UV Protected Textiles: An Overview
By: S. K. Laga & Dr. A. I. Wasif
Introduction The risk posed by ultraviolet radiation has become more dangerous in recent years as whole world concerned about environmental issues. Particularly the damage in earth protective ozone layer is increased. The highly exposure of human skin to solar radiation became the cause of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation also affects the colour depths of various dyes, colorants, pigments by initiating degradation. This phenomenon may be more problematic for automotive upholstery and drapery clothing because the coloured surfaces, car seats, curtains are potentially exposed to ultra violet radiation for a great deal of time. The solar radiation that reaches the earth’s surface consists of infrared, visible light from red to violet and ultra violet radiation. The variation of surface temperature differs significantly from global radiation and ultra violet radiation. The human eye responds to light with wavelength from about 790 nm (red) to 430 nm (violet). Light with wavelength beyond ultraviolet and shorter than human eye seeing capacity. The ultraviolet light is produced by sun, absorbed by the ozone layer or reflected back into space so only a small amount reaches the surfaces of the earth. The sunlight is received as direct rays and in diffuse light, i.e. skylight that has been scattered by the atmosphere. The sky is blue because air molecules scattered even the shorter wavelength blue light more than the red light. UV light is scattered even more than blue light. Being shaded from the Sun’s direct rays provides only partial protection from UV exposure because of the high level of diffusion of UV light. Typical window glasses transmit less than 10% of sun burning ultraviolet light and sun block creams work by absorbing or reflecting UV rays. Sunburn is evidence that a person has been exposed to too much UV radiation to quickly. A person’s potential to protect skin cancer is related to their exposure UV radiation. Every one person out of three will develop a skin cancer during their lifetime in New Zealand. New Zealand and Australia have a very high melanoma incidence compared with other countries. New Zealanders have relatively large UV exposure levels because they have an outdoor lifestyle, and wear fewer clothes now than in the past. Calculation suggests that locations in the southern should receive approximately 15% more UV than Northern Hemisphere at similar Equator. This is caused by ozone difference between Northern and Southern Hemisphere, and also because the Earth is slightly closer to the sun burning the Southern Hemisphere summer. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has harmful effects on human skin. These effects were recognized in the early 1990s. Long-term exposure to UV light can result in acceleration of skin ageing, photodermatosis (acne), phototoxic reactions to drugs, erythema (skin reddening), sunburn, increased risk of melanoma (skin cancer), eye damage (opacification of the cornea) and DNA damage.4 Numerous publications have appeared concerning the use of textiles to protect the wearer from these harmful effects; a selection are quoted.4-7


and the like.8 42. including the fibre type. the SPF is referred to as the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). To quantify the protective effect of textiles. T-shirts. as a function of wavelength. the wavelengths of maximum danger to skin are 305 – 310 nm.www. it can be reflected. to be useful in protecting the wearer from solar UV radiation.4 3. It is possible to realize about 80 % of the theoretical maximum of SPF 200. giving a relative measure of how much longer a person can be exposed to sunlight before skin damage occurs. the fibre 2 .4. a fabric with an SPF of > 40 is considered to provide excellent protection against UV radiation (according to AS/NZS 4399: Sun protective clothing – Evaluation and classification. The SPF is the ratio of the potential erythemal effect to the actual erythemal effect transmitted through the fabric by the radiation and can be calculated from spectroscopic measurements. In Europe and Australia. Industrial fabrics designed for awnings. tents and blinds may also benefit from a UV-protective treatment. Mechanism of UV protection When radiation strikes a fibre surface. beachwear.1 Average photon energy (kJ mol–1) 400 350 315 200 63 Since the most probable time for long-term solar exposure is in the summer. sportswear. But the energies of UV-A and UV-B photons that reach the earth surface exceed the carboncarbon single bond energy of 335 kJ mol–1. canopies. The actual damage to human skin from UV radiation is a function of the wavelength of the incident radiation. Table 1: Characteristics of solar radiation striking the earth’s surface Classification UV-B radiation UV-A1 radiation UV-A2 radiation Visible radiation Infrared radiation Wavelength (nm) 280-320 320-360 360-400 400-800 800-3000 Relative intensity (%) 0. absorbed or transmitted depend on many factors. The very high energy of the UV-C photons is mostly absorbed by ozone in the higher regions of the atmosphere decreasing their relative intensity on the earth surface to almost zero. absorbed.2 51. Although the intensity of UV radiation is much less than visible or infrared radiation. with the most damage done by radiation less than 300 nm.5 2. If this erythemal effect is multiplied by the intensity of the incident solar light. The relative amounts of radiation reflected.4 The larger the SPF. the most likely candidates for UV protective finishes are lightweight woven and knitted fabrics intended for producing shirts. transmitted through the fibre or pass between fibres. The SPF is also used with so-called ‘sun blocking’ skin creams.7 Therefore. blouses.com Solar radiation striking the earth’s surface is composed of light waves with wavelengths ranging from the infrared to the UV. relative intensities and average photon energies of this radiation. the solar protection factor (SPF) is determined. Table 1 gives the wavelengths.fibre2fashion. the energy per photon is significantly higher. the more protective the fabric is to UV radiation. textiles must demonstrate effectiveness in the 300-320 nm range. Sydney).7 Typically. which is why UV radiation can be used to initiate chemical reactions. Standards Australia. swimwear.

1 – cover factor There is a good relationship between the maximum SPF and the cover factor. Using a SPF value of 50 as the goal. Many dyes absorb UV radiation as well as visible light. have significant higher SPFs since these fibres will absorb UV radiation. the need arose for UV absorbing materials that could be applied to fibres to provide the desired SPF values in light shades. Nylon falls in between these extremes.com surface smoothness. when they diffuse in atmosphere and they can be photo dissociated by sunlight to release chlorine.5 Since fashion and comfort often dictate the use of lightly coloured fabrics for summer apparel. then the only source of transmitted rays is from the spacing between the yarns. If the fibres absorb all of the incident radiation. CFCs have very long life in atmosphere.www. the fabric cover factor (the fraction of the surface area of the fabric covered by yarns) and the presence or absence of fibre delustrants. each Cl atom can destroy thousands of ozone molecules. Of course. A cotton fabric dyed to a deep shade can achieve SPF values of 50 or higher just from the presence of the dye. a material that strongly absorbs UV radiation. The ozone 3 . Ozone Depletion The screening of earth from UV radiation by ozone has been decreased by an average of 3% globally. over the last decade. Table 2: Solar protection factors (SPF) of undyed fabarics4 Fabric description Cotton tricot Wool tricot Silk twill Polyester tricot Nylon/elastomer 80/20 tricot Approximate SPF 4 45 7 26 12 The effect of fibre type on the SPF of undyed fabrics of similar construction is demonstrated in Table 2. the theoretical maximum SPF is the reciprocal of 1minus the cover factor. a fabric with a cover factor of 0. Each Cl atom have catalytic ability with ozone in a unique process in which Cl regenerates. In this way.4.fibre2fashion. on the other hand. SPFmax = 1 .98 and composed of fibres that absorb all of the non-reflected UV radiation will provide its wearer with excellent protection against solar UV radiation. CFCs are synthetic product shave been released into atmosphere since 1940s. One factor influencing nylon and polyester absorbance is the presence of the delustrant TiO2. Cotton and silk fibres offer little protection to UV radiation since the radiation can pass through without being markedly absorbed. Ozone depletion is primarily by chlorine (Cl) contained in CFCs. dyes and UV absorbers. Dyestuff and auxiliary manufacturers have responded by developing a variety of materials suitable for use as UV protection finishes. Wool and polyester. tight micro-fibre fabrics provide a better UV protection than fabrics made from normal sized fibres with the same specific weight and type of construction. By definition.

The UV levels are maximum at low latitudes. Ozone over Australia is generally lowest in March. to relate the station and advise listeners about current UV levels with cloud effects. Atmospheric absorption prevents most of the UVB from reaching ground level. In New Zealand. Cloud Cover: Solar UVR can penetrate through light cloud cover.com depletion has been greatest at high latitudes. Ozone: This is a form of oxygen that occurs naturally in the upper atmosphere and has the ability to absorb UVB radiation. and on lightly overcast days the UVR level can be similar to that of a cloud-free day. Heavy cloud can reduce the intensity of UVR. The department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) started the measurement of spectral distribution of UV radiation to understand the main causes of changes in UV radiation. Only strong regulations on the production of halogens through CFCs can regulate the UV radiation and consequently the ozone layer.www. It suggests that the over cool conditioned increased the destructive ability of CFCs. the ozone level has been declined by approximately 8% sine 1980 and sun-burning has increase upto 810%.fibre2fashion. After confirmation that ozone depletion was confined not only at polar regions but also at latitude. Some available techniques are solar radiation measurements from the ground network1. 2. When the sun is high in the sky. Discovery of an ozone “hole” over Antarctica has increased general 4 . The evidence of ozone hole over Antarctic have found in late 1970s. 3. which rise and fall as clouds pass in front of the sun. This meter is capable to measure the response to human skin to UV radiation providing a measurement of sunburn energy. CFCs have a long life in atmosphere and it will remain in atmosphere upto further 50 year and coming 5-10 year will be worst. 4. The ozone losses can be contributed by whole globe. Sun Height: The most important factor affecting the level of solar UVR at the earth’s surface is the height of the sun above the horizon in the sky. The data provided by this instrument offers a time series from which climatic changes in the amount of skin damaging radiation reaching the surface can be assessed. In New Zealand the Robertsan – Berger has been introduced a meter which is has been operated by New Zealand Met Service since 1981. Factors that affect solar UVR levels 1. Geographical Position: Australia has high levels of solar UVR in comparison with Europe and North America due mainly to its geographical position close to the equator. The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) is prepared a computer programme which is available to calculate clear sky UV radiation. In the result of an international effort to minimize the production of CFCs to protect the future destruction of ozone layer is now regulating by Montreal Protocol and its amendments which is passed in 1987. Scattered cloud has a variable effect on UVR levels. Ozone levels rise and fall naturally from day to day and seasonally. Ultra Violet Radiation Measurement Programme Very few good and quality measurement systems for UV are available which are able to measurement the expected ozone depletion have start since 1980s. the UVR has fewer atmospheres to travel through so less is absorbed. The UV level are 5-10% greater in summers than winters.

Consequently. Absorption of the actinic light results in generation of the lowest excited state of chromophores prone to chemical quenching are formed. snow. The triplet excited states may lose the energy by fluorescence. 5). UV radiation wavelengths can be divided in three subcategories: 5 . light coloured concrete. This includes the UV-B terrestrial radiation (~295-315 nm) and UV-A radiation (315-400 nm) responsible for the direct phto-degradation (Photolysis. Scattering: Due to scattering of solar UVR by molecules and particles in the atmosphere there is about as much UVB received from the open sky as there is from the direct sun. At higher altitudes there is less atmosphere for the UVR to pass through before it reaches the ground so less is absorbed. This results in formation of free radicals and their subsequent transformations by (photo)oxidation and phtolysis. 6. Environment: A highly reflective environment can also increase exposure by reflecting UVR onto the skin.fibre2fashion. Infrared radiation (760-2500 nm) accelerates thermal oxidation. phosphorescence and radiationless decay. In the infrared radiation wavelengths are greater than 700 nm with photon energies less than 1. Altitude: The intensity of UVR increases by about 4% for every 300 meters increase in altitude. Moreover.com awareness and caused concern about possible increased in UVR levels in southern Australia. at an altitude of around 2000 meters. Ozone depletion and the associated increase in solar UVR reaching the earth is a major environmental issue but other factors such as sun height and variations in cloud cover may have more local influence on the intensity of UVR reaching the ground. In the Australian ski fields. The terrestrial solar UV radiation constitutes approximately 5% of the total solar radiation. the absorbed energy can be transferred to a suitable acceptor (this has been exploited in polymer stabilization (4. These include white paint. water and to a lesser extent soil.8 (Ev). Some ground and building surfaces are quite reflective to UVR. At times the amount of scattered solar UVR that reaches your skin may exceed that from the direct sun. The visible part of the sunlight (400-760 nm) accelerates polymer degradation by heating [6] and enhances excitation of chromophores. Sunlight and its Effect on Polymers Sensitivity of polymers to photo-degradation is related to the ability to absorb the harmful part of the tropospheric solar radiations. 5. Ultra Violet Radiation2: Ultra violet light is defines as electromagnetic radiation in the spectral region between 180 and 400 nm. The infrared photon energies typically around 1 Ev. the UVR levels on clear days can be substantially higher than at sea level. people at higher altitudes can be exposed to more UVR than those at sea level. areas low that the photons are not absorbed by most pigments.www. The Ozone “hole” does not extend as far north as Australia but startospheric winds can occasionally carry ozone-depleted air towards Australia causing a short term rise in UVB levels. The fact that snow is extremely reflective to UVR is an additional hazard. initiated photooxidation) and for photosensitization of chromophores by (by bound-in moieties and non-polymeric impurities). 7. IF you are in the shade but can see a lot of blue sky you are still exposed to UVR scattered from the sky.

The earlier data determines that: • • • • Clear skies allow 100% transmission of UV radiation to the surface. 6-4 proto products and single strand breaks.fibre2fashion. These values are the divided by the standard of 25 milli Watts per square meter. 3.www. 2. UVB is 100 times more potent in causing sunburn (Urethema) than UV-A. This results in a number that usually ranges from zero sunlight to average light. day of year and latitude. This value is the ‘UV Index’. forecasted cloud amounts and the elevation of the cities. Erythema action spectrum (weighing function) so as to reflect the human skins response to each wavelength. Scattered cloud conditions allow 89% transmission of UV radiation to the surface. the US UV Index is not based on surface observations but it is computed using forecasted ozone levels. The erythema dose rates are adjusted for the effects of elevation an increase fo about 8% per kilometer. Over clouding conditions allow 32% transmission of UV radiation to the surface. Unlike some countries indices. The irradiances are weighted by the McKinlay-Diffey. UV radiation produces cyclobutane phyramidine dimmers. 6 . bind the genes and increase production of the protein transcribed by the gene. a computer model that relates ozone levels to UV incidence on the ground. erythema dose rate are determined. UV-B This wave length 290-320 nm is largely responsible to skin cancer and contribute only 10% UV radiation. UV-B is generally absorbed in upper stratosphere (about 25 miles above the earth) at the level of ozone layer. Computation of UV Index: UV Index is computed using the forecasted ozone data. UV-C It has a wavelength 200-290 nm and generally absorbed by uppoer atmosphere and can cause Severe cellular damage to living cells. UV light changes the behaviour of skin cells by changing the expression of genes or damaging the DNA. Protective substances can repair the damage DNA and stop cell proliferating. a radiative transfer model. Using these transmission aspects the forecasting cloud conditions can be converted into a forecasting of transmission. UV-A at a wavelength 329-400 nm accounts for 90% of UVR reaching the earth’s surface. These weighted distances are integrated over the 290 to 400 nm range resulting in the erythema dose rate. and elevation of forecast cities. A radiation transfer model is used to determine the UV irradiances from 290-400 nm using the time of day (noon). UV increases the synthesis of transcription factor protein that enters the nucleus. Broken cloud conditions allow 73% transmission of UV radiation to the surface.com 1. So fro the total ozone amounts. forecasted cloud amounts. This percentage is then applied to the elevation adjusted erythema dose rate at each of the forecast cities. The observed data (by TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder or Solar Backscatter Ultra Violet/2 instrument) is then used to produce a forecast of the ozone data for tomorrow.

These estimates are then for the effects of elevation and clouds. Wave length (nm) 290 350 400 Incidence 10 20 50 The human skin response against these wavelengths is then weighted in the form of damage to human skins. insects. and Pressure 0. These data are then applied to calculate a forecast of ozone levels for the next day at radiation reaching the ground from 290 to 400 nm in wavelength.22 centistrokes at 0°C 7 Specific gravity: 1. or integrate to 400 nm range resulting in a value resulting in a value representing the total effect a given day's UV radiation will have on skin. One major chemical of these is Methyl Bromide.www. Then if in some unit 290 nm UV radiation did 30 unit damage.fibre2fashion. The weighting function is called the McKinlay – Diffy Erythema action spectrum. followed by Europe (28%) Asia including Middle East 22%. obtained via two satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). for quarantine treatment (10%) and Structural fumigation (5%). and South America with Africa using only 12%. nematodes. The US uses 21000 tones Methyl Bromide annually for soil fumigation (85%). Each wavelength.732 at 0°C AND 760 mm .000 tones annually. The North America use the 38%. weeds. pathogens and redents. Role of Methyl Bromide in Ozone Depletion The United States Environmental Protection Agency has implemented forth rule under the requirement of the Clean Air Act and identified a number of ozone depleting substances. The whole world is used 72. As an example.com The calculation starts with measurements of current total ozone amounts for the entire globe. assume the following UV levels for each wavelength are predicted for a given location (these are totally made up data. 350 nm radiation damage 10 units and 400 nm radiation level would do 6 unit of damage. and not even ratios represent reality). Methyl Bromide is very popular chemical used as pesticide in the control of pest. The Important Properties of Methyl Bromide are: IUPAC name: Nature: Viscosity: Brombmethahe Colourless and Odor less gas at normal temp. multiply the actual incoming radiation level by the weighting: Wavelength Incidence Weight Result (nm) 290 350 400 10 20 50 30 10 6 300 200 300 These weighted irradiances are summed up. UV at surface increases about 6% per kilometer above sea level.

plant extraction. plant breading. Non chemical alternatives are crop rotation.Standard 801 Now whole world people slowly recognize that prolonged contact to sun can be dangerous other than New Zealanders and Australians.organic amendments. Additional presence of methyl bromide will thinning the ozone layer which will allow increased amount of radiation on earth and impact human health. Great Lakes Chemicals and Ethyl Albemarle and one in Israel Dead Sea Bromine.3-dichloropropane. Aim of the action is to providing more awareness for consumers and for making a action plan. Structural: Chemical alternates are sulfuryl floride and phosphine while the non chemical alternates are controlled atmosphere using carbon disulfide. Commodity: Chemical alternatives are phosphine and carbonyl sulfide . Non chemical alternative are irradiation controlled atmosphere utilizing nitrogen and carbon disulfide. ketoses.S. Recent research has shown hat the science of atmosphere methyl bromide is complex and still not well understood. cold and heat. • • • • • 25% reduction has made in 1999 50% reduction is expected in 2001 70% reduction is expected in 2003 100% reduction is expected in 2005 critical agricultural use will allow after 2005 Alternatives of Methyl Bromide The following potential alternatives to methyl bromide are going to use in different fields. Programme and European Commission called Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion gave the best estimate that Ozone depletion potential for Methyl Bromide is 0. Upto year 2005 for developed countries and to 2015 for developing countries may get 1% ozone layer recovery. dazomet. The majority of this chemicals is manufactured by three main. risks of skin cancer. heat and coldness. two located in U. A joint report of United Nations Environmental. esters. and enzymes.4 as compared to an ODP of 0. The UV .6 estimated in previous assessment. environment and crops. The UPF is self-protection time when stay in the sun light without sun bum and multiplication with the protection factor of protective item. Ozone depletion by Methyl Bromide Methyl bromide has proved as Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) by Atmospheric scientists. Swiss Institute of Textile issues the standard. The UV.fibre2fashion. cultural phenomenon.Standard 301 established a new independent testing and certification scheme for evaluation of the UV protection offered by textiles.www. . chloropicrin. Methyl Bromide production and use reduced since 1991. 8 . Soil: Chemical alternatives include 1. Many scientists are agreed that methyl bromide is a natural substance but the addition methyl bromide added to atmosphere by humans upset the nature balance. helogenated hydrocarbons and carbon disulfide.com Methyl bromide is soluble in ethers.

This factor can not be adopted due to quality and look of garment during wearing. Loosely packed fabrics have lower UV protection than dense fabrics.5 to 2.fibre2fashion. The UV protection can be further enhance by introducing UV absorbers. Special whitening agents recently developed by Ciba. Thus any conventional outdoor collection. About 90% of garment worn in summer are made of cellulosic fibres. • Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) absorb UVR and transform it into visible light. The UV Standard 801 widely improved over Australian standard by implementing measurements under realistic conditions of use. Manufacturing of UV Protective Garments The fabric or garment can be UV protective by adopting following routes: • The protection UV radiation filtration through fabrics by producing dense knits and weaves with an optical porosity below 1. White fabrics treated with FWA show moderate UV protection. although UV absorber may impair the whiteness of brighten fabrics. The leveling a part of certification is primarily to provide the consumer with a method of educated decision for a sufficient sun protection for is outdoor activities. • Dark shaded dyes often provide a fair UV protection however pale to medium shades of same dyes shows a slight increase of UV protection. etc. it can be UV protective. • By using some specific fibre which has a characteristic of transmittance.www. • Finally the specially designed UV absorber is the strongest way to protect UV radiation. sports wear or bathing collection should be checked. • By using some additive prior to fibre extrusion to manufacture it UV absorber. Ciba Specialty Chemicals releases a range of UV absorbers with very good wash-fastness. ironing. The fabrics made of PES and Wool have good inherent UV absorption capacity however the wool fibre is not suitable for extreme summer whether. Polyester generally contains Ti02 as delustrant but in 1996 Enka-Sun made a viscose fibre which contains Ti02 for UV absorption. Twill weave is much denser than satin and satin weaves due to its high compactness. shrinking and pilling during laundering tend to increase the UV protection factor. 9 . which do not provide ample UV protection. • Generally. pilling. These chemicals applied during laundering and increase or restore the UV protection level after each laundering. certified and leveled along with specially treated '' high protective" wearing item. wetting and washing. Some Important parameters for UV Protective fabrics Weave: The weave or construction of fabrics is the main factor affecting UVR comes through the fabric. By treating these fabrics.0%. The factors which effect the compactness are indirectly responsible to finalize its UV protection factor.com Research indicated that the UV protection of a textile item in wet or stretch condition can be decreased significantly then a dry textile. Some polyamide micro-fibre added to some swimwear items. Certificate is issued for lowest achieved factors in all conditions of use. This type of leveling will provide additional information about that garment for further caring like washing. weathering. like stretching. For shades the application of a UV absorber is essential.

is not always acceptable. as shown by the increase in durability of polyethylene from one year to 20 years with the addition of 1 per cent carbon black. zinc or iron oxides can be used. For other colours titanium. If the polymer must be clear.com Weigh: The weight of the material is less important factor. water or oxygen. dyes that absorb UV but not visible light. The best known polymers of this type are probably the silicones in which there is a silicon-oxygen backbone with organic sidegroups. Although fluorine is not part of the molecular backbone. however. in wet state the UV protection decrease upto 50% but in other textile material it depends on so many other factors. Hence. many attempts have been made to diminish radiation. and this is why materials frequently lose gloss on exposure. The second method would be to make polymers from combinations of elements whose bond strengths exceed the energy available in solar radiation. Although heat can be controlled. the possibilities of success with this approach are limited.www. As discussed in CBD 121. there being three basic approaches that can be taken to achieve this objective. therefore. The first method of minimizing the effect of radiation is to use polymers that do not absorb it. The silicon-oxygen bond is only broken by radiation of wavelengths below 270 nm. oxygen and radiation. without them the material is quartz or silica – SiO2. Some degradation can. Unfortunately. but higher concentrations are required. Fluorocarbon polymers are another example. many are readily decomposed by the other factors. Reflection usually occurs at the pigment surfaces within the resin so that the radiation has to pass through the top layers twice. the compound itself cannot be destroyed but must dissipate the energy harmlessly as 10 . The colour. most such combinations form simple compounds instead of polymerizing. It is necessary to use compounds that are. amount of double and triple bond in the repeat unit of the material. damage to organic building materials might be mitigated if one of the factors could be eliminated or even minimized. the high strength of the fluorine-carbon bonds in the side groups contributes markedly to their excellent exterior durability. Heavier weight fabrics usually block more UVR than light fabrics of the same type. The organic groups are necessary for the material to have the properties required of a polymer. Incorporation of black pigment is very effective. one cannot normally remove oxygen from the environment. it is much more difficult to prevent it from absorbing radiation. however. which should be transparent to UV. Wetness: In case of cotton. Thus. like morphology of the material. The examples given in Table 1 & Table 2 show that radiation tends to be the most important of the three factors of heat. The final and most common procedure in minimizing the effect of radiation is to prevent the polymer from absorbing it. in effect.fibre2fashion. it is difficult to achieve complete transparency except on the laboratory scale. Reducing the Effect of Radiation Because the effects of the combined elements are so severe. polyethylene. For complete absorption to take place the pigment must be black. If the material does not have to be transparent this can readily be accomplished through the incorporation of pigments that reflect radiation or absorb it preferentially. Consequently. Of the few polymers that can be made. ratio of crystalline and amorphous region. In order to continue providing protection. and this 'is not received at the earth's surface. readily degrades on exterior exposure. occur at the surface.

The high efficiency and longevity of HALS are due to a cyclic process in which the HALS are regenerated rather than consumed during the stabilization process. and it becomes economically prohibitive. Prevention of UV radiation by Additives Exposure to sunlight and some types of artificial light have an adverse effect on the useful life of plastic products because UV radiation can break down the chemical bonds in a polymer.fibre2fashion. compatibility of the UV absorber and the polymer being protected may become a problem. However. It must also be appreciated that absorbers do not last indefinitely. As a result.www. In addition at high concentrations. and that the absorption they are intended to prevent will ultimately occur12. effectiveness is reduced at higher concentrations so that more is required than calculated from the formula. Another complication is that compounds are rather specific in their action – even absorbers that are closely related chemically may show large differences in effectiveness with different resins. Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers (HALs) Hindered Amines Light Stabilizers type UV stabilizers are produced by trapping of the intermediately developed redicals. This process is called photo degradation and ultimately causes cracking. Unfortunately this quantity almost doubles the cost of the raw materials. chalking. The HALs operate as UV protectors by combing with oxygen when exposed to light to form stable nitroxide 11 . To counteract the damaging effect of UV light. The few compounds that do perform satisfactorily are referred to as UV absorbers or stabilizers. it is much more difficult to find some that are resistant to the higher energy UV radiation. require an absolute minimum of 5 percent to be effective on exterior wood in two or three coats. which are applied at 1 mil per coat. In some applications. These materials are most efficient when used in materials that have a thick cross-section because the amount required is a function of concentration and thickness. They differs only in terms of substituents at the nitrogen atom or on the opposite ring side (R' and R" ). Significant levels of stabilization are achieved at relatively low concentrations. UV stabilizers are used to interrupt the degradation process. All UV protectors of HALs type are based on a single chemical tetramethylpiperidine. UV stabilizers fall into two groups: ultraviolet light absorbers (UVA's) and hindered amine light stabilizers (HALs). high concentrations of absorbers and sufficient thickness of the polymer are required before enough absorption occurs to retard photo-degradation effectively. Clear coatings. color changes and the loss of physical properties. This relation is not strictly linear. but instead act to inhibit degradation of the polymer. As it is already a problem to obtain dyes that are stable to visible light. a plastic 20 mils thick might be stabilized with 0. Thus.com heat. combinations of UVAs and HALS are employed to enhance the light stability of synthetic polymers. but are slowly degraded. comprehensive tests are needed to determine the type and amount of absorber to be used with any given polymer. UVAs slow down the degradation process by preferentially absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation and dissipating it as thermal energy. They do not absorb UV radiation. HALS are extremely efficient at preventing light-induced degradation of most polymers.5 per cent absorber but require 1 per cent at 10 mils and 2 per cent at 5 mils.

Infrared radiation penetrates in the upper layer of the paint. In first way the use of Non Migrating HALs and in second way Migration Barriers can be use to control the migration. most fabrics. is commonly called fluorescence. SemaSORB 3027-FD is a UV absorbing chemical semaSORB® 3027-FD. Protection by UV Absorbers: Vogt et al3 in a US Patent claimed the manufacturing of ultra violet absorbing polymer latex provided. which have developed from the polymer through exposure to UV rays. glass. 25OC): 14 s pH – value: 5.yellow Consistence ( DIN – Auslaufbecher 4mm. The higher energy photons are present in Ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum are strongly absorbed in these varnishes and binding media. furnishes. HALs protects polymer chemically not physically and their effectiveness depends on the optimum dispersal in the binding agent.0 % in water solvent.g. The absorption of UV photons causes chemical reaction resulting. Some absorbers are capable to absorb the UV radiation. paints. Product information: UV-absorber semaSORB 3027-FD A light – protective substance for technical application e. UV-safety-coatings Specification Appearance liquid : clear. but absorbed by the preliminary charcoal layer that reside behind paint. Some important work has done by different chemical manufacturers. in chemical emission of photons in the visible region of spectrum. dyes.www. in some case. Migration Process: Migration is the undesired movement of the stabilizers between the coating layers and substrate. The nitroxide is highly regenerated redicals and regenerated until it has been degraded itself. The inventive process involves the emulsion polymerization of a benzotriazole or benzophenone – containing monomer with a vinyl functional monomer (acrylic acid monomer) in the presence of a chain transfer agent. in the visible region. The latex provides excellent long-lasting. 12 . The remaining radiation reflected by white or light colored grounds. textiles.2 + 0. easy to apply. Photons of visible light are not absorbed in the layer of varnish and binding media in painting but are transmitted through them. ultraviolet absorption properties for many different substrate. preferably 1-dodec methiol. The latter trap the redicals. The absorption of light photons of high energy and re-emission of photons of lower energy. low.com redicals.02 Ingredients UV – absorber: 10.fibre2fashion. The reduction of migration can achieve by two ways. IR Absorption by Pigments: The paint layers are relatively transparent to infrared radiation. difficult to remove.

requirements for protection against erythemally weighted solar UV radiation Standard guide for labeling of UVprotective textiles Proposed UV protective index for clothing Proposed ASTM CIE TC 6-29 UV standard 801 UV standard 801 Evaluation of UV protection finishes Several organizations around the world have developed or have proposed performance standards for UV protection fabrics.11 They are depicted in Table 3. These methods all determine the transmittance of UV radiation through fabrics and calculate the SPF value using standard charts for the 13 . Table 3: Standards for UV protection finished fabrics Organization Standards Australia/ New Zealand (AS/NZS) Comite European de Normalisation British Standards Institution American Society for Testing and Materials Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage International Test Association for Applied UV Protection Standard AS/NZS 4399 Proposed CEN BS 7949 Title UV protective clothing – evaluation and classification Classification and marking of UV protective apparel Children’s clothing.www. molecules can be formed that have the required absorbance of UV radiation. quick transformation of the high UV energy into the vibration energy in the absorber molecules and then into heat energy in the surroundings without proto-degradation.8-10The reversible chemical reaction. lack of added colour and the necessary affinity to fibres and fastness. Fortunately.com Chemistry of UV protection finishes The requirements for a material to be effective as a UV protection finish include efficient absorption of UV radiation at 300-320 nm.fibre2fashion. The particular standard for the intended market area should be consulted during fabric development. The organizations and their standards are summarized in Table 4. By careful choice of substituent. SPF values of fabrics were determined by irradiating human subjects and measuring the critical amount of radiation necessary to cause skin reddening at a particular wavelength with and without wearing the fabrics. There are some typical chemical structures useful for UV protection. Further requirements are convenient application to textile fibres and lack of added colour for the treated fibre. Several possible application methods are described by Haerri and Haenzi. induced by UV absorption of hydroxyphenyl structures of UV absorbers is well known. In most cases. Before the development of instrumental methods. there are significant differences between the various organizations.12 Although there are multiple standards for UV protective fabrics. the UV absorber is applied with the dyes during the dyeing process. several methods (Table 4) are now available that do not result in a sunburned participant.

fibre2fashion. C. References 1. If a UV absorber is also present in the fibre.R. 29(12). Kane.S. and L. These brightening agents function by absorbing UV radiation and re-emitting visible light. for his inspiration and moral support for publishing this paper. 2. India. 36-43.com Table 4: Test methods for UV protective fabrics Test method AATCC TM 183 BS 7914 Title Transmittance or blocking of erythemally weighted UV radiation through fabrics Method of test for penetration of erythemally weighted solar UV radiation through clothing fabrics Apparel fabrics.E. Shulong US Patent 6194330. solar UV protective properties. A two-step application is necessary if the pH values of the UV protection finish bath and that of the other finishes are very different.www. The UV protection finish should be applied first. Textile Chemist and colorist. 4. NZMS. 1997.14 Troubleshooting for UV protection finishes UV absorbers have the same need for wash fastness and light fastness as dyestuffs. ‘UV-protecting properties of textile fabrics and their improvement’. 2001 Reinert G.15 Acknowledgements The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to Prof. and Smith L. 1981. Proper choice of an appropriate OBA can minimize this problem. 3. Improved Analytical Characterization of Ultra Violet Skylight. R. Executive Director of the Textile & Engineering Institute.E. 14 . Vogt. One concern is specific to the use of UV absorbers in combination with optical brightening agents (OBA). US Patent & Trademark Office. Edited by R Basher. Hilfiker R and Schmindt E. Problems may arise from limited bath uptake after a repellent finish or after calendaring. Proceedings of the seminar on solar ultra violet radiation.6 UV Standard 801 considers in addition the effects of usage of the finished textiles that normally reduce the UV protection.A. the brightening effect from the OBA can be greatly diminished or even absent. Cross K.W. method of test CEN/TC 248/WG 14 solar spectrum and the erythemal effect. Feb 27. Vol 31. Fuso F. In most other cases combination with other finishes does not reduce the UV protection.D. Photochemistry and Photo biology. Laundering trials should be carried out with all new formulations to confirm that the claimed UV protection is actually active during the life of the garment.13. Basic science of solar radiation and its ultraviolet components. Green A. Basher.1980 K. Dr.

Ltd. Schmidt E and Fuso F. Reinert G and Fuso F. 13. June 1998. Melliand Textilberichte. 1994. 1996. 227-234. Hilfiker R. Hatch K L. ‘UV-Cutting-Effekt: Welchen Einfluss haben andere Austrustungen?’. Rieker J. Fuchs H. Charlotte. 65-68. ‘Stabilization of textile fibres against ageing’. 7. from High Performance and Functional Finishes. Rieker J and Guschlbauer T. 11. Standards for UV-protective textiles. 37 (5/6). 15 . Reinert G. 2001. 14. Haerri H P. Ichalkaranji (India). 31 (11/12). Textiles and Sun Protection Conference. Communication from Meisei Chemical Works. Schmidt E and Hilfiker R. 12. Reinert G. 4-11. ‘Wissenschaftliche und praktische Bewertung des UV-Schutzes’. UV Absorbers & Applications. 617619. an AATCC Symposium. 1997. ‘Sonnenschutzeigenschaften textile Flachen und deren Verbesserung’. 10. 606-614. 82 (7/8). E151E153. NC. Teichmann R. 8. ‘UV Standard 801’. University of New South Wales. Haenzi D. Guschlbauer T and Rusmich S. Korber W and Matt W.fibre2fashion. Sydney. Hilfiker R.2002. Review Progress Coloration Related Topics. Textilveredlung. May 1993. 2002. Japan.com 5. Textilveredlung. 75 (7/8). 6. 66 (2). ‘UV absorbers for woven cotton fabrics’. ‘Facts about the application of UV absorbers on textiles’. 15. ‘Improving sun protection factors of fabrics by applying UV-absorbers’. International Textile Bulletin. 48 (5). 1999. 27. Kaufmann W. 9. The authors are associated with Textile & Engineering Institute. January 2000. Reinert G and Schmidt E. Melliand Textilberichte. Textile Research Journal. 34 (11/12).www. 5-9. 61-70. Textilveredlung. 1996. 33-34.

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