Irest Yourl~1


Test Your Verbs

Jake Allsop



For Jenny Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE, England and Associated Companies throughout the world. ISBN 0 582 45176 0 First published 2002 Text copyright © Jake Allsop 2002 Designed and typeset by Pantek Arts Ltd, Maidstone, Kent Test Your format devised by Peter Watcyn-Jones Illustrations by Peter Standley Printed in Italy by Rotolito Lombarda All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishers. Published by Pearson Education Limited in association with Penguin Books Ltd, both companies being subsidiaries of Pearson pic. Acknowledgements It is not customary to acknowteQi,geone's editore: after@lt\, they are only doing their job like the rest of us. But, in this, 'case" my eLMor Fiona Davis deserves a mention. A lot of what is good in this book is the result of her patient and persistent efforts to point her author in a better direction. The blemishes that remain are mine.

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could or be able to? Modal verbs of deduction Have to Must or have to? Crazy captions 2 44 46 47 48 49 50 Section 2: Auxiliary verbs 2 Questions and negatives Combinations Question tags 1 Question tags 2 Joke time 1 Crazy captions 1 19 20 21 22 24 26 Section 6: Verb phrases 34 Phrasal verbs 1 Phrasal verbs 2 Three-word verbs Verbs with following preposition 1 52 53 54 55 Section 3: Tenses 2 Conditionals Conditionals in action 28 29 38 Verbs with following preposition 2 56 . slmpl.e or present continuous? 1 2 Section 4: Passives Present simple or present continuous? 2 What's the difference? 1 Past simple or past continuous?' Past or perfect? 1 Past or perfect? 2 Very irregular rhymes Narrative tenses 1 Narrative tenses 2 Future tenses 1 Future tenses 2 7 Passiveforms What does lit mean? Active or passive? What needs doing? Have something done 36 37 38 40 42 8 10 11 12 14 15 16 Section 5: Modal verbs Should or shouldn't? Gan.Contents To the student v Reporting direct questions Reporting verbs What's the difference? 2 30 32 34 Section 1: 1 lenses 1 2 4 6 Present.

speak. talk or te/!? Expressions with take or have 82 84 86 88 90 92 98 94 78 80 Section 8: Word building 43 Verbs beginning with em.or en44 45 Word building Verbs from adjectives or nouns 46 Verb families 1 Verbs families 2 Common verb prefixes 1 Prefix crossword 50 Common verb prefixes 2 68 70 71 72 74 76 65 66 56 57 58 59 60 Confusing verbs Confusing pairs Crazy captions 4 Verb and noun Verb and adjective Almost an alphabet! Idioms Answers 95 • .Section 7: Verb patterns 39 40 41 42 Verb patterns 1 Verb patterns 2 Crazy captions 3 Verb patterns crossword 58 59 60 62 Section 9: Choosing the right verb 51 52 53 Make or do? Say.

time relation of two past actions: I opened the letter which had arrived that morning. and many tests also have tips (advice) on how to do the test and what to look out for.g. take place. simplify. Do read these explanations and tips: they are there to help you. we use verbs like have and be (auxiliaries) and verbs like will. tell and speak Each section begins with a short explanation of the points being tested. e. strong. goes. use of make and do. actions in progress: it is raining. action: You are reading. going. say. future events and our attitude to them: Look out. including phrasal verbs. including sentence transformation.g. you're going to fall! The plane will be landing at Heathrow shortly and so on. Spanish? Or that you cannot express in English all the things you can express in Spanish? Of course not! With those four or five basic forms. Compare this with the Romance languages like French or Spanish. participles and infinitives • common problems. as in go. should (modals) to express a wide variety of meanings. went. gap-filling. There is a key at the back of the book so that you can v . crosswords.g. e. occurrence or state'. strengthen • verb phrases. e. To make the book more challenging and more fun. may. jump to conclusions • word building. e. which can have up to sixty different forms! Does this mean that English is easier than. have no more than five. Even the two hundred or so irregular verbs (mostly the most common verbs in the language). must. talks.g.limericks . e.g. e. shall. present result of an action begun in the past: Have you been waiting long?. verbs are 'words that signify an action. and cartoons. take off • gerund. The sixty tests in the nine sections in this book will test your knowledge of • the form and uses of verb tenses • the form and uses of modal verbs • verb collocations. jokes.g. talking. talked. many different kinds of tests are us~. gone. simple. experience.To the student According to the dictionary. say. The English verb is deceptively simple: just four forms: talk. state: This omelette tastes funny. occurrence: The doorbell rang once. experience: I love you.

Prices have gone up a lot in the last three years and Prices have been going up steadily over the last few years. TO THE STUDENT check your answers.g. a boy comes home from school. or the use of particular verbs. Why are you lying on the ground? (stretched out) and Why are you lying to me? (not telling the truth). is designed to express many shades of meaning. like any language. e. Enjoy yourself! Jake Allsop . In the case of questions which are open-ended. we have English. One way to improve your understanding is to collect examples of verb forms in use. For example.--------------------------------------------given you suggested answers. and his mother asks him What did you do today? while his father asks What have you done today? What can you learn about the parents' attitude from their differing questions? Look for examples which illustrate the use of particular tenses. e. We hope this book will help you strengthen your knowledge.g. vi . understanding and use of verbs in English.

g. e. is doing.. had done. I carefully opened the parcel that my parents had sent me. They are most often used to refer to an action which is incomplete or ongoing. will be dOing. Use the past simple: • for completed or repeated past actions We grew up in the country. I have been waiting for three hours. What are you doing up there on the roof? I am learning to play the guitar. 'Have you lived here all your life?' Section 1: Tenses 1 .. PERFECT TENSES Perfect tenses are made with a form of have followed by the past participle.S~..~~-~-~---. Have you lived here all your life? Where's your homework? I haven't done it. was doing. We walked to school every day. It was the rush hour and people were hurrying home from work. including scheduled events in the future I go to aerobics class once a week.g. SIMPLE TENSES Use the present simple: • for permanent states or facts This bottle holds 3 litres. Birds fly. ing.I Tenses 1 CONTINUOUS TENSES Continuous tenses are made with a form of be + . The school years starts on 17 September. having done.Gt'Gt:1 ~ . We are holding a meeting next Saturday. have done. : I will have finished this work by!he time my partner get~ home. They refer to an action which took place at sometime before now (present perfect). The plane will be landing shortly at London Heathrow. • for regular repeated events. before a specified event in the past (past perfect) or before a specified point in the future (future perfect). e.

SECTION 1 Present simple or present continuous? balance keep cure play deliver -fiEIesell eat stand give grow sweep A Say what the people in the pictures are doing. Use the verbs in the box to help you. What is the postman doing? He is riding his bicycle What are the soldiers doing? They _ backwards 3 What are the doctors doing? They _ What is the roadsweeper doing? He _ 2 Section 1: Tenses 1 .

What is the gardener doing? She What is the butcher doing? He _ B Now say what the same people do for a living. Section 1. Tenses 1 3 . 1 What do postmen do? They deliver letters 2 What do soldiers do? They 3 What do doctors do? They 4 What do roadsweepers do? They 5 What do gardeners do? They 6 What do butchers do? They Use the present continuous for an action In progress before and after the mornarlt of speaking. Use the verbs in the box to help you.

a that the price of petrol has gone up 4 taste a b This ice-cream chocolate flavour! What are you doing? _________ properly. but my dad just thinks I'm crazy! 2 expect a b I must stay in because _________ and sit down! a parcel. 2 Choose between the simple form and the continuous form to complete these 1 think a b What are you thinking think ? I am a genius. so he doctor this afternoon. Come 3 see a b _________ 35% in the last year. I asked for this cake to see if it's cooked 4 Section 1: Tenses 1 . of garlic.SECTION 1 Present simple or present continuous? pairs of sentences. Dad's cough is getting worse. you are tired after your walk.

For example.SECTION 1 5 have a _________ time? you a good No. LtYhat are you thinking about'! Section 1: Tenses 1 5 . I can't see the scales! The verbs in this test have two different meanings. I Do you love me? It on you! what you mean by 'love'. b ________ left? No. you ? How much I don't know. I want to go home now. seem vet)' You q!!iet. If used in the continuous form.g. you must be tired after your long _ There aren't any ghosts in here! You things. e. Signor Polo. I've spent it all. depending on whether the verb is used in the simple or continuous form. think (meaning to have an opillion) is not usually used in the continuous form. 8 weigh a What are you doing? ________ b myself. 7 imagine a b _________ journey. you any money 6 depend a b Don't let me down. it refers to the action of thinking.

You are wet through! You've been swimming in the river again. 'What do you dol/II are you doing?" work in an office.' d'What It ratned this mornlng.g. e. haven't you? 6 Section 1: Tenses 1 . into the room.s Match the sentences with the pictures. Use the present perfect continuous for an action started earlier which is still going on.' 'I'm writing a letter.g. The students were standing up when the teacher (a. It's been raining aU morning. SECTION 1 1 2 3 4 D a'fhe b c students stood up when the teacher came into the room. I have been waiting here since seven o'clock or for a recent action where the results can still be seen.

The magiclan (10) (find) a lifebelt. Section 1: Tenses 1 7 . Unfortunately I winning goal . e. dangerous part of the sea where there are (wave) his (sink) One day. the ship hit an iceberg and (9) immediately. there was a parrot in the audience who kept giving the game away . using the verb in brackets_either in the past simple or the This is a story about something that happened on board a cruise ship. the magician (7) The ship was in a particularly icebergs" Suddenly. The crowd going mad with excitement..g. then the' parrot (14) -'OK. people were throwing W8$ e. was looking the other way when Beckham scored the their hats in the air. and (11) (float) in the sea when (12) (fly) up and landed on the magician (0) (look) at silence. SECTION . The parrot and each other for a while in (say): (do) with the ship?' Usa the past continuous • to show that one action was g04ng on when another action occored.The parrot (5) (shout) things like 'It's up his sleeve'!' or 'He put it in his pocket!' or 'It's in his other hand!' and in this way the parrot (6) (manage) to spoil all the magician's tricks. just as the magician (8) magic wand. A magkilan on board the cruise ship (2) to entertain the passengers. I give up. and (4) (be) able to make things disappear and reappear in a really mystifying way. (perform) his show as usual. • to provide background description in a narrative. He (3) (do) magic tricks (have) a lot of very good tricks. The ceuise .ship [I) was going (go) from London to New York. What (15) __ you __ the parrot his lifebelt.or past Complete the story.g.4 Past simple continuous? past continuous tense. Unfortunately for him.

' 'I live in this flat. I will put them down quietly in future.' The next night Harry (9) went / has gone to bed early as usual and (10) has just fallen / had just fallen asleep when Charlie the policeman (11) came / has come home. 'I (8) haven't done / didn't do it on purpose. 'I'm sorry. directly below yours. one night Harry waited up for Charlie and stopped him on the stairs.' said Charlie. Every night for the last few months. but I (6) didn't have / haven't night's sleep in months. The man who (2) rented / has rented the flat upstairs was a police officer named Charlie.5 Past SECTION 1 or perfect? 1 Choose between the two forms of the verb to complete the story. he (12) -remembered / has remembered his conversation with Harry.' 'Oh. 8 Section 1: Tenses 1 . And every evening the noise of his boots hitting the floor would wake Harry in the room below..G 'Well. what can I do for you?' Charlie asked. you (7) irave come / came home and dropped your boots on the floor and the noise wakes me up. 'Good evening. I wonder if I could have a word with you. I promise. Unfortunately. it's your boots. every evening Charlie (4) would come / has come home. take of(his boots and drop them heavily on the floor. OK. Suddenly. Harry used to go to bed early because he (3) has had / had to be up early in the morning.' Charlie looked at Harry. Harry is a postman. but do I know you? I (5) never saw / have never seen you before. 'I don't want to complain. sorry about that.' had a good 'What has that got to do with me?' asked the police officer. . Well. So. and years ago he (1) lived / has lived in a small bedsit.' 'Oh. Charlie sat down on his bed. took off his right boot and dropped it heavily on the floor. This is the story of a friend of mine called Harry.

The following evening Harry again (14) waited / has waited on the stairs for Charlie. waiting for the other boot to drop!' p Use t~ present 8 k)t ~t • for a past . ''va JIved here for three days. I (16) didn't / haven't.SECTION 1 'Oh dear!' he thought.' said Harry. Compare: I've done of worlc iataly (lI"definite) with I (tid a /0( of work last month (definite).action where the point of time is not definite.g. • for an actiOn whId"I began in the past and has oontinued until the present and win possibly continue into the future. e. 'You look terrible! (IS) Didn't you sleep / Haven't you slept last night?' 'No. 'I still haven't got out of the habit of throwing my boots on the floor!' He then (13) has taken / took off his other boot and put it on the floor very gently without making a sound. Section 1: Tenses 1 9 . 'Goodness!' said Charlie. 'I spent the whole night wide awake.

word. 'but I (2) in spelled a-t-i-s-s-c-o.WBnt -.6 Past -assnred Two men were standing or perfect? have been listening have seeR ~ 2 Complete the story using the forms of the verbs in the box to help you.Gr. and he (4) me that it is spelt a-t-i-s-s-o-o!' And so it (5) _ nearby coughed politely. and I can assure you that it is said the second. Look! The dog has chewed ~----~ 10 Section my slippersl ----------~------------------~----~------~ 1 1: Tenses . you. I (6) am afraid you (7) The two men (8) them said: 'I doubt if you (9) one sneeze!' and I Finally one of _ a yeti. .' 'Then I suggest you throw your dictionary away.' the dictionary 'I am sorry to contradict last looked at at a bus stop arguing about the spelling of a said the first. forgive me.J have ever even seen looked. The spelling is t-i-s-s-u-e. to your argument.' said the first. my friend! I (3)'/ my friend last night. and it is spelt a-t-i-s-h-o-o. _ Finally a lady who was standing 'Gentlemen. let alone (10) The present perJact is also used to talk about a past action with the focus on the result of that action in the pesent.g.' 'I (1) have seen it written down. have both been misled heard ". 'It is spelt a-t-i-s-h-o-o.' her in amazement. e.

All of There once was a young boy from Looe Who (1) dreamt (dream) he had (2) He (3) (wake up) in the night With a terrible fright And (4) (find) it was perfectly true! (eat) his shoe. But when (5) (give) the chance He (6) And (7) (make) directly for France (go) rather too far.who cares? These poems are examples of limericks. (Ialljon his head (feel)"nothing. There was an old man of Oarjeeling Who (9) He (10) But (11) For he'd (13) (hang) by his feet from the ceiling. he (12) (say). There was a young person named Frank Who was keen to manoeuvre a tank. (l?se) all sensation and feeling. They (15) (eat) so much honey He (16) So then they (17) (run) out of money (eat) Arthur . rhymes Complete the limericks using the verbs in brackets in the correct form. A fellow named Arthur McNares (14) (keep) a number of very big bears. so he (8) (sink).SECTION Very irregular the verbs are irregular. A limerick is a rhyming poem with five HneS. Section 1: Tenses 1 11 .

and they were really dirty. Then he would say to her: 'What did you do? I suppose you just stayed at home as usual?' And every day she (4) (just / smile). SECTION 1 Narrative tenses 1 (travel) Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable form. Strangest of all. he had a cup of coffee and told his wife (do) at work. there was no sign of his wife. and every afternoon he came home at six o'clock. One day the man came home from work and (5) (can) not believe his eyes: the children (6) (still / wear) their pyjamas. Every morning he left home at eight o'clock. The TV (15) but nobody (16) the carpet where he (17) (be) on (watch) it. He (12) (not / reply) but went into the house. and we both (10) (fall) in the pond!' He noticed that their pyjamas (11) (cover) with mud. more than one A man lived outside London. They smiled happily and said: 'We (9) (have) so much fun today. They (7) (sit) on the step. and every day he (1) travelled into the city to work in an office. 'What (8) (happen) to you?' he asked. He looked round and saw empty food boxes everywhere. She was still in her pyjamas and (18) (read) a magazine. the fridge door (13) (leave) open. 12 Section 1: Tenses 1 . and how tired he was. and there were still marks on (spill) his coffee the night before. He went upstairs into the bedroom and was astonished to see his wife in bed.8 form will fit. we played in the garden. When he (2) what he (3) (arrive) home. and the dishes (14) _ (not / do). He then went into the living room. He wondered where on earth she had got to. In some cases.

what of it?' he replied. e. 'What are you getting at?' 'WeU. It was then that Holmes noticed the gun. dear.SECTION 1 'Areyolll all fight?' he asked.g. 'The house Jooks a mess! What on earth happened She looked at him calmly and smiled. 'You know how every day when you (19) femu work you ask me what I did today?' (come) home here today?' ''Yes.' shereplied. It had slipped down the back Dlthesofa. [ (20) ~~~ __ (not / do) it!' Use the past perfect to emphasize that one action occurred before another. 'Yes. Section 1: Tenses 1 13 . today.

An old man. came in with a letter which he (5) to his son in America. One day. writing cards and wrapping up parcels. The clerk (6) the cost of the postage and supplied the necessary stamps. People (3) forms. and the counter staff were kept hard at work. however busy. The old man (7) his glasses and to save time the clerk (8) the stamps on the envelope for him. It was a good thing (9) . the office (2) was very busy and there were long queues at all the counters. who (4) to her. offered to stick that she did wanted to send was telling me were filling out where she works c d e f 9 h 14 Section 1: Tenses 1 . Post clerks.Narrative tenses 2 Complete the story using the forms of the verbs to help you. for she discovered that the man (10) letter to himself! _ _ omce a b found out had addressed had forgotten happened to be known. must always keep their wits about them. One of them (1) h of the extraordinary mistakes that people sometimes make.

' 'Hurry up! The match starts at three o'clock and it's half past two already!' c d e f 'I'm going to finish this homework if it kills me!' 'I'm gonna sit right down and write myself a letter' (popular song) 'It's going to rain. 'We're having a car-boot sale on Saturday.. I'll be working in Dubai next summer.Future tenses 1 example for some categories. Look at those clouds!' Most of my friends are running in the London marathon Sunday. ---' Section 1: Tenses 1 15 . --- SECTION 1 Put each sentence into the most suitable category. There is more than one prediction schedule 3 4 5 personal plan intention future fact e. Why don't you come along?' 'Will you be able to give the children a lift?' next k 'You're never going to pass your exams if you spend all your time playing games on your computer!' -p Gonna is sIang_f_o_r 9_0/_'n_g_to_.. 'Are you ready? I will count to three . The President begins her tour of the Middle East next week.

__ 5 Joe: __ 16 Section 1: Tenses 1 . Joe! __ 4 Joe: Adrian: I'll get you a free ticket. SECTION 1 Future tenses 2 Complete the dialogue using sentences (a-e) and an appropriate future form Joe: Hi Adrian! What are you doing? 1 Adrian: Joe: When is it? __ 2 Adrian: Why don't you come? ___ 3 Joe: Adrian: Give yourself a break.14 of the verb.

Adrian. and will go on a) It starts .. and is going on C I'm practising for the gig. -p • The future is uncertain.nned . Gig is an Informal word 1: Tenses 1 17 . Section • Quid is a cotloquial word fof one pound starlirq. _______ at eight o'clock and until midnight. a) I come b) I'm coming c) I'll come \ .. a) It's going to be b) It's our best gig yet! c) It will be me a few quid! d Thanks. and goes on c) It's starting . does.~----------------------------------------a I can't! /'II be revising SECTION 1 for my exams.. for a jazz or pop musiC concert. OK.. so our attitude to future events is important in helpirg lIS to decide which form to use: will do. b) It will start . Will is often used to express. a) That's saving b) That'll save c) That saves to the concert. e I guess you're right. slmple statements of fact which are rot coloured by e. etc.. b) I'm revising @I'll be revising a) I revise b It's on Saturday. The march wilt go ahead as pf8. SOmetimes we can use more than one future tense in 8 situation our attitude.. depending on what our attitude to the situation is. going to do.g.

g. e. can't he? Sam can't speak Italian. have you? If there is no auxiliary or modal in the sentence. doesn't he? You went to Keele University. questions and negatives. He lives in Spain.~Section 2 :-----------' Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs are 'helper' verbs. He will help us. e. They are used mainly to form tenses. The main auxiliary verbs are be. e.) 00 is also used to emphasise or contradict. Sam can speak Italian. do and have. asking for information. and a negative sentence has an affirmative question tag. can he? The verb in the tag is a reflection of the auxiliary or modal verb in the sentence.g.g. I am going out now. I do wish you wouldn't whistle all the time! Why didn't you send her a birthday card? But I did send her QUESTION TAGS Can Sam speak Italian? is a simple question. We add a question tag to a statement in order to ask for confirmation or agreement. didn't you? a card! 'Sam can speak Italian. use part of do in the tag. 00 you speak many languages? Had you been there before? (There are also modal auxiliary verbs. see section 5. won't he? You haven't lost your glasses again.g. can't he?' 18 Section 2: Auxiliary verbs . An affirmative sentence has a negative question tag. e.

_______________ '? (you) 4 I heard a strange noise.. but Dad has washed the car.. but __ .. but He shook his head._:t:. but My sister plays the piano._o=-t:.. the second one. listening to me.._.:s:...SECTION 2 Questions negatives A 1 and Make questions using the words in brackets. __ ---=D::_o=----._:o:_:e:. the caravan. I like potatoes.:_·t:. I like potatoes.. but Section 2: Auxiliary verbs 19 ... _______________ ? (you) 5 My students ________________ are very clever. but He was looking at me.__ cabbage.:_/_::d:_. '? (your students) 6 Mary has read all the Harry Potter stories. my hand! any sisters.=o:.:_n.y. ________________ '? (you) 8 I need a glass of water... but I've got two brothers..:_/:.o::_::u::__:_:1i. Catalan.:_:k=e-lp:::. _______________ ? (you) 3 He studies physics. ________________ ? (anyone else) B Complete the sentences using the verb in its negative form..::e. but My parents speak Spanish.____ '? (yo u) 2 He got a letter this morning... ________________ ? (the other children) 7 Someone rang the doorbell.:_ik:. it very well! I did the first test.:Q=.

________ weather is fine. but only when the 20 Section 2: Auxiliary verbs . (b) working (c) worked 1 2 3 4 I am not I am I didn't I don't I have been I have I was I will will be b 5 6 7 8 9 8 Now use some of the above to complete the sentences. 5 6 on a plan for a new flower bed. _ on a new _ I had a good job. I in the garden. The weather's fine today so if you need me. but the ground was not suitable. but it was an easy one so I My hobby is embroidery.SECTION ---~ 2 Combinations A Choose a. and I in the garden every day. bore (a) work to complete the verb phrases. don't work very hard! 3 4 because I retired a year ago. pattern at the moment.

He used to be your secretary. We need to pass the test. Put this in the fridge for me. f aren't they? didn't they? did they? haven't they? won't they? 9 h 11 12 13 14 15 Let's go.SECTION 2 Question tags 1 Match each question tag with a phrase. We've got to pay it all back. e won't we? 6 7 8 9 10 They didn't need to be so rude. k can't you? didn't he? m shall we? will you? should they? n 0 Section 2: Auxiliary verbs 21 . We'll have to sell everything. a haven't we? do we? must we? don't we? 2 3 4 5 We mustn't say that. They had to leave early. They've had to make a lot of changes. They shouldn't be doing that. Be quiet. They'll have to get rid of the stock. We don't have to answer every question. They're having to sell the business.

SECTION 2 Question illustrations. 1 tags 2 2 Complete the captions using question tags and match them to the D 3 4 D D D 22 Section 2: Auxiliary verbs .

SECTION 2 5 6 D You have been to France.::::u__ ? ? D ? ? e f So the computer's crashed again. When the speaker expresses surprise or anger.YOU think yoo're better than me. So . ? h~a~v=-e:_:_n_:_'t-+y_::_o.g. So you passed your driving test. do you? Section 2: Au xiliary verbs 23 . You ~y don't underst~nd what I am saying. __ You know my brother. the form of the question tag can change to positive statement + JX)Sitivetag e. d Your brother is getting married soon.

the joke about the Man: Don't worry. In some cases.9=-e_:_f __ and a mouse? (get) Woman: 2 Woman: dustcart? (hear) Very big footprints you in the margarine. it's a load of rubbish! 3 Patient: Doctor. what should I do? (swallow) Man: Why Woman: ? (forget) Because nobody ever tells them anything. 24 Section 2: Auxiliary verbs . elephants never my pen.J. Doctor I this my memory! (lose) ? (happen) Doctor: When Patient: 4 When did wha t ha ppen? you that little medal Man: What for? (get) Woman: For singing. Doctor my son Use a pencil till I get there.. Man: What _ _____::d:o. more than one tense willfit.::o::___ you _-. Man: What Woman: 5 Mother: Doctor: 6 For stopping! you the big one for? (get) Doctor.1-6 1 SECTION 2 Joke time 1 if you cross an elephant Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable form to complete the jokes.

you much luck so far? (have) Yes. he ? (smell) Man: How Woman: 8 Terrible! Man: What ear-muffs? (call) Woman: Anything you a gorilla wearing you like. you're the third one this morning! Section 2: Auxiliary verbs 25 . he can't hear you! What you to 9 Passerby: Good morning. catch? (try) Fisherman: Passerby: Fisherman: Idiots.SECTION 2 7 Woman: My dog has no nose.

shall we?' 'But I did chase the cat out of the garden!' 'So you'd like to be taller. would you?' 'Don't let on that [ did it. 1 D D a b 'Do be careful!' 'Let's leave now. will you?' 'It never used to be this quiet on a Saturday afternoon. did it?' Section 2: Auxiliary verbs c d e f 26 .SECTION 2 Crazy captions Match the captions with the cartoons.

I would visit you (but I don't have enough time. You won't learn unless you study. The teacher told us that Mr Jones was leaving (it mayor ~~~ may not be true). We can put it into the past if we are not sure whether what we are reporting is true. The teacher told us that Mr Jones is leaving (and it is true. e. (past) He wanted to know where everyone had gone. (present) He wants to know where everyone has gone. you'll hear the music. (present) He has told everyone that he is changing his job. Section 3: Tenses 2 27 . so I won't). he wouldn't be alive today. • the consequences of an action which is not real or probable If I had more time. If you hadn't warned him. (past) He told everyone he was changing his job. Certain situations may require a different sequence: If you had taken the job. he is leaving).SEaGt iQr:l ~ Tenses 2 CONDITIONALS :~~-~~~__.~~~-_j) ~~------~~~. you would use a computer every day (but you didn't take it.g. he wouldn't be alive today (but you warned him and he is alive today). so I didn't). so you won't use a computer). e. We may use the original tense of the statement we are reporting if we are talking about things which are still true. I would have visited you (but I didn't have enough time. REPORTED SPEECH The tense of a reporting verb influences the tense of the verb in the statement or question you are reporting. Sequences of tense are important in conditional sentences. Conditionals describe: • the consequences of a real and possible action If you press this.g. ~) . • the consequences of an action which did not in fact happen If I had had more time.------- ------------------ lf you hadn't warned him.

we wouldn't appreciate the Did you hear about that terrible train crash? I'm lucky I cancelled my trip. If you reea any informatiOn. you should have studied physics. Jump up and doso if you want to get wanni 28 Section 3: Tenses 2 . @will 2 If we good times. a) would want 6 You won't become a good guitarist unless you every day. a) practised b) practise 7 What difference would it make if we a) stayed b) are staying 8 If I my life to live over again. you should clean (b) want c) will want _ c) will practise here or not? c) stay it yourself. c) hadn't been 4 I wouldn't a) would not be 5 If you your room to look nice. 1 If you promise not to tell anyone. I might have been on that train.--k_c_e __ you to the casino. a) hadn't b) didn't have crashed the car if that tree b) was not c) wouldn't there. a) wouldn't 3 have b) didn't have c) don't have take b) take c) am taking bad times.18 Conditionals than one form may fit. If I . I would do things b) have had c) had very differently! a) would have Modals and imperatives occur in conditional sentences: If you wanted to be 8f1 astronaut. you can ask that man over there. In some cases more w_i'_'_t_Q.. I __ SECTION 3 Choose the correct option to complete these sentences.

press I. For tea without milk or sugar.. you _______ 3. 6 7 You get the answer 4 if you What do you get if you 12L2. I mixed red and b~JJJe and got purple. . ft turns to steam..g. both parts are in the present form. In statements of cause and effect. If you mix blue and yellow. If you boil water. The answer is 36.g the illustrations to help you. 5 and 7! If you wanted Multiply 12 by 3. _ You can only get coffee with milk and sugar if 5 chocolate without milk or sugar.IS p The present tense is used in both parts of the conditional sentence to express something which is a fact Of always true.1§ SECTION 3 Conditionals • In action Complete the sentences usin.. e. This is because in these examples if means 'every time' or 'whenever'. you get green 2 If you wanted + Yellow orange. Section 3: Tenses 2 29 .3 = Jt+ X3 = 0l. . = ._ ? 9. 5 and 7. 3 4 If you want black coffee with sugar.

'Where did that train come from?' 3 4 'What time did your son arrive home last night?' 'What time does the main feature begin? 5 'Shouldn't you take an umbrella in case it rains?' 'Have you found a pair that you like?' 30 Section 3: Tenses 2 .SECTION 3 Reporting questions 1 2 direct Complete the sentences by reporting what was said.

the direct fofm: ~fIe asked ITl6 ·". I finished it yesterday. but He told US he had finished it tho day before.. Section 3: Tenses 2 31 . • Don't forget to make necessary cha~es to time expressions when reporting speech.try' eielA't I speak The correct form is She asked me why I didn't speak .SECTION 3 Mother wants to know where that train came from 2 I asked the father 3 I asked them what time 4 He wondered whether we 5 I simply asked her if • Avoid the common mistake of leaving the question . e.g.

by six o'clock. 32 Section 3: Tenses 2 .zl SECTION 3 Reporting verbs Complete the sentences reporting what was said. not to worry. Use the forms of the verbs in the box to help you. 3 everything had to be ready he didn't know where it was. He admitted He warned him She insisted that He has promised She denied She advised us He warned him it could cost a lot.

We agreed that it wcotan't work! 2 Reporting verbs which can be followed by that and a person e. demand. e. 4 Reporting verbs that can be followed by should. promise.g.g. advise. persuade. tell.g. persuade. agree. suggest. advise. p Verbs following reporting verbs fall into several different groups. He advised us to leave as soon as we could. The most common ones are: Reporting verbs followed by that e. We told you that it woufdn't work. 3 Reporting verbs that are followed by a person and to. doing it. e.SECTION 3 5 6 to love her forever. expect. They demanded that she should show her pass. tell.g. Section 3: Tenses 2 33 . insist.

z~ 1 What's the difference? 2 2 STUDENTS' EXAM FAILURE: 'THEY DIDN'T WORK HARD ENOUGH' Match the headlines with the definitions. The president said he wished he knew all the facts. The newspaper warned that the council should not waste money building a new Art Centre. The president said he wished he had known all the facts. Nobody knew what the war was about. Section 3: Tenses 2 34 . BUT CAUSE OF WAR STILL A MYSTERY D ~ 4 5 6 D B PRESIDENT ADMITS: 'I DON'T KNOW WHAT WENT WRONG' D 7 D GROWING OPPOSITION TO PLANS FOR NEW ART CENTRE • D a The headline suggests that the students didn't work hard enough. ) SCHOOLINSPECTOR: 'HARD WORK THE ONLY WAY TO SUCCEED' D D 3 UNEXPLAINED WAR STILL RAGING IN TANGA REGION PRESIDENT ADMITS: 'I DON'T KNOW WHAT IS WRONG!' NEW ART CENTRE: ONLY 600 VISITORS IN FIRST YEAR! . h The newspaper implied that the council should not have wasted money building a new Art Centre. The headline suggests that students should work harder! Nobody knew what the war had been about. D 4 PEACE AT LAST.

The Rocky Mountains were formed over several millennia. leave it out: Penicillin was discovered in 1928. either Object can become the subject of the passive depending on which is more important to you: A small gift was given to each child. Every child was given a small gift.) Penicillin was discovered by Fleming in 1928. (Active sentence. 'Everyone is invited!' Section 4: Passives 35 .) If the agent is not known or not important. focus on Sir Alexander Fleming. Changing from active to passive is a way of showing what is most important in your mind: Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. When a verb has two objects. as in They gave each child a small gift. Not a word was spoken (past simple passive). Nothing has been decided (present perfect passive). Everyone is invited (present simple passive). focus on penicillin. (Passive sentence.S-e-ctiOr:l 4:------~ Passives The passive is made with a form of be + the past participle of the verb. New houses are being built on the old airfield (present continuous passive).

1 The airline has announced A delay a delay. has been announced 2 Somebody wants you on the phone.SECTION 4 Passive forms Rewrite these sentences in the passive. it wouldn't broken down. If the car . The documents _ 4 Is someone giving you a lift tonight? Are you _ 5 They are going to replace the old town bridge soon. it wouldn't have broken down. The pizza _ 36 Section 4: Passives . The old town bridge _ 6 Has anybody delivered the mail yet? Has the mail ? 7 The receptionist told us to go to the waiting room. 9 You have to defrost the pizza before you cook it. You _ 3 You must keep the documents in a safe place. VVe 8 _ have If the garage had serviced the car properly.

garden gnomes have been stolen by thieves (present perfect passive). Section 4: Passives 37 .AR.4: What 1 SECTION 4 does it mean? 2 Say what these notices mean. NO CHANGE GIVEN PETS NOT ALLOWED IN THIS RESTAURANT R.S BOOKS BOUGHT AND SOLD 4 3 ALL SALE ARTICLES REDUCED BY 400/0 5 NO ADULTS ADMITTED IN THIS TOY SHOP UNLESS ACCOMPANIED BY A CHILD! This machine 2 3 4 5 doesn't give change We You The shop We r ~O The tense in the passive sentence is the same as in the active sentence: Thieves have stolen our Our garden gnomes (present perfect). The first one has been done as an example.

_::o:... 4 will be sent / will send a How will I hear about my exam results? __________ b a letter..::s"-k:...:d=---_ to make a state men t.:../--o_s_k_e_d_m_e __ b to make a statement. Will the school let me know my results? __________ a new letter. What happened to you at the police station? __ .::o:.:e..25 Active help you.:. 2 have been promised / has promised a Are you getting more money next year? __________ b a pay rise. What has the boss said about our pay? __________ a pay rise....:s:. o]]r new timetables... 3 going to be given / going to give a What is the teacher going to do next? __________ b What happens next? __________ our new timetables.'_:w. SECTION 4 or passive? Complete the answers to the questions using the forms of the verbs to 1 was asked / asked a What did the police say to you? __ ~_h_e_y. 38 Section 4: Passives .

/ __________ to wait outside. to wait outside.' You don't need to mention the person if you don't think it is important: EvetyOlle has been told (by the boss) not to leave our camputers on overnight. 6 were told / told a What did the receptionist say to you? _________ b Why aren't you inside? _________ to wait outside.~~~--~--------~~=-~=-----~~---------------SECTION 4 5 were shown / showed a What did you learn in cookery class today? __________ b how to make an omelette. What did the cookery teacher do today? _____________ how to make an omelette. It might be obvious that only the boss gives orders! Section 4: Passives 39 .

Say what the problem is in each picture. Use the pattern need doing and a verb from the box to help you.











The grass needs cutting






4: Passives





You can also use the passive infinitive after need, serviced.

e.g. The car needs to be


4: Passives


check air-conditioning



Have something done

Complete these dialogues with a verb and noun from the box, using the pattern have something done and making any necessary changes.



examine -flaiF-


remove teeth

service wallet

steal wound



old shed

'John looks so untidy and scruffy!' 'Yes, he needs to have his hair cut 2

every six months.'

'Your children have beautiful teeth! How come?' 'It's because they


'What are you going to do about your garden?' 'Well, for a start, I'm _


'What is wrong with her? She won't even let me in the house?' 'That's because she's _


'How was your holiday?' 'It was ruined because I Barcelona.' when I was in


'How's the car running?' 'Great, I a couple of clays ago.'


'What happened?' 'I cut myself with a knife.' 'Well, you really ought it looks infected.'


'You'll never stand the summer here in Nairobi!' 'Oh yes, we will. We're season starts.'
Use the construction have some thing done when you don't intend to do

before the hot

it yourself but you intend to pay someone elsa to do it' You can also use


the construction

get something done with must, e.g. I must get this wit

4: Passives


but I wouldn't recommend it! Marco said he may call round later on. Ability I know a man who can speak the language of the ancient Egyptians. You shouldn't talk so loud. Permission May I borrow the car this evening. You don't need to write your name at the top of every page. Mum? Can I park here? Advice and criticism You should cut down on smoking. it's much too neat. Certainty You must be tired after doing nothing all day long. Modal verbs The modal verbs tested in this section enable us to talk about: Possibility You might just catch the bus if you hurry You could eat that snail. You don't have to wear a coat if you don't want to. The last bus had left so we had to walk home. but he's sad because he's got nobody to talk to! Obligation or lack of obligation All candidates must bring their 10 cards to the exam room.S~Gti~n 5: ------------. 'YOll could eat that snail. but I wouldn't recommend it!' Section 5: Modal verbs 43 . That can't be John's handwriting.

44 Section 5: Modal verbs . se habla ingles on parle anglais english spoken The word 2 English should be written with a capital letter.SECTION 5 Should or should'nt? A Can you find the mistake in the following notices? Use should or shouldn't in your answers. FRESH EGG'S FOR SALE AT BARGAIN PRICES The word have an apostrophe. 3 CAR RENTALS £18 A DAY UNLIMITED MlllEAGE The word be spelled with one 'I'.

)ghf to pay that bin.g.g.o6(eSS "' f They m to each other. There is a very small difference in meaning: should suggests something we personally fool strongly about. IOI. The word ought suggests a duty we owe to others. ~I LE.8 What are the people doing wrong? Use should or shouldn't in your answers. Ought to is very sim~ar in meaning to should. I reaIJy shouTd caf1my parents.tJ c.. 1 He 2 ___ The driver 3 EXAM the speed limit.e: PtC. not just to ourselves. Section 5: Modal verbs 45 . e. e.

no important coua.SECTION 5 Can.. lend you some. There difference or meaning between pairs like t can do it and I am able to do it. 2 3 4 5 6 _______ Have you I'm sorry I _~ not see you tonight.g. get any more information? not come online earlier.. I could meet you and I would be able to moot you. You Interpreters have to borrow my dictionary if you've lost yours. we couldn't 90 and Section 5: Modal we weren't able to go. e. If you're short of money. so I just broke the 7 8 I should finish it by Friday. _ It was terrible to be in the same room without talk to you. can could be able to been able to being able to 1 I used to be able to speak Italian quite fluently when I was younger. could or be able to? Complete these sentences using the forms of the verbs in the box to help you.. I might _______ top off. not find the bottle opener. Otherwise use is t want to be able to . l mjght be able to . thinking 10 11 12 translate without finish on time? Do you think you will -p 46 The modal can has only one other form: the past form part of be able to. 9 How did the thief get in without disturbing us? He must have _______ open the window without breaking the glass.. verbs .

Ann: Don't mean 'walk away'? Section 5: Modal verbs 47 . surely! I mean how Ann: It (2) have help you. did it get here? Joe: It (5) (be) Ann: It (4) (be) (fly) here. Birds a flightless bird like the ones they have from New Zealand. It (7) walked into our garden. a bird. It's hasn't got any wings. remember! (escape) from a zoo. I suppose. No. It's flightless. And then Ann: It (6) Joe: You're right. if we leave it alone. Joe: It (3) in New Zealand. (fly) here. must SECTION 5 Modal verbs of deduction Complete the dialogue using the forms of the modal verbs in the box to must have could may may have might can can't can't have could have might have Ann: What's that in the garden? Joe: It (1) must be (be) (be) a bird of some kind. it (8) YOLi Ann: Do you think we ought to tell someone? Joe: just (flyaway).

SECTION 5 Have to A Choose a. i. we had to go by bus. it depends walk home if you hadn't been there. 1 2 3 4 5 Harry's boss is away: it's the first time he office himself. go to Head Office for another wait your turn like Jane isn't here: she meeting. I hope it won't be necessary. b. I wI'll have to leave soon. but I me some money.e. Even if you're in a hurry. it is used for the present simple only. you everyone else! 6 7 8 I wish the children would put their things away without ______ be reminded all the time. When we were children. we every morning.g. Section 5: Modal verbs . All other forms are made up of parts of have to. ______ ______ when the party finishes! has had to run the get up at five o'clock spend the night at Janet's house. cord to complete the verb phrases. (a) have to will (b) to have to a (c) having to 4 5 (d) had to has without might would have 3 used 6 B Now use the verb forms above to complete the sentences. e. ask you to lend -p 48 The modal must/mustn't has no other form.

e. e. Mrs Smith? Not too bad. I see you've had another accident. wa'l1 catch up with you later. but it helps!' There was only a short queue so we Tenants • There be mad wait long. Don't have to means you are not obliged. or have to?CTlON has had to attend five conferences this be 5 Complete these sentences using a form of have to or must. e. but you make so much noise. surely? You be surprised if the boss suddenly throws a book at you. You needn't Wall for US.g.OOO! Michael might check-up. In some cases. thank you. • to make better use of my tirnel The form have to 0f1 you by others.bull have to go to see my boss at 2 o'clock. you mustn't 1811< in the library.g. e.g. Section 5: Modal verbs 49 . I ______ complain! I know you have to practise to become a professional drummer. I'd ove to stay and talk to YOU. It's just his way of keeping the employees on their toes! There is a sign in the office which says 'You to work here. keep pets in the house.S2 Must more than one form may fit. or it is not necessary for yQu to. go to the hospital next week for a How are you today. 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 Helen's very busy: she month. You really more careful in future! How many people took part in the London Marathon? It ______ be over 25.(t means you are obliged not to do something. suggests an obligation placed I reaUy mu$l team • Needn't or don't need to both mean that you are not obliged. you don't have to ts1k jf you don't want to. Musr. do something. e.g. is a slight difference of meaning between 1 must go and I have to go.g. The form must suggests an obtigation yoo place on yourself.

you know! You shouldn't have used so much soap powder! d You'll be able to get on if you run fast and then jump! Why can't you breed chickens like other poultry farmers? I know. I know. I'm not deaf. D a b C It must have been a very high tide! You don't have to shout. sir.88 Crazy SECTION 5 captions 2 Match the captions with the cartoons. you don't need to keep reminding me! 50 Section 5: Modal verbs .

Check the use of each individual verb in a good dictionary. e. e.or three-word verbs. e.g.g. believe (in). e.g. take after (resemble) The meaning is not always easy to derive from the individual words in the verb. If the object is a pronoun it must come before the adverb. a verb can take more than one preposition with a change of meaning. e. fallout (quarrel) e. the object may come before or after the adverb. e.g. If the phrasal verb is a verb + adverb. not look up it.g. 00 you agree with me? The union has agreed to the new overtime schedule. She takes after her [ather. she takes after her father or she takes after him. look it up in the dictionary. the object always comes after the preposition.g. depend (on). If the phrasal verb is a verb + preposition.g. verb + adverb verb + preposition e. In some cases. look up the word in a dictionary or look the word up in a dictionary.B-GtiQn~Verb phrases The most common patterns are: Verb + preposition A number of verbs can be followed by a preposition. take someone off means to 'impersonate'. Section 6: Verb phrases 51 . worry (about). Phrasal verbs These are two.g.

CAM E. why don't you come and see us on your way home? We didn't finish our telephone conversation because we were suddenly disconnected. antiques shop the other day. but I'm going to try to leave early today. Here's a crossword clue. If you're not in a hurry. Should we stop now or continue? They said rollerblading would never become popular in this We were late for the meeting because we were delayed in the traffic. Can you solve it? I usually work until six o'clock. R H ACR E A o o 52 Section 6: Verb phrases .34 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I happened country! SECTION 6 Phrasal verbs 1 to find this old painting while I was browsing in an Replace the words in bold type with a phrasal verb to complete the grid.

eat up ali your vegetables.g. from a high point to a lower one. Attendance at our local football matches has been declining lately. Whenever the subject of nuclear power arises./ 1 2 3 4 5 6 Marca and Fred had a fight. .g. Remember that sometimes the particle can have a meaning: give in down:. People were advised to avoid visiting the city centre durtng the rush hour./ . he lost his self-control and burst into tears. so in the end the owners closed it. but he wouldn't surrender even when she sat on his head! The club was losing money./ )< ./ . take something off a slJelf up:: completely.g. cut down a tree off = down or away from. Write the verb in the appropriate form. e. Section 6: Verb phrases 53 . Without warning. e. people seem to get very angry. e. break come give keep fall shut B Replace the words in bold type with a verb from the table above.S5 A SECTION 6 Phrasal verbs 2 away down in off up Complete the grid to make as many correct phrasal verbs as you can.

An old man swallowed a potion to make himself invisible and then walked into a bank to steal some money. but what it really means is that we haven't got any money left! 54 Section 6: Verb phrases . It was a good plan. The manager gave me ten pounds. He would never break his word. If the computer crashes. we'll give you ten pounds!' I asked for elephant's eyeballs on toast. The situation seems complicated. saying: 'Sorry. the company will come and repossess it. but he didn't succeed because his briefcase was still visible! 5 6 The minister is an honest man. boil down to go back on do aV'<GY ith w get away with fall back on SECTION 6 verbs Replace the words in bold type with a verb from the box. making any fall behind with run out of look back on Most states in the US have abolished death penalty. If we can't. sir.36 Three-word necessary changes. there's always paper and pencil to use as a temporary solution. we have no bread left!' 7 8 I am sure we will all recall this special occasion with fond memories. would he? I saw a sign outside a restaurant which said: 'We will make any meal you want. 2 3 the done away with If you fail to meet the payments on the car.

Linda! Well done!' The judge _ trains to Portsmouth?' ___ sort of guy./ on X X congratulate B Complete the sentences using some of the above verbs and making any necessary changes. 1 'Do you think that there are such things .9/-C-h_:_:o:_::s:_:_t_:::cs _ 2 'You've won first prize..s=r A believe depend differ enquire joke prevent rely suffer worry SECTION 6 Verbs with following preposition 1 about I Complete the. gnicl by matching each verb with its preposition. 3 'Can you tell me the times of morning Hewas 4 Ali is a very dependable youcan 5 He takes painkillers ___ because he has terrible headaches.:_/:_::i e:_:_v--=e:_::d_:____:_:cin__:____. ii from X in . _ Section 6: Verb phrases 55 He takes paiinkmers because he ...asgho!SB?' He asked me _ __:_:_if__:_'-=b--=e:.

but I can only account a) for b) from we spent 900 pounds this 895 pounds. b) about c) of d) to a) from 5 Groucho Marx said he wouldn't in want to belong c) with d) for a club which would have him as a member! a) b) to 6 Water consists atom. c) for d) with her three small c) with d) about 3 Sarah is finding it difficult to cope babies.38 1 SECTION 6 Verbs with following preposition 2 being late. doesn't in c) of 7 Ballroom dancing only appeals it? a) for b) on c) by d) to 8 According to the bank statement. month. c) to Match each verb with its preposition. a) for I object b) of people smoking in restaurants. for John apologised ____ @for 2 b) of d) with I intend to apply ____ a) from b) in a job in the Accounts Department. a) two hydrogen b) from atoms and one oxygen d) with older people. Choose from the four possible answers. c) to d) with 56 Section 6: Verb phrases .

This ~ing form behaves like a noun: I like jogging. It started to rain or it started raining.g. e.q.g. I hate getting up early or 1hate to' get up early.... I agreed to help him. I like sport.--. He dislikes making small talk. We're longing to see you again! Note also the use of verb + to-lntlnltlve to express intention. Don't hesitate to ask for help. e. Some have onty a slight difference of meaning. e. . which are followed by the -ing form of the verb or the infinitive without to" e. see the tip box to Test 41 ..g.. For the difference.q. I keep getting these numbers confused.. e... A man from the council came to inspect the premises. • Verbs. e.. • Verbs wn'ichcan be followed by the -ing form or to-infinitive. I like it. participles and infinitives 57 . Section 7: Gerunds..-.q..S ion 7 :. l enjoy skiing. • Verbs which are followed by the to-infinitive.I reerd« door close or I heard someone singing. Stop talking! and We stopped to have a rest.__-~---:----~ 8Gt verb 'patterns The 'following patterns occur: • Verbs which are followed by the -ing form of the verb. Some have a great difference of meaning.

try opening it with a paper clip. you can clean the kitchen tloor. Try to lift this log! (Let's see how strong you are!). and now I'm in a dead-end I really regret not to stay on at college to get a qualification. as it is and the outside of the house before winter comes. Would you mind making me a cup of coffee.g. 58 Section 7: Gerunds. When you have finished to wash the dishes. try saying 'Six Swiss wristwatches'! If you like tongue 1 ./ regret not staying 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 10 Note the difference between try to do and try doing. please? Don't bother to get up. I can see myself out. Charlie is the sort of man who hates being criticized.S§ 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 SECTION 7 Verb patterns 1 There is a mistake in the verb pattern in some of the following sentences. Shall we stop having lunch now? job. Correct the sentence if necessary. e. participles and infinitives . Try to do means see if you can or cannot do something. The first two have been done as examples.. I suggest to leave everything we'll do the rest tomorrow I need painting morning. I started work when I was sixteen. We've worked all morning. Do you work here? I don't remember . e. twisters.seeing you before. If you can't open the lock with the key. As we are all very tired. trying doing means see if doing something will solve a problem.g.

so not __________ any on the carpet! I'm going to get fit for the London Marathon. 2 Complete these sentences using the verb in capital letters followed by a verb which fits the meaning of the sentence. even though she had chocolate all round her mouth. _ FORGET 3 AVOID 4 Did you for your sister? a birthday card REMEMBER in RESIST 5 When I saw Janet's husband doing handstands the street. David a stone out of his shoe. practise saying 'He hit her on her hairy head with a hard.SECTION 7 Verb patterns example.6 Sophie the chocolate. The first one has been done as an 1 If you have difficulty pronouncing the letter 'h'. I couldn't what I had seen. heavy hammer'! PRACTISE 2 Don't your mobile phone in case you need to phone me. participles and infinitives 59 . and then carried on walking. even if it twenty kilometres a clay! TRY 10 MEAN Section 7: Gerunds. The cup is rather full. I don't use my computer! you permission to DENY 7 STOP 8 REMEMBER 9 Take this coffee to your grandad. Police have asked motorists to into the city centre by car during peak hours. Janet .

41 Crazy match them with the cartoons. 1 captions 3 Complete the captions using a suitable form of the verb in brackets and 2 D 3 4 D D 60 Section 7: Gerunds. participles and infinitives D .

(interrupt) the house? (leave) e f wQ~ldn't keep . (move) _ _.SECTION 7 5 6 D a b I thought lcould see something in the trees.m-'-=o_. the -ing form suggests that you heard the action in progress. Did anyone see him There"is an important difference between I heard someone sing and I heard someone singing.v_.o._in-'-i9'J--_ D c d Did you hear a gun Don't let me catch you 1 wish YQU ? (go off) my clothes again! (wear) me._. The infinitive suggests that you witnessed the whole action from start to finish. participles and infinitives 61 . Section 7: Gerunds.

Across fail -Bffi- intend lie own ring sing take want 1 I won't take the 'red eye flight' if it means the morning. Look at that ugly building! It makes me 'Let sleeping dogs .SECTION 7 Verb patterns crossword Complete the clues to the crossword using the verbs in the box in a suitable form. participles and infinitives .' (proverb) up early in to scream! 6 7 62 Section 7: Gerunds. Some of the answers may have two words.

ew car? ~~ your temper. for the snow to stop before setting that you are wearing odd socks. the lawns will soon __ If you haven't better 10 got an excuse for not doing your essay. ladies and gentlemen.SECTION 7 9 'The road to hell is paved with good intentions. ~_ 15 your house instead of just renting it? sides in your friends' arguments. _ _ 12 14 16 don't you use a spoon like other people? to the shops! The exercise will do us good! Section 7: Gerunds.' I don't to take any notice of that proverb! I'd rather than spend my life never taking risks. I couldn't help in the distance. Would you rather You should avoid __ Can you hear a bell door. you'd one quickly! for a drive in my n. it will just make things worse. your coffee with a pencil? Why Would you care It's no use Did I just see you Let's _------. those letters instead of -'----_ cutting again. participles and infinitives 63 . ? It's coming from the house next 17 18 Down file 1 '2 3 4 5 8 go off go invent lose need notice stir wait walk We heard a gun We were advised out. I'd like twelve 11 13 And now. Why don't you have someone doing it yourself? After all this rain. Schuber lieder for you.

These clusters hint at meaning: the gl. as in overcook or undercook. over-/under.or -kle. as in foresee (predict). Prefixes are put in front of the word to change the meaning of that word. sparkle. Similarly. CONSONANT CLUSTERS There are also clusters of initial or final letters. for example: the prefix fore. glow. glitter is to do with quality of light. twinkle is to do with a repeated small action. mis. lengthen (make long or longer). as in misunderstand (understand incorrectly).means bad. as in overcook or undercook (cook too much or too little).mean too much or not enough.means before.e~ctior:l Word building PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES Many verbs can be formed from other words by using prefixes or suffixes.means not or the gleam.+ exist = coexist en. as in untie (reversing the action of tying).+ courage = encourage fore. the suffixes -ify. such as gl. un.+ tell = fore tel! Suffixes can be put at the end of the word to make a verb. wrong or not. for example: false + -ify = falsify private + -ize = privatize hard + -en = harden All these affixes have meaning. building 8: Word . Over-runder64 Section mean too milch or too little. turn something into a play). the -kle in crackle. -ize and -en mean make or become as in falsify (make false). dramatize (make dramatic. eo.

changes to em.-4S A SECTION 8 Verbs beginning with em. P- Section 8: Word building 65 . making any necessary changes. plutonium Froman early age" Mozart was compose music. IDid you know that. _ species: there are only a few There is no point in passing laws that cannot be I intend to get this photograph of our local football team _____ so that I can frame it and hang it OVer my bed. With its definition. is simply enriched uranium? by his father to a copy of my CV. Please find 5 6 7 S The black rhino is an left in the wild. The preflx en. Please that your seatbelts are €astened and your seat is in the upright position. enrich enable enclose encourage endanger enforce enlarge 8 empower embitter ensure encircle B apply a law or rule give support to surround put in an envelope or letter give power or authority make bitter make bigger make certain make possible make richer or better to c d k put at risk Complete these sentences with some of the above verbs.or ena b Match each verb. The driving mirror in a car you to see what is behind you without having to tum your head.before band p for ease of proounclation.

/ sensation specific standard sympathetic terrifying weak " sympathy 18 weakness 66 Section 8: Word building . ADJECTIVE NOUN apology 1 2 3 apologetic broad apologize criticism economic(al) false fat fat generalization legal \ 4 5 6 7 8 9 maximum 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 moist public pure publicity purity .44 Word A SECTION 8 building VERB Complete the table with the appropriate forms of the words.

4 We should try to at the moment it is only used twice a week at the most. 1 He told me to meet him at the airport. but he didn't specify 2 3 The only way to which terminal. is by spending less! It's a good idea to praise students sometimes instead of always ________ them! the use of the lecture theatre. 7 The farmers give the turkeys lofs of corn to them up for Christmas. _ me. but little dogs Section 8: Word building 67 .SECTION 8 B Now complete these sentences with verbs from the table. but it is only true if you have an open mind in the first place. 6 Big dogs with big teeth don't scare me at all. 5 The saying goes: 'Travel the mind'. making any necessary changes.

then it won't _ .45 A 1 2 3 4 B deep food SECTION 8 Verbs from adjectives and nouns 5 6 7 long simple strong wide Make verbs from the words. 'What do you feed 3 :( them on?' 4 'This skirt is too short.' o 'The water here is very shallow. they'll need to _____ the channel!' 68 Section 8: Word building 'Put your finger on it. blood breath feed 8 Now use the above verbs to complete the sentences. I need to it.

' Note the changes of spelling that are sometimes needed. tong ~ fength . I wish they would ______ it a bit!' 8 'Well.SECTION 8 5 6 'With all this heavy traffic. e. they did say they needed to _ the road. you won't have any problems.' 7 'It's very complicated. you'd think they'd ______ the bridge. simple .simplify.' 'If you _ through your mouth. Section 8: Word building 69 .lengthen.g.

it was fear. but it was so old that it just as soon as we tried to turn the pages. as they up the side of with _ - 70 Section 8: Word building .46 Verb families A Match each verb with its definition. We found a photograph album in the attic. . making any necessary changes. John under his breath so I couldn't but managed understand to keep his balance . 1 2 3 4 5 6 He just mumbled a word he said. Everyone is about the weather. When I picked up the injured bird. This is the wettest winter on record. We watched the children the hill. 1 crumble 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 fumble grumble mumble ramble scramble stumble tremble tumble h b C break into small pieces come close to falling fall in a heap climb or crawl hurriedly complain shake from fear or cold speak too softly to be heard try unsuccessfully catch something walk for pleasure to hold or 9 B Now use some of the above verbs to complete the sentences.

' (proverb) _ 4 5 6 7 I knew she was anxious to leave by the way she kept ______ at her watch. 'I know a tear would . with the light from the moon ______ on the sea. but didn't say anything. My father glared at me. Don't put the meat on the barbecue until the coals are Se c tio n 8: Word buildinq 71 .' (popular song) It was such a romantic scene. stare in an unfriendly way shine with an intense heat shine as a wet or oily surface does 9 sparkle with light All these verbs describe qualities of light or ways of looking.47 A Verb families 2 shine faintly or intermittently get a brief passing view of look briefly at give out a hard light. 1 My glass smashed when I accidentally dropped it. making any necessary changes. if once more I could listen to the gang that sang Heart of my Heart. Match each verb with its definition. The brass saucepan 'All that ~ had been polished until it is not gold. 1 2 3 glance glare gleam~ glimpse 5 glisten glitter 7 B glow Now use each of the above verbs to complete the sentences.

do I need to let it thaw completely before I cook it? (frost) If you do not carry out your orders. (pack) I can't find unbutton All my pens have vanished. (obey) 6 7 8 Let's try to learn to work together instead of fighting each other! (operate) 72 Section 8: Word building . (sleep) I've just taken this chicken and mushroom pie out of the oven.48 co- Common verb prefixes 1 Replace the words in bold type using the verb in brackets and the appropriate prefix from the box. you will be punished. (charge) Take everything out of your suitcase. one anywhere! (appear) 5 I'm sorry I'm late: I did not wake up at my usual time. The first one has been done as an example. de- dis- over- un- under- It's hot in here: why don't you undo the buttons on your shirt? (button) 2 I'm sure the shop made me pay too much.

He must think he has X-I. message? By the way.means r. as in co-operate. co-exist. (shoot) Is it possible for humans and animals to share the planet? (exist) 16 -0 . co. (regulate) 13 A crazy driver came level with and passed me on a blind bend today. as in fYI-read.ary eyes to see round corners! (take) Tticiaand (author) 14 Loaise wrote a book together. it's my birthday today! (code) 10 I may n~)t ave the same opinion as you.SECTION 8 9 SZKKBYJUGSWZB. Section 8: Word building 73 . h but you have tne right to say what you think.means again or repeatedly. 15 The plane came in so fast that it went beyond the end of the runway. (agree)' 11 12 Avoid meat that is too rare.can you work out the meaning of this. with or together. (cook) The State of California decided to remove the regulations from the electrtoty industry with the result that prices wentup over 300% in one year. re. ~writ9. reconsider.

4§ Prefix crossword Complete the clues to the crossword using verbs which have a prefix. 74 Section 8: Word building .

but it is best to avoid the hyphen except where confusion might occur. we say that the actor is ____ (7) 10 Down 1 3 4 6 8 If a. co-operate re-enter instead of reenter. e. many people instead prefer to insert a hyphen to make the word clearer. came over me: I was When the tenants ____ it (5). by sadness.Fl footbaU match ends in a draw. (5) you (7) _ If you want to make people obey the law. re-cover (put a new cOlIer on) and recover (get better). Similarly with re. Section 8: Word building 75 .g.cooperate.g.g. you have to The opposite of 'plug'.event. e. (7) 9 ~6) it. again in your mind.SECTION 8 Clues Across 2 5 6 7 If you don't make the used with a word beginning With of . e. there has to be a ____ (6) To pronounce a word wrongly is to it. If you pay too much for something. o. (8) moved out of the' house. or In front of other vowels 'here is no clear rule. you can write co-eas: coexist. (6) A feeling of sadness.before an e.g. cOIl1petitio. such as an accident. (6) If you cast the wrong actor in a role. (12) To go duough an . you can . the letting agents Where the prefix co. e. it. it will stay Don't throw that old envelope away.

the sentences.1 10 B write Now 1l1S. already it.I bought it only a month 3:go. Some verbs may take more than build do grow X X X rebuild 4 5 lead pay read see take tell . (pay) Nostradamus predicted many things. and he has _______ .e some of the above verbs to compete verb in brackets to help you.76 .5e A one prefix. prefixes. (grow) 2 3 4 5 My essay was ful] of speHing mi'staikes so the teacher made me _______ the whole thing. Use the 1 'Do you think Rathel deliberately us when she sasd she was going to many a pFince'? It turns. II I I .Michael Pliince!" (lead) 1'ois outfit doesn't flit my baby any more .eaUed. 1 2 SECTION 8 Common verb prefixes 2 foremisoutre- Combine the verbs with the. out she's married a man .. he even the two world wars of the twentieth century. every penny. and she's. (tell) Section 8: Word building -"-__ ~ . (write) John owed his mother a thousand pounds..

In English control means to 'be in charge of' or 'have power over'. In some cases there are differences in the way the verbs behave grammatically.g. but you can only start a machine. take advantage. begin and start mean the same. cut corners. say and tell. catch sight at. Sometimes the confusion arises from verbs which basically have the same meaning. change' places. The people who control the money control the world. You tell me something.g. However.=-8ectiQ n 9 :-----------' Choosing the right verb CONFUSING VERBS There are many pairs or groups of verbs which can be confused. SET EXPRESSIONS There are many set expressions. My job is to check all the company accounts to make sure there are no errors. and the German kontrollieren translate as check. the French verb contrcter.g.g. such as control. but are used in different contexts. Sometimes the confusion arises from verbs which are similar to ones in other languages.g. e. go halves. combining verbs with other words: • Verb + singular noun (often without the) e. but have a different meaning in English (so-called 'false friends'). go sour. but you say something to me. e. make amends • Verb + adjective!: ' e. e. foot the bill • Verb + r:x~ural noun (often without the) e. the Italian controllare. but only one can be used in a particular context: you can start to laugh or begin to laugh.g. For example. keep quiet foot tile bill Section 9: Choosing the right verb 77 . come true. start from scratch.

like The Godfather: 'You'll (c) offer they can't refuse!' 78 Section 9: Choosing the right verb a two million a lot of business with. them an . Man: Did you (a) make an appointment with the optician? Woman: Oh. I forgot! Would you (b) me a big favour? Could you (c) a call to her receptionist and see if she can fit me in before the end of the week? 2 Man: Did you hear that Alpha Couriers (a) pound profit last year? Woman: Wow! That's a firm I (b) Maybe I should try to buy the company! Man: You mean.51 Make 1 SECTION 9 or do? Complete these dialogues with a suitable form of make or do.

SECTION 9 3 Man: Did I tell you Linda and I had a row? I accused her of having an affair with someone else. Woman: Why don't you tell her you're sorry? It won't (c) any harm. Woman: Can I (d) another suggestion? -it-yourself' remedies any difference. I (a) such a fuss! I (b) a complete fool of myself! It wasn't even true. Man: I've got a terrible headache! Woman: Try standing on your head for five minutes: that ought to (a) the trick! Man: That won't (b) things worse. and it might even (d) some good. It'll just (c) _ Man: Please don't! I don't like '(e) anyway. Section 9: Choosing the right verb 79 .

orspeak. but he has nothing I don't know. 1 Has the baby started talking yet? 0) 2 My partner talks in her sleep. his first word this morning. talk tell? A Complete the sentences with a suitable form of say. lies if that's what you mean. anything the name again? I didn't _ j B Not at all! He never stops Look at the sentences 1-10 and write the letter of the appropriate reply (a-j) in the speech bubble. o 80 Section 9: Choosing the right verb . Don't worry. talk or tell. she didn't Yes. speak. about? to? dear! important! d e f 9 rubbish sometimes.52 Say. The first one has been done as an example. could you quite catch it. I wasn't I'm sorry.--_ in any of them! me her name. a b C Yes. he WeH. I don't What does she Really? But who do you You do to _ _:s--=a~y.

SECTION 9 3 Who was the woman you were talking to in the 0 4 Can I speak to 0 0 0 0 5 Did you know Simon speaks seven languages fluently? 0 6 Helen Battersby. talking is the use 'YOU make of that physical ability: a speech. Section 9: Choosing the right verb 81 . please? 7 Speak up! We can't hear a word you're saying! 0 0 Did I ever tell you my heart skips a beat whenever I hear I'm the only person in the world who speaks fluent Babylonian! Do you consider yourself a truthful person? Is your husband shy? -p. Speak and talk are not the same: speaking is a physical ability: 1'00 can you can talk in a foreign Ja:nguage. Speak is also used in the sense of make speak a foreign language.

reconsider enjoy yourself have something about experience examine not be in a hurry put yourself in danger badly k react badly relax pay attention to argue Match each expression with its definition and write the answers in the grid below.53 A 1 SECTION 9 Expressions with take or have a b c d e f be allowed to give your opinion win an argument change your mind. have second thoughts have a hard time have fun have a bone to pick 5 6 have the last word have your say take a long look take care difficulties 9 10 take it easy take something take risks take your pick 13 14 take your time take notice m n be cautious have whatever you want I: 82 12 13 14 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 81 91 10 12 13 111 1 1 1141 Section 9: Choosing the riqht verb .

I'm sure you will 7 enjoy yourselves! 8 Listen. had second thoughts 2 You've wont There's a variety of prizes: you (an choose anyone of them. Charlie. [ want to talk to you: why do you keep telling everybody that I never take a bath? Section 9: Choosing the right verb 83 . I like to relax and put my feet up. but then I decrded maybe it wasn't such a good idea after a1l. I hear you are going to Ibiza for your holidays. making any necessary changes. 3 4 5 It was a very democratic their opinions. 1 I had more or less made up my mind about changing my job. meeting: everyone was allowed to express 6 Stuntmen in movies really do put their lives in danger sometimes. Drivers are requested to be very cautious when driving through a built-up area.SECTION 9 B Now use some of the above expressions to replace the words in bold type if) tnese sentences. After a really hard day at the office.

but I __ h_o--Jp~e _ _ I will be able to come to the christening.5-4 1 SECTION 9 Confusing verbs making any necessary Choose between the verbs to complete the sentences. bring/fetch/take Get out and Come to my place and you! your things with you! your things with 3 like/want/wish a b ______ ______ birthday. someone would buy me a dog for my 4 recall/remember/remind a ______ 'Yes. will 84 Section 9: Cihooslng the right verb . changes. someone to buy me a dog for my birthday. I could come to the christening. Dad.' b 'Dad.' me to get a card for Mother's Day. did you 'It's a bit late to last Sunday!' to get a Mother's Day card?' me now! Mother's Day was 5 intend/mean/think a b What makes you be an important U:depends what you that the environment issue in the next election? by that. hope/want/wish a b 2 wish won't be here.

but pay for something. unfortunately I _ 'What time does the Ims to Norwich?' Note how the words Sometimes have different grammatical patterns as well as differences of meaning. buy something.' 'Have you had the results of your exam yet?' 'Yes. Section 9: Choosing the right verb 85 . e.g.SECTION 9 6 get/go/travel a b 7 Does this bus What time does the bus to Norwich? to Norwich? fail/pass/take a 'When is your final examination?' 'I b it tomorrow.

The first two have been done as examples. I'll pay for the food.55 1 wear/carry 2 keep/hold SECTION 9 Confusing pairs Look at the verbs in bold type and decide if the correct verb has been used. Instead he left a ten-pound note and a message thet [ead:'BI1JlY yourself sometnlng 7 expect/wait for what is past. 'Why do you always carry your coat over your arm?' 'Because it doesn't fit me!' Why are you keeping 3 lie/lay a gun in your hand? I lay on my bed and looked at the ceiling. 4 lose/waste Don't waste time regretting do tomorrow! 5 buy/pay If you pay the drinks. Correct the sentence if necessary. Think of what you will decent!' Why don't you ask him for a dance? Go on! What are you expecting? 86 Section 9: Choosing the right verb . 6 rob/steal The burglar was so disg!tlsfed. with my cheap jewellery that he decided not to rob it.

You soo simply because your eyes came to rest on something. will you let me stay up to watch the late movie? 11 cry/shout There's no need to cry. You look (or watch) because you make a conscious decision to observe something. you know! 12 begin/start Tell me. Section 9: Choosing the right verb 87 . I'm not deaf.I holdin9 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 6 Note the difference between sea and look/watch. 9 feel/touch Just touch how thick this piece of cloth is! 10 let/make If I promise not to be a nuisance. but I didn't bother to hear what they were saying. how do you begin a car engine when you've lost the key? 1 2 3 4 . The same difference occurs With hear and listen.SECTION 9 8 hear/listen to I could hear people talking in the next room.

1 It might be better if we _----"'c"'-'hc:::a:.=:c-"'e""s-. making forces halves hands places sides 3 4 5 B Now use the phrases to complete the captions for the cartoons.56 Crazy A any necessary changes..=a. 1 2 change go join shake take SECTION 9 captions 4 Match the verbs on the left with the plural nouns on the right.. dear./.. 2 88 Let's Section 9: Choosing the right verb .:._n:.:..=9~e~p:.. it's only fair! .

I never like to think in this case your wife is in the right. in a quarrel. but the thing is. but I do 5 I want to be friendly. how do you __________ with it'? Section 9: Choosing the right verb 89 .3 Do you think we could beat them if we '? 4 Well.

Write the answers in the grid below. any necessary changes.57 A 1 2 3 Verb and noun Match the verbs on the left with the words on the right. Dear Sir. 90 Section 9: Choosing the right verb . we don't want you to catch cold do we? r 2 If you go on a slimming diet. 1 It's bitterly cold out! Wrap up well. catch _________ catch draw find lose 6 7 move see take talk 10 C a attention cold double fault with house place weight to d e f h sight of time rubbish making waste B Now use the above expressions to complete these sentences. it must be obvious to everyone that you are trying to _ The other night I through my neighbour's police. May we fact that payment a man climbing in window so I immediately called the 3 4 your of your telephone the bill is seriously overdue.

_ 7 After the bang on the head. or would you take ofience? If someone .J 9 5 . . do we?' Take care not to put In an article in these "set ekpressioos. e. / In the event of rain. every second counts. Section 9: Choosing the right verb 91 . so don't looking back to see who is behind you. . In a race. told you that you were you just accept it.~~ catch sight - of. the competition in the Village Hall. wiIl _ I I 'Wrap up wel( we don't want you to catch cold.. I started _ I could see two of my wife and I didn't know which one to kiss! B If Laura gets the job in Florida. it will mean :9 Why are you forever you praise me for once? my work? Why can't 10 ..__-_. would 6. not eat6I1 #19 6IgtIt 9f qc sate/:I 9 sifIRt f#.SECTION • .

will leave you alone. a) go b) get c) stand 7 Please a) make sure your seat belt is fastened for take-off. b) get c) keep 8 If you quiet. c) fall Why is it that so many poets only reached the age of thirty-six. Choose from the three possible answers. a) stand 9 Why does your nose a) break 10 turn to c) get c) come thin. @) 2 break b) turn c) go true.Verb andadiectlve Match the adjective with its verb. a) wear 4 Take this medicine a) b) fall and you will soon b) get go l think I'll polincal speeches! a) faFt 6 b) mad if I have to listen to any more go c) grow still and it If you find yourself in a field with a bull. 1 They tied King Kong with huge chains. and I will make all your dreams a) come b) grow c) turn young? Even Byron c) die better. Marry me. you might be able to hear the grass b) fall c) keep blue when you're cold? b) growing. His excuses for being late are beginning a) wear b) stand 92 Section 9: Choosing the right verb . Probably. but he still managed to break loose.

the time money. the: truth. for the bill the bill. open pay qtlit run see tell uncover vote write We leave x y and z to you! wrong quiet. a compliment a good turn asleep. your best. a bank account a good time. the day a wound to conclusions. your promise business. the way. a letter a meal. risks. short a window. love. a baU.5 ask catch do eat fall go have infect jump keep lose make name Almost an alphabet! a business. touch your job the gtm the truth 1 f 13 2 14- 3 15 4 5 6 18 7 8 9 21 10 22 11 23 12 16 I 17 19 20 Section 9: Choosing the right verb 93 . lies. a conspijacy. fun words a question. someone cold. short a door. second thoughts. attention. the point a plot. Write the answers in the grid below.a bus 'no' in the referenoum. your price.H Match the verbs on the left with the nouns on the right. YOl. mistakes swtrnmjng. abreast of double. yourself to yourself.

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