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results in destruction of metal. The Corrosion Triangle :
That the ship looks good after painting is a matter of consequence and should not be the main reason for painting. There must be a clear understanding of the difference between “Decorative” and “Protective” painting. Marine paints are expensive and must be properly utilized so as to obtain the maximum value out of them. Erosion is purely mechanical. It removes protective coating by mechanical means/ abrasion and exposes the metal surface to the atmosphere, resulting in corrosion. e.g. Abrasive effect of dust or salt particles carried by wind Use of bulldozers, shovels or scrapers on deck or in the holds. Abrasive effect of Tug coming hard along-side the vessel or Vessel going hard against the berth. The Corrosion Reaction : It involves flow of electrons & is therefore called electrochemical reaction. Whenever a metal is placed in an electrolyte, there is a reaction because of tendency of metal to return to their stable state.
The maximum number of electrons in orbits is given by 2n2 (where n is the number of orbit counting from nucleus onwards). However the last orbit of any element can not hold more than 8 electrons. Galvanic or Reactivity Series: 1. Platinum 2. Stainless Steel 3. Copper 4. Mill Scale More Noble 5. Brass (Can be used as Impressed current 6. Nickel Anodes, generally used Silver or lead) 7. Tin 8. Cast Iron 9. Iron & Mild Steel - Ship side 10. Aluminium 11. Zinc Less Noble 12. Magnesium (Can be used as Sacrificial Anodes)
The Galvanic Cell :
electrolyte & electron flow is called a galvanic cell. 2) Availability of Oxygen : More corrosion takes place at water surface (than underwater or in enclosed spaces due to less oxygen available).Anode gets corroded Cathode gets protected The combination of electrodes. At < 65% humidity. 4) Velocity of Ship : greater velocity means plentiful oxygen supply resulting in greater corrosion. Factors Affecting Corrosion : 1) Humidity : Corrosion increases with humidity. the solubility of oxygen decreases. CORROSION CELL . corrosion hardly takes place. so they tend to cancel out each other. 3) Temperature: Higher Air temperature means greater corrosion. Underwater as temperature rises. This is the principle used in “Sacrificial Anode System” and the “Impressed current System”.
variations in stress concentrations or changes in the electrolyte. localised anodic and cathodic areas arise on the surface of the same metal through differences in the metal itself. aeration. In marine structures. Paint in various forms normally provides the first level of protection. This is the basic principle of Cathodic Protection. whilst a protective effect occurs at the cathode. however. thus introducing an electrical resistance between the metal and the electrolyte. such corrosion cells may result from the use of dissimilar metals. corrosion will not occur. where current leaves the metal and enters the electrolyte. However. Usually.Corrosion always develops at the anode. temperature and salinity. with inevitable corrosion of the exposed metal. even the most efficient coatings are subject to defects during application or service. Thus if the whole metal surface is made sufficiently cathodic. variations in protective films.e. in conjunction with a high performance paint system provides the most effective and economic safeguard against corrosion. the most practicable method is to apply a protective coating. Corrosion may be prevented by removing one or more of these corrosive elements and for marine structures. It is therefore generally accepted that cathodic protection. i. .
Anodes should be periodically inspected for contact damage & weardown. The Anode corrodes protecting the steel and so it is made of less noble metal. in the vicinity of the propeller and rudder. The flow of electrons is from anode to the ships structure. bilge keel etc.The Sacrificial Anode System : An anode is a block of relatively pure metal. . normally Zinc. Magnesium anodes can not be used internally in oil tanks as they may cause a spark if they become detatched and fall or are struck against. Zinc or Aluminium anodes are most common. sea chests. A few spare should be kept on board for replacement. Aluminium or Magnesium. the bow propeller tunnel. Certain alloys may be added to increase the life and make it more economical. Areas to be most protected are in the stern region. DB tank drain plugs. Anodes should never be painted over.
The weight of anodes required to protect a given area of the ships hull is given by W=(IxAxH) / (l000xK) where.Advantages : 1) No capital outlay for power equipment 2) Simple installation. K = Constant of the material used. 3) Power can not be supplied in the wrong direction. I = Current in milliamperes per square metre (ma/m2) A = Area to be protected in square metres. requiring no skilled labour. Cathodic Protection can only be used to protect the underwater hull or ballasted tanks as seawater forms the electrolyte.K = 760 aH/ kg @ 90% efficiency for aluminium. Some current requirements for various structures are: Well painted hull : 1 ma/ m2 Underwater hull : 10-20 ma/ m2 Ballast tanks 50-70 ma/ m2 Oil rigs : 130 ma/ m2 . then more current will be required to protect the hull by providing extra anodes. H = Duration of protection in hours. K = 2400 aH/kg @ 90% efficiency Potential measurements can be made around the ship by means of a reference cell. If the paint condition is poor. In ballast tanks. the sacrificial Anodes are placed Close to the bottom of the tank. for Zinc. W = Weight of the anodes in kilograms.
Therefore for such vessels Impressed Current system is used.Impressed Current System : Sacrificial Anodes are unsuitable for large ships because of extra turbulence and because it is more costly & cumbersome to fit them on large ships. .
.Electrical connection with the hull via slip rings & brushes on the rudder stock & propeller shaft ensures the protection of the rudder & propeller.
A protective shield of epoxy resin is applied for about 1 metre around the anodes to withstand the alkaline conditions there.As the underwater paintwork deteriorates. However too high a current can result in damage to paintwork &Chalky deposit on areas of bare metal. which has to be removed Before repainting can be carried out. . if these Anodes are in direct contact with the hull they may cause corrosion of hull. higher currents are required for protection. simply because the Anodes are made of noble metals & when ICP system is switched off. Also in ICP system the Anodes are well insulated from the hull & it’s appendages.
It is usually less than 1 mm (0. This is why shipbuilders used to leave steel delivered freshly rolled from mills out in the open to allow it to 'weather' till most of the scale fell off due to atmospheric action. until its coating breaks due to handling of the steel product or due to any other mechanical cause.Mill Scale Mill scale. any break in the mill scale coating will cause accelerated corrosion of steel exposed at the break. Mill scale is thus a boon for a while. It is a nuisance when the steel is to be processed. is the flaky surface of hot rolled steel. iron oxides consisting of Iron(II. sheets or profiles when they are being produced by rolling red hot iron or steel billets in rolling mills. often shortened to just scale. Thus mill scale has to be removed from steel surfaces by flame cleaning. hematite and magnetite. Nowadays most steels mills can supply their produce with mill scale removed and steel coated with shop primers over which welding can be done safely.039 in) thick and initially adheres to the steel surface and protects it from atmospheric corrosion provided no break occurs in this coating. Mill scale is formed on the outer surfaces of plates. All tedious operations wasteful of energy.III) oxide. Any paint applied over it is wasted since it will come off with the scale as moisture laden air get under it. Because it is electro-chemically cathodic to steel. pickling or abrasive blasting. Mill scale is composed of iron oxides mostly ferric and is bluish black in color. Electro-chemical : . TYPES OF CORROSION 1.
the corrosion cells are large and the plate gets severely corroded at places in what is known as ‘PITTING’. The anodic area is usually surrounded by the cathodic area. The complete reaction is. electrolyte. On a single metal plate. The part which acts as the anode gets destructed while the part which acts as the cathode is protected. there must be anodic and cathodic areas on the metal and a path i. for the current to flow. Rust is formed in between the anode (where the free iron ions are present) and the surface of the water drop (where the hydroxyl ions are present).e. .For an electro-chemical reaction. the corrosion cells are very small so that the plate corrodes uniformly all over forming a thin continuous layer of rust called ‘MILL SCALE’ When conditions are severe and non-uniform such as at sea. Oxygen gets absorbed in the water forming hydroxyl (OH) ions which react with the free iron ions liberated by the anode to form rust. different areas on the plate act as anodes and cathodes. When atmospheric conditions are uniform such as high temperatures when accompanied by high humidities ashore. This anode and cathode in the presence of an electrolyte makes up a ‘CORROSION CELL’ Thousands of such corrosion cells exist all over the plate.
g. However if the rust is removed. These vacuum forces act on the steel hull and paintwork only momentarily after which they collapse with astounding force exerting opposite force on the hull. Thus the surface of the metal gets eroded and opens the way for electro-chemical corrosion to take place.. in the propeller region. the reaction does not completely stop but proceeds at a slow pace. it may cover the anode and stifle the reaction. Rust being porous. vacuum cavities are formed by the generating force e. vibration. Impingement attack When the protective coating is removed. where there is turbulence-a due to rotation. Impingement corrosion is promoted by excessive local turbulence which results in anodic and . The vacuum cavities are constantly generated due to movement of the propeller and as a result of the immense alternating forces being exerted on the hull. This causes the paint to crack and break off as it is also subject to these forces.Here rust is formed close to the anode and as the reaction proceeds. corrosion will again resume. Cavitation (Erosion / Corrosion) In a liquid. This type of corrosion is also observed in pumps and in pipeline flow. it moves slightly in and out like a bellows. the surface is exposed as the anode and becomes susceptible to corrosion. 3. hence the rust should not be removed unless it intended to coat the steel with paint. etc. Corrosion cells on a steel plate 2.
steel lifting hooks in aluminium lifeboats. due to differing liquid velocities and/or retention of a surface layer. Valves as they are composed of different metals. c. If the anode which is the impingement site is large as compared to the cathode. e. the metals must be adequately insulated from each other or protected by a good paint film. However if the cathode is large as compared to the anode. b. To prevent corrosion. Welded areas as the weld is different from the parent metal. the rate of corrosion will be less. d. The more noble metal must be used for fasteners to join the two metals. the corrosion will be light. Inlets and outlets to tanks and on the shipside.g. a steel flange on a copper pipe. Bow and stern propeller areas. Bimetallic Corrosion Aluminium superstructure joined to a steel deck Bimetallic corrosion occurs when two metals are in direct contact with each other or indirectly in contact through an electrolyte. aluminium portholes in steel bulkheads. . This form of attack often occurs at the waterline especially at the bow and at inlets and outlets on the shipside. The rate of corrosion will depend on the relative sizes of the anodic and cathodic materials. A small anode will corrode rapidly when attached to a large cathode. Areas most susceptible to bimetallic corrosion are: a. If the turbulence is uniform over the whole area.cathodic areas being formed. 4. e. Aluminium superstructures on steel decks. It can be reduced by designing the system to keep turbulence to a minimum. the corrosion will be severe.
the alignment of the grains in the metal are disturbed. Crevice corrosion : When an electrolyte gets trapped within a crevice. This type of corrosion was quite common in rivetted ships where the rivets used to corrode and fail. due to a chemical reaction. 6. Stress Corrosion : When a metal is subject to stresses such as bending. This results in the localised areas around the crevice becoming the cathode and corroding the crevice. either between a joint. cold working or heat treatment. It can also occur in brackets and pipes which are cold flanged. or between close-fitting components or within rust. Thus anodic areas are set up which corrode and failure takes place along these areas. corrosive ions are formed which saturate the crevice.5. Crevice Corrosion Composition of Paint A) Vehicle or Binder .
is the actual film forming component of paint. a hardener. drying oils.therefore these are not sensitive to temperature conditions during applications. 3) Epoxy & Polyurethane Paints – Chemically curing VehicleConsist of two or three components i. epoxy. other components listed below are included optionally. polyurethanes. flexibility. When touching up an old coat. binds the pigments together. the fresh paint will dissolve the edges of the old paint making the two coats fuse into each other. the solvent evaporates & oxygen penetrates the film helping the binder chains to interlink. polyesters. The binder imparts adhesion. This . 1) Alkyd Paints – Oxidation Curing vehicle or binders – These require oxygen to cure. melamine resins. exterior durability. depending on the desired properties of the cured film.These paints can not be applied as thick coats as it will prevent oxygen reaching bottom layers. Such paints remain liquid as long as they are in a closed paint drum – not exposed to air. Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as acrylics. an activator & the base. 2) Chlorinated Rubber. Coal Tar & Bituminous Paints. When applied to a surface. oleo resins – Physically drying vehicle – cure by evaporation of SolventThere is no chemical process involved. or curing mechanism. Binders can be categorized according to drying. commonly referred to as the vehicle. or oils. The time between mixing & curing is known as “potlife”. and strongly influences such properties as gloss potential. It is the only component that must be present. and toughness.The binder. Vinyl. The curing process begins when the components are mixed together in the correct proportion.e.
Synthetics would include engineered molecules. and talcs. This component is optional: some paints have no dilutant. It is volatile and does not become part of the paint film. Alternatively. . 4) Extenders ( or Fillers) These enhance the weather durability and consistency of the paint. It also controls flow and application properties. precipitated calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate. mica. some paints contain dyes instead of or in combination with pigments. These paints are highly abrasion resistant. Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic types. the remaining paint is fixed to the surface.may vary from several minutes to a few hours. and synthetic silicas. silicas. Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. toughness. In order to spread heavier oils (i. They increase the volume of paint & thereby reducing the price. texture or simply to reduce the cost of the paint. 5) Auxilliaries These are used for imparting special properties. Suitable atmospheric conditions are required for application of these paints.e. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily—once the solvent has evaporated or disintegrated. blanc fix. a thinner oil is required. linseed) as in oil-based interior housepaint. Natural pigments include various clays. depending upon product type & temperature. Such paint will harden and dry at temperatures > +100C & Relative Humidity < 80%. and affects the stability of the paint while in liquid state. 3) Solvent The main purpose of the solvent is to adjust the curing properties and viscosity of the paint. calcined clays. B) Pigment : Pigments are granular solids incorporated into the paint to contribute color.
the solubility of the binder and the design of the paint. Insoluble Matrix Type: Poison particles are in contact with each other throughout the film. the surface can be scrubbed down using special automated equipment. highly charged with cuprous oxide. Also known as contact Antifouling. lead or zinc compounds which are slowly released into water killing marine organisms such as slime(bacteria).e. mercury. tin. Two basic types of Antifoulings : Soluble Matrix Type : Toxins are contained in water soluble binder composed of acidic resin. Antifouling Paints : are the most expensive type of paints which contain poisnous substances like cuprous oxides. the rate at which the poison is released is governed by the type & amount of toxin in the paint.e. These organisms destroy the paint film as well as increase the hull roughness causing extra fuel consumption. When the toxin level in the outer layer becomes low. Today high performance Antifoulings can prevent fouling for upto 5 years. releasing the toxin.g. The top . before they attach themselves to the ship. arsenic. The leach rate i. This resin reacts with alkaline sea water and slowly dissolves. Weed(Algae) & barnacles etc. The poison is removed by sea water as it reaches into the paint film. Long Life/ High Performance Antifoulings – Two types 1) Reactivable Antifouling: Chlorinated rubber based. Walnut Shell powder is used for imparting “Anti-Skid” property.
The binder slowly dissolves in sea water releasing the poison in a controlled manner. which states that a ship shall be entitled to compensation if it is unduly detained while undergoing inspection for possible violations of the convention. keeps the hull smooth. have been proven to cause deformation in oysters & sex change in whelks(sea snails). Life of paint 3-5 years.shall bear a coating that forms a barrier to such compounds leaching from the underlying non-compliant anti fouling compounds. By Jan 2008 ships either . These antifoulings have been banned by “International Convention on the control of harmful Anti Fouling Systems on ships”. The abrasive action of sea water as the ship moves through it.layer of the paint is removed. Reactivation is carried out at intervals of 1-2 years. As recommended by the 21st session of the IMO assembly. exposing a fresh film.Organotin Tributylin. the conference agreed to an effective implementation date for a ban on the application of organotin based systems. This convention includes a clause in Article 12. reducing friction and thereby fuel consumption. 2) Self Polishing Antifoulings Acrylic binder with organo tin poisons.shall not bear such compounds on their hull or external parts or surfaces or . Antifoulings with TBT. Treatment of steel in a shipyard .
These are defined by precise written descriptions and photographic examples in ISO 8501-1documentation. Blast Cleaning Sheets & profiles are thoroughly blast cleaned. Paint dust and solvents (if no water based paint is used) are treated according to the local requirements in an automatic filter unit and aVOC-treatment plant. Rust grades Four rust grades are specified. this raises the temperature of the metal ready for blasting & removes any surface moisture. Lying on the support points of the conveyor cross slats . They vary from A: mill scale.The blast chamber removes rust and mill scale and provides a finish to internationally recognised preparation grades. Drying chamber & slat conveyor This chamber can be heated by the exhausted air from the preheater . Paint spray chamber. Four grades are specified. ranging from Sa 1: light blast cleaning.In the shipyard corrosion protection is of prime importance. Preparation grades Surface preparation by blast cleaning is designated by the international standard ISO8501.25μm. Pre-Heating The plates & profiles first pass through a pre-heater. voc-system and filter The various plate and profile widths are automatically identified and are coated in a continuous process with a weld-primer coating thickness of approximately 15 .to D: where the mill scale has rusted away and general pitting is visible. Additional circulation of high quantities of air accelerates the drying process. to Sa 3: blast cleaning to visually clean steel.
Airblast units for this operation are suitable for smaller profiles and often precede a gascutting machine. the edges of the profiles are blasted to remove paint from the weld area . . Conveying The plates are now conveyed to be fabricated into ship segments.the wet primer remains undamaged as the plates pass through the drying chamber. Marking Each sheet has its own unique identification to allow subsequent allocation and control. Edge cleaning To ensure optimum weld quality. The mark is spray painted by computer controlled nozzles.
/ Weathering followed by blast cleaning SSPC-SP-10/ Sa 2.Surface Preparation Standards & their meaning: Steel Structures Painting Council / Swedish Standard/Meaning SSPC-SP-1 / .5 / Near White blast cleaning ./ Flame Cleaning SSPC-SP-5 / Sa 3 / White Metal Blast Cleaning SSPC-SP-6 / Sa 2 / Commercial Blast Cleaning SSPC-SP-7 / Sa 1 / Brush Off Blast Cleaning SSPC –SP-8/ ./ Pickling(Removal of rust or millscale by electrolysis or chemical reaction or both) SSPC-SP-9 / ./ Solvent Cleaning SSPC-SP-2 / St 2 / Hand Tool Cleaning SSPC-SP-3 / St 3 / Power Tool Cleaning SSPC-SP-4 / .
Safety Precautions for Painting .
Typical Painting Scheme – Chugoku Paints antifouling for underwater area and boottop Type of system Name of paint NZ primer S or Epicon zinc rich primer B-2 Bannoh 500 R Sea Grandprix Series* (2) Bannoh 500 R TFA Series or Seatender Series* (2) Umeguard SX HS Hiper AC TFA Series* or Seatender Series (2) Ravax AC-P Ravax AF Hiper AC Silvax SQ-K Number of coats Recommended DFT (in total) 25 (u) 25 (u) 250 u 100-450 u 250 u 100-450 u 175 u 50 u 100-450 u (100-450 u) 120 u 80 u 50 u 50 u 4 +1 3 +1 3 +1 Holding primer (optinal) 1 (1) 2 1-3 2 1-3 1 1 2-3 (2-3) 2 2 1 1 (6) Typical surface preparation Abrasion Resistant Pure Epoxy and Selfpolishing Antifouling Latest generation Tin Free Hydrolisys Type Abrasion Resistant Pure Epoxy and Selfpolishing Antifouling 1st generation Tin Free Multipurpose Tar-free Epoxy Self-polishing Antifouling 1st generation Tin Free Chlorinated Rubber 3 Antifouling Sealer underwater area Type of system Name of paint NZ primer S or Epicon zinc rich primer B-2 Bannoh 500 Bannoh 500 Number of coats Recommended DFT (in total) 25 u (20 u) 125 u 125 u Holding primer (optinal) 1 (1) 1 1 (6) Typical surface preparation Abrasion Resistant Pure Epoxy 1st Generation 1 .
Sea Grandprix EcoSpeed Tie-Coat Foul Release Coating Sea Grandprix Bannoh 500 Abrasion Resistant Pure Epoxy 2nd Generation Foul Release Coating Sea Grandprix EcoSpeed C Tie-Coat Sea Grandprix EcoSpeed C 1 1 1 1 2 100 u 150 u 125 u 100 u 150 u 1 boottop area Type of system Name of paint NZ primer S or Epicon zinc rich primer B-2 Bannoh 500 Epicon Marine Finish Umeguard SX Epicon Marine Finish Umeguard SX Acri 700 Finish Number of coats Recommended DFT (in total) 25 (u) 25 (u) 250-300 u 50 u 150-300 u 50 u 150-300 u 40 u 1 Holding primer (optinal) 1 (1) 2 1 1-2 1 1-2 1 (6) Typical surface preparation Abrasion Resistant Pure Epoxy Epoxy Finish Surface Tolerant Epoxy Epoxy Finish Surface Tolerant Epoxy Acrylic Finish 4 4 topside area Type of system Name of paint NZ primer S or Epicon zinc rich primer B-2 Bannoh 500 Epicon Marine Finish Uny Marine Finish Number of coats Recommended DFT (in total) 25 (u) 25 (u) 200-300 u 50 u (50 u) 1 Holding primer (optinal) 1 (1) 2 1 (1) (6) Typical surface preparation Abrasion Resistant Pure Epoxy Epoxy Finish Polyurethane Finish .
Surface Tolerant Epoxy Polyurethane Finish Epoxy Finish Acrylic Finish Acrylic Umeguard SX (3) Uny Marine Finish Epicon Marine Finish Acri 700 Finish Acri 700 Primer Acri 700 Finish LZI Primer HB Evamarine Finish 1-2 1 (1) (1) 2 1 2 1 125-300 u 50 u (50 u) (50 u) 120 u 40 u 140 u 40 u 4 +1 3 Oleoresinous 3 outside superstructure. fittings Type of Paint Holding Primer (optional) Surface Tolerant Epoxy Epoxy or Acrylic Chlorinated Rubber Oleoresinous Chlorinated Rubber or Acrylic Existing System Name of Paint NZ Primer S or Epicon Zinc Rich Primer B-2 Umeguard SX(3) Finish Coat (4) Acri 700 Primer Acri 700 Finish Roswan QD HB LZI Primer HB Evamarine Finish Number Recommended of DFT Coats (in total) 1 (1) 1-2 1 2 1 2 (2) 1 25 u (20 u) 125-200 u 40-50 u 120 u 40 u 140 u (140 u) 40 u 5 6 (6) Typical Surface Preparation Acrylic Oleoresinous Oleoresinous 5 weather deck coating Type of system Kind of Paint Name of Paint NZ primer S or Epicon Zinc rich primer B-2 Elbond HM Cerabond 2000 Bannoh 500 Number Recommended of DFT (in total) Coats 1 (1) (1) (1) 1-2 22 (18 (15 (15 u u) u) u) Shop primer Epoxy Non Zinc Epoxy Zinc Rich Inorganic Zinc Ultra Heat Resist Anticorrosive Epoxy 125-2000 u .
(Anti-abrasion) Epoxy Primer Epoxy Finish Epoxy Primer Acrylic Finish Finish Anticorrosive Finish Anticorrosive Finish Epicon Marine Finish Umeguard SX Epicon Marine Finish Umeguard SX Acri 700 Finish 2 1-2 2 1-2 2 100 u 125-200 u 100 u 125-200 u 80 u cargo holds Type of Paint Holding Primer (optional) Pure Epoxy (Antiabrasion) Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy or Acrylic Oleoresinous Existing System Name of Paint NZ Primer S or Epicon Zinc Rich Primer B-2 Bannoh 500 (5) Finish Coat (4) Umeguard SX (5) LZI Primer HB Oleoresinous Oleoresinous Hold Silver or Evamarine Finish (5) Number Recommended of DFT Coats (in total) 1 (1) 2 1 2 2 1 (1) 25 u (20 u) 200-300 u 40-50 u 200-300 u 140 u 25 u (40 u) 3 1 (6) Typical Surface Preparation 2 .
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