# Trigonometry

You need to learn the following formulae: Right-angled triangles sin x = O H O x A A H x

cos x =

A H O tan x = A

Triangles without a right angle Label the vertices (or angles) of the triangle with capital letter. Label the sides with lower case letters (so that, for example, side a is opposite angle A etc) B Sine rule: Use this formula to find a side length: a b c = = sin A sin B sin C

c

b

a

C

Use this formula to find an angle:

sin A sin B sin C = = a b c a 2 = b 2 + c2 − 2bc cos A

Cosine rule: Use this formula to find a side length:

b2 + c2 − a2 Use this formula to find an angle: cos A = 2bc Use the cosine rule if you know all 3 sides (to find an angle) OR if you know 2 sides and the angle in between (to find the 3rd side). In other situations try using the sine rule. Area of a triangle is A = 1 ab sin C 2

Properties of sin, cos and tan sin x cos x 2 sin x + cos2 x = 1 tan x =

4 for 0 < x < 720˚.5˚.6˚ (3) Add 360˚ to each of the above to get x = 426. Example 4: Solve sin 3x = 0. Follow the steps: (1) x = SHIFT sin -0. follow these 3 steps: (1) Obtain a first solution x using your calculator (SHIFT sin a OR SHIFT cos a OR SHIFT tan a) (2) Obtain a second solution as follows: 180 – x for equations involving sin 360 – xfor equations involving cos 180 + x for equations involving tan (3) Add on or subtract 360˚ as many times as necessary to get all solutions in the required range.5) = 197.5 + 360 = 490.5˚ (not in the correct range but do not worry about that for now) (2) x = 180 – (-17.5˚. cosx = a or tanx = a. There are four solutions in all.5˚ ÷3 43. (3) Subtract 360˚ from each of the above to get further solutions: 58 – 360 = -302˚ or 238 – 360 = -122˚.4 = 293. Solutions for 3x From a calculator: SHIFT sin 0.5˚ 136.3 = -17. Follow the steps: (1) x = SHIFT tan 1. Example 1: Solve cos x = 0.4˚ or x = 653.5) + 360 = 342. There are 2 solutions altogether: 197.5 + 360 = 409. Follow the above steps: (1) x = SHIFT cos 0. Example 3: Solve tan x = 1.Solving Equations To solve an equation such as sinx = a.5˚ 180 – 49.5˚ 49.76 for 0 < x < 180˚. Example 2: Solve sin x = -0.6 = 58˚.6 for -360 < x < 360˚.5˚ 130.4 = 66.5˚ (3) Add 360˚ to the top solution to get (-17.5˚ 163.5˚ Fill in the first column first before completing the 2nd column .6˚.5 = 130.4˚ (2) x = 360 – 66.76 = 49.5˚ As we want x to be less than 180˚.5˚ or 342.3 for 0 < x < 360˚. (2) x = 180 + 58 = 238˚. 3x must be less than 540˚ Solutions for x 16.

6. PS. correct to 1 d. Find. Find also the corresponding lengths of the side AC. The centre of the base is M and the midpoint of QR is N. a) b) c) d) Solve tan x = 2. 5. The edges PQ.. 7. PT are each 13 cm. Solve cos 2x = 0. 5 and 6 units.Questions: 1. PR. Calculate i) the length QS and the height of the pyramid.8sin(30t + 90)° .p. (c) Calculate the area of the triangle ADC correct to 3 s. In the triangle ABC. In a quadrilateral ABCD. AD = 12. The square base QRST has side 10cm. to the nearest degree. to the nearest degree.5 m.84 for 0 < x < 360˚. . (a) Calculate the length of the diagonal AC. the two possible values of angle BCA.4 giving your answers correct to 3 significant figures. whose largest angle is at B. Find the values of x in the interval 0 < x < 360˚ which satisfy the equation cos 2 x = −0. BC = 6. AB = 12 cm. Use your answers to part (i) to find three times on the same day when the water is 0.32 for 0 < x < 360˚. correct to 1 d. (i) Solve the equation sin x˚ = ⅓ in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 540.8˚.9 for 0 < x < 360˚ Solve sin x = 0. BC = 10 cm and angle CAB = 45˚. given by the equation h = 1.2 m. The diagram shows a pyramid with vertex P.f. angle ABC = 62˚ and angle ACB = 49˚.7 m.p. A triangle ABC. CD = 8.6m above mean tide level. 3. 2. 4. iii) the angle which PR makes with the base QRST. (b) Show that angle ADC = 25˚. ii) the angle PRQ. has sides of lengths 4. Solve tan x = -1 for 0 < x < 720˚. (ii) The height of the water above mean tide level in a harbour t hours after midnight is h metres. Show by calculation that the largest angle is 82.