Automation of railway gate | Relay | Electric Motor

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

Chapter: 1

Introduction

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, BMIT.

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Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

1. Introduction of Project:
The basic requirement of a railway engine or bogie for its locomotion is the continuity of the railway track which in this form and railway track network which spreads across the country, and in doing so it intersects various cities and towns and thereby also intersects all the roads coming across the railway track. In this project we are concerned with providing an automatic railway gate control at unmanned level crossings replacing the gates operated by gate keepers and also the semi-automatically operated gates. It deals with two things. Firstly, it deals with the reduction of time for which the gate is being kept closed. And secondly, to provide safety to the road users by reducing the accidents that usually occur due to carelessness of road users and at times errors made by the gangman. By employing the automatic railway gate control at the level crossing the arrival of train is detected by the sensor placed 7km before railway gate crossing. Once the arrival is sensed, the sensed signal is sent to the microcontroller and it sends the signal after 2.5 second to motor buzzer indication and light signals on both sides of railway gate crossing provided to the road users indicating the closure of gates. The departure of the train is detected by sensors placed at about 30m after the gate crossing. The signal about the departure of the train is sent to the microcontroller after 1.5 second, which in turn operates the motor and opens the gate. Thus, the time for which the gate is closed is less compared to the manually operated gates since the gate is closed depending upon the telephone call from the previous station. Also reliability is high as it is not subjected to manual errors. As it is to be understood by everyone that the railway being mass transport has to be given priority as compare to personal or road transport which is comparatively smaller one and has to be allowed to be pass first as compare to personal or road transport. Not having a thorough understanding of the above concept and miscalculating often the speed of the train it is that there is collision between the train and
Depart ent echanical Engineering, BMI Page 2

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

men operated means. As regards to animals stringing on the track this project has a limitation.

The project contains following assumptions:

2. Assumptions:
1. 2. It is a single track route. If it is double track and if train approach on it simultaneously from both the sides then it would require interlocking facility of the signal for the microcontroller to operate the boom which is more complexes in nature hence we have formed this prototype model, assuming it as a single track. 3. The sensors are assumed to be put at a height which coincides with just below the top of the railway boggie. 4. For the sensor not to mal function in terms of picking up astray incident of a bird coming in between its path to encounter this delay time of 2-3 seconds has been purposely kept for the sensor to operate on continuously sensing. 5. Boom of railway gate crossing works when train moves from both the direction. 6. Our project is based on the assumption that the road passengers plying across the road are well aware about traffic rules as well as are also aware about their lives safety norms.

Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering, BMI

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Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

3. List of Component :
1. AVR iBoard 2. Tsop Sensor 3. Bump Sensor 4. Motors 5. Relay Circuit 6. Power Supply 7. Train Kit 8. Plywood 9. Tool Kit

Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering, BMI

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Page 5 .Aut ti B t R il t C i Chapter: 2 Literature Review Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMIT.

1. The Railways have also been modernized in terms of technology.186 wagons and 40. ticketing. 21. Indian Railways has grown into one of the largest Railway network in the world.730 optical fiber communication route Kms and over 8. computerization and overall management.699 bridges of which 10799 are major bridges.896 stations. 14.613 trunk tele channels Kms distinguishes Indian Railway telecom network.It was single stretch of 34 kilometer from ³Boree Bunder (now become CST) to Tannah (now become Thane) G. Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. This carries approx. Indian Railway network is spread over 81. forever. 18.5 per cent of the total network and 30 per cent of broad gauge network on Indian Railway is electrified.the world¶s largest continent.6 per cent of the passenger output during 1998-99.5 per cent of the route..579 route kms constituting over 19. The network spread and expanded rapidly and has become the principal mode of transport in our country. The transport effort is sustained through the use of 7429 locomotives.P Railway¶s First train ever to run on the Indian soil rolled throughout the changed the history of India. In 1998-99.775 coaching vehicles.1 Introduction to Indi n Rail ay: It all began one fine summer day on 16 April 1853. Indian Railways has nearly 1. 1.56.54.511 Km covering 6. BMI Page 6 . 41 per cent of the passenger traffic and 52 per cent of the freight traffic on Indian Railways.I. 2. 384 bridges were rebuilt or rehabilitated and 270 strengthened or re-girdered.846 telephone exchange lines. Operating on three gauges . 53. Broad gauge although forming 64. Almost all the double/multiple track sections and electrified routes lie on broad gauge.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. This effort has been in tune with the requirement of moving large volumes of passengers and freight traffic. It also marked the dawn of Railway Age in Asia. trains in India carry more than 12 million passengers and more than a million tons of freight every day during the year 1998-99. Introduced as early as 1853. generated 96 per cent of freight output and 89.445 long haul MT Kms.broad gauge (1676 mm) meter gauge (1000 mm) and narrow gauge (762 and 610 mm).

27 billion NTKms (net tone kilometers). Fig1.9 million tons growing at the rate of 7%. The total passenger traffic in the year 1998-99 was 4411 million tons.1: Indian railway Indian Rail ays is di ided into 16 zones: Northern Railway (NR) Noth Eastern Railway (NER) Central Railway (CR) South Western Railway (SWR) Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) North Western Railway (NWR) Western Railway (WR) Southern Railway (SR) South Central Railway (SCR) South Eastern Railway (SER) Eastern Railway (ER) West Central Railway (WCR) North Central Railway (NCR) South East Central Railway (SECR) East Coast Railway (ECoR) East Central Railway (ECR) Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. During 1998 -99 the revenue earning freight traffic moved by Railways was 420.58 million tons of originating revenue earning traffic which in terms of transport output is 284.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Indian Railway system has developed a capacity to carry 441. BMI Page 7 .

such as temperature or thermal conductivity. The tractor trolley was carrying a marriage party with music on. other sensors measure properties indirectly. BMI Page 8 . 5027 up dashed with tractor on gate at km 429/10-11 between Bhatpara rani and bhatni station of bsb division of ne. Coupled light engines dashed with auto rickshaw at gate no 78 at km 14/2-3 of Hyderabad division of south central railway on 10-01-03 (killed 9. 4.on 30.rly on 30-03-03 (killed 11. The tractor trolley continued to cross the track at high speed. 14 injured. 4.06 kapilvastu express (gonda . Sensors are generally categorized by the type of Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. where 3 people died one person seriously injured. or to a change in chemical concentration. injured2) 2. 58 people killed. injured-8) 3. The train driver lost his life and the asstt. 321 up (Tata .2 ACCIDENT CASES AT MANNED RAILWAY GATE CROSSING: 1. Some sensors measure properties directly. 452 between durg and murlipur station on 28-08-01.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. such as temperature sensors in an oven to accelerometers in an automobile airbag system. Sensors are used by scientists and engineers during research and testing activities. Sensors are electrical or mechanical components that are used to measure a property or behavior of an object or system.05.3 Introduction of Sensor : A sensor is a device that produces a measurable response to a change in a physical condition. 5.5RN passenger train dashed with one tractor trolley on unmanned level crossing at km 1115/3-4. Sensors are particularly useful for making in-situ measurements such as in industrial process control. using conversions or calculations to determine results.Gorakhpur) dashed with a tractor trailor at unmanned level crossing near kuian village of balrampur district (up). but they can also be found in many household objects.Nagpur passenger) dashed with dumper at unmanned level crossing gate no. Driver got trapped in the train engine.

Limits of measurement or the sensor. BMI Page 9 . Application: The sensor is responsible for converting some type of physical Phenomenon into a quantity measurable by a data acquisition (DAQ) system Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering.   Range .Required for most measuring systems since their readings will drift over time.The variance in a sensor's reading when a single condition is repeatedly measured. but are also found in household objects.   Accuracy . Repeatability .   Cost Environmental . Factors to consider while choosing a sensor. Calibration . rather than the functionality of the sensor itself.Sensors typically have temperature and/or humidity limits.The statistical variance about the exact reading.  Resolution . Electrical and mechanical sensors are widely used to characterize the performance and properties of components and systems.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing phenomenon that they measure.The smallest increment the sensor can detect.

Temperature 12. Acceleration . BMI Page 10 . Proximity . Magnetic Fields 8. Angular / Linear Position 3.Spatial Presence 10.2: Tsop Sensor Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. 2.4 USES OF SENSORS: Sensors are used to measure basic physical phenomena including: 1. Force 7. Chemical/Gas Concentration 4. Flow Rate 6.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4.Shock & Vibration. Sound 11. Pressure 9. Humidity 5.5 General Description of Tsop sensor Fig1. Velocity 4.

Here we use it for collision detection. Due to this. The module consists of 555 IC. Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. The on-board LED indicator helps user to check status of the sensor without using any additional hardware. It gives a digital output and false detection due ambient light is low.6 Bump Sensor : A bump sensor is probably one of the easiest ways of letting gate Boom know it's collided with something. Normally the switch will be held open by an internal spring. The output of TSOP is high whenever it receives a fixed frequency and low otherwise. The simplest way to do this is to fix a micro switch to the pillar of gate in a way so that when it collides the switch will get pushed in. making an electrical connection. Application Ideas ‡ Obstacle detection ‡ Shaft encoder ‡ Fixed frequency detection Pin No. BMI Page 11 . errors due to false detection of ambient light are significantly reduced. The high precision TSO receiver always detects a signal of fixed frequency. working in astable multivibrator configuration.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing The TSOP-OBSD±Single is a general purpose proximity sensor. Connection Description 1 Output Digital Output (High or Low) 2 VCC Connected to circuit supply 3 Ground Connected to circuit ground 4. The power consumption of this module is low. The module consists of an IR emitter and TSOP receiver pair.

But the circuit remains the same. pulling the signal line high or low. An example is the micro switch with a lever attached to increase its range. Tactile switches only work if you¶re motor can stop instantaneously (like when moving slowly). such as 40kohms. as shown above. Bump Sensor Circuits: Voltage goes high Voltage goes with contact low with contact More efficient switch for 3 lead switches Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. but the circuit itself also works fine for user buttons and switches as well. BMI Page 12 . depending on how you plan to use the circuit and your available switches. often depending on the design and goals of the robot itself.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Fig1. There are several versions below. For the resistor use a very high value. There are many designs possible for bump switches.3: Bump Sensor Tactile Bump Sensors are great for collision detection. They usually implement a mechanical button to short the circuit.

The resistor is important because it holds the si nal line at ground while the switch is off.Aut ti B t R il t C i (use for mi ro swit hes) The followi di ram shows a t i al circuit for a micro switch bump sensor.4: Bump Sensor Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Without it the signal line is effecti el 'floating' because there is nothing connected to it and may cause unreliable readings as the processor tries to decide if the line is on or off. Page 13 . Fig1. BMIT.

BMI Page 14 .5: AVR iBoard Maximum Input voltage = 16V Minimum Input voltage = 7V Department Of Mechanical Engineering.7 The AVR iBoard : y Includes ATMEL ATMega 16 (Also supports ATMega32) Microcontroller with 16kB flash memory working at 16 Mips y y y y y y y y In system programmable On board programmer On board regulated power supply On board motor drivers with current capacity of up to 600mA per channel Power indicator LED 2 on board Dual full H bridge motor driver for 2 stepper or 4 Dc motors Separate ON/OFF switch for power & motor drives 3 LEDs for external inputs/interrupts On board LCD connector (multipurpose port.Aut ati n of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. which can be used for other applications also) Fig1.

y Sensor port: At a time.0592MHz.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Parts identification: y y Power on switch: It¶s a basic push to on ±push to off type switch. MAX232: This chip takes care of the voltage conversions needed to communicate with the PC¶S RS232 (serial/ COM) port. The port provides 5V supply needed driver sensors. y y Reset Switch: This switch is used to reset the microcontroller. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. IC 7805: It¶s a three terminal linear 5 volt regulator used to supply the microcontroller & other peripherals. y ADC Test: Short the two pins of the jumper next to the potentiometer & the potentiometer gets connected to the port A 7. y Motor Enable switch: This switch is used to enable/disable the motor driver chips hence in turn enabling/disabling the motors. The board contains two such chips. y L293D: It is a 4 channel motor driver with 600mA of current per channel & has inbuilt clamp diodes. BMI Page 15 . y Potentiometer (pot): The potentiometer is used to vary the contrast of the LCD. y y Crystal: A crystal sets the microcontroller¶s clock frequency to 11. y DB 9 connector: This is a 9 pin connector used to the PC¶S COM port during programming or for general UART communications. the beeper can easily be used to get audible feedback from the controller. y Switch array: four general purpose switches are connected in the active-low configuration. Beeper: Connected in the active low mode. 8 individual sensor modules can be connected to this port.

7 6 Port C O 1 2 3 4«7 Port D 0 1 2.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Board connection Details : Port A 0«.3 Motor Drivers 4 5..7 Motor drivers A Department Of Mechanical Engineering. 3 USART RXD USART TXD + LED D3 Switch 2. BMI Page 16 . 3 LCD Control pin LED D1 (Active high) LCD Control pin Buzzer (Active high) LCD Data pins Switch 1 (Active low) programmer LED D2 (Active High) 4«.7 sensor connector Port B 0«.

10-bit ADC ‡ Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes ‡ One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescalers.8 Introduction to at mega 16 Microcontroller : Features: ‡ Advanced RISC Architecture ‡ Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz ‡ 16K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash ‡ 512 Bytes EEPROM ‡ 1K Byte Internal SRAM ‡ 32 Programmable I/O Lines ‡ In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program ‡ 8-channel. and Capture ‡ Four PWM Channels ‡ Programmable Serial USART ‡ Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface ‡ Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface ‡ Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator ‡ External and Internal Interrupt Sources Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. Compare Mode. BMI Page 17 .

(+5V) GND: Ground. BMI Page 18 . The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing PIN CONFIGURATION: Fig1. if the A/D Converter is not used.PA0) Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low. they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated.6: pin Diagram of At Mega system Micro-controller Detail Pin Descriptions VCC: Digital supply voltage. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. (0 V) Note there are 2 ground Pins. even if the clock is not running. Port A (PA7 .

Port D (PD7 . the pull-up resistors on pins PC5 (TDI). XTAL1: External oscillator pin 1 XTAL2: External oscillator pin 2 AVCC: AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. If the JTAG interface is enabled. Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 58 of datasheet. even if the clock is not running.PC0) Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). AREF: AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.PB0) Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Port C (PC7 . BMI Page 19 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Port B (PB7 . RESET: Reset Input.PD0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 63 of datasheet. PC3 (TMS) and PC2 (TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. Port C also serves the functions of the JTAG interface and other special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 61 of datasheet. It should be externally connected to VCC. it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used.

7 MAX232 Integrated Circuit A MAX232 integrated circuit The MAX232 from Maxim was the first IC which in one package contains the necessary drivers (two) and receivers (also two). the MAX232A. by a 16550 UART Department Of Mechanical Engineering. -12V. it does not decode the RS-232 signal. and the MAX232A only needs external capacitors 1/10th the capacity of what the original MAX232 needs. It does not generate the necessary RS-232 sequence of marks and spaces with the right timing.g. Generating serial data with the right timing and decoding serial data has to be done by additional circuitry. Circuitry designers no longer need to design and build a power supply with three voltages (e. The MAX232 has a successor. +5V. with the help of a simple 78x05 voltage converter.g. It became popular. -10V and +10V) internally. BMI Page 20 .g.1 The MAX232 & MAX232A: Figure 1. and it does not provide a serial/parallel conversion. because it just needs one voltage (+5V) and generates the necessary RS-232 voltage levels (approx. however.9. It should be noted that the MAX232 (A) is just a driver/receiver. e. All it does is to convert signal voltage levels. the MAX232A is much more often used (and easier to get) than the original MAX232. e. but could just provide one +5V power supply. The ICs are almost identical. and +12V).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. This greatly simplified the design of circuitry. to adapt the RS-232 signal voltage levels to TTL logic.

with different numbers of receivers and drivers. while the MAX233 has these capacitors built-in.e. voltages. too) offers a large series of similar ICs.g.-|3 C2+ -|4 C2. the capacities of the external capacitors vary. Atmel AVR. Microchip PIC) getting more and more popular.-|5 V. The MAX232 and MAX232A need external capacitors for the internal voltage pump. It has also helped that many companies now produce clones (i. It is recommended to check the data sheet of the particular manufacturer of an IC instead of relying on Maxim's original data sheet. builtin or external capacitors. It is also more difficult to get the MAX233 than the garden variety MAX232A. etc. BMI Page 21 . The original manufacturer (and now some clone manufacturers.GND 14|-T1out 13|.R1in 12|-R1out 11|-T1in 10|-T2in 9|.g.-|6 T2out -|7 R2in -|8 16|-Vcc 15|. The MAX233 is also between three and ten times more expensive in electronic shops than the MAX232A because of its internal capacitors. These clones sometimes need different external circuitry. The MAX232 and MAX232A were once rather expensive ICs.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing or one of these small micro controllers (e.R2out +------- Department Of Mechanical Engineering.g. Sipex). but today they are cheap. E. e. MAX232 (A) DIP Package +---v---+ C1+ -|1 V+ -|2 C1.

DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors. Department Of Mechanical Engineering.2 PUSH-PULL FOUR CHANNEL DRIVER WITH DIODES: Figure1. allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are included. To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels is equipped with an enable input.2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive) PER CHANNEL ENABLE FACILITY OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION LOGICAL "0" INPUT VOLTAGE UP TO 1.9. high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoids.5 V (HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY) INTERNAL CLAMP DIODES DESCRIPTION The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage.8 L239D Circuit     600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY PER CHANNEL 1.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. A separate supply input is provided for the logic. BMI Page 22 .

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing This device is suitable for use in switching applications at frequencies up to 5 kHz. Relays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal.9. or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. Fig1. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism. The L293DD is assembled in a 20 lead surface mount which has 8 center pins connected together and used for heatsinking. The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic package which has 4 center pins connected together and used for heat sinking. but other operating principles are also used.9 Simple electromechanical relay Types of Relay o o o o o o o o o o Latching relay Reed relay Mercury-wetted relay Polarized relay Machine tool relay Contactor relay Solid-state relay Solid state contactor relay Buchholz relay Forced-guided contacts relay Page 23 Department Of Mechanical Engineering. 4.3 RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch. BMI .

4 Electric Motor: Figure2. machine tools. The reverse process. power tools. as in the starter solenoid of an automobile. y Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators. y Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays) 4. or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. blowers and pumps. as in some types of modems or audio amplifiers.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Applications Relays are used to and for: y Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal. The Department Of Mechanical Engineering. is accomplished by a generator or dynamo.9. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle). and vice versa. BMI Page 24 . producing electrical energy from mechanical energy. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. and disk drives. very typically through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans.0 Types of Motors An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. household appliances.

Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. by their internal construction.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. with ratings in the millions of watts. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. Naturally. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships. by their application. Types of Motors Industrial motors come in a variety of basic types. This document will hopefully give some guidance in selecting these motors         AC Motors DC Motors Brushless DC Motors Servo Motors Brushed DC Servo Motors Brushless AC Servo Motors Stepper Motors Linear Motors DC Motor A series-wound motor is referred to as a uni ersal motor when it has been designed to operate on either AC or DC power. These variations are suitable for many different applications. and for such purposes as pipeline compressors. or by the type of motion they give. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. The ability to operate on AC is because the Department Of Mechanical Engineering. some types of motors are more suited for certain applications than other motor types are. BMI Page 25 . but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.

Why to use DC motor y y y y Easy to understand design Easy to control speed Easy to control torque Simple. The DC motor is one of the earliest motor designs. Today. BMI Page 26 .5-12 Volt Supply Required Department Of Mechanical Engineering. it is the motor of choice in the majority of variable speed and torque control applications. cheap drive design Specification of Motor:    DC Motor 10 RPM 1. and hence the resulting mechanical force will occur in a constant direction.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing current in both the field and the armature (and hence the resultant magnetic fields) will alternate (reverse polarity) in synchronism.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 3 Description of work & Implementation Details Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMIT. Page 27 .

Playing a sound buzzer housed at the control room just adjacent to the railway gate and sound of buzzer will help the road users who is in between the two boom to take motion of the boom down process which has been automated and to quickly there by move outside the range of the two booms. LEDs are placed on the pillar. BMI Page 28 . The buzzer also in turn alerts the other road users not to enter in to the area between the two booms on either side. Detail Working of Project: The first Tsop Sensor is placed before 7 km from the railway gate crossing to detect the train arrival and another Tsop Sensor is placed at about 30m after the railway gate crossing to detect the train departure. Two Bump Sensors placed at Pillar of boom Mechanism to Stop the Motor action. Departure of train detected by sensor place 30 meter after the gate.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 5. The boom does not operate from top to horizontal position at one action but it descends very slowly. which in turns placed on both sides of railway track. The detailed description of the working of the above model can be explained under various heads. 1) Initial Signal Display: Let R1=first Tsop Sensor R2= second tsop sensor The road user signals can freely move through the gate as buzzer is made µOFF¶ since there is no approach of train and road users need not be warned. whose glowing indicates that the train approaching on the railway gate and giving priority everyone has to keep away from the track and help it pass first. Detection of a train approaching the gate can be sensed by means of tsop sensors placed on 7km before the railway gate crossing. As long as if there is no LED and the buzzer the road users are free to use the railway gate crossing. Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

After train passes the sensor wait for 1. BMI Page 29 . Department Of Mechanical Engineering. after 1. A buzzer is made ON as a precautionary measure for the road user and that nobody should enter the gate at that moment. RED signal appears for the road user once the train cuts the tsop sensor placed 7Km before the gate.5 sec it sends the signal to Microcontroller.5 sec because of any misuse. 3) Warning for Road Users: At the moment the train arrival is sensed at railway gate crossing. 4) Train Departure Detection: When train departure is detected by R2 .After 2. and microcontroller closes the boom as soon as the boom press the bump sensor the motor action is off. road users are warned about the train approach by RED signals placed to caution the road users passing through the gate. after 1.it does not send the signal to microcontroller unless it checks for continuous detection of train.5 second signal is given to the Microcontroller which operates the motor action in reverse direction and the gates are opened.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 2) Train Arrival Detection: When train arrival is detected by R1 it does not send the signal to microcontroller unless it checks for 2.5 sec because of any misuse.5 sec it sends the signal to microcontroller to open the boom 5) Gate Opening: When the train departure is sensed by the sensors.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 5. STEP 5: Make the warning signal for the road users. STEP 12: Stop.1 ALGORITHM : STEP 1: Start. If the train is sensed go to step 5 otherwise go to step 4. STEP 3: Make initial settings of the signals for the train and road users. STEP 4: Check for the arrival of the train in either direction by the sensors. STEP 11: Go to STEP 3. STEP8: Open the gate. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. STEP 6: Close the gate and stop the buzzer warning. BMI Page 30 . STEP 7: Check for the train departure by the sensors. STEP 2: Set the variables.

Diagram: Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 6. BMI Page 31 .

Page 32 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 4 Advantages & Limitations Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMIT.

Reliability of boom operation on account automation is high as its manually operation is eliminated 2.2 Limitations: 1. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. 3.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 7. 2. It requires sensor to be kept at larger distance away from gate crossing and proper wiring has to be provided to reach the signal till the railway. The project provides encountered safety of animal who accidently stray across the railway gate crossing. Maintenance probably may be high. BMI Page 33 .1 Advantages: 1. 3. Improvement in safety of road passengers who use railway gate crossing. Reduces the waiting time of road passengers. 7. which will cost more.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing C APTER: 5 Conclusion Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Page 34 . BMIT.

Conclusion: It is recommended that such a type of automatic functioning of the boom at the railway gate crossing be implemented at each and every railway gate which will definitely improves the road passenger¶s safety system against railway accident. By the atomization of the boom it can be operated with optimum efficiency in terms of open and closure thereby cutting down on the passengers waiting time and thus contributing towards the nation¶s human resource hours every time the boom is in action. BMI Page 35 . on which basis this project will work.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 8. The automatic operation of the boom at such places contributes in leaps and bounds to road passenger¶s safety system. This project is more useful at un-manned railway crossing where the road passengers are left to their soul judgment to guard for their safety against railway accidents. hence certain conditions are assumed as specified earlier. Current manual operation for the boom close-open system may be subjected to manual errors on part of the gangman whose effects may be disastrous and also has the possibilities of gangman letharginess in manually operating the boom with optimum efficiency which directly has an effect on the road passenger¶s unnessesarily waiting time on either side of the railway gate. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. This project is not completely applicable to current Indian railway system as of now.

BMIT. Page 36 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 6 References And Bibliography Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

http://robosoftsystems.com/2008/06/bump -sensor. http://www.societyofrobots.1 Bibliography 2.shtml 5. http://robotiks4u. BMI Page 37 . References: 1.php/sensors/sensormodules/single-tsop-sensor-module.blogspot.pdf 9. by CD of technosolution Pvt Ltd Mumbai 2. Railways overview.atmel. A complete reference of at mega 16 Micro Controllers.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc2466.in/roboshop/index. http://www.Book of Central Railway Department Of Mechanical Engineering.com/sensors_tactbumpswitch.html 4.html 3.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 9.co.

BMI Page 38 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Appendix Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

Mundkar Satish 3.co. Munnoli Mahesh 4. BMI Page 39 . Mulla Umer Q 2.com maheshmnnl@gmail.co.R.com Guide: Prof S.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Appendix: A: 10.com satishmundkar@gmail.com ramdasbochare@yahoo.rameshwar@gmail. Akkalkote Rameshwar Email Id umer_mulla@rediffmail.in sunilbajarangmishra@yahoo.B.Mishra Co-Guide Prof A.1 Projectile: Name 1.in akkalkote. Bochare Ramdas 5.com Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Jinde jinde_19@yahoo.

Department Of Mechanical Engineering.5).4).h> #include<util/delay. SETBIT(PORTD. BMI Page 40 .5). b)x&(1<<b) #define SETBIT(x. } void open(void) { SETBIT(PORTD.6).2 Program code: #include<avr/io. CLEARBIT(PORTD. CLEARBIT(PORTD. SETBIT(PORTD.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10.7). CLEARBIT(PORTD.b)x^=(1<<b) void close(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD.6).h> #define CHECKBIT(x. CLEARBIT(PORTD.4).4).b)x|=(1<<b) #define CLEARBIT(x. CLEARBIT(PORTD.5).b)x&=~(1<<b) #define TOGGLEBIT(x. } void stop(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD.7).

7). SETBIT(PORTD. CLEARBIT(PORTD. CLEARBIT(PORTD. SETBIT(PORTD.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing SETBIT(PORTD. }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA. CLEARBIT(PORTD. } void one(void) { do { close().2))). stop(). CLEARBIT(PORTD.4).4). BMI Page 41 .5).5). } void dright(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD.6). SETBIT(PORTD. } void dleft(void) { SETBIT(PORTD. Department Of Mechanical Engineering.7).7).6).6).

}while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.4))). } } } } void two(void) { do Department Of Mechanical Engineering. stop(). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.4))) { do { open(). if ((CHECKBIT(PINA.6))). BMI Page 42 . _delay_ms(2500). return(0).4))) { do { _delay_ms(150).

}while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA. stop(). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA. if ((CHECKBIT(PINA. } } } } Department Of Mechanical Engineering.1))).1))) { do { open(). _delay_ms(2500). while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.1))) { do { _delay_ms(150).6))).2))).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing { close(). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA. return(0). stop(). BMI Page 43 .

1).4).5).4). SETBIT(DDRD.4). CLEARBIT(PORTD.2). SETBIT(PORTA.5).1). SETBIT(PORTA. CLEARBIT(DDRA. SETBIT(DDRD.6).7). SETBIT(DDRD.2). CLEARBIT(PORTC.5).6). CLEARBIT(DDRA. CLEARBIT(DDRA. CLEARBIT(DDRA. CLEARBIT(PORTD. CLEARBIT(DDRA.6).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing int main(void) { int j=0. SETBIT(PORTA.5). SETBIT(PORTA. CLEARBIT(PORTD.7). SETBIT(PORTA. CLEARBIT(DDRA. SETBIT(DDRD. BMI Page 44 .4). Department Of Mechanical Engineering.3).3).

6).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing SETBIT(PORTA. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA. BMI Page 45 .1))) { one(). if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.1))) _delay_ms(2500). } if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.4))) { two(). } } return(0).4))) _delay_ms(2500). if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.

No Item Cost (Rupees) 1 AVR iBoard 1600/- 2 Tsop Sensor 300/- 3 Bump Sensor 250/- 4 Power Supply 275/- 5 Tool Kit 300/- 6 Other 2000/- TOTAL 4725/- Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10.3 Expenditure: Sr. BMI Page 46 .

4.2 Our HOD Prof Chipade Sir and Our Group Department Of Mechanical Engineering.4.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10.1: Amdar Praniti Sushilkumar Shinde and our College Secretary Mane Madam 10.4 PHOTOS: 10. BMI Page 47 .

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