This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
, if not all) understand the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and to apply this understanding to their decision. The ethical code therefore generally implies documents at three levels: Code of ethics (corporate or business ethics) A code of ethics: 1. A code of ethics often focuses on social issues. 2. It may set out general principles about an organization's beliefs on matters such as mission, quality, privacy or the environment. 3. It may delineate proper procedures to determine whether a violation of the code of ethics has occurred and, if so, what remedies should be imposed. 4. The code of ethics links to and gives rise to a code of conduct for employees.
Code of conduct (employee ethics) A code of conduct is a document designed to influence the behavior of employees. They set out the procedures to be used in specific ethical situations, such as conflicts of interest or the acceptance of gifts, and delineate the procedures to determine whether a violation of the code of ethics occurred and, if so, what remedies should be imposed. The effectiveness of such codes of ethics depends on the extent to which management supports them with sanctions and rewards. Violations of a code of conduct may subject the violator to the organization's remedies which can under particular circumstances result in the termination of employment. Code of practice (professional ethics)
A code of practice is adopted by a profession or by a governmental or non-governmental organization to regulate that profession. A code of practice may be styled as a code of professional responsibility, which will discuss difficult issues, difficult decisions that will often need to be made, and provide a clear account of what behavior is considered "ethical" or "correct" or "right" in the circumstances. In a membership context, failure to comply with a code of practice can result in expulsion from the professional organization. In its 2007 International Good Practice Guidance, Defining and Developing an Effective Code of Conduct for Organizations, the International Federation of Accountants  provided
an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished. individuals focus on the direct consequences of their actions on themselves.the following working definition: "Principles. Adherence to rules and conventions is somewhat rigid. however. This can give rise to an inference that even innocent victims are guilty in proportion to their suffering. standards. For example. Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. procedures and systems of an organization in a way that (a) contributes to the welfare of its key stakeholders. Stage two (self-interest driven) espouses the "what's in it for me" position. and (b) respects the rights of all constituents affected by its operations. Conventional morality is characterized by an acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong. but rather a "you scratch my back. and a rule's appropriateness or fairness is seldom questioned Conventional: . concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect." The worse the punishment for the act is. It is "egocentric". There is "deference to superior power or prestige". lacking recognition that others' points of view are different from one's own. As a result." AMA Code of Ethics Members of the American Marketing Association are committed to ethical professional conduct. and I'll scratch yours" mentality. the more "bad" the act is perceived to be. Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others. "The last time I did that I got spanked so I will not do it again. The conventional level consists of the third and fourth stages of moral development. values. They have joined together in subscribing to this Code of Ethics embracing the following topics: Kohlberg: Pre-Conventional The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children. In Stage one (obedience and punishment driven). or rules of behavior that guide the decisions. although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning. but only to a point where it might further the individual's own interests. At this level an individual obeys rules and follows society's norms even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. in which right behavior is defined by whatever is in the individual's best interest.
Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts. "I want to be liked and thought well of. There is a growing realization that individuals are separate entities from society. also known as the principled level. Those that do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet the greatest good for the greatest number of people . expected. Stage three reasoning may judge the morality of an action by evaluating its consequences in terms of a person's relationships. where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force." Stage four (authority and social order obedience driven). not being naughty makes people like me. dictums and social conventions because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society If one person violates a law.. the world is viewed as holding different opinions. he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level. consists of stages five and six of moral development. the individual acts because it is right. having learned that there is inherent value in doing so. Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists. Democratic government is ostensibly based on stage five reasoning.Stage three(interpersonal accord and conformity driven) They try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations. and that the individual¶s own perspective may take precedence over society¶s view.it is important to obey laws. which now begin to include things like respect. Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community.. perhaps everyone would thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules. and inevitable compromise. it is morally wrong. "they mean well . In Stage five (social contract driven). rights and values. or previously agreed upon. apparently. The intentions of actions play a more significant role in reasoning at this stage. gratitude and the "golden rule". Most active members of society remain at stage four. When someone does violate a law. . and not because it is instrumental. legal. This is achieved through majority decision." Desire to maintain rules and authority exists only to further support these social roles. Post-Conventional The post-conventional level. In Stage six (universal ethical principles driven) In this way action is never a means but always an end in itself.
* Duty of justice: A duty to ensure people get what they deserve. * Duty of gratitude: A duty to benefit people who have benefited us. only one should be acted upon . This view is often expressed as the aphorism "The ends justify the means". * Duty of promise-keeping: A duty to act according to explicit and implicit promises. or consequence. He called these prima facie duties. including the implicit promise to tell the truth. * Duty of reparation: A duty to recompense someone if you have acted wrongly towards them. When more than one of these "duties" applies to a person in some situation. each of these duties need to be taken into consideration when deciding which duty should be acted upon. a morally right act (or omission) is one that will produce a good outcome. * Duty of self-improvement: A duty to improve ourselves. He argues that there are seven right making features of moral action: * Duty of beneficence: A duty to help other people (increase pleasure. because when a person tries to decide how to act. DEONTOLOGICAL THEORIES : Ross's pluralism is also apparent in this quote. Thus.TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES: Consequentialism refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of one's conduct are the true basis for any judgment about the morality of that conduct. from a consequentialist standpoint. improve character) * Duty of non-maleficence: A duty to avoid harming other people.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.