South Africa, 2009

Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

Recent developments in steel structures:
Introduction to Eurocode 3 & Elliptical hollow sections
Dr Leroy Gardner
Imperial College London

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

L. Gardner

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Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

Introduction to Eurocode 3

L. Gardner

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1

Overview
Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

Outline: • Introduction • Load combinations • Frame stability • Key design rules

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

L. Gardner

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Scope of Eurocodes
Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

Scope of structural Eurocodes: • A total of 10 codes (comprising 58 documents) The first 2 codes are material independent: • EN 1990 – Basis of structural design • EN 1991 – Actions of structures

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

L. Gardner

4

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Scope of Eurocodes
Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

Remaining 8 codes focus on materials: • EN 1992 – Design of concrete structures • EN 1993 – Design of steel structures • EN 1994 – Design of composite structures • EN 1995 – Design of timber structures • EN 1996 – Design of masonry structures • EN 1997 – Geotechnical design • EN 1998 – Design of structures for earthquakes • EN 1999 – Design of aluminium structures
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Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

L. Gardner

Eurocodes
Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

• Codes are published by CEN in 3 languages: • English • French • German • All codes originally developed in English, and then ‘exactly’ translated • Other participating counties will translate through National standards bodies

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

L. Gardner

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National Annexes
Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

National Annexes: • Every Eurocode will contain a National Annex

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

• National choice • Non-Contradictory Complementary Information • Majority of UK NAs now published

L. Gardner

7

Present situation
Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

Present situation of Eurocodes: • All codes are published – 58 documents • 48 have a UK National Annex • Conflicting steel design standards (e.g. BS 5950) to be withdrawn in 2010

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

L. Gardner

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Efficiency of EC3 vs BS 5950
Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

Comparing the results of design to Eurocode 3 and BS 5950: • The common design rules are similar and thus lead to similar results • Where vertical loading governs, it has been estimated that structures designed to EC3 will be 6-8% lighter.

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

L. Gardner

9

Computer aided analysis and design
Eurocode 3
Background Design rules

Computer aided analysis and design: • Greater codification of structural analysis • FE may be implemented through e.g. ‘the general method’ • Semi-rigid joints in structural analysis • Beam-column formulations need to be automated

Elliptical tubes
Introduction Cross-section Member

L. Gardner

10

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Gardner 12 6 . Gardner 11 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Loading and load combinations L.Buildings and bridges Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Philosophy in structural Eurocodes not to repeat material • BS 5950 vs BS 5400 • Owing to commonality of rules. Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. it will be easier to make the transition between the two disciplines using Eurocode.

i Q k .10: ‘to be combined with’ 1. Gardner 13 Load combinations Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Equation 6. i 1. j G k .1Q k . imposed loads.5 x Leading variable action ∑γ i >1 Q .5 x combination factor x Other variable actions Actions due to prestressing Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member ∑γ j ≥1 G.i ψ 0 . wind loads etc L.EN 1990 and EN 1991 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules EN 1990 and EN 1991: • EN 1990 – Basis of design Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member • Includes load combinations • EN 1991 – Actions on structures • Dead loads.35 x Permanent actions L. j "+" γ PP "+" γ Q . Gardner 14 7 .1 "+" 1.

Dead load factor reduces to 1.5 1.5 1.0 1. loading codes are similar to existing BS • Four basic load combinations arise Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.Load combinations – Eq. 6.35 1.5 1.10 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Load combinations for a typical structure from Equation 6.0 1.35 1.0 1.10b. 6.0 15 L.75 1. Gardner 16 8 .35 1. Gardner For Eq.05 0.0 1.5 1.25.10: Combination Dead Imposed Wind EHF Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Dead + Imposed Dead + Wind (uplift) D+I+W (imposed leading) D+I+W (wind leading) 1. Remarks on load combinations Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Remarks on loading and load combinations: • Presentation of load combinations unfamiliar • Idea of leading variable actions and combination factors etc is new • Other than format and notation.

tanks & pipelines • EN 1993-5 Piling • EN 1993-6 Crane supporting structures Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Gardner 18 9 . Gardner 17 EN 1993: Eurocode 3 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Eurocode 3 contains six parts: • EN 1993-1 Generic rules • EN 1993-2 Bridges • EN 1993-3 Towers. masts & chimneys • EN 1993-4 Silos.Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Overview of Eurocode 3 L.

EN 1993-1 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Eurocode 3: Part 1 has 12 sub-parts: • EN 1993-1-1 • EN 1993-1-2 • EN 1993-1-3 • EN 1993-1-4 • EN 1993-1-5 • EN 1993-1-6 General rules Fire Cold-formed thin gauge Stainless steel Plated elements Shells 19 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Gardner 20 10 . Gardner EN 1993-1 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • EN 1993-1-7 • EN 1993-1-8 • EN 1993-1-9 • EN 1993-1-10 • EN 1993-1-11 • EN 1993-1-12 Plates transversely loaded Joints Fatigue Fracture toughness Cables High strength steels Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.

Gardner 22 11 . Gardner Labelling convention Eurocode 3 Background Labelling convention: b z z Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member tw h d y y h y r t y r tf z z b L.Axes convention Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Different axes convention: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member BS 5950 Along the member Major axis Minor axis Eurocode 3 X X Y Y Z 21 L.

factored member force or moment) • ‘Rd’ means design resistance So. Gardner 24 12 .eff.loc Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.g. Ac. Gardner 23 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Structural analysis L.Subscripts Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Extensive use of sub-scripts – generally helpful: • ‘Ed’ means design effect (i.e. • NEd is an axial force • NRd is the resistance to axial force Sometimes tedious e.

Gardner 25 Second order effects Eurocode 3 Background Design rules EN 1993-1-1 Clause 5.Analysis types Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Analysis types: • • • • First order elastic Second order elastic First order plastic Second order plastic Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.1(2) states that deformed geometry (second order effects) shall be considered: • if they increase the action effects significantly • or modify significantly the structural behaviour Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.2. Gardner 26 13 .

Ed storey sway when loaded with horizontal loads (eg wind. equivalent horizontal forces) h storey height 28 L. Gardner 14 . Gardner Simple estimate for αcr Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Simple estimate for αcr may be applied to: • Portals with shallow roof slopes • Beam and column frames (each storey) Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member ⎛ H ⎞⎛ h ⎞ ⎟ α cr = ⎜ Ed ⎟⎜ ⎜ V ⎟⎜ δ ⎟ ⎝ Ed ⎠⎝ H.Limits for ignoring deformed geometry Eurocode 3 Background Design rules For elastic analysis: where α cr = Fcr ≥ 10 FEd Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member αcr is the factor by which the design loading would have to be increased to cause elastic instability in a global mode (λcr in BS 5950-1) FEd is the design loading on the structure Fcr is the elastic critical buckling load for global instability based on initial elastic stiffness. 27 L.Ed ⎠ where HEd horizontal reaction at bottom of the storey VEd total vertical load at bottom of the storey δH.

Gardner 30 15 . Gardner Global imperfections for frames Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Global initial sway imperfections: φ = φ 0 αhα m where φ0 is the basic value = 1/ 200 αh and α m are reduction factors Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.Frame stability Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Limits for treatment of second order effects depend on αcr: Limits on αcr αcr>10 Action First order analysis α cr = Fcr FEd Achievement First order only Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 10>αcr>3 Second order First order analysis effects by plus amplification or approximate effective length method means Second order analysis Second order effects more accurately 29 αcr<3 L.

where NEd is the design compressive force in the column Checks: • Check cross-sections. Gardner Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Cross-section classification L.Global imperfections and checks Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Global imperfections: •Much easier to apply as equivalent horizontal forces φNEd. Gardner 32 16 . members and joints based on maximum forces and moments from analyses 31 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.

respectively. compact. semi-compact and slender are replaced in Eurocode 3 with Class 1.Cross-section classification Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Cross-sectional resistance and rotation capacity are limited by the effects of local buckling. Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Gardner 33 Cross-section classification Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Eurocode 3 defines four classes of cross-section: Moment Class 1 Mpl Mel Class 2 Class 3 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Class 4 Deformation L. • Eurocode 3 (and BS 5950) account for the effects of local buckling through cross-section classification. Gardner 34 17 . Class 2. • The classifications from BS 5950 of plastic. Class 3 and Class 4.

Gardner Channel in pure compression 36 18 . Gardner Limits on slenderness e. c/t ≤ 9ε ε = 235 / fy 35 Class 4 cross-sections Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Class 4 cross-sections: • Contain slender plate elements • Local buckling in elastic range • Effective width concept Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.Compressed widths c Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Definition of compressed widths – flat widths: c Rolled c Rolled Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member c Welded c Welded (a) Outstand flanges (b) Internal compression parts L.g.

Gardner 37 Elastic buckling theory Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Two bounds for perfect columns: Yielding and buckling Load Material yielding (squashing) NEd Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Afy Lcr Euler (critical) buckling Ncr NEd L. Gardner Non-dimensional slenderness 38 19 .Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Compression members L.

Gardner 40 20 . Gardner Geometric imperfections 39 Residual stresses Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Welding Hot-rolling L.Imperfections Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Residual stresses L.

6 0.Rd = Nc .0 in EN 1993 L.Rd depends on cross-section classification: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Nc .5 1 1.Buckling curves Eurocode 3 1.0 0 0.2 Reduction factor χ Background Design rules 1.Rd = Afy γ M0 A eff fy γ M0 for Class 1.5 Curve a0 a0 Curve a Curve b Curve c Curve d Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 2 2. Gardner Non-dimensional slenderness λ 41 Cross-section resistance Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Cross-section resistance in compression Nc.0 0. 2 or 3 sections for Class 4 sections γM0 is specified as 1. Gardner This value will also be adopted in the UK 42 21 .4 0.8 0.2 0.5 L.

Rd: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Nb. 2 and 3 Reduction factor Nb.Rd = for (symmetric) Class 4 L.Rd = χ A fy γ M1 χ A eff fy γ M1 for Class 1. Gardner Ncr is the elastic critical buckling load for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross properties of the cross-section 44 22 . 2 and 3 λ= for Class 4 L. Gardner 43 Member buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Calculate non-dimensional slenderness λ λ= Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member A fy Ncr A eff fy Ncr for Class 1.Column buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Compression buckling resistance Nb.

4 0.5 0.6 0.63 L.2 0.0 Design rules ≈0.5 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 2 2.88 Curve a0 Curve a0 Curve a Curve b Curve c Curve d 0.5 1 1. Gardner Non-dimensional slenderness λ 46 23 . Gardner Buckling reduction factor Graphical approach Eurocode 3 Background 1.Non-dimensional slenderness Eurocode 3 Background Design rules The non-dimensional slenderness used in EC3 is derived from the geometric slenderness (l/r).0 0 0. normalised by λ1.8 0. Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member λ = λ l/r = λ1 E π fy λ1 is the slenderness at which the elastic buckling stress is equal to the yield stress 45 L.2 Reduction factor χ 1.

49 0.13 a b c d 0.2) + λ 2 ) Imperfection factor α Plateau length 47 L.5 ≤ 1 ϕ = 0.Column buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Calculate reduction factor. χ Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member χ= 1 ϕ + ( ϕ 2 − λ 2 ) 0 .21 0.5 (1 + α(λ − 0.34 0. Gardner Imperfection factor α Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Buckling curves are chosen from a selection table depending on type of section and axis of buckling Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Imperfection factors α for 5 buckling curves: Buckling curve Imperfection factor α a0 0. Gardner 24 .76 48 L.

Gardner 50 25 . Non-dimensional slenderness λ = 7.0 Nb. Select section and determine geometry 3.Column buckling design procedure Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Design procedure for column buckling: 1.Rd = 10. Check NEd ≤ 1. Classify cross-section (if Class 1-3. Determine design axial load NEd 2. Determine imperfection factor α A fy Ncr Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 8.Rd χ A fy γ M1 L. Calculate Ncr and Afy 49 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Gardner Column buckling design procedure Eurocode 3 Background Design rules 6. Design buckling resistance Nb. Calculate buckling reduction factor χ 9. Determine effective (buckling) length Lcr 5. no account need be made for local buckling) 4.

M Wyfy Material yielding (in-plane bending) MEd MEd Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Elastic member buckling Mcr Lcr L. Gardner Non-dimensional slenderness λ LT Fully laterally restrained beams fail by in-plane bending 52 26 . Gardner 51 Non-dimensional slenderness Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Beam behaviour analogous to yielding/buckling of columns.Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Beams L.

Gardner In-plane bending Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Class 4 cross-sections: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Mc .Rd = Mpl = Wpl fy γ M0 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member • Class 3 cross-sections: Mc . Gardner 54 27 .In-plane bending Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Class 1 & 2 cross-sections: Mc .Rd = Mel = Wel fy γ M0 53 L.Rd = Weff fy γ M0 L.

η = 1 .Rd The plastic shear resistance is essentially defined as the yield strength in shear multiplied by a shear area Av: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Vpl.6 fy 55 L. though this is unlikely to affect cross-sections of standard hot-rolled proportions. Shear buckling need not be considered provided: hw ε ≤ 72 tw η where ε = for unstiffened webs Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.Shear resistance Vpl. Gardner 235 .Rd Eurocode 3 Background Design rules The usual approach is to use the plastic shear resistance Vpl.Rd = A v (fy / 3 ) γ M0 ≈ 0. Gardner Shear buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules The resistance of the web to shear buckling should also be checked.0 fy 56 28 .

If continuous lateral restraint is provided to the beam. 57 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. then lateral torsional buckling will be prevented and failure will occur in another mode. circular or square bar • Fully laterally restrained beams • λ LT < 0.Lateral torsional buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Lateral torsional buckling Lateral torsional buckling is the member buckling mode associated with slender beams loaded about their major axis. without continuous lateral restraint.4 in some cases) 58 L. Gardner Lateral torsional buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Can be discounted when: • Minor axis bending Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member • CHS. Gardner 29 . generally in-plane bending (and/or shear).2 (or 0. SHS.

2 Non-dimensional slenderness λ LT 60 30 . b.Rd of a laterally unrestrained beam (or segment of beam) should be taken as: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Mb.0 0 0.5 L.2 Reduction factor χLT 1.Lateral torsional buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Eurocode 3 design approach for lateral torsional buckling is analogous to the column buckling treatment.6 0.0 0.5 1 1.2 0. Gardner Reduction factor for LTB LTB curves Eurocode 3 Background Design rules 4 buckling curves for LTB (a. c and d) 1. The design buckling resistance Mb. Gardner 0.4 0.5 Curve a Curve b Curve c Curve d Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 2 2.8 0.Rd = χLT Wy fy γ M1 59 L.

0 G IT Iw Iz Lcr π 2EIz = 2 L cr ⎡ Iw L cr 2GIT ⎤ ⎢ + 2 ⎥ π EIz ⎦ Iz ⎣ 0 . Gardner Mcr under uniform moment Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Under uniform moment the elastic critical lateral torsional buckling moment Mcr is: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Mcr .5 L.Non-dimensional slenderness Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Calculate lateral torsional buckling slenderness: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member λ LT = Wy f y Mcr • Buckling curves as for compression (except curve a0) • Wy depends on section classification • Mcr is the elastic critical LTB moment 61 L. Gardner is the shear modulus is the torsion constant is the warping constant is the minor axis second moment of area is the buckling length of the beam 62 31 .

For uniform doubly-symmetric cross-sections. Gardner As a further simplification. loaded through the shear centre at the level of the centroidal axis.0. Mcr may be calculated by: π 2EIz Mcr = C1 2 L cr ⎡ Iw L cr 2GIT ⎤ ⎢ + 2 ⎥ π EIz ⎦ ⎣ Iz 0 .9 z λ1 C1 λ z = L / iz . 64 32 . λ 1 = π L. and with the standard conditions of restraint described. C1 may also be conservatively taken = 1.5 L.Mcr under non-uniform moment Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Numerical solutions have been calculated for a number of other loading conditions. Gardner 63 Simplified assessment of λ LT Eurocode 3 Background Design rules For hot-rolled doubly symmetric I and H sections without destabilising loads. λ LT may be conservatively simplified to: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member λ LT = 1 0 .9 λ z = C1 E fy λ 1 0 .

Rd = χLT M Wy fy γ M1 Ed 10. Check ≤ 1. Calculate Mcr and Wyfy 65 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.0 for each unrestrained Mb. Gardner Design procedure for LTB Eurocode 3 Background Design rules 6. Determine effective (buckling) length Lcr – depends on boundary conditions and load level 5. Classify cross-section (Class 1.Rd portion L. Non-dimensional slenderness λ LT = 7. Determine imperfection factor αLT Wy fy Mcr Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 8. Select section and determine geometry 3. Gardner 66 33 . 3 or 4) 4. Design buckling resistance Mb. 2. Calculate buckling reduction factor χLT 9. Determine BMD and SFD from design loads 2.Design procedure for LTB Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Design procedure for LTB: 1.

eurocodes.Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Sources of further information L.steel-sci.org/publications/ • http://www.co.access-steel.uk/ • http://www. Gardner 67 Sources of further information Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • http://www.uk/ Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.steel-ncci.co.com/ • http://www. Gardner 68 34 .

Implementation in UK Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Observations on UK implementation: • Existing British Standards withdrawn in 2010 • Public projects must be designed to Eurocodes from 2010 • ICE training courses running since 2005 • Demand for EC courses growing. demand for BS courses reducing • Many participants now engaged in EC designs • Design guidance and software 69 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Gardner 70 35 . Gardner Conclusions Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Conclusions: • Advanced design codes • Greater in scope • Biggest change since limit states • Unfamiliar format • Guidance material and training emerging • Basis for other National design codes Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.

Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Elliptical hollow sections (EHS) L. Gardner 72 36 . Gardner 71 Overview Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Outline contents: • Introduction/ strategy Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member • Structural investigations • Design rules • Conclusions L.

BS. Gardner 74 37 .Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Introduction L. Gardner 73 Strategy Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Stages of developments: • Full-scale structural testing • Non-linear numerical modelling • Theoretical investigations • Development of structural design rules • Eurocode. AISI Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.

Gardner 76 38 . Gardner Elliptical hollow sections Eurocode 3 Background Design rules SHS Axial loading CHS Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member RHS Bending Axial + bending EHS L.Areas examined Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Structural scenarios addressed: • Local buckling and section classification Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member • Cross-section compression resistance • Cross-section bending resistance • Shear resistance • Combined bending and shear • Flexural buckling of columns • Concrete-filled EHS 75 L.

Elliptical hollow sections Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical hollow sections (EHS): • Combine merits of RHS and a CHS • Elegant appearance (CHS) • Differing rigidities about principal axes (RHS) b z Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member y a b 77 L. Gardner Jarrold store. UK 78 39 . UK L. Gardner Applications Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Heathrow Airport.

Gardner 80 40 . Gardner Society Bridge. Scotland 79 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Cross-section classification L.Applications Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Madrid Airport. Spain L.

15. Gardner b 82 41 . Gardner ⎛z⎞ ⎛y⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ b⎠ ⎝a⎠ ⎝ = 1 rmax is the maximum local radius of curvature 81 Elastic critical buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Major axis bending: z a Compression Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member rmax y Maximum compression Buckling initiates For a/b < 1. buckling initiates at extreme fibre a Tension b L.Elastic critical buckling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Compression (and minor axis bending): y rmax Et rmax 3(1− ν2 ) σcr = Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section b b z σcr a a 2 = Et ⎛a ⎜ ⎜b ⎝ 2 Member 2 ⎞ ⎟ 3(1− ν2 ) ⎟ ⎠ L.

Gardner Tensile coupons Geometric measurements 83 Testing Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Compression tests: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Gardner 84 42 .Testing Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Material testing and geometric measurements: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.

Gardner 85 FE modelling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Stage 1: Validation against tests – Full loading history and failure models well predicted • Stage 2: Parametric studies (>800 FE results in total) – Cross-section slenderness – Member slenderness – Aspect ratios (for all tests. a/b = 2) Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.FE modelling Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Nonlinear FE package ABAQUS • Stage 1: Validation against tests Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member – Measured material properties – Measured geometry – Measured geometric imperfection L. Gardner 86 43 .

0 2a 0.5 88 44 .0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 De/tε2 L.5 Class 1-3 Class 4 2b 0.0 Background Design rules 1. ε = (235/fy)0. Gardner De = 2rmax = 2a2/b. Gardner 87 Compression Eurocode 3 2.5 EHS CHS FE Fu/Fy Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 1.FE validation Eurocode 3 Background 1800 Design rules FE Load N (kN) 1200 Test Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 600 0 0 6 12 18 24 End shortening δ (mm) L.

5 1.0 Class 1-3 Class 4 Member 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 De/tε2 L. Gardner 89 Minor axis bending – M/Mel Eurocode 3 Background 2.5 0. ε = (235/fy)0.5 2a 2.5 90 45 . Gardner De = 2rmax = 2a2/b.Testing Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Minor axis bending tests: Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.0 Design rules 2b EHS CHS FE Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Mu/Mel 1.0 0.

Gardner De/tε2 De = 2rmax = 2a2/b.5 92 46 .6 0.0 1.2 0. ε = (235/fy)0. Gardner De = 2rmax = 2a2/b.Minor axis bending – M/Mpl Eurocode 3 Background Design rules 2. ε = (235/fy)0.8 1.6 1.2 1.4 2a Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Mu/Mpl EHS CHS FE Class 1-2 Class 3-4 2b 0.4 1.5 91 Minor axis bending – Rotation capacity Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 33 30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 0 Class 1 Class 2-4 Rotation capacity EHS CHS FE 2a 2b 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 L.0 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 De/tε2 L.8 0.

36 a/b ≤ 1.42a Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member a2/b 2a L.36 2a 2a 2b 2b 94 47 . Gardner 2b 93 Slenderness parameters Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Summary of proposed measures of slenderness: Loading Equivalent diameter Corresponding point on cross-section 2a Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Axial compression De = 2a2/b 2b 2a Minor axis bending (z-z) De = 2a2/b 2b Major axis bending (y-y) L.8a2/b De = 2b2/a a/b > 1.65a2/b 0.125a2/b 0. Gardner De = 0.Major axis bending Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Radii of curvature: 0.22a 0.4a2/b 0.

Gardner 95 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Shear resistance L. Gardner 96 48 .Slenderness limits Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Summary of proposed slenderness limits: Proposed slenderness limits Type of compression loading Diameter ratio Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Axial compression Minor axis bending (z-y) Major axis bending (y-y) De/t De/t Not applicable 90ε2 50ε2 De/t 70ε2 140ε2 L.

Shear tests Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • A total of 24 three-point bending tests performed. Gardner Uniform shear 98 49 . Constant aspect ratio = 2. Gardner Shear tests Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • A total of 24 three-point bending tests performed F Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L/2 Moment L/2 gradient Uniform shear L. • 12 minor axis tests. 12 major axis tests Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member • Three variations in cross-section slenderness (thickness) • Four variations in span length (to investigate moment-shear interaction) 97 L.0.

Plastic shear resistance Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • Design plastic shear resistance Vpl. Gardner 50 .Rd = A v fy / 3 γ M0 where Av= Shear area fy = Material yield strength γM0= 1.Rd Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Vpl.0 99 L. Gardner Plastic shear resistance Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Shear area for circular hollow sections: Av=2A/π z Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member V = 2 × (r × dθ × t ) × (τ 0 × sin θ) 0 ∫ π θ r y V = 4 × r × t × τ0 V= 2 Aτ 0 π V 2A = τ0 π 100 ∴ Av = L.

0 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member 0.25 L.Plastic shear resistance Eurocode 3 Background Design rules For shear along y-y y For shear along z-z z a Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member b b a a b b z a y Av = (4b-2t)t L.00 1.25 0. Gardner Vu/Vpl.Rd Shear along y-y Shear along z-z 1.Rd 102 51 .5 Proposed shear-moment interaction 0.00 0.50 0. Gardner Av = (4a-2t)t 101 Design guidance Eurocode 3 Background Design rules 1.5 Mu/Mpl.0 0.75 1.Rd or Mu/Mel.

Rd – Full bending resistance (Mel.Rd) • For VEd > 50% Vpl. Gardner Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Column buckling L.Rd – 1)1/2 103 Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Gardner 104 52 .Rd – Reduced bending resistance fyr = (1-ρ)fy where ρ = (2VEd/Vpl.Design guidance Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • For VEd < 50% Vpl.Rd or Mpl.

12 major axis tests • Three variations in cross-section slenderness (thickness) • Four variations in column length Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Gardner 105 Testing Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Load cell Knife edge Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section C L Strain gauge LVDT Member Hydraulic jack L.0 • 12 minor axis tests. constant aspect ratio = 2.Column Tests Eurocode 3 Background Design rules • A total of 24 column tests performed. Gardner 106 53 .

Load-deflection response Eurocode 3 Background 1000 Plastic yielding 800 Design rules Load N (kN) 2nd order rigid plastic 600 400 200 2nd order elastic Elastic buckling Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section 0 Member 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Lateral deflection at mid-height ω (mm) L. Gardner 107 FE validation Eurocode 3 Background 750 Design rules Load N (kN) 500 FE Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member Test 250 0 0 15 30 45 60 Lateral deflection at mid-height ω (mm) L. Gardner 108 54 .

0 Member 0.Column buckling curve Eurocode 3 Background Design rules 1.5 EC3 – curve ‘a’ 0.4 0.4 2. Gardner 109 Conclusions Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Conclusions: • New and rare addition to hot-rolled range • Significant testing and FE modelling programmes • Design rules developed for primary structural configurations • Development of comprehensive design rules ongoing Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.0 2.8 1.6 2. Gardner 110 55 .5 Nu/Ny or Nu/Neff Buckling about z-z 1.0 Buckling about y-y Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section y z 0.0 0.2 1.8 Member slenderness λ L.

A. L. The behaviour and design of steel structures to EC3. Steel and Composite Structures. A. Taylor & Francis. A. (2008). Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L. Nethercot. 2009 Eurocode 3 Background Design rules Recent developments in steel structures: Introduction to Eurocode 3 & Elliptical hollow sections Dr Leroy Gardner Imperial College London Elliptical tubes Introduction Cross-section Member L.South Africa. & Nethercot. (2005). Gardner. Fourth Edition. N. & Gardner. and Chan. Cross-section classification of elliptical hollow sections. M. Trahair. Bradford. 7(3). Gardner 111 References Eurocode 3 Background Design rules References: Gardner. Gardner 112 56 . Thomas Telford Publishing.. S. (2007). M. Designers’ Guide to EN 1993-1-1: Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures.. 185-200. D. L. L. T. D.

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