CHAPTER II FRAME OF THEORIES

2.1. The definition of Vocabulary mastery

Vocabulary is one of the language aspects which should be learnt. Learning vocabulary is important because we are able to speak, write, and listen nicely we have to know vocabulary first. A person said to ‘know ‘ a word if they can recognize its meaning when they see it (Cameron, 2001: 75). It means that in learning vocabulary we have to know the meaning of it and also understand and can use it in sentence context.

According to Red John (2000: 16) vocabulary is knowledge involves knowing the meanings of words and therefore the purpose of a vocabulary test in to find out whether the learners can match each word with a synonym, a dictionary – tape definition, or an equivalent word in their own language.

In learning vocabulary automatically we have to know the meaning of words it self and can use it in sentences. Wilkins (1972: 130) states that vocabulary learning is learning to discriminate progressing the meaning of words in the target language from the meanings of their nearest ‘equivalent’ in the mother tongue. It is also learning to make the most appropriate lexical choices for particular linguistic and situational context.
2.1.1. Kinds of Vocabulary

Mr. Verb or it is usually used as predicate in a sentence. Herman is teaching mathematic. It is arrangement with the verb helps to form the sentence core which is essential to every complete sentence. b. place. Example : a. The students are playing football 3. Adjective It is the word used to qualify noun or pronoun.Surely. there are some words in a sentence and those collections of words include to the vocabulary because vocabulary is a list or collections of words arranged in alphabetical order and explained. Verb It is the word which expresses an action or a help to make a statement. They are : 1. Adverbs etc. Noun It is one of most important part of speech. Example : a. It is am agazine b. It could be the name of person. thing or idea. Those words could be Noun which is usually used as subject or object. . The sentence may be further divided according to the functions of each word has in the subject – predicate relationship – each of these functions is classified as a different part of speech. There is anumb rel la 2.

Mrs. Example : a. or one sentence to another one. b.Adverb It is a word used for qualifying the meaning of verb. Irmaand I are student at untirta.Pronoun It is the word which can take the place of a noun. 8.Example : a. Example : a. b. 7. or another adverb. Mr. I go to campus at nine o’clock 6. I have to called himbef o re I go.Conjunction It is a word used to relate one word to another one.Interje ction . Herman is clever b. Nurul is teaching in the classroom.They are my lecture. b. Example : a. adjective.He goes to office. This magazine is expensive 5.

It is a word put into a sentence to express a sudden feeling of mind or emotion. In word family. etc. dis-. Material of vocabulary In learning vocabulary. mis-. I can’t believe it’s real. They are prefix and suffix. means before. There are two affixes. (Frank. the prefix un. there are some materials that relate with vocabulary like word family. means wrong. word classes. in-.2. 1. Oh my god. re-. are the most common negative prefix which both mean not. we discuss about affixes.1.1 Prefix Prefix is a syllable added at the beginning of words to change their meaning.Hurrah! I am the winner. the example words of prefixes are : Words Popular Active Consistent Writing Build Added prefix Unpopular Inactive Inconsistent Prewriting Rebuild Meaning not popular not active not consistent before writing build again . 1972: 1) 2. The words of prefixes are un-. Prefix mis-. means again. Word Family Word family is a word is constructed by adding prefix and suffix in base word or root. 1. synonyms. antonyms that can help learners in comprehending vocabulary deeper. pre-. Here is the explanation and example both of them. re-. Example : a. b. pre-.and in-. etc.

-ist. we can see both of them have similar meaning. the popular word does not use prefix but it used to be + Not to express negative meaning. the word become unpopular. The example is weak (Adj) added suffix ness becomes weakness (Noun). -er /-or. The example is act (Verb) added suffix or becomes actor (Noun). The example words of suffix are : Word Art Direct Use Kind Agree Added suffix artist director useless kindness agreement For example in sentence : They plays football in the yard. etc. we can see both of them have differences in the word classes. In the first sentence. -er/-or. -less. the popular word is added by prefix un-to express negative meaning too. and –ist are changed verb form becomes noun. (adding by Prefix Un-) From the example.For example in sentence : He is not popular artist (without Prefix) He is unpopular artist. etc. but the difference only in the “popular” word. (As a Verb) They are a good football player. In the first sentence.2 Suffix Suffix is syllable added at the end of words to change their meaning or their part of speech. while the suffixness is used to change adjective form becomes noun. While in the second sentence. While the suffix less means without. -ness. It describes . the word of play without added by suffix and the word class is verb. -ion. (As a Noun) From the example. the suffix –ment. 1. The words of suffix are -ment.

such as taxi and cab or aubergine and eggplant. there the similarity ends. For example.about what the noun does. While in the second sentence. Even between words that seem interchangeable. elderly are all synonyms in that they share the common meaning of not young /new. antique. Synonyms and Antonyms Learning Vocabulary. the word class changes from verb (play) become noun (player). Many words in English sometimes have more that one meaning. old. ancient. 2. 2. To appropriate in using synonyms we must consider with the context. one will be preferred over the other in certain context and by particular speakers. However. Beside similar. but seldom the same.1 Synonyms Synonyms are words that share a similar meaning. For example : Words Look Use Good Synonyms See Wear Excellent . sometimes we must know the opposite meaning of the word called antonym. So there are many words although different but has similar meaning called synonyms. the word play is added by suffix –er. it means that we learn about meaning. So. It indicates noun in the sentence. Synonyms are similar.

Like synonyms. but opposite of an old record is a new record not a young record. The example in sentence : 1.For example in sentence : Andi uses bicycle to go to school. while for wear is used to describe for something that will be used in the body. the relation between such opposite is not always black and white (to use two antonyms) and the very notion of oppositeness is troublesome. From the example. He is wear blue t-shirt. because the antonym of old is new. My uncle has two old car 2. 2. it can be assumed that both synonyms and antonyms have useful defining function and it depends on the context. and wear. in the sentence have same meaning or synonyms but it s used in different context. The opposite of an old woman is a young woman. Mr. we can see that the uses of use. It is called antonym.2 Antonym Antonyms are words with the opposite meaning. He is an old man. For example like old and new. So. My uncle has two new car Antonyms woman New New . Yayan karyana is a young man 2. Use can be used to describe for everything in general. For example : Words Man Old Young The example in sentence : 1.

Pronounce the world for the child. the antonym of old is young because it describes age. 2. It can be used as a last resort when guessing . Have the students read the sentence aloud. the opposite meaning of old is new because it describe the condition of car. Have the students look at the sentence and read it aloud 7. Have the child pronounce the word. there are some steps in teaching and developing vocabulary to students : 1. b.1. It gives the information of the meaning of words alphabetically. Although both of the sentences use old word but the antonym is different. To improve students’ vocabulary. 5. Read the sentence to the students. 6. For the first example. making sure that he or she looks at the words as it is pronounced. 2.1.From the examples. Present the word clearly written in a paper or write it on the blackboard. Have the students make a sentence using the word. So. 4. we can compare between first example and second example. learners must be master in vocabulary. While for the second example. According to Emerald (1981: 149). Have the students identify the word. Present the word in isolation again.4 Tool for developing vocabulary Dictionary is one of tool for developing vocabulary.3 Teaching vocabulary In learning. let the students pronounce it and give its meaning. the writer can assumes that when we will use both antonym and synonym. c. it must be appropriate with the context in a sentence or text. teacher taught the vocabulary in the classroom. 3. a gain making sure that the child looks at the word when it is pronounced. Explain the meaning of the word and present the word in written sentence context : a. 2. underlined the word and give its meaning.

000 words for non-academic adult to over 150.5 Mastery of students’ vocabulary In learning vocabulary. Its usefulness depends on learners being able to access the information they contain both speedily and accurately.000 words. 4. 2.from context’s strategies fail. both for generating text and as resources for vocabulary acquisition. Measurement of vocabulary knowledge is difficult and it is only approximately. Cross-checking (when using the bilingual dictionary) that the translation equivalent that is offered is the best choice for the meaning that is required.000 for a professional scientist. According to Mackey (1965: 173) the vocabulary of adults has been variously estimated at between 10. The primary period for conceptual development. people will experience development each year appropriate with their age. and other activities. etc. in order to check its meaning in the dictionary. 2. 3. they continue to expand their vocabulary in adulthood. 5.000 words. it can also be used productively. According to Richard (1989: 177) for native speakers of language. Inferring the spelling of an unfamiliar word from only having heard it. however.1. so at age 14. is early childhood. grammar and pronunciation information. such as use of alphabetical order. occupation. In social role and mode of discourse taking place in adulthood. in vocabulary there is continued development beyond the childhood years with adults constantly adding new words to their vocabulary through reading. College students are estimated to understand some 60. definition. Discriminating between the different meanings of words. Using synonyms. that at age 7 this has reached some 7. Recognizing feature of dictionary layout. But. There are some key skills in using dictionary effectively : 1.000 words. antonyms and other information to narrow the choice of best words for the meaning intended. According to Watts (1994) suggest that the average child enters elementary school with a recognition vocabulary of 2.000 to . the child should be able to recognize 14. hard words.

the writer can assumes that reading is a process to get information. newspaper. 1965).100. Concept of reading Reading is one of the important skills in English. According to Harris and Sipay (1997: 7) state that reading is mainly concerned with learning to recognize the printed symbols. So. they have limited words or vocabulary that they now or understand of the language. newspaper. 1985: 5) reading is the process of getting linguistics information via print. knowledge. we can get actual news. According Widdowson (1985: 5) reading is the process of getting linguistics information via print. Reading books. and literary works in English can help learners to increase their mastery in vocabulary.000 words. magazine. for Indonesian learners who learn English as one of foreign language that is taught in school.000 words (Mackey.2. According to Wddowson (in Alderson and Urquhart. Reading books. magazine. they experience low development in expanding the vocabularies. and to respond intellectually and emotionally as he would if the material were spoken rather than printed. which present speech. Berry estimates that for spoken English the average person speaking on a telephone makes use of a vocabulary of only some 2. We can get up date information that happens worth knowledge by reading. From the expert’s opinion above. Harirs and Sipay (1997: 7) state .2. Meanwhile. 2. and literary works in English can help learners to increase their mastery in vocabulary. up-date information that happens and worth knowledge by reading. 2. from a literary that is written by someone and printed out via print and it is a process to recognized the printed symbols to the reader.1 The concept of Reading Reading is one of the information skills in English.

the writer can assumes that reading is process to get information. and to respond intellectually and emotionally as he would if the material were spoken rather than printed. maybe following a set pattern. may be reading around word that catches his eyes. for example in encyclopedia or an index.that reading is mainly concerned with learning to recognized the printed symbols. 1.2. which present speech. There are two techniques in reading. knowledge from literary that is written by someone and is printed out via print and it is a process to recognized the printed symbols to the reader. There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. People often skim when they have lots material to read in a limited amount of time. The exact technique Scanning depends on the purpose. Some people used strategy by reading the first and last paragraphs using heading. summarizes and other organizer as they move down the page or screen. 2. readers concentrate on horizontal distance between pauses. In reading at a normal speed. the reader lets his eyes low down the page.2 Technique of Reading In reading a literature. From the expert above. Scanning is used to locate specific information. You also might read the title. 2. It also can be used to review an article just read in order to mentally fix the important information. . or to preview an article. to discover the general organization or framework of the article. reader used technique to make easer for them in getting information. they are scanning and skimming. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. Scanning Scanning is technique used to look for specific information. Scanning is not fast reading but rather a process or technique of reading. In scanning. Skimming Skimming is used to quickly identify the main idea of the text. but when they scan they also use the vertical extent.

A Horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the sun. “ with development of standard grade.57 pm). (wikipedia. (Webster’s Revised Unbridge Dictionary 1993 http://www. by which the astrologer professed to foretell the events of the person’s life.3 The Definition of Horoscope Horoscope as etymology in the middle English from Latin language. Horoscopus it is from Greek 14th century a go hora – skopos is a diagram of the relative positions of planets and signs of the zodiac at a specific time (as at one’s birth) for use by astrologers in inferring individual character and personality traits and in for telling events of a person’s life. since the horoscope usually tries to tell you how you are going to feel during the coming day.at 03. such as the moment of a person’s birth. consequently. Horoscope the representation made of the aspect of the heavens at the moment of person’s birth. The Variety of subject. subheading and illustration. 2. teacher often present the pupils with articles or text for stimulating in them greater interest in reading and improve them in vocabulary. teachers are now consciously developing strategies to help pupils. the astrological aspects. Horoscopes in English language newspaper and magazines are often a good place to find idioms about moods and states. and many of them. moon. week. lack knowledge about or interest . and sensitive angles at the time of an event.Org/wiki/horoscope astrology) As a teacher will try find essential to develop systematic strategies for the methodological and progressive development of those skill which are necessary to achieve in reading.subtitle. and planets. and month.com/dictionary/horoscope/24-01-08. especially the sign of zodiac rising above the horizon at such a moment. they are aided in this by materials which have been issued trough the support system. The principles is now widespread of enabling pupils to understand.

providing information about the current state of their future.. because these imply questions which effect the students’ own lives. sometimes we get the difficulties in learning it. we need the media in learning. 2. The definition of C’nS Magazine Now day. So from the definition above Horoscope is prediction of someone such as money. It’s mean horoscope used to analyzed the character of individual’s born at that time. Because by knowing and understanding it. But they all had an interest in concepts like ‘fate’ and ‘destiny’. and Grasha A. Using astrology to teach in research methods to introductory psychology students. especially vocabulary. To motivate the students in learning English.http://www. especially at the beginners level of non native speaker. TV-show. (Stephen Heilen. love and lucky based on individual’s birth itself. so that the learning process occurred maximal. a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis can help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Many people want to master it. 3. To make interest the students in learning English. 2005:22.in Greek and Rome antiquity. especially vocabulary. And the function of horoscope itself in process teaching learning are : 1. But learning the language is not easy . As Sadiman (2003: 6) states that media is all of the things which could be used to convey the .jstor.4. we will be capable to communicate either in our country or foreign. According to Ward R. In this case.Org/pss/3585558). English is as an international language. 2. a course in Greek and Rome astrology is still around and constantly brought to our attention through horoscope in the newspaper. Seem this background. To enrich the students vocabulary in learning vocabulary. for example when we find the new words.

It’s magazine for English learners in Indonesia between 15-22 years of age who want to improve their English competence in a fun and entertaining way. One media which used in teaching learning process is magazine that are a great source of ideas and materials for teaching and keep your students interested and talking for ours on a whole range of subjects. C’nS magazine is the first English magazine in Indonesia. C’nS (Cool and Smart) Magazine it is one media would be interested and feel easier directly In learning vocabulary. magazines. Ask learner to skim the text. (www. Its objective is to publish educational materials in the form of books.asian-efl-journal. so it can stimulate the thinking. Learners then work out the meanings of the phrases either from their components. 06. 2. Magazine is publication containing articles and stories. and also the students’ attention in order that the learning process occurred.cnsmag. A magazine is issued at intervals. 3. Learners read the text again and are asked to attempt a rough summary of its gist. 2. Ask learners to find all the examples of the lexical feature that is being targeted.sta. and journals both for the use of participants of Yayasan LIA’s English language programs and for the general public.//www.php.at 14. 4. at.com 08-july-08.5 The procedures teaching English vocabulary through horoscope According to Jo Bertrand.com/dec-03sub. feeling. 13. They are written by various writers.message from the sender to the receiver.30. January 2009 The procedure of teaching English vocabulary through horoscope are : 1. or . http. for example weekly or monthly. talent.35 pm). especially for teenager or students.

Studying horoscope or zodiac sign and the personality traits that are associated with these signs is great way to quickly improve your vocabulary related to personality. At this point.com/od/vocabularyadvanced /ig/zodiac-personality. Ask learners to write their own texts. but with the targeted items blanked out. Provide the learners with the same texts. 5. 6. 7. synonyms or L1 translations of the targeted words. and ask them to find the words in the text that match. . 8. 06 January 09. they could be allowed to consult dictionaries. Ask learners to study the targeted items and analyze them in terms of their formal features. provide definitions. Alternatively.from their context. In your English class you can use them to find out about your students personalities while having fun with the future. to include some of the items they have been studying According to Kenneth Beare.-Ho/ at 13.24. or both.about. http://esl.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful