering responses and factors (and before clicking Continue). This completes the Cotter design. Uncheck the box beside Supress Cotter Designs. and the others high. A. B. To alter the setting for all screening designs: 1 2 3 4 Select File > Preferences. You believe in this so strongly that you are willing to bet that if you add up a number of effects. A Cotter design begins with a run having all factors at their high level. For example. JMP also includes a set of extra columns to use as regressors. many statisticians discourage their use. and C: Figure 12. and so forth. JMP does not include a Cotter design in the list of available screening designs (Figure 12. there are 2k + 2 runs. The next run sets all factors at their low level and sequences through k more runs with one factor high and the rest low.206 12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design If you have fewer than or equal to the number of factors for a design listed in the table. Suppose you believe in effect sparsity— that very few effects are truly nonzero. AOdd estimates the sum of odd terms involving A.9 AOdd = A + ABC BOdd = B + ABC COdd = C + ABC AEven = AB + AC BEven = AB + BC CEven = BC + AC Because these columns in a Cotter design make an orthogonal transformation. Click the Platform icon. the sum will show an effect if it contains an active effect. subject to randomizing the runs. if you have three factors. Click DOE to highlight it. Some of these designs are not balanced. you can use that design by selecting an appropriate subset of columns from the original design. These are of the form factorOdd and factorEven where factor is a factor name. testing the parameters on these combinations is equivalent to testing the combinations on the original effects. They are constructed by adding up all the odd and even interaction terms for each factor.

click the disclosure buttons ( on Windows and on the Macintosh) to display the design and show modification options using the Display and Modify Design panel to tailor the design (Figure 12. . Confounding is the direct result of the assignment of new factor values to products of the coded design columns. The price of reducing the number of runs from 32 to eight is effect aliasing (confounding). Eight runs can only accommodate a full factorial with three two-level factors. • Aliasing of Effects—Shows the confounding pattern for fractional factorial designs. Figure 12. click the disclosure button ( on Windows and on the Macintosh) to reveal the Aliasing of Effects panel.11).10).10 Display and Modification Options • Change Generating Rules—Controls the choice of different fractional factorial designs for a given number of factors.11 Generating Rules and Aliasing of Effects Panel For example. Figure 12.12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design 207 12 DOE: Screening Designs Displaying and Modifying the Design After you select a design type. Aliasing of Effects To see which effects are confounded with which other effects. It is necessary to construct the two additional factors in terms of the first three factors. It shows effects and confounding up to two-factor interactions (Figure 12. a full factorial with five factors requires 25 = 32 runs. • Coded Design—Shows the pattern of high and low values for the factors in each run.

with second order aliasing as “1 5” (Feed Rate and Concentration).12).11. Figure 12. Figure 12. the values for Temperature are the product of the values for Feed Rate and Concentration. and Stir Rate). .208 12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design For example. and third order confounding as “1 2 3” (Feed Rate.13). In the example shown in Figure 12. This means that you can’t tell the difference of the effect of Temperature and the synergistic (interactive) effect of Feed Rate and Concentration. The effect names begin with C (Constant) and are shown by their order number in the design.14 shows the third level alias for the five-factor reactor example. all the main effects are confounded with two-factor interactions. 2 Select Show Confounding Pattern (Figure 12. Catalyst.12 Show Confounding Patterns 3 Enter the order of confounding you want to see (Figure 12. This is characteristic of resolution-three designs. Temperature appears as “4”. Viewing the Confounding Pattern JMP can create a data table that shows the aliasing pattern for a specified level. Figure 12. To create this table: 1 Click the red triangle at the bottom of the Aliasing of Effects area.13 Enter Order 4 Click OK. Thus.

and Stir Rate. The Change Generating Rules table in Figure 12. the last column (Concentration) is the product of the second and third columns.15 Default Coded Designs Changing the Coded Design In the Change Generating Rules panel. As shown in Figure 12. Figure 12.15. Catalyst. Similarly. The checkmarks for Concentration show it is a function of Catalyst and Stir Rate. which represent Feed Rate. each row represents a run. The check marks for Temperature show it is a function of Feed Rate.12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design 209 12 DOE: Screening Designs Figure 12. it changes the choice of different fractional factorial designs for a given number of factors.16 shows how the last two columns are constructed in terms of the first three columns. Temperature is now the product of Feed Rate and Catalyst. Concentration is a function of Feed Rate and Stir Rate.16 and click Apply. Plus signs designate high levels and minus signs represent low levels. Catalyst. and Stir Rate). rows for the first three columns of the coded design. changing the checkmarks and clicking Apply changes the coded design. . Catalyst. The first three columns of the coded design remain a full factorial for the first three factors (Feed Rate. The fourth column (Temperature) of the coded design is the element-by-element product of the first three columns. If you check the options as shown in Figure 12. so the fourth column of the coded design is the element by element product of the first two columns.14 The Third Level Alias for the Five-Factor Reactor Example Understanding the Coded Design In the coded design panel. the Coded Design panel changes. and Stir Rate are all combinations of high and low values (a full factorial design).

• Number of Replicates—Specify the number of times to replicate the entire design. One replicate doubles the number of runs.17 Select the Output Options • Run Order—Lets you designate the order you want the runs to appear in the data table when it is created.210 12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design Figure 12. Randomize—the rows (runs) in the output table appear in a random order. Randomize within Blocks—the rows (runs) in the output table will appear in random order within the blocks you set up. • Number of Center Points—Specifies additional runs placed at the center points. When the options are correctly set up. Sort Left to Right—the rows (runs) in the output table appear sorted from left to right. Figure 12. Type the number of times you want to replicate the design in the associated text box. Sort Right to Left—the rows (runs) in the output table appear sorted from right to left. . Choices are: Keep the Same—the rows (runs) in the output table appear as they do in the Design panel. including centerpoints. click Make Table.16 Modified Coded Designs and Generating Rules Specifying Output Options Use the Output Options panel to specify how you want the output data table to appear.

the high and low values you specified are displayed for each run.19). The column called Pattern shows the pattern of low values denoted “–” and high values denoted “+”. Right-click it and select Run Script to run a fit model analysis (Figure 12.18 The Design Data Table The name of the table is the design type that generated it. Figure 12. Pattern is especially useful as a label variable in plots. you can now run analyses on the data. The data table contains a script labeled Model. In the table. This script allows you to easily fit a model using the values in the design table.12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design 211 12 DOE: Screening Designs Viewing the Table After clicking Make Table.19 Running the Model Script . Figure 12. you have a data table that outlines your experiment. Continuing the Analysis After creating and viewing the data table.

In this case. . appears at the top of the Fit Model report. right-click the graph. The pattern variable displayed in the data table serves as the label for each point. None of the factor effects are significant. it is impossible to determine which two-factor interactions are important without performing more experimental runs.20.20. the mean line falls inside the bounds of the 95% confidence curves. which tells you that the model is not significant. and RMSE appear below the plot. In Figure 12. JMP displays a Scaled Estimates report (Figure 12. The last column of the table has the p-values for each effect. an actual-by-predicted plot. Figure 12. The Scaled Estimates report displays a bar chart of the individual effects embedded in a table of parameter estimates. The RMSE is an estimate of the standard deviation of the process noise assuming that the unestimated effects are negligible. and select Row Label. but the Catalyst effect is large enough to be interesting if it is real. the RMSE is 14. It means that some follow-up runs are necessary.199. R2.20). Because of the confounding between two-factor interactions and main effects in this design. The model p-value. At this stage the results are not clear. select all points. which is much larger than expected. Viewing an Actual-by-Predicted Plot When the model contains no interactions.212 12 Screening Designs Creating a Screening Design The next sections describe some of the parts of the analysis report that appears when you click Run Model. This suggests that effects other than the main effects of each factor are important. but this does not mean that the experiment has failed. Viewing a Scaled Estimates Report When you fit the model.21) as a part of the Fit Model report. shown on the left in Figure 12.20 An Actual-by-Predicted Plot To show labels in the graph (on the right in Figure 12.

you would then want to augment the design. .21 Example of a Scaled Estimates Report If this scaled estimates report were not merely an example. you might also want to have complete 32-run factorial experimental data and analysis.Figure 12. For comparison.

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for which all but one factor are set at zero (midrange) and that one factor is set at outer (axial) values. a response surface model can pinpoint it. illustrated in the figure on the right below. One distinguishing feature of the Box-Behnken design is that there are only three levels per factor. so the standard two-level designs cannot fit curved surfaces. Central Composite Design fractional factorial points Box-Behnken Design axial points center points . This is sometimes useful when it is desirable to avoid these points due to engineering considerations. for which all the factor values are at the zero (or midrange) value. Three distinct values for each factor are necessary to fit a quadratic function. The most popular response surface design is the central composite design. is an alternative to central composite designs. Another important difference between the two design types is that the Box-Behnken design has no points at the vertices of the cube defined by the ranges of the factors. It combines a two-level fractional factorial and two other kinds of points: • Center points. • Axial (or star) points. illustrated in the figure to the left below. The Box-Behnken design. If a minimum or maximum response exists inside the factor region. The price of this characteristic is the higher uncertainty of prediction near the vertices compared to the central composite design.13 Response Surface Designs Response surface designs are useful for modeling a curved quadratic surface to continuous factors.

the Response Surface Design Choice dialog lists the designs in Figure 13. The experimenter wants to collect data over a wide range of values for these variables to see if a response surface can find a combination of factors that matches a specified bounce target.jmp. 3 Load the responses by clicking the red triangle icon on the Response Surface Design title bar and selecting Load Responses. The bounciness varies with amounts of Silica. Figure 13. and select Design Experiment > Bounce Response. . Silane.jmp sample data file has response surface data inspired by the tire tread data described in Derringer and Suich (1980). and Sulfur used to manufacture the tennis balls. Navigate to the Sample Data folder that was installed when you installed JMP.1 Response and Factors For Bounce Data After the response data and factors data are loaded.216 13 Response Surface Designs Introduction Introduction The Bounce Data. Navigate to the Sample Data folder that was installed when you installed JMP.3.jmp. and select Design Experiment > Bounce Data. Let’s pretend this happened and use a finalized data table called Bounce Data. To see this example data table.jmp. you would conduct the experiment and then enter the responses into the data table. 2 Load factors by clicking the red triangle icon on the Response Surface Design title bar and selecting Load Factors. and select Design Experiment > Bounce Factors.jmp. Figure 13. Figure 13.2.2 Response Surface Design Selection The Box-Behnken design selected for three effects generates the design table of 15 runs shown in Figure 13. The objective of this experiment is to match a standardized target value (450) of tennis ball bounciness.1 shows the completed Response panel and Factors panel. To follow this example: 1 Select DOE > Response Surface Design. open the Sample Data folder that was installed when you installed JMP. In real life.

All main effect terms are significant as well as the two interaction effects involving Sulfur. The prediction model is highly significant with no evidence of lack of fit.jmp data table.jmp (Figure 13.5. and select Design Experiment > Bounce Data. run a fit model analysis on the data.4. .13 Response Surface Designs Introduction 217 13 DOE: Response Surface Designs 1 Open to the Sample Data folder that was installed when you installed JMP. The data table contains a script labeled Model. 2 Right-click Model and select Run Script to start a fit model analysis.3). with parameter estimates for all response surface and crossed effects in the model.3 JMP Table for a Three-Factor Box-Behnken Design After obtaining the Bounce Data. Figure 13. 3 Click Run Model.4 JMP Statistical Reports for a Response Surface Analysis of Bounce Data The Response Surface report also has the tables shown in Figure 13. Figure 13. The standard Fit Model analysis results appear in tables shown in Figure 13.

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Figure 13.5 Statistical Reports for a Response Surface Analysis

Provides a summary of the parameter estimates

Lists the critical values of the surface factors and tells the kind of solution (maximum, minimum, or saddlepoint). The solution for this example is a saddlepoint. The table also warns that the critical values given by the solution are outside the range of data values. Shows eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the effects. The eigenvector values show that the dominant negative curvature (yielding a maximum) is mostly in the Sulfur direction. The dominant positive curvature (yielding a minimum) is mostly in the Silica direction.

**Creating a Response Surface Design
**

Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is an experimental technique invented to find the optimal response within specified ranges of the factors. These designs are capable of fitting a second-order prediction equation for the response. The quadratic terms in these equations model the curvature in the true response function. If a maximum or minimum exists inside the factor region, RSM can find it. In industrial applications, RSM designs involve a small number of factors. This is because the required number of runs increases dramatically with the number of factors. Using the response surface designer, you choose to use well-known RSM designs for two to eight continuous factors. Some of these designs also allow blocking. Response surface designs are useful for modeling and analyzing curved surfaces. To start a response surface design, select DOE > Response Surface Design, or click the Response Surface Design button on the JMP Starter DOE page. Then, follow the steps below: • “Entering Responses and Factors,” p. 219 • “Choosing a Design,” p. 219 • “Specifying Axial Value (Central Composite Designs Only),” p. 220 • “Specifying Output Options,” p. 221 • “Viewing the Design Table,” p. 221 • “Continuing the Analysis, If Needed,” p. 222

13 Response Surface Designs Creating a Response Surface Design

219 13 DOE: Response Surface Designs

**Entering Responses and Factors
**

The steps for entering factors in a response surface design are unique to this design. To add factors, follow the step in Figure 13.6. Figure 13.6 Entering Factors into a Response Surface Design

Click Continue to proceed to the next step.

Choosing a Design

Highlight the type of response surface design you would like to use and click Continue. Figure 13.7 Choose a Design Type

The Response Surface designer provides the following types of designs: Box-Behnken Designs The Box-Behnken design has only three levels per factor and has no points at the vertices of the cube defined by the ranges of the factors. This is sometimes useful when it is desirable to avoid extreme

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points due to engineering considerations. The price of this characteristic is the higher uncertainty of prediction near the vertices compared to the central composite design. Central Composite Designs The response surface design list contains two types of central composite designs: uniform precision and orthogonal. These properties of central composite designs relate to the number of center points in the design and to the axial values: • Uniform precision means that the number of center points is chosen so that the prediction variance at the center is approximately the same as at the design vertices. • For orthogonal designs, the number of center points is chosen so that the second order parameter estimates are minimally correlated with the other parameter estimates.

**Specifying Axial Value (Central Composite Designs Only)
**

When you select a central composite (CCD-Uniform Precision) design and then click Continue, you see the panel in Figure 13.8. It supplies default axial scaling information. Entering 1.0 in the text box instructs JMP to place the axial value on the face of the cube defined by the factors, which controls how far out the axial points are. You have the flexibility to enter the values you want to use. Figure 13.8 Display and Modify the Central Composite Design

• Rotatable makes the variance of prediction depend only on the scaled distance from the center of the design. This causes the axial points to be more extreme than the range of the factor. If this factor range cannot be practically achieved, it is recommended that you choose On Face or specify your own value. • Orthogonal makes the effects orthogonal in the analysis. This causes the axial points to be more extreme than the –1 or 1 representing the range of the factor. If this factor range cannot be practically achieved, it is recommended that you choose On Face or specify your own value. • On Face leaves the axial points at the end of the -1 and 1 ranges. • User Specified uses the value entered by the user, which can be any value greater than zero. Enter that value into the Axial Value text box. If you would like to inscribe the design, click the box beside Inscribe. When checked, JMP re-scales the whole design so that the axial points are at the low and high ends of the range (the axials are –1 and 1 and the factorials are shrunken based on that scaling).

13 Response Surface Designs Creating a Response Surface Design

221 13 DOE: Response Surface Designs

**Specifying Output Options
**

Use the Output Options panel to specify how you want the output data table to appear. When the options are correctly set up, click Make Table. Figure 13.9 Select the Output Options

• Run Order—Lets you designate the order you want the runs to appear in the data table when it is created. Choices are: • Keep the Same—the rows (runs) in the output table will appear as they do in the Design panel. • Sort Left to Right—the rows (runs) in the output table will appear sorted from left to right.

• Randomize—the rows (runs) in the output table will appear in a random order. • Sort Right to Left—the rows (runs) in the output table will appear sorted from right to left. • Randomize within Blocks—the rows (runs) in the output table will appear in random order

within the blocks you set up. • Number of Center Points—Specifies additional runs placed at the center points. • Number of Replicates—Specify the number of times to replicate the entire design, including centerpoints. Type the number of times you want to replicate the design in the associated text box. One replicate doubles the number of runs.

**Viewing the Design Table
**

Now you have a data table that outlines your experiment, as described in Figure 13.10.

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13 Response Surface Designs Creating a Response Surface Design

Figure 13.10 The Design Data Table The column called Pattern identifies the coding of the factors. It shows all the codings with “+” for high, “–” for low factor, “a” and “A” for low and high axial values, and “0” for midrange. Pattern is suitable to use as a label variable in plots because when you hover over a point in a plot of the factors, the pattern value shows the factor coding of the point. Runs are in a random order. This script allows you to easily fit a model using the values in the design table. There are two center points per replicate.

The name of the table is the design type that generated it.

The Y column is for recording experimental results.

**Continuing the Analysis, If Needed
**

After creating and viewing the design table, running the experiment, and recording your results in the design table’s Y column, run a fit model analysis on the data. The data table contains a script labeled Model. Right-click it and select Run Script (Figure 13.11) to fit the model. Figure 13.11 Running the Script

After clicking Run Model in the dialog, (Figure 13.12), review the analysis.

12 Fitting the Model .13 Response Surface Designs Creating a Response Surface Design 223 13 DOE: Response Surface Designs Figure 13.

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If you supply only one of these values. If you supply two values. and k-sample situations. and a number-of-parameters adjustment is specified. “Will I detect the group differences I am looking for. and computes the third for the following cases: • difference between one sample's mean and a hypothesized value • difference between two samples means • differences in the means among k samples • difference between a variance and a hypothesized value • difference between one sample proportion and a hypothesized value • difference between two sample proportions • difference between counts per unit in a Poisson-distributed sample and a hypothesized value. The Sample Size and Power command determines how large of a sample is needed to be reasonably likely that an experiment or sample will yield a significant result. power. You can supply either one or two of the three values. the result is a plot of the other two. and alpha level?” In this type of analysis. and power. given my proposed sample size. This capability is available for the single sample. Using the Sample Size and Power command when doing a prospective analysis helps answer the question. given that the true effect size is at least a certain size. if they are balanced. JMP computes the third. It requires that you enter any two of three quantities. The calculations assume that there are equal numbers of units in each group. You can apply this platform to more general experimental designs. sample size. you must give JMP an estimate of the group means and sample sizes in a data table as well as an estimate of the within-group standard deviation (σ). two-sample.14 Prospective Power and Sample Size Use the DOE > Sample Size and Power command to answer the question “How many runs do I need?” The important quantities are sample size. difference to detect. These depend on the significance level—alpha—of the hypothesis test for the effect and the standard deviation of the noise in the response. . and the magnitude of the effect. estimate of within-group variance. Prospective Power Analysis The following five values have an important relationship in a statistical test on means: • Alpha Alpha is the significance level that prevents declaring a zero effect significant more than alpha portion of the time.

or the effect size expected in the experimental situation where there is a single mean comparison. • Power Power is the probability of declaring a significant result.2 appears and asks for the anticipated experimental values. or when comparing k sample means. the panel shown in Figure 14. a two sample comparison. When you select DOE > Sample Size and Power. The values you enter depend on your initial choice.1 Sample Size and Power Choices One-Sample and Two-Sample Means After you click either One Sample Mean.1 appears with button selections for experimental situations. • Sample Size Sample size is how many experimental units (runs. . or Two Sample Means in the initial Sample Size selection list (Figure 14. • Effect Size Effect size is how different the means are from each other or from the hypothesized value. or samples) are involved in the experiment.226 14 Prospective Power and Sample Size One-Sample and Two-Sample Means • Error Standard Deviation Error Standard Deviation is the unexplained random variation around the means. The following sections describe each of these selections and explains how to enter estimated parameter values and the desired computation. As an example.1). the Power and Sample Size dialog in Figure 14. Figure 14. power expected. consider the two-sample situation. The Sample Size and Power command in JMP helps estimate in advance either the sample size needed.

the power and sample size platform constructs a plot that shows the relationship between those two values: • power as a function of sample size. For single sample problems this is the difference between the hypothesized value and the true value. the power calculations are an exercise in probability that calculates what might happen if the true values were as specified.05. and one or two of the other three values: Difference to detect. The Power and Sample Size dialog asks for the values depending the first choice of design: • Alpha Alpha is the significance level. there are other factors with the extra parameters that can be specified here. Sample Size. Leave this field zero in simple cases. as shown here. in a three-factor two-level design with all three two-factor interactions. which you need to adjust to real units. given specific effect size • power as a function of effect size. but the total over all groups.2 Initial Power and Sample Size Dialogs for Single Mean (left) and Two Means (right) The Two Sample Means choice in the initial Power and Sample Size dialog always requires values for Alpha and the error standard deviation (Error Std Dev). This implies willingness to accept (if the true difference between groups is zero) that 5% (alpha) of the time a significant difference will be incorrectly declared. and Power. the number of extra parameters is five—two parameters for the extra main effects. for a given power. Even though the true error is not known. The power and sample size platform then calculates the missing item. • Difference to Detect Difference to detect is the smallest detectable difference (how small a difference you want to be able to declare statistically significant). in addition to fitting the means described in the situation. In practice. or samples). usually 0. • Sample Size Sample size is the total number of observations (runs. • Extra Params Extra Params (Parameters) is only for multi-factor designs. experimental units. Computed sample size numbers can have fractional values. For example. it isn’t very important what values you enter here unless the experiment is in a range where there is very few degrees of freedom for error. In a multi-factor balanced design. This is usually done by . If there are two unspecified fields. given a sample size • effect size as a function of sample size. and three parameters for the interactions.14 Prospective Power and Sample Size One-Sample and Two-Sample Means 227 14 DOE: Power And Sample Size Figure 14. Sample size is not the number per group. • Error Std Deviation Error Std (Standard) Deviation is the true residual error.

Bigger power is better. when there is one. • Power Power is the probability of getting a statistic that will be declared statistically significant.” p. which gives a more typical looking power curve.99998. has the horizontal axis scaled from 1 to 8. shows a range of sample sizes for which the power varies from about 0. If an experiment requires considerable effort.95 if you can afford it. For example. Power is equal to alpha when the specified effect size is zero. • Continue Evaluates at the entered values.3. The dialog on the right in Figure 14. shows the power is calculated to be 0. See the section. “Power and Sample Size Animation for a Single Sample. 229. Single-Sample Mean Suppose there is a single sample and the goal is to detect a difference of 2 where the error standard deviation is 0. as shown in the left-hand dialog in Figure 14.4.90 or 0. To calculate the power when the sample size is 10. Double click on the horizontal axis to get any desired scale. leave Power missing in the dialog and click Continue. Change the range of the curve by changing the range of the horizontal axis. Figure 14.228 14 Prospective Power and Sample Size One-Sample and Two-Sample Means increasing the estimated sample size to the smallest number evenly divisible by the number of groups.95. for an illustration of this animation script. the plot on the right in Figure 14.3 A One-Sample Example To see a plot of the relationship of power and sample size.4. The left-hand graph in Figure 14.2 to 0. You should go for powers of at least 0. but the cost is higher in sample size. • Animation Script The Animation Script button runs a JSL script that displays an interactive plot showing power or sample size.3. . • Back Goes back to the previous dialog.9. plan so that the experimental design has the power to detect a sizable effect. leave both Sample Size and Power empty and click Continue. rounding to 1.

4 A One-Sample Example Plot When only Sample Size is specified (Figure 14. In the example shown in Figure 14.05. a plot of power by difference appears. The animation begins showing a normal curve positioned with mean at zero (representing the estimated mean and the true mean).5 Plot of Power by Difference to Detect for a Given Sample Size Power and Sample Size Animation for a Single Sample The Animation Script button on the Power and Sample Size dialog for the single mean displays an interactive plot that illustrates the effect that changing the sample size has on power. Alpha is 0.14 Prospective Power and Sample Size One-Sample and Two-Sample Means 229 14 DOE: Power And Sample Size Figure 14.5) and Difference to Detect and Power are empty. and another with mean at 0. The probabil- . Figure 14.6.4. Sample Size is 10.4 (the difference to be detected). and the Difference to Detect is set to 0.

The comparison is between two random samples instead of one. Also. The crosshair tool estimates that a sample size of about 35 is needed to obtain a power of 0.5433. This is considerably lower than in the single sample because each mean has only half the sample size. the Difference to Detect is the difference between two means. To increase the power requires a larger sample. Suppose the error standard deviation is 0. 0. To find out how large. Leave Power blank and click Continue to see the power calculation. .9. and the sample size is 16. is shaded in blue on this plot. often represented as β in literature.7. leave both Sample Size and Power blank and examine the resulting plot. shown on the right in Figure 14. as shown in the dialog on the left in Figure 14. you can click on the values for sample size and alpha showing beneath the plot to change them. Figure 14.6 Example of Animation Script to Illustrate Power Two-Sample Means The dialogs work similarly for two samples.7.9 (as before).230 14 Prospective Power and Sample Size One-Sample and Two-Sample Means ity of committing a Type II error (not detecting a difference when there is a difference). You can drag the handles over the curves drag to see how their positions affect power. the desired detectable difference is 1.

14 Prospective Power and Sample Size k-Sample Means 231 14 DOE: Power And Sample Size Figure 14.8.5)2+ (–0.236. the power and sample size calculations produce the power curve shown on the right in Figure 14.95.5)2+(1. Notice that the difference in means is 2. which is the square root of 5. If both Sample Size and Power are left blank. The next example considers a situation where 4 levels of means are expected to be about 10 to 13.5)2. When a sample size of 16 is entered the power calculation is 0. This confirms that a sample size of 16 looks acceptable. and the Error Std Dev is 0.9. In this case it is the square root of (–1. as shown in the dialog on the left in Figure 14. .7 Plot of Power by Sample Size to Detect for a Given Difference k-Sample Means The k-Sample Means situation can examine up to 10 kinds of means. calculated as square root of the sum of squared deviations from the grand mean.8.5)2+(0.

the computed result shows that you need a sample size of 170.8 Prospective Power for k-Means and Plot of Power by Sample Size One-Sample Variance The One-Sample Variance choice on the Power and Sample Size dialog (Figure 14. To indicate direction of change. In the dialog. and direction of change you want to detect.99. Enter these items as shown in Figure 14. specify a baseline variance. you enter two of the items and the Power and Sample Size calculations determines the third. An example is when the variance for resistivity measurements on a lot of silicon wafers is claimed to be 100 ohm-cm and a buyer is unwilling to accept a shipment if variance is greater than 55 ohm-cm for a particular lot. The examples throughout the rest of this chapter use engineering examples from the online manual of The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).9. You can access the NIST manual examples at http://www.gov/div898/handbook.05 and power of 0.1) determines sample size for detection of a change in variance. The computations then show whether the true variance is larger or smaller than its hypothesized value.nist. . select either Larger or Smaller from the Guarding a change menu. entered as the Baseline Variance. with an alpha of 0. alpha level. Suppose you want to detect an increase of 55 for a baseline variance of 100.232 14 Prospective Power and Sample Size One-Sample Variance Figure 14.The usual purpose of this option is to compute a large enough sample size to guarantee that the risk of accepting a false hypothesis (β) is small. When you click Continue.itl. As with previous dialogs.

The dialogs are the same except you enter Baseline Proportion and also specify either a one-sided or two-sided test. Note: Remember to enter the variance in the Baseline Variance box. not the standard deviation.10). . For a one-sample situation. When there are two samples. the Baseline Proportion you enter is the average of the two sample proportions. enter a negative amount in the Difference to Detect box.14 Prospective Power and Sample Size One-Sample and Two-Sample Proportions 233 14 DOE: Power And Sample Size If you want to detect a change to a small variance. the Baseline Proportion is the average of a known baseline proportion and the single sample proportion. The sampling distribution for proportions is actually binomial. but the computations to determine sample size and test proportions use a normal approximation. as indicated on the dialogs (Figure 14.9 Sample Size and Power Dialog To Compare Single-Direction One-Sample Variance One-Sample and Two-Sample Proportions The dialogs and computations to test power and sample sizes for proportions are similar to those for testing sample means. Figure 14.

11. leave both Difference to Detect and Sample Size blank. and the computed sample size of approximately 77.The manager does not want to stop the process unless it has degenerated greater than 16% defects (6% above the 10% known baseline defective). The Baseline Proportion in this example is 0. Figure 14.11 Dialog To Compare One Proportion to a Baseline and Sample Size Plot .or two-sided) Testing proportions is useful in production lines. or average of two-sample proportions. where proportion of defects is part of process control monitoring. suppose a line manager wants to detect a change in defective units that is 6% above a known baseline of approximately 10% defective. To see the plot on the right in Figure 14. Use the grabber tool (hand) to move the x-axis and show a specific range of differences and sample sizes. Figure 14.234 14 Prospective Power and Sample Size One-Sample and Two-Sample Proportions Figure 14. The example process is monitored with a one-sided test at 5% alpha and a 10% risk (90% power) of failing to detect a change of that magnitude.10 Default Power and Sample Dialog for One-Sample and Two-Sample Proportions Enter average of baseline and one-sample proportions. which is the average of the baseline (10%) and the proportion above the baseline (6%).11 shows the entries in the Sample Size and Power dialog to detect a given difference between an observed proportion and a baseline proportion. For example.08. Enter 1 or 2 to indicate the type of test (one.

The process meets the target if there are less than 48 defects (6 defects per wafer in a sample of 8 wafers). Figure 14. As an example.14 Prospective Power and Sample Size Counts per Unit 235 14 DOE: Power And Sample Size Counts per Unit The Counts per Unit selection calculates sample size for the Poisson-distributed counts typical when you can measure more than one defect per unit. Although the number of defects observed in an area of a given size is often assumed to have a Poisson distribution. The test is for one-sided (one-tailed) change. 5 Click Continue to see the computed sample size of 8. Enter a power of 0. The computed sample size is expressed in those units. Select DOE > Sample Size and Power. alpha is sometimes called the producer’s risk and beta is called the consumer’s risk. Click the Counts per Unit button. In this kind of situation. which is the chance of detecting a change larger than 2 (6 defects per wafer).12). consider a wafer manufacturing process with a target of 4 defects per wafer and you want to verify that a new process meets that target. A unit can be an area and the counts can be fractions or large numbers.1 to be the chance of failing the test if the new process is as good as the target.128 (Figure 14. the area and count are assumed to be large enough to support a normal approximation. Questions of interest are: • Is the defect density within prescribed limits? • Is the defect density greater than or less than a prescribed limit? Enter alpha and the baseline count per unit.9. Enter the Difference to Detect in terms of the baseline count per unit (defects per unit).12 Dialog For Counts Per Unit Example 1 2 3 4 . Enter an alpha of 0. Then enter two of the remaining fields to see the calculation of the third.

14) shows that the Number of Defects cannot be more than approximately 3. As an example. 4 Click Continue.236 14 Prospective Power and Sample Size Sigma Quality Level Sigma Quality Level Use the Sigma Quality Level feature. enter 6 as the Sigma Quality Level and leave the Number of Defects blank (window to the left in Figure 14. 3 Enter 50 for the number of defects and 1. are a Sigma quality level of 5. the sigma quality calculator computes the missing quantity using the formula Sigma Quality Level = NormalQuantile(1 – defects/opportunities) + 1. as shown in the window on the right in Figure 14.5.000.000.13. .4.000 opportunities.000.13 Sigma Quality Level Example 1 If you want to know how many defects reduce the Sigma Quality Level to “six-sigma” for 1.3.000 as the number of opportunities. accessed by selecting DOE > Sample Size and Power. Figure 14. The computation (window to the right in Figure 14. use the Sample Size and Power feature to compute the Sigma quality level for 50 defects in 1.14).000 opportunities: 1 Select DOE > Sample Size and Power. by entering any two of the following three quantities: • number of defects • number of opportunities • Sigma quality level When you click Continue. The results.13. 2 Click the Sigma Quality Level button. as shown in the window to the left in Figure 14.

14 Sigma Quality Level Example 2 .14 Prospective Power and Sample Size Sigma Quality Level 237 14 DOE: Power And Sample Size Figure 14.

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202 Autocorrelation 149 autocorrelation 148–149 Autocorrelation Lags 147 Autoregressive Order 155 axial points 215 scaling. 221 AIC 151 AIC 104 Akaike’s Information Criterion 104. 89 ARIMA 143. 72. 89 Analyze menu 22. 79 Analyze Toolbar 13–14 animation scripts 228 Annotate tool 28 annotating 28 resizing and repositioning 28 ANOVA 60 Display Options command 62 JMP INTRO terms 60 one way 46 popup menu 62 report 47 table 53. 227 Alpha Amalyze 21 analysis of variance report 47. Tukey Kramer command 62 Alpha 225. 92 table 53. 154–156 Arrange Plots 186 assigning importances (of responses) 195.Index JMP-SE Symbols “F Ratio” 104 “Prob>F” 104 Numerics –2LogLikelihood 151 95% bivariate normal density ellipse 164 A aberration designs 205 acceptable values See lower limits and upper limits activating toolbars 14 Actual-by-Predicted plots 212 Add button 86 Add Column button 95 Add Graphics Script command 184 additional runs 196. 219 See also Response Surface designs Box-Jenkins model see ARIMA Braces. 181 producing 171 Bar Chart command 183 bar chart of correlations 167 Bartlett’s test 64 BIC 151 bivariate normal density ellipse 164 blue diamond disclosure icon 53 Border 184 Bounce Data. 45. 210. 151 aliasing effects 207 All Graphs command 65 All Pairs.jmp 216 Bounce Factors. 60. 65 Box-Behnken designs 215–216.jmp 216–217 Bounded 157 Box Plots command 62.jmp 131 Brown smoothing 157 Brown-Forsythe test 64 By role 38 . central composite designs 220 B Background Color command 184 Backward 103 bar chart 172.

36 score 37 selecting level 37 confidence limits in linear regression 59 confounding 207. 63 interpretation 63 Comparison Circles command 66 Confid Curves Fit command 59 Confid Curves Fit option 52 Confidence Interval command 24. 186 Connect Through Missing 186 Connecting Lines 149 constant estimate 152 Constrain fit 155 contingency table 54. 104 Cp 104 . 181 Frame Options 183 Level Options 184 Platform options 185 Single-Chart Options 182 chart platform 172 changing all levels 173 chart types 185 Chi Square statistic 35 clipboard 180 Close command 19 Coating. 180 corrected total 89 correlation 161–170 correlation coefficient 53 correlation matrix 163 Correlation of Estimates command 95 Correlations Multivariate 163 Cotter designs 206 count 34 Count Axis command 31 counts per unit (power and sample size) 235 covariance 161–170 Covariance Matrix 166 Cp 41. 66 analysis 45. 212 resolution numbers 204 confounding pattern 208 Connect Color command 187 Connect Means command 66 Connect Points option 174. 66 reports 66 Contingency Table command 67 continuous factors 203 continuous variables 29. 37 Confidence Intervals 155–156 confidence intervals in ANOVA 50 in linear regression 52 mean 23. 219–220 See also response surface designs Chakravarty 205 changing individual levels 172 Chart launch dialog 181–182 Chart platform 171.240 Index JMP-SE C C Total 89 Capability Analysis command 39 with Control Charts 115 Categorical factors 203 categorical probabilities testing 36 categorical variables 29 graphs and reports 34 Caustic Soda 21 CCD See central composite designs c-Chart 132 CDF plot command 33 center points central composite designs 215 response surface designs 215 central composite designs 215.jmp 107. 183. 30. 46 graphs and reports 30 popup menu 30 Contrast dialog 84 contrasts 84 Control Charts c 132 Individual Measurement 127 Moving Range 127 np 130 p 130 R 125 S 125 Shewhart 124–133 u 131 XBar 125 Copy command 18. 62 comparison circles 50. 125–126 Color or Mark by Column command 49 colors and markers 49 Colors command 184 Column Info 96 Columns command in reports 34 Compare Means command 50.

171. 22. 152. 86 crossed effect 86 crosstabs table 66 cumulative distribution function 33 cumulative logistic probability plot 67 cumulative probabilities 34 Current Estimates table 102 Custom 156 Custom Test command 94 cut and paste 18. 66 defects 235 Denim. 180 Index disclosure icon 53 DispayBox command 184 Display Options command 62. 45. 167 Density Ellipse command 53. 157 evolution 156 Expanded Estimates command 93 . 61 density functions 33 descriptive statistics 22 design resolutions 204 designs aberration 205 Box-Behnken 215–216. 205–206 effect details 93 Effect Leverage Pairs 97 Effect Leverage personality 88 Effect Screening personality 88 Effect Test table 91 effects nonestimable 204 orthogonal 220 eigenvalue of effect 218 eigenvector of effect 218 Ellipse Alpha 166 Ellipse Color 166 Enter All 103 Entered 103 equal variances in t test 47 Error Bars command 62 error SS 90 error standard deviation 226–227 Estimate 103.jmp 21. 171 details 21 Density Axis command 31 Density Ellipse 164–165. 230 Differencing Order 155 Direction 102 Cpk 41 Cpm 41 Cross button 82.Index JMP-SE 241 dragging in 46 Difference to Detect option 227. 71. 195. 166 dummy variables 93 Dunnett’s comparisons 62 Durbin-Watson Test 96 E Each Pair. 155. 21 graphs 29 launch dialog 17. 219 central composite 215 fractional factorials 204 full factorial 189. 29. 79. 24 launching 22 report 25 DOE simple examples 199 double exponential smoothing 157 drag 147. 28. 199 full factorials 204 minimum aberration 205 mixed-level 205 orthogonal screening designs 204 surface designs 220 orthogonal arrays 205 Plackett-Burman 205 response surface 215 screening 199 uniform precision 220 desirability values 202 DF 151 DFE 104 dialog boxes Distribution platform 16–17. 65 D damped-trend linear exponential smoothing 158 data table opening 15 Data Table Window 39. Student’s t command 62 Edit Formula 96 effect aliasing 207 eigenvalue 218 eigenvector 218 size 226 sparsity 199.

44 Fit Line command 52. 61. 195. 54. 58 Fit Mean command 51. 202 independent variables 55 Individual Confidence Interval 96 . 153 Forecast plot 153 Formula command 56 Formula Editor 56 Forward 102 fractional factorial designs 204 Freq button 86 frequencies table 34 frequency 34 H hand tool in Distribution platform 22 with Distribution platform 31 help system 11 Help tool 12 histogram 16. 181 F Ratio 47 F test 90 Factor 152 Factor Profiling option 193 factorial designs fractionals 204 full 189. 85 platform 79 Fit Model platform 100 examining results 81 launching 79 Save 96–97 Fit Polynomial command 59 Fit Special command 61 Fit Y By X platform 45 launching 45 Fitness. 202 goals matching targets 202 minimizing and maximizing 202 Goodness of Fit 33 Grand Mean command 65 Graph 149 Graph menu 171. 204 three level 205 Factorial Sorted macro 87 Factorial to Degree macro 86 factors categorical 203 continuous 203 key factors 199 false negatives 206 Fat Plus (selection) tool 18. 103 goal types 195. 199. 204 examples 189 Full Factorial macro 83. 86 F “F Ratio” 104 G general linear model 79 Go 101. 30 hypothesized means specifying 25 I identifying key factors 199 importance of responses 195. 61 group variances homogeneity 64 grouping variable 54. 180 File tab 13 File/Edit toolbar 13–14 Fit Distribution 26. 173. 22.jmp 99 fitting lines 51 fitting personality 85. 195. 18.242 Index JMP-SE exponential smoothing see Smoothing Models extra parameters 227 full factorial designs 189. 87 Fixed 157 Forecast Periods 147. 58 Fit Model dialog 79–80. 175 Graph toolbar 13–14 Graphs tab 13 Group By command 54. 170 Holt smoothing 158 homogeneity of variances 64 honestly significant difference 62 Horizontal command 185 Horizontal Layout command 17. 24 bar position 23 bar widths 22 red bracket (box plot) 32 using 22 Histogram command 30 Hoeffding’s D 168. 199.

210. 58. 93 LSMeans Plot 82 LSMeans Plot command 93 LSMeans Student’s t command 93 LSMeans Table command 93 M macros 83 Macros drop-down list 86 Make Model 103–104 Mallow’s Cp criterion 104 Marker Drawing Mode 184 Marker Size command 184 Markers command 184 marking points 48 matched pairs 47 plot interpretation 75 scatterplot 73 Matched Pairs platform 47.Index JMP-SE 243 likelihood ratio tests 36 Line Chart command 183 Line of Fit command 65 Line Style 187 Individual Measurement Chart 127 inertia of Scroller tool 82 Inscribe option 220 interaction effect. adding 82 interactions 206 high-order 204 Intercept 155 intercept 152 interquartile range 31 Introduction sections. 202 maximize responses 195. 71 interpreting the scatterplot 73 launching 72 preparing the data 71 matching target goals 195. 79 legends with colors and markers 49 Level Midpoints command 38 Level Numbers command 38 Level Options command 185 level smoothing weight 156 Levene’s test 64 leverage plot 91–92 whole model 92 . 58 confidence limits 59 Lock 103 Log function 57 Log10 function 57 Logistic platform 55 Logistic Plot command 68 logistic regression 67 Lognormal 33 Long-term sigma 39 Lot Number column 21 Lower Spec Limit 39 LSMeans 82. 36 specifying hypothesized 25 test 35 testing 24 L L18 Chakravarty 205 L18 Hunter 205 L18 John 205 L36 205 Label column 211. 30 confidence interval 30. about 12 Inverse Corr table 163 inverse correlation 163. 202 maximizing goals 202 mean 16. 90 error 90 table 60 Lag 152 Lasso tool 48 leaf values 32 least squares means 82. 222 lack of fit 59. 93 least squares regression 51. 93 LSMeans Contrast command 84. 18. 170 Invertible 151 Index J JMP Starter 12–13 JSL (JMP Scripting Language) animation scripts 228 K Keep the Same command 196. 221 Kendall’s Tau 168 Kendall’s tau-b 169 k-Sample Means (power and sample size) 231 linear contrasts 84 linear exponential smoothing 158 linear regression 51. 61.

18. 202 minimizing goals 202 minimum aberration designs 205 missing value 163 missing values 167 Mixed 103 mixed-level designs 205 Mixture Response Surface macro 87 Model Comparison table 151 model effects 86 Model script Model Specification dialog 211. 217. 35 Normal 33 Normal 26 normal density ellipse 164 normal quantile plot 25. 155 Modeling tab 13 modeling type 29. 66 Mosaic Plot command 67 Moving Average Order 155 Moving Range Chart 127 MSE 104 multiple comparison tests 62–63. 202 nDF 104 one way analyses 47 one way ANOVA 46 one-sample and two-sample means 226 one-sample proportion (power and sample size) 233 one-sample variance (power and sample size) 232 opening data tables 15 order of runs 196. 221 ordinal variables 29 orthogonal array designs 205 orthogonal designs screening designs 204 surface designs 220 Orthogonal option 220 Other 166 outlier box plot 30–31 . 64 Normal Quantiles command 38 normality 25 np-Chart 130 Number of Forecast Periods 150 number of runs screening designs 204 O O’Brien’s test 64 OC Curves 118 Oil1 Cusum. 222 model sum of squares 90 Model Summary table 151. 65 Means Dots command 62 Means/Anova/t test command 50. 163 Multivariate platform 161–170 command 57 nominal logistic regression see Logistic platform nominal variables 29 nominal/ordinal by continuous fit see Logistic platform nonconforming unit 43 nonestimable effects 204 Nonparametric Correlations 168 Nonparametric Measures of Association table 168 nonparametric tests 25. 45 Moments command 30 Moments table 36 More Moments command 30 mosaic plot 54. 50 Means Diamonds command 62.jmp 138 On Face option 220 N N Responses button 195. 31. 210. 32 Normal Quantile Plot command 25. 62 Means/Std Dev/Std Err command 62 median 16. 31–32 Median rank scores 64 Method column 21 Minimal Report personality 88 minimize responses 195. 93 multiple regression example 99–105 Multivariate 161.244 Index JMP-SE Mean CI Lines command 65 Mean Confidence Interval 96 Mean Error Bars command 65 Mean Error Bars option 48 Mean Line 149 Mean Lines command 65 Needle Chart command 183 Needle option 186 Needle Plot command 172 nested effect 86 New Column means one and two sample 226 Means and Std Dev command 48 means diamonds 31.

222 patterns confounding 208 p-Chart 130 Pearson Chi Square test 36 Pearson correlation 167. d. 47.Index JMP-SE 245 plots Actual-by-Predicted 212 Point Chart command 183 points axial 215 colors and markers 49 Points command 65 Points Jittered command 66 Points Spread command 66 Poisson-distributed counts 235 polynomial effect 87 Polynomial to Degree macro 87 power analyses 226 in statistical tests on means 226 one-sample and two-sample means 227–228 Power Analysis command 93 power and sample size calculations 225–237 animation 229 counts per unit 235 k-sample means 231 one-sample and two sample proportions 233 one-sample mean 228 one-sample variance 232 sigma quality level 236 two-sample means 230 Ppk Capability Labeling 40 Predicted Values 96 predicted values saving 58–59 prediction variances 220 Prediction Formula 96 prerequisites to using JMP INTRO 11 Press 96 Print command 18 printing reports 18 Prob Axis command 31 Prob Scores command 38 Prob to Enter 102 Prob to Leave 102 Prob>|t| 152 “Prob>F” 104 probabilities testing 26. 185 Connect Points option 174 platform options 186 single-plot options 186 Y Options 174 Y Options command 186 P p value 35. q parameters 155 Pairwise Correlations 163 Pairwise Correlations table 167 Parameter 103 parameter estimates 60 with fitted lines 52 Parameter Estimates Table 60. 187 Overlay option 185–186 Overlay Pattern command 183 Overlay Plot platform 173. extra 227 Partial Autocorrelation 149 partial autocorrelation 148 Partial Corr table 164 partial correlation 164 Paste command 19. 85 p. 180 Pattern column 197. 169 proportions (power and sample size) 233 Pumice Stone 21 pure error 90 Index outliers 31 outside effect 86 overlap marks 50 Overlay Color command 183 Overlay Marker Color 187 Overlay Marker command 183. 35 Probability Labels command 65 process capability ratio 41 product-moment correlation 167. 201. 81.jmp 127 Pie command 185 Plackett-Burman designs 205 Plot Actual by Predicted 96 Plot Actual by Quantile command 65 Plot Effect Leverage 96 Plot Quantile by Actual command 65 Plot Residual By Predicted 96 Plot Residual By Row 96 Plot Residuals command 53 . 91 Parameter Estimates table 152 parameters. 169 Pen Style command 183 Periods Per Season 156 personality 99 Pickles. 211.

221 randomizing runs 196. 79. 210.jmp 189–190 Reactor Response. 71. 89 Rotatable option 220 Row Colors command 49 Row Markers command 49 row states 23 RSM (Response Surface Methodology) 218 RSquare 104. 210. 221 re-running an analysis 82 rescaling designs 220 Residual Statistics 154 Residuals 96 residuals 53. 29.jmp 189 red bracket (box plot) 32 red triangle popup menus 17 Redo Analysis command 66 regressor columns 206 Remove 147 Remove 85 Remove All 103 Remove button 82 Remove Fit command 53 reports setting titles 80 requesting additional runs 196.246 Index JMP-SE p-value 36 Q q-q plot 31 Quantile Box Plot command 32 examples 216–223 introduction 218 purpose 215 reports 217 Response Surface Effect macro 87 Response Surface Methodology (RSM) 218 response surface models 87 responses custom designs 202. 153 plotting 53 saving 58 resolution numbers 204 resolutions of designs 204 response surface designs S sample autocorrelation function 149 sample data Denim. 171 details 21 sample means 226 Sample Size and Power command 225 sample sizes example comparing one proportion to baseline and sample size plot 234 example comparing single-direction one-sample variances 232 example with counts per unit 235 one and two sample means 227 . 210.jmp 189 Reactor Factors. 221 requesting additional 196. 212 root mean square error 59.jmp 21. 202 lower limits 202 upper limits 202 results annotating 28 revealing columns in reports 34 RMSE 193. 89 Random Effect 99 Randomize within Blocks 210. 62 quartiles 31 R r 53 R2 59. 221 screening designs 204 quantile-quantile plot 31 quantiles 32 Quantiles command 30. 45. 88 runs additional 196. 219 desirability values 202 goals 195. 221 order they appear in table 196. 151 Rsquare 89 Adj 89 RSquare Adj 104 Run Charts 114 Run Model 100 Run Model button 84. 89 R2 adjusted 59. 221 Range option 186 Range Plot command 186 Ranks Averaged command 38 Ranks command 38 R-Chart 125 Reactor 32 Runs. 48. 210. 210.

183. 180 Separate Axes command 185–186 Seriesg. 185–186 scripts animation 228 generating the analysis model Model script See Model table property scripting See JSL Scroller tool 81 seasonal exponential smoothing 158 seasonal smoothing weight 156 Select Columns list 86 select rows in data table 161 selecting and marking points 48 selecting report items 18. error 226 Standardize command 38 standardized values 38 star points 215 starting JMP INTRO 12 statistical tests 34 Statistics 171 Statistics button 181 Std Dev Lines command 62. 30 testing 35 standard deviation. 64 setting titles windows and reports 80 Shewhart Control Charts 124–133 Shirts. 210. 221 sparsity.jmp 132 Short Term. 65 Std Dev Lines option 48 Std Err Bars command 31 Std Error 152 . 210. 25. 155–159 smoothing weight 156 Sort Left to Right 196.jmp 143 Set Alpha Level command 51. effect 199. 18. 58 Scatterplot Matrix 164 scatterplot matrix 163 S-Chart 125 Schwartz’s Bayesian Criterion 151 score confidence intervals 37 screening designs 199 design types 204 Script 38 Script submenu 66. 221 Sort Right to Left 196. 153–154 Show Points command 58. Grouped by fixed subgroup size 40 Index sigma 39–40 Sigma Quality 41 sigma quality level (power and sample size) 236 signed-rank test 35 significance probability 167 stepwise regression 99 simple exponential smoothing 157 single-sample means (power and sample sizes) 228 Size/Scale commands 184 Smoothing Model dialog 156 smoothing models 143. Grouped by Column 40 Short Term.Index JMP-SE 247 shortest half 32 Show Center Line 127 Show Confidence Interval 153–154 Show Correlations 165 Show Histogram 165 Show Points 149. 186 prospective power analysis 226 screening designs 189 Sand Blasted? column 21 Save 40 Save Centered command 65 Save Columns 154 Save commands 37 Save Normal Quantiles command 65 Save Predicted Values 96 Save Script 38 Save Script for All Objects command 66 Save Script to Data Table command 66 Save Script to Report command 66 Save Script to Script Window command 66 Save Standardized command 65 SBC 151 scaling axial 220 designs 220 scatterplot 45–46. 205–206 Spearman’s Rho 169 Spearman’s Rho 168 Spec Limits 40 Specified Sigma 40 specifying hypothesized means 25 Split command 71 Split command selecting rows 71 SS 104 SSE 104 Stable 151 Stable Invertible 156 Stack 38 Standard Deviation 151 standard deviation 16. 180 selection tool 18.

35 dialog 25 Test Probabilities command 27. 35–36. 103 Step command 186 Step History table 102 stepwise regression 100 Control panel 102–103 Stop 103 Studentized Residuals 96 Sum of Squared Errors 151 Summary of Fit table 59. 89 sums of squares 89 surface designs See response surface designs T t Ratio 152 t statistic 35 t test 25. 46–47 report 46 two sample 46–47 Tables menu Split command 71 Tables tab 13 Tables toolbar 14 Tag Line option 28 Target 39 target values 202 Term 152 Test Mean commands 148–150 example 143–148 smoothing models 155–159 Time Series Plot 148 Time Series role 147 titles setting in windows and reports 80 toolbars 13 showing and hiding 14 Tools toolbar 13–14 trade-off in screening designs 204 trend 156 Try Fixed Width 179 Tukey-Kramer HSD 62 tutorial examples DOE 199–201 full factorial designs 189 multiple regression 99–105 response surface designs 216–223 time series 143–148 two-level categorical 200 two-level fractional factorials 204 two-level full factorials 204 two-sample and one-sample means 226. ordinal. 230 two-sample proportion (power and sample size) 233 two-way contingency table 54 U u-Chart 131 Unconstrained 156–157 UnEqual Variances command 64 Ungroup Plots 186 command 24.248 Index JMP-SE Std Error of Individual 97 Std Error of Predicted 96 Std Error of Residual 97 StdErr Prob 34 Stem and Leaf command 32 Step 101. and nominal 29 . 36 table 36 Test Std Dev command 35 testing a mean 24 testing for independence 55 testing probabilities 26 scaling estimated values 27 Tests command 67 Thread Wear column 21 Thread Wear Measured column 21 Time ID role 147 Time Series 143 Time Series Graph 149 Time Series platform 143–159 ARIMA 154–155 uniform precision designs 220 Uniform Scaling 38 Uniform Y Scale 186 Univariate 163 Upper Spec Limit 39 Use Median 127 User Defined option 220 using histograms 22 V values target 202 Van der Waerden 64 variables categorical 29 continuous.

jmp 130 Weibull 33 Weight button in Fit Model 85 weight. Dunnett’s command 62 word processing program with cut and paste 28. 84 windows setting titles 80 Winter’s method 159 With Best. Columns button 22 Z statistics 43 z test 25. Hsu’s MCB command 62 With Control. importance 195. 79–80.Index JMP-SE 249 Index modeling type 29 standardized values 65 Variance Estimate 151 variance of prediction 220 variances equality in t test 47 Vertical command 185 W-Z Washers. 180 X role 147 X-Axis Proportional command 66 XBar Chart 125 Y button in Fit Model 85 Y Options command 185 Y role 147 Y. 202 Welch ANOVA 64 Westgard Rules 122 Where 38 whiskers 31 whole model 92 Whole Model Test table 68 Wilcoxon rank scores 64 Wilcoxon signed-rank test 25. 82. 35 Zero To One 156 . 26. 35 Window menu 23.

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