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Impact of gender and age on single and multiple celebrities endorsements.

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Subject:
Cellular telephones (Endorsements)
Cellular telephone services industry (Endorsements)
Endorsement advertising
Celebrities
Direct marketing
Marketing research
Target marketing
Toiletries industry
Consumer preferences
Author:
Saleem, Farida
Pub Date:
05/01/2008
Publication:
Name: Review of Business Research Publisher: International Academy of Business a
nd Economics Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Business, inte
rnational Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2008 International Academy of Business and Econom
ics ISSN: 1546-2609
Issue:
Date: May, 2008 Source Volume: 8 Source Issue: 3
Topic:
Event Code: 242 Advertising Advertising Code: 52 Advertising Activity Computer S
ubject: Wireless telephone; Wireless voice/data device; Wireless telecommunicati
ons service
Product:
Product Code: 5963284 Direct Sales-Toiletries; 3662166 Cellular Mobile Tel Equip
; 7319500 Direct Marketing Services; 9914910 Direct Marketing; 5963000 Direct Sa
les Organizations; 4811801 Cellular Mobile Radio Services NAICS Code: 45439 Othe
r Direct Selling Establishments; 33422 Radio and Television Broadcasting and Wir
eless Communications Equipment Manufacturing; 54186 Direct Mail Advertising; 513
322 Cellular and Other Wireless Telecommunications SIC Code: 5963 Direct selling
establishments; 7331 Direct mail advertising services; 4812 Radiotelephone comm
unications; 2844 Toilet preparations
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Accession Number:
190699884
Full Text:
ABSTRACT
Celebrity endorsement is one of the popular marketing strategies. Marketers use
celebrities in ads when there is no or very little product differentiation. Mult
iple celebrities endorsement (more than one celebrity in a single ad) is relativ
ely new phenomena in advertising. The purpose of the current study is to explore
the perceptual difference between gender and different age groups toward single
celebrity ads and multiple celebrities ads. Questionnaires were administered on
a sample of 300 university students to asses if there is any difference in male
and female and different age groups perception about single celebrity endorseme
nt and multiple celebrities endorsement. Four print media ads, two containing on
e celebrity in them and two containing three and five celebrities in them were u
sed as a stimulus. The results shows that there is no significant difference bet
ween male and female toward single or multiple celebrities ads similarly age is
also not significantly associated with attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand
and purchase intentions for both single and multiple celebrities ads.
Keywords: Single celebrity endorsement, multiple celebrities endorsement, attitu
de toward ad, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions.
1. INTRODUCTION
Advertising is one of the major factors behind the economic activity of a countr
y as it not only helps to stimulate consumption but also give models for lifesty
les and value orientation (Polly and Mittal, 1993). Celebrity ads are becoming v
ery common and prominent phenomena in advertising everywhere. Almost 25% of all
American ads have celebrities in them (Stephens and Rice, 1998) and this percent
age is more than double, up to 70% in Japan (Kilburn, 1998).
According to McCracken (1989), celebrity endorser is a person who enjoys recogni
tion by public and who can use this recognition on the behalf of a product by ap
pearing in an advertisement with that product. Similarly according to Friedman a
nd Friedman (1979), celebrity endorser is a person who is known to the public no
t due to the product he or she endorses but due to the achievements in the areas
other than that. So celebrity endorser is a person who uses his fame to adverti
se a product which has no direct effect on his previous recognition. Celebrity e
ndorsement is one of marketing strategies like many others for instance, direct
marketing, sales promotions, on spot advertising etc.
Empirical finding support the fact that celebrities have positive effect on both
attitude toward ad and brand (Ohanian, 1990). These results are in favor of cel
ebrity endorsers because they are widely recognized, are perceived to be more cr
edible and produce greater influence on evaluation of brand and its purchase int
entions (Cohoi and Rifon, 2007; Atkin and Blok, 1983; Ohanian, 1990; Ohanian, 19
91).
The credibility components are interconnected with other traits of the celebrity
and the image dimension which reflects good qualities e.g. pleasant, wise, educ
ated etc. produce sincere and positive perception of the celebrity in consumer m
inds (Choi & Rifon, 2007). Credibility is the most important criteria in choosin
g a celebrity endorser by the firm which is followed by familiarity and likeabil
ity and at last we have gender, and in credibility expertise is the most importa
nt piece which is followed by trustworthiness and than attractiveness (Knott & J
ames, 2004). The celebrities that were perceived as having constant media covera
ge are trusted more than the celebrities who are not in the constant spotlight (
Friedman, Santeramo, & Traina, 1978).
Physical attractiveness of the endorser may be central in context with change in
attitude of the customer (Kahle & Homer 1985). The celebrity endorsements based
on the attractiveness of the endorser most of the time produces positive effect
on consumers. In general attractive endorsers are more effective promoters than
unattractive endorsers (Till & Busler, 1998). The target audience is more famil
iar to the attractive celebrities and these celebrities are more likable (Miciak
& Shanklin, 1994). Most advertisements use attractive celebrities and the consu
mers are accustomed to see pretty people in ads that is why the physical attract
iveness and trustworthiness of a celebrity were not significantly related to the
purchase intentions but the expertise is (Ohanian, 1991). Involvement enhances
the recall of the product and it also enhances the recall of the brand (Petty &
Cacioppo, 1980). There is a strong effect of celebrity attractiveness as well as
interaction of likeability, involvement, and sex on the recall of the product.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
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Meaning transfer model by McCracken has a very important contribution by celebri
ty endorsement, as celebrities offer demographic information such as gender, age
and economic status with special precision. They also offer a range of differen
t personalities and life style meanings and their configuration, "Celebrities ar
e in fact highly individualized and complex bundles of cultural meanings" (McCra
cken, 1989, pp. 320). The endorsement process consists of transferring these cul
tural meanings from the celebrity to the product and from the product to the con
sumer. Celebrities do have some common characteristics which include their recog
nition, their status or their popularity but each celebrity may have his or her
own unique image or cultural meaning which has been identified by McCracken (198
9). So we can say that a celebrity may be effective endorser of a product can no
t, however grantee you that he or she can endorse another product with the same
effectiveness (McCracken, 1989). For instance Bill Cosby was an effective endors
er for Coca Cola with $25 million contract (Advertising Age, 1986) but could not
produce an impact on the performance of E.F Hulton and Texas Instruments.
The fit factor is very important for the effectiveness of the celebrity ads (Hus
and McDonald, 2002). All previous studies with single celebrity endorsement con
clude that characteristics of the celebrity should match with the characteristic
s of the product which they are endorsing (Khale and Homer, 1985; Till and Busle
r, 1998; Kiminis and Gupta, 1994). The fit factor is also very important and vit
al for the multiple celebrity endorsements (when we have more than one celebrity
in an advertising campaign) (Hus and McDonald, 2002).
Multiple celebrities can have a positive impact on attitude toward ad, attitude
toward brand and purchase intentions (Saleem, 2007). When we have more than one
celebrity in an ad it means that all celebrities view the product the same way a
nd consensus is developed, this consensus according to attribution theory (Kelly
, 1967) pull the customer by developing positive evaluation of the ad, brand and
product (Hus and McDonald, 2002). Multiple celebrity endorsements are not effec
tive for high involvement products compare to single celebrity endorsements as f
or high involvement products the argument in the ad is more important for the cu
stomer. Similarly multiple celebrities endorsements are very effective for low i
nvolvement products ads compare to single celebrity endorsements (Saleem, 2007).
3. METHOD
3.1 Research Design
The research was conducted using a questionnaire designed to understand consumer
s views on celebrity endorsement, measuring their attitude toward ad, attitude t
oward brand and their intentions to purchase the given product or service. Four
print media advertisements were chosen based on the number of celebrities in the
m. Two advertisements having single celebrity in them while two ads containing m
ore than two celebrities in them. Two ads, one single and one multiple celebriti
es were taken from consumer goods while two ads one single and one multiple cele
brities were taken from mobile phone connection service providers.
Each participant of the study was provided with one ad, either single celebrity
ad or multiple celebrities ad. Total of 150 single and 150 multiple celebrities
ads were given with the instrument. Same instrument was used to measure young ad
ult perception about single celebrity endorsement and multiple celebrities endor
sement.
3.2 Independent variable
The demographic factors including Gender and age are taken as independent variab
les. The perceptual differences were measured with respect to single celebrity a
ds (single celebrity Pantene pro v shampoo ad, single celebrity Warid mobile pho
ne connections ad) and multiple celebrities ads (multiple celebrity Lux soap ad,
multiple celebrity Ufone mobile phone connection ad).
3.3 Dependent variables
To measure consumer perception, three variables were studied, attitude toward ad
vertisement, attitude toward brand and purchase intentions. Information on these
variables is presented in table no 1.
3.4 Sample
A total of 300 university students from Foundation University Islamabad and Fede
ral Urdu University
Islamabad participated in the study. Student samples have been used by most of t
he comparative advertising research (Barry 1993). The data was collected from on
e private university (Foundation University Islamabad) and one government univer
sity (Federal Urdu University Islamabad).
3.5 Description of instrument
To measure the attitude toward ad, scales were taken from Osgood, Suci, and Tann
enbaum, (1957), six items were taken to measure both effective and evaluative co
ntent, the items were selected on a review of existing research (Kamins & Gupta,
1994; Kahle & Homer, 1986; Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Choi & Miracle, 2004; Tripp,
Jensen & Carlson, 1994) these items were measured on sevent point scale (very g
ood to very bad). To measure attitude toward brand scales were taken from Osgood
, Suci and Tennenbum (1957) six items were used on the bases of the existing res
earch (Kamins & Gupta, 1994; Kahle & Homer, 1986; Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Choi &
Miracle, 2004; Tripp, Jensen & Carlson, 1994; Till & Busler, 1998) all items un
der this variable were measured on seven point scale. To measure purchase intent
ions, three questions using 7 point scale were used these questions have been as
ked throughout past research (Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Kamins & Gupta, 1994; Ohan
ian, 1991; Kahle & Homer, 1985, Tripp, Jenson & Carlson, 1994). The Cronbatchs A
lpha of the scale is 0.911. The Cronbatchs Alphas of three dependent variables a
re given in table no 1.
4. DATA ANALYSIS
Data was analyzed by SPSS. The first test run was the Levens test for normality
of data at 0.05 level of significance. The p values of attitude toward ad, attit
ude toward brand and purchase intentions are 0.187, 0.396 and 0.247 respectively
. It is concluded that the data is normally distributed. Independent sample t te
st is applied to measure the difference of perception about single celebrity ads
and multiple celebrities ads with respect to gender. While One Way ANOVA is app
lied to measure the perceptual difference about single celebrities ads and multi
ple celebrities ads with respect to age of respondents.
5. RESULTS
The sample consists of 61% male while 39% female respondents, 36% were of age be
tween 18 to 21, 48% were of age between 22 to 26 while 16% were of age between 2
7 to 30. 57% of respondents had bachelor's degree while 43% had professional deg
ree. The frequency distribution, of single celebrity Pentane Pro V shampoo ad wa
s 27% the single celebrity Warid mobile phone connection service providers ad wa
s 24% the multiple celebrities Lux soap ad was 27% and multiple celebrity Ufone
mobile phone connection service providers.
To measure the perceptual difference of gender with respect to single celebrity
ads, Independent sample t test is applied for single celebrity Pentane Pro V sha
mpoo ad and single celebrity Warid mobile phone service provider's ad. The p val
ue for attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand and purchase intentions are (0.
365, 0.018, 0.251) which shows that there is no significant difference at 0.05%
level in male and female perception about attitude toward ad, and purchase inten
tions with respect to single celebrity ads. While the attitude toward brand show
s a significant difference at 0.05% level of significance. Male attitude toward
brand is more positive (5.01) compare to female's attitude toward brand (4.53).
The Independent sample t test for multiple celebrities ads (Ufone mobile phone s
ervice providers ad and Lux soap ad) shows that there is no significant differen
ce for attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand and purchase intentions between
male and female. The p values for attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand and
purchase intentions are (0.487, 0.687, and 0.850) at 0.05 level of significance
. See table no 2.
First One Way ANOVA is applied by taking respondents age as independent variable
and attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand and purchase intentions as indepe
ndent variables with respect to single celebrity ad (Pantene Pro V ad and Warid
ad). The results showed that there is no significant difference between differen
t age categories with respect to single celebrity ads. The p values for attitude
toward ad, attitude toward brand and purchase intentions are (0.309, 0.289, and
0.522) at 0.05 level of significance. Than One Way ANOVA is applied by taking a
ge of respondents as independent variable and attitude toward ad, attitude towar
d brand and purchase intentions as dependent variable with respect to multiple c
elebrities ads (Lux Soap ad and Ufone ad). The results showed that there is no s
ignificant difference at 0.05 level of significance between different categories
of age of respondents. The p values of attitude toward ad, attitude toward bran
d and purchase intentions are (0.682, 0.473 and 0.727). See table no. 3 and 4.
6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The findings from this research suggest several implications for advertising res
earchers and practitioners specifically with respect to Pakistan. The gender sho
ws no significant difference in attitude toward ad and purchase intention betwee
n males and females with respect to single celebrity ads the results are consist
ent with the previous studies (Bush, Martin and Bush, 2004; Silvera and Austad,
2004). According to Bush, Martin and bush (2004), brand loyalty shows no signifi
cant difference between male and female similarly switching and complaining beha
vior also shows that they are not significantly associated with gender. Similarl
y multiple celebrities' ads also show that gender is not significantly associate
d with attitude toward ad and brand and purchase intentions. The demographic cha
racteristics like age and gender are key determinants in how the advertising mes
sage is interpreted. Endorsers who have demographic characteristics similar to t
hose of the target audience are viewed more viable and persuasive (kamins, 1994)
. Over all result of mean values show that male responses are more positive comp
are to female responses for both single and multiple celebrities' ads. This is p
robably because all ads (single and multiple celebrities) have female celebritie
s in them.
Age is also not significantly associated with attitude toward ad, attitude towar
d brand and purchase intentions for single celebrities as well as multiple celeb
rities endorsements. Responses of all age groups were more positive for multiple
celebrities ads compare to single celebrity ads. While the age group ranges fro
m 27 to 30 has most positive responses for attitude toward ad and brand and purc
hase intentions for multiple celebrities ads similarly the age group 31 to 34 ha
s the most positive responses for attitude toward ad and purchase intentions for
single celebrity ads.
7. LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The primary limitations are related to the generalization of the research result
s. First generalization issue is related to sample, as student sample has limite
d external validity which limits the generalization of the results (Lynch, 1982)
. Second generalization issue is related to the stimulus, ads which were used as
a stimulus were all female celebrities' ads, male celebrities' ads and male and
female celebrities ads may produce more constructive results. The age groups wh
ich were selected for study can also limit the generalization of the results.
Multiple celebrities endorsement is relatively new area. The future research can
use electronic media ads as stimulus. As consumer perception may be different f
or electronic media ads compare to print media ads. Consumer perception may also
very as the number of celebrities increases step wise in an ad. These are a few
areas where future research can be done.
Farida Saleem, Foundation University, FUMICS, Islamabad, Pakistan
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TABLE 1
Measure No of items Alpha Source
Attitude toward 6 .83 Osgood, Suci and
ad Tannenbaum, 1957
Attitude toward 6 .87 Osgood, Suci and
brand Tannenbaum, 1957
Purchase Kahle and Homer,
intentions 3 .88 1985
TABLE 2: INDEPENDENT SAMPLE T TEST GENDER AS DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Single
Celebrity
t- p-
variables Mean St. dev. value value
Attitude Male 4.53 1.11 0.909 0.365
toward ad Female 4.36 1.05
Attitude Male 5.01 1.15 2.39 0.018
toward Female 4.53 1.16
brand
Purchase Male 4.04 1.31 1.15 0.251
intentions Female 3.77 1.48
Multiple
Celebrities
t- p-
variables Mean St. dev. value value
Attitude Male 4.89 1.26 0.697 0.487
toward ad Female 4.74 1.41
Attitude Male 5.16 1.21 0.404 0.687
toward Female 5.08 1.09
brand
Purchase Male 4.58 1.49 0.190 0.850
intentions Female 4.53 1.45
TABLE 3: ONE WAY ANOVA
AGE OF RESPONDENTS AS DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Single Multiple
Celebrity Celebrities
Endorsement Endorsement
variables F-value p-value F-value p-value
Attitude 1.208 0.309 0.502 0.682
toward ad
Attitude 1.264 0.289 0.843 0.473
toward
brand
Purchase 0.753 0.522 0.437 0.727
intentions
TABLE NO 4: ANOVA DESCRIPTIVE AGE OF RESPONDENTS AS DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Single Multiple
Celebrity Ads Celebrities Ads
Age
variables Groups Mean St. dev. Mean St. dev.
Attitude 18-21 4.35 1.07 4.84 1.21
toward ad 22-26 4.50 1.16 4.75 1.46
27-30 4.56 0.88 4.92 1.20
31-34 5.37 0.48 5.47 0.79
Attitude 18-21 4.62 1.20 5.03 1.09
toward 22-26 4.98 1.14 5.16 1.22
brand 27-30 5.05 1.10 5.05 1.16
31-34 4.95 1.50 5.87 0.59
Purchase 18-21 3.76 1.53 4.65 1.58
intentions 22-26 4.08 1.19 4.59 1.38
27-30 4.02 1.52 4.25 1.55
31-34 4.41 1.55 4.73 1.66