1.1 This system of Route Relay Interlocking was first installed in India at Basin Bridge Junction and Madras Central Stations of Southern Railway and was designed by the Nippon Signal Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. This was followed by the installations in the suburban stations including Metre Gauge terminal stations like Bangalore City. Due to the simplicity of the circuits employed and the indigenous manufacture of almost all the components required for the system in the Railway owned Workshops, this system of RRI is popular in Southern Railway and South Central Railway. Such a system also exists in South Eastern and North Eastern Railways. 1.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:

This system is based on a geographical layout of signal switches and push buttons. All that is required by an operator to move trains is to know where a particular train is and to which line it has to be routed. Therefore, to set up a particular route, the operator is required to perform some action on the geographical layout of Control Panel at these two points, viz., at ENTRANCE and EXIT. In British system, these two actions take the form of turning a switch at the entrance and pressing a button at the Exit, of that particular route. For this reason, the system is known as “Entrance – Exit System “ or “NX System” in short. This conforms to IRS Specification .IRS – 36/87 and Correction given in 96. 1.3 CONTROL PANEL: All the points and signals are operated from a combined indication diagram cum control panel located in the cabin/Station Masters Room. The combined indication diagram cum control panel consists of an inclined console on which a clear geographical representation of the entire track layout with signals, points, Control switches, push buttons and various types of indications and alarms available. The track layout is sub-divided into track sections according to the track circuit configuration with distinctive colour for each track circuit section. (All colours except Red). On the track, adjacent to each signal there is an “Entrance Thumb Switch” at the centre of the track of the route, an “Exit push Button”. The Exit button is coloured white with alphabets engraved on it. The entrance switch is coloured Red for running signals and Yellow for shunt signals with the number of the relevant signals engraved in the centre of the switch. The king knob used in semi-automatic territory is coloured red with a white bar across the knob. There are two types of signal switches, one turning 900 towards right and the other turning 900 towards left. Normally, the switch knobs will be at right angles to the track and when turned they become horizontal, the knob pointing towards the direction of the train movement that has to take place. Push button restores to normal when released. In addition to Signal switches, 3-Position point thumb switches coloured black are provided, one for each set of points for individual operation of points Calling ON Signal switch is coloured Red with white dot and crank handle releasing switch is blue in colour. Similarly level crossing control switch is coloured in deep brown. When a route is set and locked, the route is illuminated by white strip lights in the track circuit configurations throughout the route (except the overlap). This indication remains lit as long as the route is locked and disappears only after the relevant signal switch is restored to normal position and the route is released. This indication turns to Red when track is occupied or track circuit failed, irrespective of whether the route is locked or free. When the speed and frequency of the trains are to be increased, Relay interlocking is ideal. In Relay Interlocking the Interlocking is achieved through relay circuitry at a centralised place. The time required for installations is also less. The Relay Systems are generally trouble free since

the moving parts involved are less and replacement is easier. Indian Railways are having time tested experience in Relay Interlocking since 1958. Route Relay Interlocking is a system in which Interlocking is achieved by means of Relays. In British system the relays confirming to BRS and BSS specification, having metal to carbon contacts are used, (Q Series Relays). Therefore, the circuitry becomes comparatively simpler as welding of contacts need not be considered.

Fig. 1.1 1.4 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS: The sequence of operation of the equipment is explained with the help of a block diagram (Fig. 1.2) Turning the entrance knob and pressing the exit button of a route, energises the route selection relay (LR), provided that no conflicting route is set. Thus the basic interlocking is ensured at the first stage itself. The energisation of the route selection relay picks up all the point control relays (WLRs) in that route depending on the route selected provided that the points are free from track locking and route locking. The point control relay, controls the point machine concerned and sets the points required in the route. The correct setting and locking of each point is indicated by the point indication relay (NWKR/RWKR). The route checking relay (UCR) checks that all the points involved in the selected route are correctly set and locked at the site. It also proves that the route set is for the Signal route initiated including isolation and overlap. The operation of the route checking relay (UCR) de-energises the relevant approach stick relay (ASR) and sectional route locking relays (TLSR/TRSRs) thereby ensuring that the complete route is locked before the signal is cleared. The signal Control Relay is energised proving all safety conditions required viz., all tracks, including overlap are clear, all points, including those in overlap, isolation, are correctly set and locked, relevant route locking and approach locking relays are de-energised etc. In addition a control by track stick relay is used to ensure that the signal does not re-clear after the passage of a train as the relevant thumb switch is left in the operated position. The control by the track stick relay is removed if the signal has to work as an automatic signal, by the operation of king knob relay, which is energised by the reversal of the king knob.



Push buttons (self-restoring type) are provided for each route/overlap. 1. battery back up is required. Approach track is optional. Crank handle. overlap and isolation with a single command by Entrance-Exit System.5.Internal and External Seperately. 110VAC for track feed Battery chargers are used for Track circuits. The Relays are neutral and not latched ones. Different colours are obtained through jewels of different signal aspects. Hence common white indication lamp is used or coloured LEDs are used. Relays with metal to carbon contacts are used in general. C. Relay interlocking systems are popularly divided as Route setting type (RRI) and Non route setting type (panel interlocking). For signal lighting of 110VAC.2 mm dia PVC Flexible wire is used for inter relay wiring. All operations are controlled from a Control panel by the operator. after the arrival of a train on proper signals. are achieved through EKT /RKT/Lever locks. plan. 12 VDC for QS-3 – Relay in Axle Counters and EKTs. 110VDC for point operation and for inverter wherever UPS for signal lights is provided. failure will be on safe side only. The idea of keeping such vital relays energised is to comply with the principles of closed circuits. No interlocked Relays are used . Colour light signals are provided. The features of Relay Interlocking in general are as follows. All other knobs in PI and RRI will have two positions generally (N. In RRI points will have three position knobs (N.I.5 REQUIREMENTS OF RELAY INTERLOCKING Guidelines for the Design. 4 • • • • • • • . provided wherever necessary. Specification No. In British System holding of overlap for certain time delay (120 minutes) is not considered mandatory. Hence normally power supply requirement is comparatively higher. Since the Route is released with the knowledge of Station Master.82 & 7. 16 strands of 0.2W pencil type lamp or LEDs are used on the indication panel to indicate various indications on the operating panel. the overlap will be released immediately.R). Level crossing. Section K of Ch. siding interlocking etc.6 • • • • • • • • • • • FEATURES OF RELAY INTERLOCKING. A few vital relay circuits are kept energised by means of stick path. In British System.. route gets released only after the normalisation of concerned signal knob by the operator provided all other conditions are satisfied. In RRI.S-36/87 deals with the requirement of Relay Interlocking in general. G&SR Chapters 3. of course. The RRI will have the additional facility of automatic operation of all points in route. Sectional release of route is.The approach stick and sectional route locking relays will re-energise when the train arrives & clears the route and the signal switch is turned to Normal Position. They are numbered alphabetically.VII of 1988 SEM for Relay interlocking installations (Route setting type). R). 24 VDC for Q Series Relay.S-36/87-96.8 and 9. 1. stabilised supply is used to increase life of signal lamps. Knobs are provided for operating signals and points and they will bear the same number as the functions indicated in S. Yard is Fully track circuited. as soon as the Route is released. between home to home signals in single line and Home to advanced starter on either direction in double line. The specification No. 12V.83 of new edition. Installation and maintenance of Relay interlocking SEM Para 7. 1. In case of failure the relay drops.

LCs. Automatic Route setting facility is available. PI is adopted for smaller yards.7 12 VDC/AC for panel indications. All points are provided with 2 position knobs (Three position knobs in case of RRI) with N. Separate point Lock/Free provided. The sequence of operation of Relays and various stages of circuits are as follows. The DC supplies are generally derived from a battery source. indication is provides over the point knob. Note:. signalling is 4. set or from traction supply. 6.Knobs. is 3.) Track circuit occupied /failed indications are also given in Red Colour. Sectional route release facility is not compulsory 5 Points are operated with 2 position Knobs. 2. Comparison of RRI and PI : Route Setting Type (RRI) 1. Colour light signalling Non Route Setting Type (PI) 1. 5 . Crank Handle interlocking. Stand by power supply is provided from a D. etc. Overlap and Isolation can be operated to the required condition. Point. 4. Points are operated with 3 position pt. Sidings. 3. Features of operating PANEL All signals are provided with Rotary Switch / knobs with indications aspect . level crossing interlocking. Automatic Route setting facility is not available. Separate point Lock/Free indication is not 6. points in the Route. As already explained interlocking of every function associated with the signal clearance. Route Button is not (For Entrance & Exit Operation ) Compulsory since it is not NX system. are also controlled by knobs with indications on the control cum indication panel. When Route is set and locked ‘white’ indication appears on the route portion.Before going for PI/RRI it is necessary to ensure reliable and stable power supply for smooth working after commissioning. Normally in British panels over lap is not lit though OV is locked. Provision of compulsory. RRI is adopted for bigger yards generally. 7. which is charged by a battery charger on float. R indications (Normal Green / White Lamp and Reverse Yellow / Green Lamp. Sectional route release facility is compulsory 5. Operation. which means that with single command. Colour light compulsory.• • • 1. 2. Route indications are also repeated route wise on the signal configuration.wise at their respective position. Points have to be operated individually for setting the Route. Route Button is provided on the berthing Track 7.G. sidings interlocking etc are achieved through Relay circuits.

when the UCR picks up. Now the ASR picks up only when the train has arrived on proper signal with sequential operation of track circuits or if the route is cancelled ensuring back locking. another relay called point lock relay (WLR) also drops. the route is to be checked.’ SM turns signal knob and presses route push button and releases.3 is taken and typical circuits are dealt in detail along with explanation. For clearing signal. holding the point in the route and overlap in locked condition.. A relay called “LR” will pick up which in turn operates the points in Route. Once if the points in the route are operated.Note :. ASR drops. (as per New SEM para 7. 2. CHAPTER – 2 S5J1 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS The sequence of operations involved in British RRI are indicated in the Block Diagram given at Fig..27. For a detail study a 3-Road typical station layout as shown in Fig. With SM key is ‘IN.e. When route is checked i. After checking. and other conditions such as knob reversal by authorised persons etc are incorporated in its circuit.) For route checking the relay called UCR picks up.2.1 STAGES OF SIGNAL CLEARANCE: - The stages of Signal Clearance will be as follows: For Clearing a signal. The relays NWKR/RWKR picks up when points are correctly set and locked at site.e. Route Locking means. the route has to be locked. This is ensured by providing a SM key on the control panel. Every signal will have one route checking relay (UCR) and it ensures NWKR/RWKRs of points in the route. indication locking and approach locking etc: have already been discussed in the topic SELECTION CIRCUITS (S5H). the route is set and locked. i. Signal control relay called HR is energised. Normally this relay will be in picked up condition. after the clearance of signal. overlap and isolation to the required position if the point is free to be operated or the point is not engaged by any other route. When WLR drops. When ASR drops. point cannot be operated. for the same layout. and the point zone is not occupied by train. overlap and isolation etc. Indication locking and approach locking. A relay called ASR’ is employed for this purpose.As per latest IRS-S-36/87 CLS and motor operated points and operating panel are compulsory with track circuits from home to home. The details of back locking. only authorised persons can make operations. 6 . 1. This is called route selection.

For starter signals. the following conditions are also to be satisfied • • • • • • • The clearance of track in the route & overlap (TPRs up ) One signal . In big yards up to intermediate shunt signal if any. All concerned points are correctly set and locked wherever required as detailed below. Points in the route.3 DETAILS OF RELAYS FOR SIGNAL CLEARANCE: As already stated. Whenever points are operated by Point machines it shall be ensured that the concerned crank handle (S) is/are kept locked in EKT/HKT. are down) (In Southern Railways UYR1 and UYR2 are called as TSSLR and TPZR respectively) Route Indicator lamps are not lit for straight line (UHRs or UGR and UECR down) (compulsory in case of Junction type Indicator) Route Indicator lamps are lit for turn out (UGR or UHR and UECR up) Interlocked LCs if any in the Route and overlap are locked and closed against Road traffic (LXPR up) and held locked till the passage of that train is over. For starter signal: . Route setting (operating the points to the required condition. For Calling on Signals no track in advance need to be proved but it shall be capable of clearing the Calling on Signal only after Calling on track is occupied and stipulated time (timer operated) delay is completed. (NWKRs/RWKRs up ) Route checking (UCR up) Route Locking/Over lap locking (ASR/TRSR//TLSR/OVSR down).Fig.. on single line. for shunt signals. UYR2 etc. For shunt signal: .1 1.2. following are the stages of Circuits • • • • • SM’s key inserted and turned to ensure authorised operation(SMR/SMCR/SMPR up) Route initiation/selection is done (LRs up) by the authorised person. concerned berthing Track Circuit and overlap track circuits. points in the route. Electrical locking of points. in isolation.2 (I) Conditions for clearing a fixed Signal. except berthing track circuits.( WLR down) In addition to the above. points in the route. in isolation & in overlap.Track Circuits in the route.All Track Circuits in the route normally up to next stop signal in the train feature (TSR up) No cancellation is initiated (JSLR down) Route Release Relays have de-energised after the last train movement ( UYR1. Points in route & in isolation.Track circuits upto next stop signal in advance. for Signal Clearance. 7 . points in the route (Isolation is not compulsory) for calling on signal. All concerned Track Circuits are clear as detailed below: (a) (b) (c) For Home signal: . in isolation & in the overlap and on double line. (d) 1. (1) (2) (3) (4) (II) (III) For Home Signal.

• • • •

Concerned crank handles are `in’ and locked (CHR /CHLR up) Sidings in the route & overlap are kept normal and held (siding KLPR/NPR up) Aspect of signal ahead is displayed (GECR up or RECR/HECR/DECR UP) Cross protection is provided for the signal control (by the Front contact of ASR or Back contact of UCR ) These contacts are not favourable for signal clearance

Conflicting signals are proved either directly or indirectly by proving the front contact of ASRs of conflicting signals in UCR circuit of the signal to be cleared. Now every circuit will be discussed in detail separately. For explanations sake, small circuits relevant to the yard are given.




For designing circuits of a yard, the `Table of Control’ (also known as Selection Table) is to be prepared first. The table of control provides necessary information for the preparation of circuits. It consists of the following information: • • • • • • Details of signals with aspect Routes governed by signal The method for Route holding i.e. either approach locking with approach track circuits or dead approach locking with out approach track circuits. The back locking and controlling track circuits, crank handle grouping and aspect ahead of the concerned signal. The points in Route, Overlap and isolation which are detected and locked by the signals. The conflicting signal/Route locked by this signal Any other controls like interlocked level crossing, interlocked siding, lighting of Route indicators, Block control etc.

3.1 It is customary to send the selection table for CRS approval along with other documents. Selection table is a user-friendly data, which gives entire information about the inter- locking and various conditions for setting the route, holding the route and clearing a signal. The selection table is a basic requirement for testing various signals in a yard during commissioning and afterwards also. Each column of selection table is utilised for each circuit and for attending failures also for early rectification. Prior to designing of circuits, the selection table will be prepared by Drawing Office Staff. It will be checked by Chief Drafts man of Drg.Office and ASTE/DSTE before getting approved by CSTE. A typical selection table for the given yard is as below. [The details of selection table have been already covered in S5H.] EXERCISE: - Prepare selection table for the Signal and Points not covered in this table.



is available. In addition to this. • • • • • • • • • • The track circuits are clear. In other words for those LR for which the point position are same are included.2 LR CIRCUIT Route Selection Relay: LR is named after the signal and the Route for example.1 SMR/SMCR Circuits. If the above conditions are fulfilled then. To clear a Signal. locking of conflicting signals is done. The front contact of SMR/ SMCR will be proved in various circuits to ensure the authorized operation of the panel. 1C1LR. SM has to ensure that the following conditions are fulfilled. 1A2LR.1 in the direction of a train and presses Route button A and then the concerned LR picks up. To clear a signal SM turns the knob. Let us examine how a signal is cleared. contacts are also included to avoid picking up of 11 . Thus at the route selection stage itself. Once LR picks up. The LR is picked up and operate the points to the required condition. 1ALR has to pick up when signal 1 is leading to route 'A'. SM key is `in’ and turned Line Clear obtained for LSS Time cancellation is not in progress. 4. LC gate if any is closed Crank handles are ‘in’ and locked Knob of conflicting signals are normal Point knob is in centre position or in the same position of points required to be set Route is released after the last operation and not locked by any other conflicting signal. When SM’S key is ‘in’ and concerned knob is turned SMR/ SMCR picks up. 1BLR.CHAPTER . LR is normally down and picks up only when there is an operation to clear a signal.4 S5J1 RELAY INTER LOCKING ROUTE SET METHOD (SYSTEM – I) CIRCUIT EXPLANATION Based on the Block Diagram and Selection table various circuits will be discussed now in detail. SM starts the signal clearance. LR front contact is used in UCR and HR circuits also. LR picks up only when the conflicting LRs are down. Fig. 4. Point free indication.1 4. The back contacts of LR are included for locking the conflicting signals. it sticks through its own front contact till the knob is normalised with SM key `in’& turned to ‘R’ Position. which are directly opposing. 1C2LR.

The SMR back contact is bridged across the reversed contact of signal knob to prevent the de-energisation of LR when an un-authorised person normalises the signal knob. The ALR front contact by pass the button pressed contact. as the same will not be available when SM releases the push button.1 POINT CONTROL CIRCUIT: (Combined WLR/WNR/WRR) A point can be operated only when. WLR is up. Concerned LR should pick up with point Knob in centre position for automatic operation. if button A is pressed. 12 . there is a possibility of both 1 A2LR and 10 A2LR to pick up. Similarly when knob is turned to pick up 1A1LR route button. back contacts of unwanted LRs are to be included judiciously.. instead of ASR. The Track Circuit of Point zone are free and track circuit is not failed i. SM’s key is `in’.4. This is not desirable. Fig.3. if SM has locked the panel.. Whenever sectional route release is provided. At times it so happens that. Now with all conflicting LRs down. A 1 button pressed contact and SMR up. At this position. the knobs 1 and 10 may be in reverse condition because there is no mechanical interlocking between knobs.2 4. When WLR picks up it indicates that the point is free to be operated. 1A1LR picks up. The point knob should be turned to the required position (N/R) with all LRs dropped for individual operation.e.e.relays simultaneously with 1A1LR picked up with a single operation of a route button. The freeness of this point from route setting/overlap setting is indicated by the pick up contacts of ASR of all the signals which are leading over the point. ATR and BTR up. if again B is pressed then 1 BLR also picks up since Knob operation is same for A&B routes. WLR (Point Lock relay). TRSR and TLSR relay will be used to control WLR. i) ii) iii) The point is not engaged in Route or Overlap of any Signal i. To avoid all these inadvertent energisation.

4. During route setting. E notes. WRR and WNR circuits are shown in Fig. The common contact which can allow the point to go to normal or reverse are NC and RC. the knob is always to be kept in centre position so that the point can go to normal or reverse according to the LR picked up with respect to the route. D. For individual operation.4. point 101 goes to reverse and if 1BLR picks up Point 101 goes to normal. Therefore. For the point to go to reverse R or RC contacts should be available. the point knob used is having three positions. Then WNR/WRR will pick up according to the route selected. after LRs picking up WLR picks up. In RRI. At reverse position R and RC contacts are made. When WNR picks up points go to normal and when WRR picks up points get operated to reverse. for automatic operation. At centre position NC and RC contacts are made. If 1A1LR picks up. Fig.3 For the point to go to normal N or NC contacts should be available.The ASR circuit will be dealt in detail. For points operation circuits please refer S5C. all concerned LRs will be in dropped condition and WNR/WRR picks up through (N) or (R) contacts of the point knob as per the position of the point knob. but now it is to be understood that ASR front contact indicates that the Route is not locked by the concerned signal. WLR. For the given yard. The three positions of point knob are :Normal Reverse Centre At normal position N and NC contacts are made.4 13 .

14 .


4.4 ROUTE CHECKING CIRCUITS .102 are still kept locked as 3/5 ASR drops after Starter No. The OVSR relay gets energised only after the train clearing the berthing track circuits. clearing the back lock track circuits of Signal No. the OVSR relay will be energised through another path (3 OVJSLR and NJPR) which will be available after a certain time delay (generally 120 Seconds). thereby de-energises 3 OVSR.5  Where in a route if more than two over laps are available number of overlap relays are equal to no.102. Points No.UCR 16 . 1 ASR drops. of overlaps. If the train has to be stopped on Main Line berthing track and if precedence to another train stopped on loop line is to be given. 3 is taken off for the run through train. which in turn de-energises 102 WLR. This method is not so effective as the Signal ASR will pickup soon after the back lock tracks are cleared by the train and the overlap points can be altered even though the train is still rolling down on berthing Track Circuit. and overlap number. Points No. (Assuming that Starter Signal is not taken OFF). To obviate the above disadvantage.102 are to be operated to reverse position but the Points are still locked as the train has not cleared 02A/BT.1 is taken OFF to Main Line (Road – 2). 4. locking the overlap points No. Under these circumstances. After the train arriving within the berthing track. an improved method of holding the overlap points is discussed below :- Fig. 3 OVSR relay will Pickup with 1 ASR front contact and 02A/B TPR front contact.The Overlap Points can be held by proving the ASR front contact in concerned overlap point’s WLR Circuit. if it is a run through train. When Home Signal No.1. In this circuit. This relay is normally energised. overlap relay is nominated with the starter no. 1 ASR picks up but the OVSR relay is still kept de-energised as the train occupies 02A/BT.

102. UCR circuit energises in the following manner. 1 BLR operates Pts. 1A1LR has to be picked up and if overlap is set to main line 1 A2LR will pickup (number of route buttons depends upon number of sand humps. UCR back contact will be proved in ASR circuit. This is achieved by picking up UCRs (Route Checking Relays). to lock the Route as soon as it is checked. SM presses button B and turns the knob 1. The features of UCR circuits are as follows: • • One signal will have one UCR. keeping all other knobs in normal and all point knob in central position. overlap and isolation are set and locked. UCR will be named after the signal. The energisation of NWKR/RWKR indicates that points are set and locked after setting the route. With this 1 BLR picks up. This relay is normally de-energised and picks up when signal knob is turned and Route button is pressed.) In either case 105 is to be normal to isolate the siding. 103. then the route setting is completed. ASRs of conflicting signals are to be in pick up condition to ensure conflicting signal locking.e. • If the Route is to be set for Road 1. • UCR front contact will be proved in HR circuit. 1UCR energies as shown in following diagram: UCR CIRCUIT 17 . This is utilised to drop ASR as soon UCR picks up i. To achieve locking of conflicting signals.Once the points are set in the required condition. 101. After route setting is done. The points in the route. with overlap set to sand hump. it is to be checked. Back contact of UCR in ASR circuit also ensures that Signal knob is normalised before releasing the route.. Front Contact of ASRs of conflicting signals will be proved in UCR circuits Concerned LR front contact also will be proved in UCR Circuits. 103 NWKR picks up. 104 to normal and consequently 101 NWKR 102 NWKR. viz. In this condition A2 is pressed for main line and A1 button is pressed for sand hump. provided all the favourable conditions are available. Now the Route setting is over.. For checking the Route when the train is to be received on Road 2. For energising UCR circuits.

with suitable circuits. These include a point. while the train is approaching the signal. or a level crossing. ASR drops as soon as UCR picks up. In any case.5.2 ROUTE HOLDING: From the principles of interlocking. if the Relay is de-energised due to. 2. This is possible by not allowing ASR to pick up. For ensuring safety of the train after giving signals it is necessary that the route should be held. it shall not be possible to release the route even if the SM tries for it intentionally or unintentionally. When ASR drops. Now we have to ensure that signal can be cleared only when ASR and WLR are de-energised. This Relay circuit is the most important circuit in British system of Relay Interlocking. Once the ASR has dropped it cannot pick up i. The features of this circuit are as follows: The Relay is normally kept in pick up condition to comply with the principle of close circuit. For this a relay called ASR is used. This is the reason why WLR is controlled by ASR and TPRs contact and WNR and WRR are controlled by WLR contact. ASR to be de-energised. Route. It is already understood that WLR should be in picked up position for any point to get operated. For locking the route. Here it is important to understand that ASR has a dual role of locking the route and holding the route. the route is to be held till such time the train actually completes the journey over the route. before the signal is taken off. it is to be locked. here. the following lockings are incorporated:• • • Approach locking. However. once the route is locked it must not be released unless certain precautions are taken or conditions are satisfied which are indispensable to achieve safety. means any thing that is protected by the signal and which is to be kept locked during the passage of train or during the approach of train. in centralised operations of signals and points the time of operation is very little and hence it is necessary to prevent the releasing of route while the train is approaching.. which means that. The details of ASR have already been explained. When the train is approaching and While the train is on the Route. since UCR back contact is proved in ASR circuit.4. In ASR circuit.5. 18 . It is equally important to ensure that.1 ROUTE LOCKING CIRCUITS (ASR/TRSR/TLSR) After checking the Route.e. Now it is clear that route is locked and point is electrically locked before signal is taken off since ASR de-energised contact is proved in HR circuit. 1. It will be also seen that ASR and WLR back contacts will be proved in HR circuit to ensure that. 4. This can be prevented by restricting WLR from being energised. This means that. Indication locking and Back locking ASR stands for Approach Stick Relay. the point to be negotiated by the train in route/overlap etc are not altered by anybody intentionally or un-intentionally. both route and point are locked before signal is taken off. we have understood the necessity of route holding. It shall not be possible to alter the conditions of the Route unless the signal has been first put back to on. the WLRs of points concerned drop and points become inoperative. any reason it results in Route locking.

ASR drops only when UCR picks up i.e. (As we know the route shall not be released when the train is on route). normal contact of knob. JR. OR The approach track if any is not occupied (achieved by ATR up. Let us examine the ASR circuits for signal No. DECR. These are the conditions required for picking up ASR. when unconcerned track circuits failed. back contact of UCR The signal should be at ON This is achieved by proving RECR up. 2.normal contact of knob. 5. However. The stick path by passes the back lock TPRs. 3. Since the bulb failure results in RECR failure. 3. NJPR. This is to avoid failure of ASR after the train arrival. The Signal control Relays should be normal. The train has to clear the route i. if the route is to be cancelled if the train occupied approach track but stopped in rear of the signal concerned. so that after ASR picks up if any one track fails.e. drops.(Signal & its dependent signal if any are at on ) This is achieved by proving the back contacts of concerned HRs. The signal control functions normal . Therefore 101 AT is bypassed by 101 NWKR front contact. Bobbing of track circuits and deenergisation of other associated relays shall not de-energise the ASR. In the Circuit of ASR 101 AT is not required when point No.. DRs in ASR circuit. ASR will not drop.. With this. They are: 1. UHRs. JSLR.1 referring our lay out. The items No. UYRs/JR/ATR. TSR up) by the approaching train and TSR not de-energised. This condition is achieved by proving back lock track circuit relays in ASR circuit and is known as back locking. 4. (Achieved by UYRs pick up contact) in case of train passing the route on signals (TSR down) or after a lapse of certain time delay. it is mandatory to ensure that.1.101 is normal. UECR back contacts are proved in ASR circuit. Once ASR picks up UYRs. For similar reasons 102BT and 102 AT have also been bypassed. very often HECR. The train should actuate the track circuits in the route sequentially. when route is checked.Let us find out the conditions required to be fulfilled before releasing the Routes. we indirectly prove that signal is not OFF. together are known as indication locking. 19 . the back lock TPRs are picked up. where the signals are operated by signal machine. This is achieved by providing a stick path through its own contact. the signal arms are at ‘ON’ before releasing the route.(achieved by NJPR up and JSLR or JR up). 2.

6 ONE SIGNAL . as in the case of starters they may have a common ASR.7 ASR CIRCUIT Now we will summarize the details about ASR ASR is normally picked up (through its own stick path) ASR when energized. To prove that a signal is not taken off. indicates that the route is free / signal concerned is not taken off. ASR back contact is used to give route locked indication on the panel. TRSR/TLSR. ASR made to pick up immediately after first three tracks clear and signal Knob is normalised.* Where sectional route release is provided in ASR circuit only first three track circuit are proved rest of the tracks provided with TRSR/TLSR.4. ASR back contact is used in HR circuit to prove that route is locked before signal is taken ‘off’. a relay called TSR is used. TSR and conflicting UCR circuit. Its circuit is given below: 20 . for the next train. UYRs to ensure that.ONE TRAIN FEATURE CIRCUIT (TSR) It may be seen that once the signal is cleared all the conditions will be available for the signal to assume OFF aspect again if the train has cleared the Route and overlap and the control for signal clearance has been kept in reverse position. ASR front contact is used in WLR. ASR back contact is also used in picking up route release relays i. 4.. Each signal will have one ASR or if a group of signals have common points and only one signal can be taken off at a time. Therefore. This is not desirable in absolute block working. a circuit is evolved to ensure that one train only passes on one signal clearance and after each train the route has to be released/lever to be normalised before the signal is taken off again. As ASR can pick up only when the train has arrived and cleared backlock tracks. they pick up only when the train is arriving on proper signals. This means that keeping signal switch in reverse the signal clears for many trains one after another automatically. In fact ASR is the ideal relay to achieve interlocking between two conflicting signals. its ASR front contact can be used. For this.e. This feature is used to achieve locking of conflicting signals. Fig. ASR back contacts are used in Timer circuits also to ensure that the timer is initiated only when the route is locked.

TSR may be common if the track circuit is common for two or more signals. any one of the aspect of starter in advance will be proved. which may result in an accident. When 1 TPR drops. The next signal can be cleared again only when TSR has picked up as TSR pickup condition is proved in HR Circuit. the TSR need not be a slow to release relay) TSR is named after the signal. there is a possibility of signal going blank due to lamp failures or power supply interruptions. To avoid this. Now TSR can pick up only when ASR picks up and after signal knob is normalised. ASR is already in de-energised condition. Evidently this is achieved by proving TSR front contact in HR circuit When train passes signal. * As it is. TSR also drops. TSR back contact is used along with UYR relays for the normal route release path of ASR. This is undesirable since the Drivers are likely to miss the signal.4.8 TSR CIRCUIT Once signal is off.7 PROVING OF THE ASPECT OF SIGNAL AHEAD (GECR) In colour light signalling. TSR drops. these contact combination may be used in HR ckt in place of GECR 21 . which it controls. Therefore. for clearing a home signal. it is a recent practice to prove the aspect of signal ahead in the rear signal. Thus it is ensured that only one train is permitted on one signal clearance. This arrangement is only to save the Relays. Therefore. If TPR drops and signal goes to danger in the face of an approaching train. 4. (If QSPAI relays are used as TPRS. For example. GECR is made slow to release to cater for the aspect changing of signal in advance. TSR is made slow to release so that it does not drop in case of bobbing of track circuit. Similarly TSR dropped condition indicates that the train has passed the signal. the train passes the signal and actuates 1 TPR (the first track immediately after signal and is called controlling track for this purpose).Fig. TSR cannot pick up as ASR front contact is not available. front contact is used along with approach track circuit in ASR circuit to indicate that the train has not passed the signal while the approach locking is made effective to release the route.

and Clear any concerned signal.10 : Whenever a signaled move has to take place over the points it will not be possible to release the concerned CH which is kept locked inside an electrical key transmitter (HKT/RKT/EKT).2. In our layout points are divided into three groups.4.1) Crank handle interlocking is done as shown in fig. CH1 group to cover 101 and 102 point. Therefore.Sh 13.3& 5 will be broken.e. 22 .S10. it breaks the supply to CHLR and CHLR drops.CO10 to Rd. 5 will be made and CHLR will be picked up. is inserted in the EKT and turned to right. 2 and 3.C1&S1will fail. To ensure that CHLR drops before the actual extraction of the key. crank handles are provided to facilitate operation of points manually in case of electric operated point failure or for maintenance purpose.. contact Nos. Other signals will function normally. The manual operation of point. points are grouped to achieve optimum flexibility. Once the turning is over and the key is left. the CHLR circuit is modified. Unless CHLR drops extraction of crank handle is not possible.9 GECR CIRCUIT 4. Therefore. It is not possible to provide CH interlocking for every point individually. the crank handle is normally kept locked in an EKT and this condition (crank handle is in and locked) enables the crank handle Relay (CHLR/ CHR) to be energised. may endanger the train operation. For the above purpose. when the key riveted to it. When the crank handle is OUT it shall not be possible to: (i) (ii) Operate the points from panel. In the HKT.8 CRANK HANDLE INTERLOCKING CIRCUITS (CHLR/CHR) Where points are operated by point motors. when 105 has failed crank handle from CH3 HKT only will be taken out and signals No. it is necessary that crank-handle is interlocked with signals suitably.Fig. . the relay CHLR drops and hence the signals interlocked with it cannot be taken off. while the key is inserted and being turned contact No. No.(Ref. CH2 to cover 103 and 104 and CH3 to cover 105 i.1. Sh 14 S5. 4.1. When the economiser push button is pressed for extracting the crank handle. When the key is extracted. Fig. Therefore a stick path is provided to feed CHLR by passing contacts 3 & 5 with its front contact. The crank handle gets locked. At the same time it is not proper to have only one crank handle common for all the points also. after a signal is cleared.

The keys will be under the personal custody of S.M has to make entries in CH register whenever crank handle is released for the manual operation of the point. In this case an emergency release system also is to be provided to release crank handle when ASR fails. S. wherever end panels are provided. 23 . Instead of HR back contact ASR front contacts are used to ensure that Signals are at ‘ON’ for releasing Crank handle by certain Railways.M.Crank handle EKT will be kept locked in a glass fronted box provided with pad lock.

The siding controlled from the panel will be invariably provided with signal. In such cases these points are interlocked directly and also these sidings may be provided with shunt signals to control the movements.4. Operation of siding points directly from the panel is resorted to. A pair of electrical key transmitters is provided one at the panel and the other at the siding in a location. 'E' type key at the panel is extracted after reversing the siding control knob of the panel provided the concerned routes are normal. Siding points are also operated from a Ground Lever frame situated near siding point. To reduce the time taken for shunt movements over the siding point. The key at the siding remains locked in the EKT. Thus these signals cannot be taken off if the key has been transmitted to the siding as NPR drops when once the key is extracted. "Siding YR" which is controlled from the panel. After the completion of the shunt movements over the siding point. Siding YR can be energised only when: i) ii) The signals concerned are at 'ON' and the Respective siding control knob is reversed When siding YR is energised free indication at the EKT appears and the siding key is released by pressing the economiser push. The siding points remain locked in Normal position and the same can be released only when there is no signaled movement towards it.4. inserted in EKT and turned to right. Siding points may either be (a) operated from the panel directly or (b) operated locally but controlled by panel. either physically brought from the panel room or transmitted electrically. the movement from the siding shall also be controlled by a signal. When the key is turned a relay "Siding NPR" picks up at the panel. Where siding points interlocking is provided through electrical transmission of the 'E' type key. then these points are operated locally. Where siding point is not protected by a signal. EKT is energised through a relay. Ground lever frame can be released only when the concerned 'E' type key. only if the movements over these points (into and out of siding) are frequent. is inserted in the Ground Lever. 24 . The siding key in and locked the Ground frame lever normal are proved in the siding NPR circuit and NPR is proved energised in the concerned signal HR circuit. The siding key thus extracted is inserted in the lock on Ground frame lever and siding point is operated. (SIDING NPR/KLPR). the responsibility of locking the siding point and holding it for shunting operations rests with the traffic department.9 SIDING CONTROL CIRCUITS. If a signal is provided to control the entry into the siding. the Ground frame lever is normalised and the key is taken out. The signals concerned can be taken off only when the siding NPR is energised as shown in Fig. the following arrangements are provided. but controlled from the panel. the key is kept locked in the EKT inside a location box adjacent to the siding. Where there are no frequent movements from/into the siding.12 Siding can be signalled or non-signalled according to frequency of the shunting operations.

4. 25 .* Siding point is provided with Electrical detector and proves normal condition of the siding point.13 SIDING NPR CIRCUIT WITH ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF SIDING CONTROL KEY. Fig.

in case a foreign feed appears on relay terminals when the conditions are not favorable for the relay to pick up.10 DOUBLE CUTTING OF CIRCUITS: As per the specification. double cutting also is required for safety. Due to many undesirable features common return circuit are not permitted. Circuit with double cutting. Therefore relay should have individual returns and this is possible with negative being cut with controlling relay contacts. This practice is resorted to.) All indoor vital circuits should also have double cutting for important relay contacts. Fig. 4. For example while ASR is in pick up condition. This is achieved by shunting the vital relay coils with the contacts of those relays. For this HR relay is shunted with ASR front contact. by-passing all required conditions. 4. Circuit without double cutting. Therefore. This is achieved by providing controlling contacts on positive and negative side of the relay coil.14 A positive polarity of voltage if connected to relay coil bye-passing the controlling contact it will pick up the relay since negative Polarity is always available with Relay terminal. to save conductors and relay contacts. Cross protection is an arrangement by which any vital relay such as HR.11 CONCEPT OF CROSS PROTECTION. the concerned HR should not pick up. 26 . WNR. which are not favorable for the picking up of relay. 4.10. 4. FIG. WRR is prevented from picking up.4.15 Both polarities should appear on relay to energise it. all outdoor circuits whether vital or non vital should have double cutting in all cases (irrespective of RE and Non RE area.1 Common Return Circuits: Two circuits having same negative path are called circuits having common return.

To achieve sectional route release in major yards the route is divided into small sections according to the point zones. if the cross protection loop get disconnected at either end of the cross protection contact.1 Circuit of TRSR and TLSR: ASR circuit will be modified as follows to be controlled by only the first three track circuits. However in ASR circuit. ASR in turn controls TRSR/TLSR according to the direction. Similarly. The effect of SRR will be significant in bigger yards where the distance between signal and berthing track is considerably more. the circuit for the relay also gets disconnected. 4. all back lock track circuits are not proved. TLSR being effective for right to left direction train movements.12.. 4.16 This wiring arrangement also ensures the integrity of cross protection loop i. This is to free the point/LC behind the train even before the train has completed its journey even before occupying the berthing track. then it gets short circuited through 1ASR front contact and HR cannot pickup. The TRSR and TLSR do the same job as ASR except that TRSR/TLSR is responsible for holding the points of the route section ahead through concerned WLRs. instead of the entire back lock TPRS. arrangements for WNR/WRR is: The cross protection Fig.12 SECTIONAL ROUTE RELEASE (SRR) SRR is an arrangement by which the route covered by a train is released section by section. The indication and Dead Approach/approach locking are released by ASR circuit itself. TRSR is applicable for movements from left to right direction.When 1 ASR is picked up if feed appears on the HR coil. Referring to the layout. This means that ASR picks up when train clears the first three track circuits. provided indication and DA/approach locking are also proved free. 4. TRSR and TLSR together control WLR of the points concerned. For example if TRSR of a Route section is controlled by ASR of home signal then TLSR of the same section will be controlled by ASR of starter signal. By this arrangement the points which are cleared by the train are made free earlier to increase the flexibility of yard. Each route section except the first is controlled by relays called TRSR/TLSR. Circuits for SRR are given below: - 27 .e. WNR/WRR should not pick up when WLR is dropped.

Note:- Point No.17 28 . Point No. 2&3 WLRs are controlled by for right movement with 1ASR & for left hand movement with 2TLSR. Fig. 5&6 WLRs are controlled by 6TRSR for right side & 12 ASR for left side movements. 4.

the loop lines are having two overlaps.14 ROUTE RELEASE CIRCUITS: (UYRs) It is to be understood that the Route locked for a signal movement should get released only after the train has arrived on proper signal in proper direction and the track circuits have been sequentially actuated by the train. 4. This is registered by the picking up of sequential proving relays (UYRs (some railways call them as TPZR. TSSLR etc. 1 HR CIRCUIT Fig. If more lines are available. Circuit explanation for HR relay is given below: In the given layout. Fig : 4. The pick up contact of UYRs are used to energise ASR in the normal route release path. Attention aspect is controlled by HHR and clear aspect is controlled by DR. the UYRs are picked up in a pre-determined fashion. To ensure that the route is getting released only after the sequential occupation of tracks by a train arriving in proper direction. there are three routes for home signal. The ‘ON’ aspect maintained through back contact of HR.19 Following is the sequence of train movement and sequential operation of TPRs.18 4. more paths shall be available for HR to pick up.4. Again it may be seen that. one with the overlap point in normal and one with the overlap points in reverse. Therefore.).13 SIGNAL CONTROL CIRCUITS (HR) The caution aspect of a signal is controlled by HR. HR can pick in 5 ways. 29 .

is made effective. UYR2 picks up. Back contact proved in HR circuit. With the first sequence. This is made effective by one of the following means: • • • Mechanical Time Release Relay operated by a Mechanical timer with reduction gear. IN MECHANICAL TIME RELEASE. The circuit is as follows: 30 . the route will be released only two minutes after the normalisation of signal knob. ROUTE RELEASE BY TIME DELAY (EMERGENCY CANCELLATION ) While dealing with ASR. This is used along with another Q series relay called NJPR. which has a thermal coil and a bimetallic strip. When the train is on 1st track only. it was explained that in case of Dead approach locking. Any failure in the time delay arrangement will not give sufficient time for ASR to pick up resulting to a failure and this aspect is to be taken care during maintenance for a trouble free working. A2TPR up *Proves train entered on the route one proper signals that is TSR drops. of two consecutive track circuits TPRS are proved together to pick up UYR. Front contact used in ASR circuits and also for its stick path. This is not used now a days. Total 3 track circuits are utilised for proving sequence. These relays are named after signal concerned. 1 TPR and 2 TPR both occupied and A2TPR up UYR1 pick up and sticks. In these circuits the de-energised contact. UYRs are having slow to release feature. The reverse contact is used in picking up ASR. These above two sequences are possible only with the passage of train and not due to battery failure or track bobbing or power failure. 3. In addition to this. QJ1 is a Q series timer relay. Summary of UYRs • • • • • • 4. UYR1 picks up and with the second sequence. Thermal element relay (QJ1) Electronic Timer Relay. and it proves that train has successfully traveled over the route by sequentially occupying all the tracks in the route. 2. if the train has not passed the signal. the rotation of a gear system makes the Reverse contact after two minutes. it is necessary to ensure that after the train arrival UYRs do not drop unless sufficient time is given for ASR to pick up and stick. UYRs are picked up to assist ASR to pick up. Why UYRs are made slow to release? ASR picks up through UYRs front contact. it is also a practice to include the back contacts of all track circuits in the route including berthing track in route release circuit.1. 1 TPR cleared and both 2 TPR and A2TPR are occupied UYR2 picks up and sticks. Let us examine how the time delay. to guard against permanent energisation of any track relay either due to mechanical or electrical problems.15 UYRs are normally in de-energised condition. 1TPRdown. Therefore.

The cold contact and JSR front contact together pick up JR or NJPR. the bimetallic strip under goes an upward bend and this makes Hot contact.Fig. two more relays are used along with it. When SM has to cancel the route. which is a Q series relay connected externally. it is a practice to use two Timers in parallel and their contacts in series for releasing the route as shown below. 4. the feed to the thermal coil gets cut off and the strip starts cooling down.1 ELECTRONIC TIMERS: To get the required time delay. After a time lapse. RJPR & NJPR. one for each signal or for a small group of conflicting signals. Due to the difference in the coefficient of linear expansion of Inver and brass. RJPR is used to prove the dropping of all concerned JSLRs.. While NJPR picks up at the end of JR operation. This. now-a-days electronic timers are used. With this HR drops following which HECR etc. This gives an output. In that case. 4.15. he puts back Signal switch to normal. before a JR operation is initiated i. The electronic timers are having solid state electronic circuits inside. two minutes after the input is given (for details of the working principle of timers please refer S5A Notes on Relays). drops JSLR picks up through ASR drops. Since the Electronic circuits using semi conductors are not treated as fully reliable. bimetallic strip goes back to original position and a set of contacts called cold contact will be made. In addition an individual ‘JSLR’ is provided. 31 .20 A common time element Relay is used for releasing routes of a group of signals or all yard signals. Once JSR picks up. one timer operation for cancellation of one signal at a time. along with the common NJPR. As soon as hot contact is made. Through JSLR up contact the thermal coil gets feed.e. When JR picks up the ASR energises and releases the route. JSR picks up and sticks through its own contact. (refer S5A for more details). provides for selection of time release in the concerned ASR circuit. viz. The thermal unit is fed through the back contact of JSR (JSR is the Neutral Relay in the same enclosure).

which the main signal above detects excluding overlap in double line section. A Calling-On signal.O signals can be provided below any stop signal except Last Stop Signal. C. when taken 'OFF' calls on the Driver of a train to draw ahead with caution.O signal shall detect all points in the route.O signal is taken OFF only after the train has been brought to a stop. C. Ref.16 CALLING . Therefore it is useful to deal with traffic during track circuit failure also.3.ON SIGNAL: Calling on signals are used now a days very widely to increase the efficiency of signalling system.5 (b) The calling on signal shall not be capable of being worked at the same time as the main signal above or shunt signal below it.O signals. It shall be a miniature colour light provided with a `C’ marker. in addition to the features mentioned above.O signals are being provided.19. (d) A C. The features of Calling On signal are as follows. 32 . up to the next Stop Signal after the train has been brought to a stop even though the stop signal above it is at ON. if any. We will also examine the provisions of SEM relevant to CO signal.O signals is taken off even for receiving a train on obstructed lines. In all the latest installations C. It has no aspect in the ON position.13 A Calling On signal is a subsidiary signal. the detentions are minimised.FIG 4. (c) It is desirable to provide track circuits at a suitable distance in rear and a time delay circuit to ensure that the C.21 4. With C. Calling on signal is an emergency manager in the sense that this is used when the main signal above has failed. C. On single line section under approved special instructions a calling on signal placed below the first stop signal may not detect points in the overlap.O signal indicates to the Driver that he should be prepared to stop short of any obstruction. SEM 7.GR.

DC 110 V is used to feed C. JSLR. However. Track circuit occupation sequence (UYRs) can’t release the route after a train is passed on C. Route indicator above is not lit for C.O. Therefore the route release is always after a time delay of 120 secs. 33 . Calling On track should be occupied for the prescribed time for clearing a Calling On signal.e.O signal.1 is Controlled. Like a main signal. DC lighting for Calling On Signals. Certain railways use a Calling-On cancellation button on panel for releasing route locked by C. C.O signal below Home Signal No.O signal will have separate UCR.O signal should be such that. Signal is getting released on-conditionally.O signal is a crisis manager and the system for clearing C. the chances for its failure are very less.O signals. C. This time delay is achieved by timers as mentioned earlier. other conditions related to interlocking shall be the same as that of main signal above it.O signal to make it more reliable i. ASR. Referring to the layout under study let us examine how C.O. Of late. It is desirable to provide. to use Calling On signal to work even when the main power supply has failed.O signal also has a control switch. This practice has been adopted in certain railways It is to be understood that. Further it is not required to prove any track circuit in Route and overlap for C. However. Again since the route of C. C. Route is to be set as usual. some railways release the route after 240 seconds. Signal. such control shall be extended to Calling On signals also. CRS approval is obtained for the exempting detection of points in overlap in case of Single line yards. and HR.O Signal clearance. Signal to go to ‘ON’ after passage of the train.(e) At stations where SM controls the reception and despatch of trains. replacement track circuit for the C.O.

caution.18. distant signal will have only two aspect and the normal aspect being attention (Double yellow).wise and route. (6). Colour of indications. Ref. Except for this. The inner distant signal however assume clear aspect only for run through.4. For all other cases.24 34 . indication transformer is used for indications. In the sections where Rajdhani /Shatabdi Express are dealt the provision of second distant is mandatory to cope up with the increase in breaking distance for giving pre-warning to drivers. Circuits are as following: Fig 4. Signals: Indication is given aspect. corresponds to the colour of aspects. it displays attention aspect only. When ever ECR is not used. In such a case the outermost signal to be located at an adequate distance from the first stop signal.23 4. Following are the indications for the various functions.07. (In Railways the provision of second distant in such sections are in progress) The relevant provisions of GR regarding second distant are as follow. The distant signal assumes clear for the reception on main line only. Accordingly.1 INDICATION CIRCUITS: Indications are given on the panel for the guidance of operator and maintenance staff.4. shall be called the distant signal and the other called inner distant signal.wise through concerned ECR front contacts. Indications are of two types: . The inner distant will have three aspects viz.17 DISTANT AND INNER DISTANT (SECOND DISTANT): The provision of one more distant signal is an essential requirement when the breaking distance has got increased due to increase in speed of train. attention and clear. The sequence and circuit for aspect control for distant signals will be: - Fig. "Where necessary more than one distant signal may be provided.Strip light type and spot light type. the aspects of inner distant will be as in the case of normal distant signal.3. with the distant signal capable of displaying attention or proceed aspect only".

35 .

36 .

irrespective of route set or not. This should appear at all times whenever a track is occupied. 4. Conventionally ‘white’ colour is used for normal and ‘green’ for reverse position.1 Route locked indications : (Strip light type) are given through ASR back contact. Point free indication can be given through WLR contacts.18.18. following indications are also given on the panel. This will be “white” when the route is locked (ASR) and when no train has occupied the route and ‘Red’ when occupied.2 Point Indication : Point indications are given through NWKR/RWKR front contact.1. If one bulb fails at least other will maintain the indication. this indication also disappears. With the release of Route. Two lamps are given to overcome the problems due to bulb failure.28 4. 4. “Track circuit occupied” indication is very important for safety point of view.Fig 4.27 Track occupied indications are given through the back contact of TPR. Fig. In addition to this. since ASR dropped condition ensures route locking. 37 . The route locked indication is given from the foot of the signal to the next signal on the route already set excluding overlap. Route locked indication.1.

12V. Through the de-energised contact of this relay.4. 4. it is desirable to make it stabilised and uninterrupted. The visual indication also will appear as soon as GXJR is de-energised. 1. 1. If any signal becomes blank. This indication remains till such time the fused bulb is replaced by a good one and GXJR is energised. The power supply failure also do not affect indication if DC is used.2 SIGNAL LAMP FAILURE ALARM CIRCUIT : This circuit is employed to give an audible and visual indication to the operator whenever any of the signal becomes blank due to Signal lamp fusing. Flashing supply is derived from a mercury pendulum flasher unit.18.4 Power supply arrangement for indication Circuits : 12V DC or AC can be used for indications supply. The Circuit is given below. FIG 4. Recently railways have gone for electronic flashers. If AC supply is used. This relay is made slow to release to cater for the prevention of relay dropping due to aspect changing.2W pencil type lamps are used. Button is pressed and GXYNR Relay is energised.3 Flashing Indications : Flashing indications are also given to indicate that the point is under operation or point indication has failed. which will continue to ring till such time the ACK. At 12V.18.2W rated bulb consumes 100ma whereas LED drain will be around 2 to 5 ma only.1. the alarm rings.18.30 38 . Hence this relay is normally energised relay. The functioning of the circuit is explained below :Relay GXJR picks up through any one of the ECR pick up contact of all the signals proved in Series. Recently LEDs are used to give indication to avail the benefits of long life and very less power drain. However special attention are to be laid for managing with the problem of poor visibility due to the interface of external light. the feed to GXJR Relay is cut and relay drops. The DC is preferred to AC because of its stability and consequent increase in life of lamps.1. 4.

The circuit is as following : - 4.1 Method – I : In this method. The lever is then reversed. 4. The lever lock is energised permitting the gate lever to be normalised. The Gate-man closes the gate and locks it. the concerned ASR/TRSR/TLSR drops which in turn de-energises LCAR. As soon as any route is set. the route is released. instead of ECR energised contacts. thus permitting the signal to be taken OFF. by taking out the key.18. the LCPR relay picks up in the relay room.19 INTERLOCKING OF LEVEL CROSSING GATE : 4. ASR/TRSR/TLSR picks up. Through the reverse contact of the gate lever. This causes the road signal on either side of the level crossing to display red aspect and the bells also start ringing.4. The key is inserted in the ‘E’ type lock provided in the gate lever (GF) and turned for unlocking the lever.19. After the movement is completed.32 39 . LCAR picks up in the lodge and give ‘Free indication.3 POINT FAILURE ALARM AND INDICATION CIRCUIT : The functioning of this circuit is similar to the signal Lamp Failure Alarm Circuit explained earlier. which in turn causes the HR of the concerned signal to pick up as the front contact of LCPR is proved in the HR circuits. the level crossing annuciator relay (LCAR) is kept normally energised in the gate lodge when no route over the level crossing has been set. except that the NWKR/RWKR energised contacts are proved in GXJR circuit. Fig. The key is taken out from the lever and the gate is opened.

To eliminate such a contingency the front contact of R relay in voltage protecting circuit is used in the ASR.. any fluctuation in the AC voltage will result in the random dropping away or picking up of relays. Method I can be adopted.Cs which are not busy. LXPR relay is de-energised as the key is taken out and locks the concerned signals.4. Energisation of LXPR permits the HR to pickup and the signal is taken OFF. Gate RR picks up.2 METHOD – II . The Gate-man takes out the key from his EKT and opens the gate. After the movement is completed. The gate knob is reversed for releasing the key. The key is extracted by pressing the push button and then transmitted through the other EKT. track relays etc. the Gate-man is instructed on phone to close the gate whenever any movement over the gate is to take place. ASR/TRSR/TLSR picks up. TSSLR and time element circuit. Track relay used in TSSLR & TSR relays may drop and pick up. Now if the signal knob is restored to normal the route may get released instantaneously without any time delay. 40 . are fed by DC voltages derived by transforming and rectifying AC supply. provided. If road signals are to Fig. LXPR relay picks up and sticks provided the gate knob is normal.20 VOLTAGE DETECTING CIRCUIT : As all relays in the cabin. the route is released.19. The Gate-man closes the gate and transmits the key from the EKT.33 4. In this method. 4. The Station Master takes out the key from the EKT connected to the gate and inserts the key in the LC-EKT and turns. Suppose a route has been set and signal cleared and at that time a very quick momentary voltage fluctuation occurs. The above arrangement can be used for L.

Write short notes on UCR. ASR. (Shunting of series resistance by R back contact permits LVR to operate). SLR slowly picks up through back contact of R proving that the power supply is stable. LPR & bell circuits. Simultaneously R relay picks up through SLR front contact and sticks. UYR. LPR relay picks up and sticks. and shunt 12 HR.Co 10HR. This circuit is connected to battery so that the bell rings even when supply fails. connecting the bell in circuit. Bell is stopped. 3/5/7ASR.. The back contact of R relay cuts off SLR. SM acknowledges the restoration of power by pressing ‘PAck’ button . EXERCISE: 1.The circuit diagram for the voltage detecting circuit is given below: Fig. 4. Bell circuit is completed through LVR (B) – R (B) – LPR (B). 41 . LVR drops and consequently relay R drops. 2. (b) Route release (c) Emergency route cancellation. When AC voltage goes below a certain pre-determined value.34 Normally relays LVR and R are kept energised.. WLR. LVR is directly connected across the supply. NJPR 3.LPR relay picks up and holds through LVR front and R relay back contacts. R relay normally remains picked up through LVR front contact. Prepare 10UCR. cutting off the bell once again. SM presses power acknowledgement button ‘P’ ack. LVR picks up. When voltage comes back to normal. Circuit is now normal with R and LVR in energised condition. A resistance connected in series brings down the holding current of relay LVR to a value closer to its drop away value to make it more sensitive to voltage fluctuations. Prepare Block Diagram for the sequence of relay operation for a) Point operation. Meanwhile operation of LVR disturbs the LPR stick circuit and LPR drops. 10HR.

on the subject of further increasing the advantages already gained.Fig 5. when operating their respective signalling gears. which is called as “Relay Interlocking”. This limitation made it necessary to provide number of signal cabins in a large yard and the signalling of trains through such areas were difficult due to the need for close co-operation between the cabinman. Each points is provided with a two position points switch which can be operated either to ‘N’ position or ‘R’ position according to the position of the point required. 5. The miniature levers of the power frame. The mechanical lever frame could control a limited area. Whenever signals leading to left ward movement is to be taken off. 42 . the switch is turned to left (‘KL’ position) and whenever signals leading to rightward movement is to be select off the same switch is turned to right (‘R’ position ).CHAPTER – 5 S5J1 RELAY INTER LOCKING NON ROUTE SET METHOD (BRITISH) PANEL INTERLOCKING (CONVENTIONAL TYPE). the points and signals were operated mechanically by means of levers located in an interlocked lever frame.2 INDIVIDUAL SWITCH PANEL SYSTEM: The panel used in this system is co called because each signal and points have an individual switch for their operation. The invention of electrical equipments for operating points and signals and the subsequent invention of power frame.1 Introduction : In the early days. There is no physical interlocking between panel switches and they are consequently free to be moved to any position. The panel resembles in illuminated diagram on which a geographical reproduction of the layout is depicted and the track circuits are indicated in the usual manner. instead of providing three 2 position signal switches (one for each signal) only one 3 position signals switch is provides. The improved working afforded by the power frame promoted serious thoughts in the minds of signal engineers. Normally the switch remains in centre position. The interlocking provided in the power frames were either mechanical or electrical.1). Number of signal cabins were replaced by one power cabin by the use of power frame. After the passage of the train the switch is replaced to centre. but the associated interlocking relays will not respond until their releasing circuits are established. with their negligible loading and closer spacing allowed a much greater areas to be controlled by one signal man. As such. 5. The control switches are located below the layout. In due course this resulted in the developments of small control panels with miniature switches and interlocking between points and signals being achieved through relays. By adopting this method the number of switches required on the paired is minimized (Ref . The aspects of signals are repeated on the panel in positions corresponding to their actual location at site. marked a big advancement in signalling practice. This type of relay interlocking between individual functions (points and signals) operated from “individual system is used for controlling small stations involving less number of points and signals. In a small station with two roads the reception signal and opposing departure signals cannot be taken ‘OFF’ simultaneously.

Panel indication Circuit. 10. The signal may pertain to more than one route. 1 The above arrangement is adopted in case of single line layouts only. the signal will clear for that particular route. 5. Route Checking Circuit. For clearing the signal to road 2 points 101. 43 . After the operation of the signal switch operation of conflicting signal switches of point switches will not have any effect as it is protected by the Relay Interlocking circuits.Fig :5. Track stick slow release relay circuit . Point indication circuit. In case of double line layouts. 9. In recent installations irrespective of single Line or double line separate knob for each signal is provided. 3.1 in layout given below (Fig5:2) is considered. 5. Track stick relay circuit. 6. Signal lock relay circuit. According to the setting of points. 4. Point Control and point setting circuit.3 CIRCUIT EXPLANTION : For the purpose of understanding the circuit can be classified as under:1. Signal control relay circuit. In this system for clearing a signal all the point switches must be operated to the required position one by one and finally the signals switch is operated. Signal aspect control circuit.103 and 104 are operated to the required positions by operating the respective point switches to the required positions. Approach & Route locking circuit. 7. For the explanation of circuitry signal No. 2.102. each signal will be provided with one knob to cater for parallel movement of trains. 8.

S5J 2. sectional route release locking is not catered for. Note : Generally t wayside stations where panel interlocking is provided. The points can be operated. When a signal knob is turned for clearing a signal. the picking up of UCR causes ASR to drop and this in turn causes TRSRs/TLSRs to drop.5. When WNR picks up. SM’s key should be in the panel to ensure authorised operation (Fig. 2. This can be operated either to ’N’ position or ‘R’ position depending upon the requirement.3. For clearing the signal No.1(a). Point operation switch is a two position switch. Relay for normal and Reverse operation of point respectively. 44 . before a signal is cleared. switches 102 and 103 are operated to Normal and switch 101 is operated to reverse. Track Right stick relays (TRSR) for right ward movement and track left stick relays (TLSR) for leftward movement are used. Where sectional release route locking is provided. WLR is a neutral relay and WNR/WRR is are the point control. Note : Some Railways Adopt the method of keeping WLR de-energised normally (by including de-energised contact of NWKR/RWKR in WLR circuit) with an advantage of avoiding drainage of power supply continuously.3. This has 2N/R contacts. when the following conditions are satisfied. the point is operated to normal and when WRR picks up the point is operated to reverse 102 and 103 operate to normal through their respective WNR and point 101 operate to reverse through 101 WRR.1 Point Control and Point Setting Circuit. These relays are normally kept energised. No. Point track relay should be energised to prove track locking is freed and Approach stick relays and sectional release route lock relays (TRSRs/TLSRs) are energised to prove that the point have not been locked for any other route.1 to a Road 1 with overlap set to sand hump. The back contacts of these relays are used in HR circuit to prove that the points are locked in a route. back locking and indication locking. The point is controlled by a point lock relay (WLR) which is kept in the cabin and point controller (WNR/WRR) kept near the point machine. 1. Approach stick relays are generally provided one for each signal to achieve approach locking . 3.

When the knob is turned to clear a despatch signal “SR” (sending or starting relay picks up and when the same knob is turned to clear a reception signal ‘RR’ (Reception or Receiving Relay) picks up. as these circuits are wired with metal to carbon relay contacts. In some circuits the centre position of the knob is proved by a third relay ‘NR’. This is not used in these circuit. The switch normally remains in the centre position. The back contact of one relay is used in the circuit of the other to ensure that both do not energise at a time. It has to be turned to left. when signal is cleared. the home and the opposing starters. Relay NWKR picks and when points are set and locked in reverse relay RWKR picks up. Knob is to be turned to left or right 2. For clearing Home Signal 1 to Road 1 or 2 the switch ‘1’ has to be turned to right and for clearing opposing starters.4 5. are controlled by a 3 position humb switch. 1. the following conditions are to be satisfied . For clearing Home Signal 5. Once these relays pick up. Each 3 position switch is provided with two relays.3 Point Indication (detection) Circuit : This circuit employs two neutral relays one for proving the points are normal and the other for reverse. For energising the SR/RR relays.2 Fig :5. This is achieved by bridging (I) the SMR front contact by NR/RR front contact and (II) ‘L’/R contact of the thumb switch by SMR back contact. The back contact of the SR should be available for energising RR and vice versa. 45 .3. SM’s key should be ‘N’ 3. Fig :5. to ensure that these relays do not drop when the panel is locked by SM and the signal switch is turned back to Normal by unauthorised persons.3. This can be turned to right or left depending upon whether it is a rightward or leftward movement. switch ‘5’ has to be turned to left and clearing opposing starters it has to be turned to right. The contact of WNR/WRR is not included in the detection circuits as these relays de-energise. When points are set and locked in Normal. they do not drop even if SM’s key is taken out.3 Signal Lock Relay Circuits : As explained earlier.5.

) 5.6 The basic requirements for picking up of LR relay is the de-energisation of conflicting LRs.2. 2LR.3. 46 . if it is economical (amounts to reduction in no.of contacts. The level crossing and siding points also will have controlling knobs. there will not be SR and RR. Similarly bridging of these contacts by 5RWKR front contact and 6 RWKR front contact is for simultaneous movements. In such case. Each signal is provided with a route checking relay (UCR). The circuit for 1LR is as under.The circuit for 1 SR. Concerned signal lock relays or route initiation relays (LR/RRs) will pickup proving the conflicting signal LR/RR dropped. 3LR. Fig : 5. This can also be achieved by proving concerned point detection relays (NWKR/.RWKRs) in the LR circuits.4 Route Checking Circuit: The function of this circuit is to check that the route is correctly set before the signal is cleared. In recent installations.1RLR and 1SLR are given here under : In the above circuit 1RR energised contacts in 1RLR circuit proves that the signal knob is turned to right for reception of a train. separate switches are provided for Home and opposite starter signals as shown in the layout given at Fig. 9LR and 10RLR are bridged by 4RWKR front contact and 7 RWKR front contact in series to facilitate simultaneous movements.1RR . De-energised contact of 1SLR. 9LR and 10RLR are proved since they are conflicting signals.

1 ASR dropping causes 3 TRSR to drop. When ASRs de-energise. Concerned CHLR is also proved in some Railways.3. Two or more signals can be provided with common ASR as shown in P-56.The picking up of UCR initiates the route locking circuits. Fig 5.8 47 . Fig : 5. they cause point lock relays (WLRs) to de-energise thereby locking the points in the route. 5.7 Note : It is a practice in some Railways to prove the conflicting signal ASR in UCR circuit. When 1UCR picks up it makes 1ASR to drop. back locking and indication locking. Whenever UCR picks up it results in ASR dropping. when then route is same and these signals are conflicting. thereby locking all the three points in the route. and enables the route locking condition being proved in the HRR circuit.5 Approach & Route Locking Circuit: Generally each signal is provided with an Approach Stick Relay (ASR) to achieve the approach locking. Dropping of 1ASR de-energises 2WLR and dropping of 3 TRSR de-energises 3WLR & 4WLR.

For clearing a signal. Points are locked in the route (TRSR / TLSR) Signal is approach and back locked ASR ).6 Track Stick Relay Circuit. Signal ahead aspect is available (GECR front contact) when all the above conditions are satisfied HR picks up. Once this relay pick up. When the train passes the signal and occupies the controlling track. Fig : 5.3. TSR drops. This relay (TSR) is normally energised through the front contact of controlling track & back contact of the RLR & SLR.7 Signal Controlling Relay Circuit (Fig. it gets a stick feed bypassing RLR & SLR back contacts. 12. 1. Route is checked and Signal knob is operated to the correct position (UCR). 6. This is a conventional SR circuit used to ensure that “One Train on One Signal”. Even then TSR remains picked up through its own contact. the following conditions are to be satisfied. Points are electrically locked (WLR ). 9. In latest installations . 5. When the train clears controlling track. Only one train can be admitted on one signal (TSR ). Each signal is controlled by a HR relay. Time release associated with signal is in operation (Mechanical Time release normal contact). the signal cannot re-clear automatically unless the signal switch is replaced to normal and operated once again. Route lamps are lit before signal is taken off for turnout (UECR). Opposing signals are not cleared (Opposing signal ASR). 4. 7. TSR cannot pick up till such time the signal switch is replaced to Normal causing RLR/SLR to de-energise. 2. 10.5. This arrangement ensures that after the passage of the train. 11. All the points in the route are correctly set and locked including the overlap (NWKR/RWKR). The line should be clear up to the next signal in advance and adequate distance beyond it (TR front contact).3. ASR contact is also proved along with LR back contact in TSR circuit to prove that the previous train cleared the route. 8. 3. TSR (F) is used in HR circuit. 48 .9 5. Block Control is available for last stop signal. When a signal is cleared RLR/SLR picks up.

These relays are made slow to release as the front contact of this relays used to energise ASR Relay and the back contact of ASR is proved to energise TSSLR/UYRs. independent of whether the approach track is occupied or not. the practice is to prove more than one track relays for this purpose to avoid release of route during track circuit bobbing conditions.3.9 Sequential Route Release Relays (UYRs) These relays are provided to release the approach track locking of signal when a train has passed the signal.8 Signal Lamp circuit. 49 . The pick up and drop contacts of all the back lock track circuits will be used in the circuit as shown in Fig .3.5. Now a days. This is the conventional multi-unit colour light signal circuit with cutting in arrangement. 5.

50 . When a signal is cleared and points are locked in a route a row of white lights light up the whole length of the route. The point indications are given through point indication relay front contact and signal indications through lamp proving relay.3. When the train occupies the lights turn to Red through the TR back contact irrespective of whether the route is set or not. front contacts.5. These lights are given through the back contact of ASR TRSR/TLSR and the relevant track front contact.) When route is not set.10 Panel Indication Circuits (Fig. no indication is given on the panel.


one of them is designated as 'CR' and the other NR.e.With difference in point control circuit one more system called System -II RRI has been evolved for easiness in design of the circuitry.e. we have 24 routes requiring the points in normal position and 8 routes in reverse. The point control circuit (WNR/WRR) become too involved with the large number of LR contacts. To appreciate the utility of this system. ANR. We may assume that all signals read to all possible roads. 32 routes. There is also a reverse relay RR associated with each points. Following circuits for point no. Fig No :6. The ends of cross over points are designated as A end and B end Single ended points will have no alphabet to specially designate the end. Therefore. Considering points 7. For example in the yard at Figure above the ends of cross over points 11 are called '11 A' and '11 B' and the end of points 12 is '12'. What ever has been discussed earlier is coming under System . and a total of 8 x 4 i.. not used by any other route requiring these points in normal position and NR is picked up after ensuring that the complete route is free. the circuit when drawn will resemble the track layout closely.e.2.. 1 so far used is suitable only for small stations and not for big yards with more shunting movements.. i.II. of parallel moves and shunt signal movements are involved. Thus we have 4 routes for each signal. Also the number of route lock relays required is prohibitive. Single end points will have no special designation. 1 To illustrate the principle employed in this system. The ends of cross over points are designated as A end and B end.101 for the layout under study will illustrate the need of system . Instead of many LRs in point control circuits only 3 relays i. All other circuits are same as system . the system No.I and System -II is explained hereunder:System -II is adopted for major yards where no. Each end of points is associated with 2 relays for the normal setting of points.e. as there is only one end. Only one RR is used irrespective of whether the points are double ended or single ended. let us consider the yard given in figure 1. let us consider the layout given in Fig.. RR relay is also energised only after checking the availability of the entire route like NR 52 . The route selection circuit is drawn in a geographical manner.I. The point control circuits are prepared in geographical manner. BNR and RR only will be used in System . CR is picked up when points are free i.II method of control of point operation. ANR or BNR controls the operation of point to normal and RR will control operation of points to reverse.

in addition to proving that points are not used by a route requiring these points in reverse position. The route selection circuits are drawn in two parts. Contact of 11 RR is not used as it is assumed that no movement with 11 reverse is permitted with 13 points in reverse position. 3 relays are required. When a trialling point is encountered in the normal position.relay and sets the points reverse when energised. BNR. NR and CR for the end having no sand hump and RR for reverse setting of points. When the push button relay operates. 11 ACR. circuit for RR is either prepared in the forward flow circuit and operated after ensuring the entire route is free or prepared and operated in the return circuit. When the route involves points in reverse position. only 3 relays are required NR and CR for the end having no sand hump and RR for reverse setting of points. Where the route is through reverse setting of points. These relays control the point controller circuits (WLR/WR) for setting the points in the required direction. The operation of point control relays NR & RR is done sequentially in the return direction irrespective of whether they are facing or trailing. for 11 points 11 ANR. This CR relay prevents any other conflicting route being initiated. RR relays of relevant points are energised. Thus an NR or RR relay is energised by the NR and/or RR contacts of the points on either side.. When a CR relay energises. a circuit for the operation of the associated NR relay is also prepared in parallel but this relay will operate only after proving the entire route is free. While progressing ahead. The first point NR or RR in return direction is controlled by the push button relay. The circuit then folds back through the second part and terminates at the entrance point of the route. Finally. No checking relay is picked up in this forward flow circuit. a relay known as CR (Checking Relay) is energised. or push button contacts in the absence of points. Thus we have 5 relays for a cross over ANR. As stated already the trailing points in the return direction have their CR and NR operated. Any one of the NR relays either ANR or BNR will set the points normal. In case of a cross over with one end having a sand hump only. Thus the forward flow circuit extends proving the availability of route to the exit end where it proves the opposing signal knob (if any) normal and energises push button relay through the exit push button operated contacts. For single ended points like points 12 in Fig. The circuit for any signal commences from the entrance end of the route. but these points will have their CR & NR relays picked up in the return direction. When facing points are encountered in the forward flow circuit is merely proved that the points are not used for reverse. 53 . 11 BCR & 11 RR). 11 BNR is controlled by APR for one side and 13ANR and 13RR is controlled by 11 BNR and DPR. 11 BNR. the availability of the route is ' checked. the RR relay for any points will whether be located in the forward or return circuit. 2. For example in figure 5. BCR & RR (e. advances geographically in the direction of movement of train to the exit end. the third point NR or RR by the second point relays and so on. ACR. The second point NR or RR is energised by the first point NR or RR relay. All the five relays are required for a crossover only when we have movements on both ends with points normal and with points reverse. NR and CR relays of the ends on which the rout extends and for points to set in reverse RR relays operate.g. the circuit folds back and extends towards the entrance end. for points to be set in normal. The forward flow circuit starts from the signal with switch reversed contact. Therefore. The conditions proved are exactly similar to the forward flow circuit.

they are repeated to combine the route selection circuits of other signals also with this circuit. With 11 BCR operated the circuit extends further. 13BNR.Relay 11 BNR will pick up only after proving the entire route is free. The Point control circuits are similar to those in system-I except that the route lock relay contact (LR) are replaced by NR and RR relay contacts. but they are required in reverse position. 13BCR. set the points to reverse in either case.4a) starts with 4 knob in the left position.The detailed circuits for route 1D figures 3(a) and 3(b) are now discussed. Therefore.Even though these contacts are already proved in the forward circuit and appear redundant. the route directly opposite to 1D. The forward flow circuit of 4A route (Fig. As the points 11 are approached in trailing direction and they are required in normal position. As there are no further points and the exit end is reached. RR relay will. 13ANR & 13ACR all de-energised) to pick up 13 RR. proved de-energised. If this relay were allowed to operate immediately after 11 BCR has picked up. The circuit proves DPR in de-energised position to ensure that no opposite movement to 4AT is initiated. Normal position checking relays and control relays of both ends (13ACR. These contacts are shunted by a stick contact of DPR to hold the relay after the release of push button and also to prevent a disturbance to this circuit by subsequent mal operation of knob 4. 13ANR & 13BNR) are. The next points 13 are approached in facing direction. The return circuit terminates at this stage as there are no more trailing points or points required in reverse position. With these conditions the checking relay for B end 11 BCR is picked up which prepares the circuit for 11 BNR . Cross-over points are controlled by either ANR or BNR for normal setting. 13 BCR. 11 points would unnecessarily operate even when full route is not available. therefore. This ensures that no route requiring 11 reverse is already set. The return circuit fig. 13RR and 11 BNR relays operate 13 points to reverse and 11 to normal respectively. however. 3(b) commences with DPR front contact and advances towards the entrance end proving 13 points are not used in normal position (13 BCR. 11 BCR front contact is included. As 13 points are required in reverse position. To ensure that this path of the circuit is available only for movement with 11 points normal and not with 11 reverse. 13 BNR. The next points NR circuit (11 BNR) has already been prepared in the forward flow circuit. The circuit also proves the back contact of 11 RR (11 points not used in reverse position) and energises APR through opposing signal knob normal contact and exit 54 . 13ANR. As only one NR is used for single ended point its contact will set the points to normal. 13ACR are proved de-energised. Circuit for 13 RR is also prepared simultaneously but 13 RR will operate only after proving that the entire route is free. APR back contact is proved to ensure that no opposite Movement is already initiated. 11 RR is proved de-energised. DPR contact in 13RR circuit proves that full route is already checked in the forward flow circuit. a front contact of 13 RR is used to energise 11 BNR. We will now consider the circuits of 4A route. the push button relay DPR is energised proving the opposing signal knob is normal and the push button D pressed. The forward flow circuit starts with IR contact (knob 1 turned towards right).

It may be noted that no CR for 11 points is picked up in this circuit as these points are approached in facing direction. 7(a) and (b) represent the forward and return flow circuits for route 2D. Figure 8(a) and 8(b) are the circuits for route 48.4(a) are similarly combined as shown in Fig. the return flow circuit is initiated (Fig4b) and 11 BCR picks up proving 11 is not used in reverse position. 5 Figs. In other respects.3(b) and Fig. 55 .6. Figs. The circuits for route 2D and its directly opposite route 4B are combined and given in figures 9(a) and 9(b). As no points are required in reverse position. Fig.button ‘A’ pressed. 11 BN-R operates 13RR. When APR picks up. through APR. no Rr relay is energised in these circuits. 3(a) and 4(b) are having identical conditions to prove they can be combined to form a single circuit as shown in figure 5. 11BCR operates 11 BNR as the entire route is already proved to be free. Fig No :6. the circuits are similar to those of route ID .

56 .

10b 57 .6.Fig No.

11 58 .Fig No :6.

The requirement of overlap differs for main. Let us consider the above yard.To illustrate the principle of grouping the circuits of different routes the combined circuits of all the 4 routes discussed above is shown in figures 10(a) and 10(b). This relay is energised either in the forward flow or in return flow depending up on the position of the point in the route initiated.) The function of this relay is to select the Straight route when it is energised and Diverging route when it is not energised or to prove that the point is not used in reverse position. B end BCR and so on. shunt and calling on signals. Concerned reverse relay (RR) back contact to prove this point is not used in reverse by any other route.3 Normal Relay (NR): (for setting the point to normal. This relay prevents conflicting route initiation (by using back contact of CR in conflicting route relay circuit in the forward flow ). But in practice. It also checks whether trailing points in forward flow and return flow circuit are free and normal.R down. For facing points CR picks up during reverse flow (for A end ACR. Lets us know about the necessity and function of relays associated with point circuits in the system-II 6.) This relay picks-up when : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) concerned checking relay (CR) is energised... to achieve the necessary interlocking using the least number of relay contacts. Thus the route selection circuits of the entire yard can be combined to form one forward flow circuit and one return flow circuit.e. This relay proves that points are free and not used by any route (by picking up of route relay UR concerned) This relay prepares the circuit for normal relay (NR) This relay proves that points are not used in reverse (by proving reverse relay back contacts i. it is necessary to achieve locking between signals. 59 . It picks up when a route is initiated proving :a) b) Points are in normal position i. The UCR and HR circuits are also generally drawn in the geographical manner for economy. RR ) 6. setting and holding of overlap points is not required. The layout given at Fig.2 has shunt signals only and hence. NR picks up only after CR is energised & controls WNR relay. These are the following conditions under which this CR relay is energised.2 Checking Relay (CR): It checks whether the complete route is free or not. R. The circuits are also easy to design. set and hold the overlap points. For trailing points CR picks up during forward flow. Route button relay picked up or Adjacent point normal relay or reverse relay is energised for successive operation. these two (setting of overlap points and holding them) play key role.e.

They are:R/L ZR. If there is alternate overlap OCR1 Controls WLR/WNR..4 Reverse Relay (RR): ( for setting the point to reverse. For Right side movement RUR and for left side movement LUR.A stands for the A route button.6 Special Relay ZR: To differentiate and to achieve the locking between main signal. left overlap checking relay for main signal. V for left. for main signal R/L COZR for calling on Signal R/L SHZR for shunt signal . followed by the Route alphabet. proving other conditions a relay picks up called UR. 60 . ROCR -c& LOCR-c Right & left overlap checking relays for calling on signal. This relay picks up in succession by the a) Route button relay or b) Adjacent point normal relay (NR) or c) Adjacent point reverse relay (RR) Only one RR is used irrespective of Double end or single end points. Concerned NR & CR back contacts. calling on signal and shunt signal there is a special relay introduced called ZR.5 Route Button Relays UR: All the berthing tracks are provided with route button which is also called exit button. OCR controls WLR/WRR if the overlap point is required in reverse condition.7 OVERLAP RELAYS: In system II separate overlap setting relays are to be provided for all home signal route. 'R' for right. OCR controls WLR/WNR if the overlap point is required normal. In overlap setting relays also. it completes the circuit for N-R or RR for the first point in the return circuit. if back contacts are used it is for conflicting route.6. ROCR & LOCR Right.M for Mn. The route relay contacts if used in the flow circuit. OCR2 controls WLR/WRR.SH Shunt Signal 6. These overlap relays are called as OCRs.L for Left . For each signal route initiating circuit one ZR is used. When this is pressed. For example ARUR/ALUR. U for route and R for relay. right movements and main signal shunt signal movement can be separately provided to differentiate between main signal. shunt signal and calling on signal and for overlap setting & locking. if pick up contacts are used it is to start the return flow circuit. Once Route Relay UR picks up.R for Right . as the route initiation circuit is common for home and shunt signal. 6. When this route relay (UR) energises. it operates the overlap setting relays.Co-Calling on .) This relay picks-up when: i) ii) iii) The route button relay is energised. left. 6. R SHOCR & LSHOCR Right & Left overlap checking relays for shunt signal. signal .

e. The pick up contacts are used in conflicting UCR circuit where required and in point control circuit WLR and front contact in conflicting HR & back contact for same route HR circuit.. 'This relay picks up when a) concerned route is not locked. ASR is up. c) It is held through its own stick by-passing the last route section lock relay contacts. 4. pressing the route button and turning the signal knob is Route Initiating Relay(LR) Fig No :6.. last TRSR up or MR up of the route. First the NR/RR of last point in the route picks up then the next point NR/RR will pick up and so on. 2. The model circuits for the yard given at Fig. 12 The picking-up of LR picks-up ERZR proving normal position of conflicting signal and initiates the ‘Forward flow’ circuit and picks-up the route relay for which the route button is pressed say ERUR. through front contact of ERZR 61 .. Concerned signal knob is operated. i. b) last route section in the route is not locked i. 12 are given hereunder :The first relay to pickup after the route initiation i. LR up Concerned route relay is energised UR up The ANR or BNR or RR relay of all the points required to be operated either to normal or to reverse in the that particular signal route are energised that means OCR before picking up ensures points in the route are set. makes the staggering also for point operation of switching also. This relay proves that points are not held by the concerned overlap for the route set. This will reduce the instant heavy battery drain. Second point NR/RR is controlled by NR/RR of the first point. Push button relay contact is used in absence of point ahead.AR0HR. If it is right side .) i) ii) First point in Return flow circuit either NR or RR is controlled by Route button relay or (UR).e. the point starts operating. They are switch on in succession. The staggering in the picking up of NR/RR as explained above. When required conflicting route relay back contacts are proved in OCR circuit.9 Overlap holding relays OHR : Every route will have a overlap holding relay depending upon direction of the movement.The conditions to pickup OCR relay are 1. For example if A route train moves to the left side ALOHR.e.8 Successive Operation of Points: In system II all the points in the route are not switched on at a time. 3. 6. As soon as NR/RR picks up. then third point NR/RR is controlled by the second point NR/RR and continues so till the first point NR/RR in the forward flow circuit is picked up. if all the points start operation at a time (This is equivalent to chain group of Siemen’s System. 6.

62 .

1A is taken off to route E The ASR . The EROCR sets the points in the over-lap to required position.115W 110R..17 This OHR pick-up contact is proved in all the point WLR circuits in the over-lap of signal No.e. The ANR/BNR of concerned point sets the point to normal and RR sets the point to Reverse according to the relay picked-up.114.112W110R. 116W110R thereby locking these points in case signal No.After ERUR picking-up. points No. EROCR (over-lap checking relay of E route right-ward movement) picks-up. TSR circuits are the same as in system 1 63 . 110.1A i. Fig No :6.. Over-lap holding relay (OHR): The over-lap holding relay picks-up through the concerned signal ASR pick-up contact and the last directional relay in the route of the signal i. 106 TRSR and holds through its own contact by-passing 106 TRSR.e.

The following circuits illustrates this method.The UCR and HR circuits may be drawn in geograpical manner for economising the contacts. 64 .

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