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atmospheric air pressure 760 mm Hg (at sea level) negative air pressure - LESS than 760 mm Hg positive air pressure - MORE than 760 mm Hg intrapleural pressure - pressure within the pleural "balloon" which surrounds the lung intrapulmonary pressure - pressure within the alveoli (tiny sacs) of the lung itself
Factors holding lungs AGAINST the thorax wall: 1. 2. 3. Surface tension holding the "visceral" and "parietal" pleura together Intrapulmonary pressure ALWAYS slightly greater than intrapleural pressure by 4 mm Hg Atmospheric pressure acting on the lungs a. b. atelectasis (collapsed lung) - hole in pleural "balloon" causes equalization of pressure and collapse of the lung pneumothorax - abnormal air in the intrapleural space, can lead to collapsed lung
Factors facilitating lung movement AWAY from thorax wall: 1. 2. II. Elasticity of lungs allows them to assume smallest shape for given pressure conditions Fluid film on alveoli allows them to assume smallest shape for given pressure conditions
Volume/Pressure & Inspiration/Expiration A. Boyle's Law on Volume/Pressure Relationships 1. Volume is INVERSELY proportional to Pressure a. b. INCREASE in Volume -> DECREASE in Pressure DECREASE in Volume -> INCREASE in Pressure
VOLUME change --> PRESSURE change gas flows to equalize the pressure 2. Simple Example of Boyle's Law plastic bag with plastic tube in the top as bag expands by pulling, gas moves IN as bag shrinks by squashing, gas moves OUT
a. 2. Inspiration 1.relatively large. obliques & transversus abdominus) further DECREASES volume beyond relaxed point ----> further INCREASE in pulmonary pressure ---> more air moves out III. quiet expiration (exhalation) .contraction of abdominal wall muscles (i. can alter diameter based on autonomic stimulation a. pectorals are used for more volume expansion of thorax C. 2. Respiratory Passageway Resistance 1.used to treat life-threatening bronchioconstriction such as during asthma and anaphylactic shock (carried by people susceptible to sudden constriction) B. c.5 liter) DECREASED pulmonary pressure (-1 mm Hg) air rushes into lungs to fill alveoli deep/forced inspirations .decreases compliance blocked bronchi .e. upper respiratory passageways . lung compliance . very little resistance to airflow (unless obstruction such as from food lodging or cancer) lower respiratory passageways . b.inhibits bronchioconstriction epinephrine . 4. Expiration 1. parasympathetic .causes bronchioconstriction sympathetic . sternocleidomastoid.decreases compliance .as during exercise and pulmonary disease scalenes.decreases compliance surface tension .the ease with which lungs can be expanded by muscle contraction of thorax fibrosis . b. expanding lateral & anterior-posterior dimension INCREASED volume (about 0.from medium-sized bronchioles on down.simple elasticity of the lungs DECREASES volume INCREASED pulmonary pressure -> movement of air out of the lungs forced expiration .alveoli difficult to expand thorax inflexibility . d. Factors Influencing Pulmonary Ventilation A. increasing thoracic cavity size in the superior-inferior dimension external intercostal muscles contract. * diaphragm muscle contracts. 3.B. 2. Lung Compliance & Elasticity 1.
anatomical dead space .volume exhaled AFTER normal tidal volume when asked to force out all air possible (1.) 1.decreases elasticity alveolar surface tension . emphysema .decrease in Total Lung Capacity (TB or polio) minute respiratory volume (MRV) .2 L) Respiratory CAPACITIES 1. Respiratory VOLUMES (20 yr old healthy male.total volume flowing in & out in 1 minute (resting rate = 6 L per minute) . 3. Dead Space 1.increased resistance to air flow (bronchitis or asthma) restrictive disorders . 4.1-3. obstructive pulmonary disease .2. 2. 3.non-functional alveoli total dead space . inspiratory capacity (IC) = TV + IRV (MAXIMUM volume of air that can be inhaled) functional residual capacity (FRC) ERV + RV (all non-tidal volume expiration) vital capacity (VC) = TV + IRV + ERV (TOTAL volume of air that can be moved) total lung capacity (TLC) = TV + IRV + ERV + RV (the SUM of all volumes. about 6. a.0 L) residual volume (RV) . allowing them to expand more easily infant respiratory distress syndrome .anatomical + alveolar E. Pulmonary Function Tests 1.air that remains in lungs even after totally forced exhalation (1.2. b. Capacities. 4.all areas where gas exchange does not occur (all but alveoli) alveolar dead space .2 L) expiratory reserve volume (ERV) . lung elasticity .volume inhaled AFTER normal tidal volume when asked to take deepest possible breath (2. must be ventilated for respiration Volumes. 2.5 L) inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) . tidal volume (TV) . b.premature babies that do not yet produce enough surfactant. 2.liquid on surface of alveoli causes them to collapse to smallest size surfactant . 3.lipoproteins that reduces surface tension on alveoli. IV. 3. B.measures volume changes during breathing a.. 2. 155 lbs. and Function Tests A.normal volume moving in/out (0.the ease with which lungs can contract to their normal resting size (exhalation) a.0 L) D. spirometer .
9% 0.3 mm Hg (0. 3. circulatory shock. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 1.0% 78.a certain gas will diffuse INTO or OUT OF a liquid down its concentration gradient in proportion to its partial pressure solubility . 2.air pressure @ 100 ft = 3000 mm Hg Henry's Law of Gas Diffusion into Liquid 1.2 L/min (TV ..the ease with which a certain gas will "dissolve" into a liquid (like blood plasma) Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen HIGHest solubility in plasma LOWest solubility in plasma C.) Alveolar Retention Rate (AVR) AVR (NORMAL) AVR (NORMAL) AVR = breath rate X = 12/minute X = 4.0004 X 760) altitude . Hyperbaric (Above normal pressure) Conditions 1. forced vital capacity (FVC) .04% Partial Pressure (P) 760 mm Hg 597 mm Hg (0. Henry's Law . asphyxiation.dead space) (500 ml – 150 ml) V.SCUBA divers may suffer the "bends" when they rise too quickly and Nitrogen . F. Percent 100.79 X 760) l59 mm Hg (0. harmful .oxygen forced into blood during: carbon monoxide poisoning.the "part" of the total air pressure caused by one component of a gas Gas ALL AIR Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon Dioxide 2.FEV volume measured in 1 second intervals (FEV1. 4. 2.000 ft = 563 mm Hg scuba diving .6% 20. Creates HIGH gradient for gas entry into the body therapeutic . partial pressure . etc. 3. B.21 X 760) 0.total volume exhaled after forceful exhalation of a deep breath forced expiratory volume (FEV) .air pressure @ 10. gangrene. tetanus. Basic Properties of Gases A.3..
Gas Exchange: Lungs. oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) . Oxygen Transport in Blood: Hemoglobin A.oxygen unbound H-Hb + 3. Tissues A. b.gas "comes out of solution" and forms bubbles in the blood VI. d. c. Meters emphysema . Association & Dissociation of Oxygen + Hemoglobin 1.0 micron) a. 2. Partial Pressure Gradients & Solubilities a. 3. total surface area healthy lung = 145 sq.decreases total alveolar surface area 4. very easy for gas to diffuse across alveoli edema . O2 <= === => HbO2 + H+ binding gets more efficient as each O2 binds release gets easier as each O2 is released . b. Alveolar Membrane Thickness (0. 2. Blood. 4. Internal Respiration (Blood & Tissues) 1. decreases diffusion Total Alveolar Surface Area for Exchange a.oxygen molecule bound deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) . b. Oxygen: blood (104 mm) -> tissues (40 mm) Carbon Dioxide: tissues (>45 mm) -> blood (40 mm) VII.5-1. Oxygen: alveolar (104 mm) ---> blood (40 mm) Carbon Dioxide: blood (45 mm) ----> alveolar (40 mm) (carbon dioxide much more soluble than oxygen) 2. low Oxygen in alveolus -> vasoconstriction high Oxygen in alveolus -> vasodilation high Carb Diox in alveolus -> dilate bronchioles low Carb Diox in alveolus -> constrict bronchioles B. b. Ventilation-Blood Flow Coupling a. External Respiration (Air & Lungs) 1.increases thickness.
anemic hypoxia . 2. c.below normal delivery of Oxygen a.CO has greater Affinity than Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide VIII. b. more O2 release E. c. cause RIGHT shift F. c. testosterone. oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve a. b. Partial Pressure of O2 temperature blood pH (acidity) concentration of “diphosphoglycerate” (DPG) B.100% saturation (20 ml/100 ml) 40 mm (tissues) . 2. d. 2. Effects of Diphosphoglycerate (DPG) 1.5. d. more Carbon Dioxide. hypoxia . HIGHER Temperature LOWER Temperature --> Decreased Affinity (right) --> Increased Affinity (left) D. lower pH (more H+).impaired/blocked blood flow hypoxemic hypoxia .produced by anaerobic processes in RBCs HIGHER DPG > Decreased Affinity (right) thyroxine. epinephrine. 2.low RBC or hemoglobin stagnant hypoxia . Effects of pH (Acidity) 1. Effects of Partial Pressure of O2 1. more O2 unloaded left shift.poor lung gas exchange carbon monoxide poisoning . Effects of Temperature 1. HIGHER pH --> Increased Affinity (left) LOWER pH --> Decreased Affinity (right) "Bohr Effect" a. b. less O2 unloaded C.increase RBC metabolism and DPG production. Oxygen Transport Problems 1. 104 mm (lungs) . Transport of Carbon Dioxide . NE . Several factors regulate AFFINITY of O2 a. DPG .Increased Affinity. 3.Decreased Affinity.75% saturation (15 ml/100 ml) right shift .
the actual pH of blood does not change much 4. B.the less oxygenated blood is. to prevent osmotic problems with RBCs Carbon Dioxide Effects on Blood pH 1. and more unloading of Ox to tissues a.formation of Bicarbonate (through Carbonic Acid) leads to LOWER pH (H+ increase). affinity for Carb Diox increases lungs .A. IX. D. allowing it to be released C.as Ox is loaded. Dissolved in Blood Plasma (7-10%) Bound to Hemoglobin (20-30%) 1.catalyzes formation of Carb Diox Bohr Effect .catalyzes formation of Bicarbonate lungs .as Ox is unloaded.Carb Diox binds to an amino acid on the polypeptide chains Haldane Effect .rhythmic breathing) ----> phrenic nerve ----> intercostal nerves ----> . 3. tissues . carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system --> HCO3. Chloride Shift . 2. carbonic anhydrase . low shallow breaths rapid deep breaths Neural Substrates of Breathing A.chloride ions move in opposite direction of the entering/leaving Bicarbonate. carbaminohemoglobin . the more Carb Diox it can carry a. tissues .binds to H+ --> H2CO3 releases H+ --> HIGH Carb Diox --> LOW pH (higher H+) --> LOW Carb Diox --> HIGH pH (lower H+) low pH high pH 2. Bicarbonate Ion Form in Plasma (60-70%) 1. b. since hemoglobin "buffers" to H+. Carbon Dioxide combines with water to form Bicarbonate CO2 + H2O <==> H2CO3 <==> H+ + HCO32.enzyme in RBCs that catalyzes this reaction in both directions a. affinity for Carb Diox decreases. Medulla Respiratory Centers Inspiratory Center (Dorsal Resp Group . b. 3.
Control of Breathing Rate & Depth 1.stretch of visceral pleura that lungs have expanded (vagal nerve) D. deeper.causes suppression of Inspiratory Center Pons Respiratory Centers 1. E.stimulates the medulla. central chemoreceptors .diaphragm + external intercostals Expiratory Center (Ventral Resp Group .can override medulla as during singing and talking Chemical Controls of Respiration A. causes shorter.normal resting breath rate (12/minute) drug overdose . X. breathing into paper bag increases blood Carbon Dioxide levels C. a powerful chemical regulator of breathing by increasing H+ (lowering pH) a. H+) 1.large vessels of neck Carbon Dioxide Effects 1. B. Chemoreceptors (CO2. causes longer. hypocapnia .emotion + pain to the medulla Cortex Controls (Voluntary Breathing) . 2. slower breaths C.activation of inspiration muscles Hering-Breuer Reflex . quicker breaths apneustic center .located in the medulla peripheral chemoreceptors . 2.abnormally low Carbon Dioxide levels which can be produced by excessive hyperventilation. Oxygen Effects 1. O2. breathing rate .forced expiration) ----> phrenic nerve ----> intercostal nerves ----> internal intercostals + abdominals (expiration) 1.stimulation/inhibition of medulla breathing depth . shallower.oxygen chemoreceptors . Hypothalamic Control . B. 3. 2. 2. eupnea . hypercapnia Carbon Dioxide increases -> Carbonic Acid increases -> pH of CSF decreases (higher H+)> DEPTH & RATE increase (hyperventilation) b. pneumotaxic center . aortic and carotid bodies .slightly inhibits medulla.
not rate steady state . conscious awareness of exercise cortex stimulates muscles & respiratory center proprioceptors in muscles. Overview of Chemical Effects Breathing Effect Chemical increased Carbon Dioxide (more H+) increase decreased Carbon Dioxide (less H+) decrease slight decrease in Oxygen large decrease in Oxygen decreased pH (more H+) increased pH (less H+) XI. pH Effects (H+ ion) 1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) . B. joints effect CO2 system increase ventilation increase decrease Altitude Effects 1. b. COPD and Cancer A. c. slight Ox decrease . tendons. acclimatization .2. 4. 2. Exercise and Altitude Effects A.increase in RATE and DEPTH gradually altered to MATCH gas exchange needs a.acid buildup (H+) in blood. hyperpnea . acidosis . body “set-points” for Oxygen and Carb Diox will reset over a period of time XII.increase in DEPTH. Exercise Effects 1. leads to increased RATE and DEPTH (lactic acid) E.chronic elevation of Carb Diox (due to disease) causes Oxygen levels to have greater effect on regulation of breathing D. 3.stimulate increase ventilation hypoxic drive .modulate Carb Diox receptors large Ox decrease .physiological adaptation to lower Oxygen content at higher altitude a.
c. B. b. almost all have smoking history dyspnea . 2. chronic bronchitis .usually results from smoking a.special lymphocyte-like cells of the bronchi 90% of all lung cancers are in people who smoke or have smoked . d. 3.epithelium of the bronchi and bronchioles adenocarcinoma (25-35%) . Common features of COPD a. squamous cell carcinoma (20-40%) . c.cells of bronchiole glands and cells of the alveoli small cell carcinoma (10-20%) .chronic "gasping" for air frequent coughing and infections often leads to respiratory failure 2. obstructive emphysema .mucus/inflammation of mucosa Lung Cancer 1. 4. b.1. enlargement & deterioration of alveoli loss of elasticity of the lungs "barrel chest" from bronchiole opening during inhalation & constriction during exhalation 3.