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AND SEVENTEENTH ST. PHILADELPHIA .TRANSACTIONS OF THE WAGNER FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE OF PHILADELPHIA VOLUME JANUARY. 1898 WAGNER FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE MONTGOMERY AVE. V.

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AND SEVENTEENTH ST. 2. A STUDY OF HAWAIIAN SKULLS BY HARRISON ALLEN. M.TRANSACTIONS OF THE WAGNER FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE OF PHILADELPHIA VOL. A. V WAGNER FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE MONTGOMERY AVE.M.D. PHILADELPHIA . V. NOTES ON THE PALEONTOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS OF PROFESSOR WILLIAM WAGNER BY WILLIAM HEALEY DALL. JANUARY. 1898 1.

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M.A STUDY OF HAWAIIAN SKULLS BY HARRISON ALLEN. .D.

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M. Economy.. Professor of Botany. . Literature.S. Curator of Museum.. and Political A. ROBERT ELLIS THOMPSON.. JOSEPH W1LLCOX. Professor of Engineering. S.D.M. President.M. M. S.. Treasurer. THOMAS H. of Invertebrate Paleontology. Professor of History.E. Honorary Professor A. T. B.. Professor of Physics. FACULTY HENRY LEFFMANN. A. WAGNER.M. RICHARD J. Actuary and Librarian. SCOTT. B... T. * HENRY LEFFMANN. WAGNER. Secretary. A. SAMUEL TOBIAS WAGNER. WESTBROOK. SKIDMORE.M. C. M. CHARLES W. T. THOMAS L.B. HARRISON MORRIS.C.D. President of the Faculty. Professor of Biology. S.. W. MONTGOMERY.. A. Professor of Chemistry. Ph. JR..WAGNER FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE OF PHILADELPHIA TRUSTEES SAMUEL WAGNER. A. JOHNSON. T.D.E. A. J.S. SKIDMORE. S. WILLIAM HEALEY DALL.. S.D. T. B. MONTGOMERY. Jr. M..' ... ROTHROCK.M.. VAUGHAN MERRICK. Secretary of the Faculty. B. Professor of Geology. ..

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. In a general sense this earlier article memoir is a continuation of Dr. Florida.PREFATORY NOTE IN few which presenting this remarkable craniological study to the scientific public. . published in the Journal of the Academy phia (vol. did not exaggerate " its merits when he Heft 3.raniologists That paper attracted most favorable of Europe. 1896)." to establish was one of Dr." of Natural Sciences. last This memoir was the of Dr. The same terminology adopted and the lines of investigation are analogous. sible more comparison than those latter to a common and. orbital and offered as entirely new the comparisons of the pyramidal process of the palatal bone and the prominence or recession of the zygoma when the skull is viewed from above. x. He estisuture. it in the Centralblatt fur Antliropologie (Bd. to subject the much closer criticism than they have heretofore received. and Professor Emil Schmidt. on the other hand. Allen's many contributions to our knowledge of organic forms and their modifications. As on several occasions he manuscript and explained to me what features in it he considered of special importance. 258) with the words. closed his review of p. in and if posuse. work is the most important craniological investigation which Ameri- can scientific literature It has had to show for a long series of years. attention from the leading c. Allen's ii. which showed me his the Committee on Publication has kindly suggested I should write. In the former direction he emphasized the significance of the presence of the prenasal fossa as determining grade pointed out the value of the infra.. November 24. it may be well in these introductory lines. John's River. a words in reference to its lamented author and to the chief results it reaches will not be unwelcome to readers. of Leipsic. Allen's previous of the St. which is generally neglected . to single out these points for comment.. Only a week before his sudden death he handed it to the Publication Committee. Philadelis on " Crania from the Mounds etc. prepared so carefully that it was in all respects ready for the printer. Allen's chief aims stable criteria of cranial some other.

explained. in the modification of skull-forms ? more distant In the present out some of these with force. he asked my attention particularly to the consideration whether the whole range of exanthemata. had he memoir he brings lived. and in some degree to differences of mental strength This modest statement by no means conveys the full import of his demonstration.Vlll PREFATORY NOTE mated with precision the signification of p. Dr. is that the ordinary skull-forms. In the last conversation I had with him. The last lines of the memoir are indicative of his loftier estimate of .-Edoniorphism as a sign not so much of arrested as of incompleted development. The his " which he placed in the paragraph previous to concluding remarks" were of far more weight in his own mind than his tentative inquiries expressions indicate. and lessening nutrition and modifying shape and contour. while others. What his laborious. He also almost incidentally refers in the present paper to a subject which interested him deeply and on which he would have made more extended examinations . and especially measles. was in own words that "the differences between the crania are not due to race. skilful. and accurate measurements. are not chargeable with cranial many of its peculiar characteristics in facial and anatomy. what are the immediate and factors. a few days before his decease. upon which many stately theories of races and schemes of prehistoric interminglings have been erected." living. taken in conjunction with the proved unity of race but diversity of nutrition and culture-conditions of his specimens. striking of the results demonstrated in the present in conversation Undoubtedly the most memoir. in turn. as above mentioned. Allen asked himself. Thus. contrasts in Pursuing this line of research further. is clearly . the correlation of the loss of in cranial is the upper front teeth with important variations mirably set forth thus. the mental capacity of the individual as a distinct cause of modified skull-form. are of such minor and doubtful significance that they are inadequate for that purpose. which. show. to which the white race has been time out of mind exposed and is now largely immune. What is the proximate and remote etiology. he aimed to approach it by novel tests. that is. but to methods of in individuals. It was clearly his intention to present this from a much wider comparative scheme than the present memoir permitted. are merely suggested. and the influence of diseased action causing disuse. he would have conformation ad- developed fully. and that on which his he laid the greatest stress. While this in itself is not new.

the underlying those profound forces which shape and mould life-forms everywhere. G. D. BRINTON. should be made to the novel graphic method which Dr. M.D. plants In this loftier sense craniology takes just rank among the great and leading subjects of scientific investigation. and morbid processes which alter the cranial contours admirable illustrations of highly . he did not esteem it but he saw in the investigation of the nutritive. . and points out its superior advantages over the graphic system of comparison by curves. some memoir. As such. psychical. and are momenta of all morphology.PREFATORY NOTE ix craniology than as a mere criterion of race. and which is published for the first time in reference this In conclusion. He called it the " terrace" method. Its excellence for this and allied purposes will be obvious to the student at a glance. whether of or of animals. Allen devised. cultural.

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isolated. caves. and one of the people from the The crania of the time before and that after the European superficial graves. and the sad record of deterioration due to infectious diseases traced in indubitable characters. which appear to be readily inspected by the casual The remains of Captain Cook himself lie buried in one of these Yet." Alexander. not is the student similarly only by chronology. Alexander. qualifies these accounts with reference to bones that have been found in ancient coral beds that evidently are of great antiquity. locality of a vast range of distribution which began in Southeastern Asia at a period varying from the fifth to the eleventh centuries. to Also. 10 The accounts pre- served of the methods of burial are sufficiently exact to define two kinds of one of a noble class from the caves. Whitney.INTRODUCTION THE specimens represent the most remote. " This statement is confirmed by J. yet The in estimation study of the skulls of the Hawaiian Islanders is of exceptional interest. D. and the people into which the ancient Hawaiians were divided extended into their methods of burial. indeed. lava within to on the country below. That the distinction between three social classes the nobles. Hawaiian burial-places. In no other series of crania of a primitive people assisted. in steep cliffs running down the water's edge at Kealakeakua Bay. we are informed by W. A some opening on the mountainstill side would cool itself first on the surface.' who interment were larly in says. The most ancient and favorite of these places of the old lava caves. many of these open from mountain-sides. the deified bones of the chiefs were generally carefully concealed in secret 7 and inaccessible caves. conquest can be distinguished. and often from apparently inaccessible precipices. the caves are said by Dr. are a great number of ancient observer. M. and thus long irregular caves of varying empty dimensions would be formed. with which the island of Hawaii particulava stream flowing from abounds.' According to this authority. leaving the flowing. but by the operation of factors which have in modified the form recent and relatively short periods of time. crania. Whitney to be the ancient . as a whole. the priests.

A house is described by him built of fragments of up evenly on the outside. of Princeton University. from four to six broad. sixty-five . as of the though in some instances placed in caves and subterranean caverns in a rule. Diseases local to the alimentary canal and lungs were subject to apoplexy and asthma. Chapin 4 describes them. while the coast burials are more recent. same year Professor Benjamin Sharp. The supply of food in pre- European times was monotonous. must be acknowledged that the account of W. and most them of recent origin. such as measles. I The number necessarily small and can be here excluded. The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia possesses a miscellaneous series of Hawaiian skulls which have been collected from of. others lava. The people were and a mild form of rheumatism attacked both classes. Some were apparently ancient. of the Academy of Natural Sciences. made a collection at Kipakai. occasional fishj With the exception of a few fruits and an hog. and syphilis. diseases and leprosy were also unheard But both classes had much in common. common. whooping-cough. nobility were of large stature. generally about eighty feet long. Whitney. prepared from the taro (Colocasia In 1893 a collection of skulls was stances made by Dr. trasts mortuary customs harmonizes with certain conThe physical proportions between the upper and lower caste. They had more abundant food than the lower were great gluttons. Malarial of. laid evidently had been standing but a few years. which are as certainly of the lower class. which are separated into a high class group.xii INTRODUCTION sepulchres. Ellis' of a depository of the dead is of separate value. diseases with which Europeans are typhoid fever. Dr. or fowl. under circumIn the which make it certain that they are all of the noble class. Nothing was known of the systemic afflicted. All the specimens above named. scarlet fever. difference noted in in The 1837. and about four feet high. a farinaceous dish antiqiioruiri). and Professor William Libbey. The bodies of the priests were buried within the precincts of the temple. on the island of Kauwai. while those of the common people were. typhus fever. as eating three or four heavy meals of flesh and poi daily and becoming excessively corpulent. superficial graves. am of the opinion that the statements here made do not and a low invalidate the conclusion that the material forming the basis of this paper represents two classes of crania. buried in small pits near houses or priests is the sand. the islanders subsisted on poi. mumps. The specimens herewith It studied appear to have come from one or the other of these localities. as late as caste. indeed.

Whitney. Sixteen of these were collected by Messrs. The laborers introduced from other islands of late years. through the operation of which the bodies of the ruling class were buried in the caves and the lower classes in the sand. most part. the smallest processes in the interior of the nose. thirty-three in number. are of a lower structural type as compared with those of the cave. and remove the teeth for the The cave skulls are. to the One of these.INTRODUCTION Xlll number. impossible to say to what extent the above differences were due to caste. those having a uniform Isabella brown part. The specimens of the cave crania are of two series collected at one time by Dr. or to what degree Whitney's statement can be accepted. they are often stunted. that the coast crania are all . tint and those which were bleached in whole or in The statements of residents explain these contrasts. The miscellaneous series of the Morton cabinet exhibit in marked degree evidences of diseases of inflammatory origin . on the whole. were numerous small exostoses and arthritic deformations. according to Dr. The teeth are often lost dropping out. fortunately came under my observation. Whitney from a lava in cave on the island of Hawaii. since the natives ceased use the caves for burial purposes after European intrusion. The by coast skulls. to. but. the bones . are rarely perfect. are well show evidences of low grade in many details. for the purpose of making necklaces. and in and occupied with numerous foramina of absorption together a measure concomitant. almost uniformly of an inferior grade. The brown speci- mens are from the caves graves. being often thin with this. developed. and are bleached and deteriorated in other ways by exposure to the It is air. fourteen in number. The specimens. but are commonly the subject of defective nutrition. eighteen in number. he presented . being undisturbed. and show a greater variety of diseased action. In general appearance the specimens form two groups. with few exceptions. on the other hand. Sharp and Libbey. The cave skulls and the bleached specimens are from the superficial are undoubtedly more than a hundred years old. The coast skulls. as will be seen. he presented to the Museum of the Harvard Dental School. are in the main in the series represented in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and Princeton University. seek everywhere for the skulls. The in coast crania studied.more recent . or even sometimes knocked out. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia the other. yet they are intact. free from disease affecting the periphery. and even the tartar and food detritus on the teeth.

the ranges of anatomical variation between the cave since the ethnic type and coast groups being naturally much the same. The crania of the Hawaiian Islands have received attention from Retzius.' 5 and Virchow.' J. the second a systematic record of selected characters. The conclusions drawn from these methods is is that the all things being considered. The most elaborate studies are those of Davis and Turner. . the differences in percentages of anatomical variation was also found to be of considerable interest. with nine from the caves." Turner. But while the contrasts between the two series in measurement was striking and expressed in terms of precision.' 7 Dumoutier. most fruitful. and by inference that they show detrimental effects of contact with Europeans. first.' 6 Uhde. cave series in this paper is much the largest of any that has been observed. not only in the abrupt departure from a diet to which had been accustomed. had been long isolated. Davis. The former measuring thirty-two examples (four of which were from caves) and the latter It will be seen that the number of the thirty-seven. the people In recording the peculiarities of these crania two methods were entertained. B. 5 Flower. but in the character of the attacks of infectious disease to which they were in no degree immune. The specimens will be often mentioned by the names of the institutions where they are owned or by the initials of the same. The first included measurements.xiv INTRODUCTION than those of the caves.

therefore. ten (thirty-one 15 . S. and full ten (thirty-two per cent. nineteen were found to be I males and fourteen to be females.) to be meso- In Turner's series of cephalic. show The analyses of the breadth index in the cave series that twenty-one (sixty-five per cent. and microcephalic. according to the law of averages. comIt is probable that the parable to my coast series). only one was mesocephalic.) to be mesocephalic. and four (fourteen per cent. expressly stated by Turner not to be from caves (and. The female skulls have is been excluded from in the studies of averages and indices.. and being so few number. this corresponds nearly to the skulls in the largest series of this paper. six mesocephalic. BREADTH INDEX. one of all the skulls examined P. one H. four cave crania. mine is so great that a word of The discrepancy between this result and comment is demanded. U. Turner had but four all cave skulls under observation.. yet. N.) mesocephalic..) are brachycephalic. (fifty-two per cent. a conclusion in harmony with In Turner's other deductions drawn in contrasting the two series of skulls. have contented myself with recording their measurements. about evenly distributed.) microcephalic. ten (thirty-four per cent. Of the coast series. and three A. all male with the exception of five. of them being males . and two microcephalic . fourteen (forty-five per cent. U.) to The cubical capacity of the cave series shows fifteen be megacephalic. Measurements CUBICAL CAPACITY.HAWAIIAN SKULLS Sex The sex namely. group of Oahu crania (eighteen tabulated) the three kinds of crania were viz. In the tabulated twenty-seven crania from Oahu. since but one female was found in all the cave crania. seven (twenty-three per only are megacephalic. there were twelve females. In the Hawaiian crania studied by Turner. smaller number of females noted by myself is due to the fact that the coast crania were for the most part collected from an ancient battle-field at Kipakai. five seven megacephalic.) microcephalic. this series is regarded by Turner cent. one megacephalic.

16 TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS MEASUREMENTS OF Number. Catalogue .

FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS CAVE SKULLS Width. Nasal .

18 TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS MEASUREMENTS OF Number. Catalogue .

FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS COAST SKULLS 5 3 5 ~ 1 .

412) I denote the distance between the bregma and the alas of the vomer as they join the is body of the sphenoid bone.) mesaticephalic. According to Turner. selected the nasion for one point. sixteen (fifty-five per cent. Of the cave crania. and In the coast is Turner's conclusions are practically the same.) are leptorhine. and four (fifteen per In Turner's Oahu series seven were orthognathous. since Turner regards the no examples which are not megaseme. I may be well to say. The coast series.) four (ninety-two per cent. This series embraces skull 1753 H. bregma itself. in the cave series two were mesorhine and two leptorhine. six mesorhine. per cent. which has a very well profossa.. sixcent. that this height may measure the degree of depression of the compared to the It must be conprocess. It is nounced prenasal doubtful in what manner skulls having this for this index.) megaseme. The Oahu and series of Turner exhibited seven brachy(twenty-seven per cent. value.) prognathous. 1 104 H. Turner's cave series were all brachy- cephalic.) is dolichocephalic. teen mesognathous. ten (thirty-three percent.) platyrhine. series there are The orbital index exhibits in the cave series twentycent. a measurement of great . nine (thirty-four per cent. fifteen (fifty Of the coast series. per cent. ALVEOLAR INDEX. In the Turner crania two were mesognathous and In the coast series thirteen (fifty two were orthognathous. and five per cent.2O TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS per cent. and three prognathous.) are leptorhine. five (sixteen per cent.) (seventeen brachycephalic. and ten (thirty-three per cent. and two leptorhine. and the top of the incisor crest as the second. ten (thirty per cent.) prognathous.) are cephalic. This skull is described under the head of Diseased Action as an example of change in skull-form. and six (eighteen per cent. Of the cave series. eight orthognathous. exhibit fifteen (fifty per cent. 2 the vomerobregmatic height (see Florida Skulls. ORBITAL INDEX. fifteen dolichocephalic. to indicate (when this measurement of inclination of the basilar basibregmatic) the degree ceded.) mesaticephalic.) platyrhine. none microseme. interest. however. three were platyrhine. and five (seventeen per cent. on the contrary. therefore. due to disease.) mesognathous. and of the Oahu crania.) are orthognathous. of NASAL INDEX. eleven mesaticephalic. This statement Oahu crania to be mesoseme. in taking the meas- urement. I do not consider it. By p. U. two (eight per mesoseme. U.) mesognathous. seventeen (fifty-one per cent. and only one (No.) mesorhine. since the limitation for height It peculiarity should be is measured a difficult matter to determine.) mesorhine.) dolichocephalic.

.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS 21 Observations on the Collation of Measurements must be acknowledged that the results obtained by the measurement of skulls have not met the expectation of those who have made them. I will illustrate my meaning by reference to the measurements of the Interorbital Width. and which precisely those measurements most frequently recurring as well as those which are absent. an arrangement which will include from the all the numbers of a given will indicate series in order minimum to the maximum. because this is subject to the least amount of variation. The It average measurement means of expression of general I venture to conclusions. propose a method of treatment of the figures which to me to have advantages over mere summation or the securance of appears is often inadequate as a averages. The figures as copied from the table are as follows : CAVE.

29. in namely. and in each there has been two breaks in sequence. 27 and : the cave. between 20 and 22. in the coast in both these occur towards the ends. In attempting to record these peculiarities in a graphic manner I have placed the numbers on quadrille paper as follows : CHART iNTERORlilTAL I. and 26 and 28. and between 18 and 20. WIDTH .22 TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS In each of the columns ten kinds of numbers are recorded.

LONGITUDINAL OCCIPITAL ARC -fe .FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS CHART II.

is series with this series. which indicates that there eter of 19 is one specimen which has an is interorbital diamin mm. series is is much the same. Comparing the line for the cave that of the coast. exhibit no breaks in sequence. not only which repeat themselves most frequently. since is this measurement It is evident that the dissimilarity in in between the coast and the cave marked.. and since there is no skull the series having a meas- urement of 21 mm. in evidence of contrasts which can be accepted as caste.. and the general appearance of the two records of the most variable. corresponding to the distinctions between the high and low All things being the same. but that the cave series. and four measuring 55 the same series. Reviewing the entire series. for we learn that the cave series show not only a higher grade of series is numbers (the series running from 47 to 60. In the coast series there a less marked disposition for the skulls to have the same num- ber. The number is 19 in the cave is series indicates that the minimum measurement in the series 19 mm.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 24 HAWAIIAN SKULLS The line is to be read from below upward. but also greater breaks sequence in others. namely. also. herewith presented. The number above that of 19 20. The differences in these lines in the measurements is more easily in detected by mapping out the manner above indicated than any other way known to me. save in two instances only. five skulls only being in The biauric- ular measurement can be accepted as having the opticonasion. and that repre- sented by a single square of the paper. but in the breaks coast series exhibiting constancy in in those numbers sequence.. The biauricular measurement and the opticonasion measurement are. an asterisk employed in place of the missing number. but between 20 and 22 there in a break in the sequence. same significance as the The greatest breadth. the many instances. as a rule. is interparietal for both cave and coast . 25. it is seen at a glance that the number which is most frequently represented is 25. in the opticonasion length. There are five crania measuring 48 mm. five is measuring 53 mm. in this group. while the coast but 30 to 57). is . seven measuring 50 mm. it will be noted that the most constant number in also. mm. with mentality. 47 mm. marked by a central dot. while that of the coast shows five such interruptions at the same time that the cave series is disposed to be relatively more constant. I contrast the interorbital width with the longitudinal occipital arc. I believe a measurement of the opticonasion (which is approximately for the base of the anterior frontal lobe) correlates.. there being six skulls is the series of this measurement of 20 mm.

FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS CHART III. BIAURICULAR .

The instances of the greatest breadth being intersquamosal are more frequent in the cave than in the coast. CHART OPTICONASION .26 TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS series. in the figures 9 for the former and 4 for the latter. as shown IV.

while at the same time the interruptions of the in sequence only greater. GREATEST DIAMETER OF FACE CHART .FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS best marked is in the former. V. fourteen numbers being represented the cave and eight in the coast.

is well seen in the in measurements of the nasomalar There VI. is more constancy the coast CHART BIMALAR LINE ." line. The prominence of the root of the nose. the cave series showing fewer breaks in sequence and more constancy. or " radix.28 TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS between the two series is noteworthy.

the degrees of constancy being greater in the cave The opticonasion measurement is also important. CHART VII. NASOMALAR LINE . contrasts.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS 29 shows curious group. since it is an approxima- tion to the length of the frontal lobes.

the description of the nasal bones. lines The terms.. also exhibit striking contrasts. and same measurement These form taken clumps. are striking charAll the chamaeprosopic crania closely resemble one another. 60 mm. The glabella large. The widths line of the face. acters.) and 1 105 (plate is ii. and again invite attention to three examples found among the Hawaiians. in the almost numberless ways in which the subject of variation can be approached. which is harmonious with the results obtained from other observations on the same group.. less uniformity. the skull-rest is on condyle and opisthion. Studies in Variation I concede that. as a rule. the bimalar and the nasoinalar lines. In a word. as in the curves of the profile. and the anterior nasal aperture. which is usually employed in making graphic records. . as shown in the greatest face diameter.. U. the projecting jaw. something must be left to the personal inclina- tion or interest of the observer.. The following features are held by 2 me to be vations on the worthy of comparison. the nose-root (radix) depressed. and afterwards using them as data for the brief conclusions here preserved. I become I have noted such in the paper on Floridan skulls. 1 107 (plate i. the receding chin. as opposed to 30 mm. H.. In both Nos.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 30 HAWAIIAN SKULLS It will be seen that there are more breaks less disposition for the skulls of the is in the coast than in the cave to series.). Cham&prosopy In races which are leptoprosopic the few chamasprosopic skulls of special interest. reader is referred to the Florida Skull Memoir for explanation of all Some of these. " It is not thought to be neces- The word numbers and terrace" is an appropriate term to use in arranging the on the quadrille paper. with the lower figures themselves 57 mm. sary to print the tables themselves. My method consisted in tabulating all the characters which form the basis of this section. and appears to me more instructive than would a curve.). there (viz. a conclusion 47 mm. for I had in the paper on Floridan skulls made obsersame peculiarities. are innovations. facts. The frowning expression. indicate inferiority.

especially in the proportions of the parietal bone. U. show peculiar inflation of the superior maxillae. N. the lachrymal bone. In specimen No. without deeply suture trace. and No. 1107 it is straight. A. striking examples In No. In the specimen. jecting. 1 105 this is highly proin the degree of projection of the upper jaw. The cave in in skull is much higher in grade than the coast.. in the retention of an open sagittal suture.. . 1105. S. in the coast than in in the cave Indeed. while in No. H. coast. and the shape of the temporal impression are almost exactly as in the skull of a child. and in the flat hard palate. The nasal bones. fissure. and the temporal not interrupted at the stephanion. much more conspicuous S... Pczdomorphism The retention of the child type of skull in the adult. Well-developed tympanic exostoses and small prenasal fossae are seen in both specimens. the premaxilla exhibits well-defined depressions. it may be said to be almost absent the latter. 2094. series. 565 and 1300. 1755.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS the anterior nasal spine and incisor crest rudimentary.. dolichocephalic and The skull-rest condyle-opisthotic. U. in The skulls resemble one another having wide pterygoid plates and markedly hyperIn the cave skull the malar bone is remarkable for joining bolic hard palates. while in The malar bone the coast skulls it the cave skull enters the sphenoidal the former the bone is is does not. the mastoid processes. The anterior surfaces of the bones are convex. rhombocephalic skulls. Nos. Inflated Maxilla S. is is also chamaeprosopic. A. the admission of the malar bone into the sphenomaxillary fissure exceptionally large. No. and 1116. which is described It is in the section on dis- eased action. cave. Among the former three. or of individual traits is of the child's skull. A. 1104. the skull is massive and heavy. 1300. is of the retention are seen. The infraorbital canal is 10 mm. In sharp contrast to the maxillae. N. the type massive. Two N. The chief contrasts are noted impression In No. while on the right side of the coast skull the bone furrowed on the inner side. and give a swollen appearance to the face. below the orbital margin. H.

showed evidences of absorption in the wall of the nasal chamber. yet were separated circumstances in conditions of life which embraced differences contrasts. c. the result arising from a centre of The Prenasal Fossa In the specimen No. left left they are stunted. is not so deep.12 TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS It appears that both specimens are of persons who belonged to the same by variable type. one cannot separate the or. as lachrymal bone from the outline of the nasal chamber. 25. U. The part here called the ectal (see Infraorbital Suture) it passes over the ental. Specimen No. The fossa. but of the basil eminence. and yielded some equally striking individual The Lachrymal Bone While classified with the bones of the orbit. 3. (c. It is of interest to note that the hamular process will not infrequently articulate with the maxilla. exhibits the hamular different textures. aet. c) The vomer (e) triangular cartilage. ?. in nutrition. while as wide as the right. The fossa proper (b) defined between this eminence and the openings incisor teeth. But on the incisor. from the face. The well-defined contours of the bone overlie the incisor The maxillae exhibit marked asymmetry crest just over the basal eminence. a ossification. c. which are placed over the roots of the retains the sulcus for the accommodation of the On the right side the parts are of normal proportion. interstitial U. P.. maxillae should not escape notice. and extends over the region of the roots of the teeth. in all probability. where the base of the ascending process enters into the composition of the inferior orbital margin. the fossa insensibly blended with the alveolar region over the almost rudimentary incisors. indeed.. tive compara- anatomy teaches. thus excluding from the margin and entering into . The is alveolar line (d) is unusually bold and left trenchant on the right side. 1751. process marked by numerous minute foramina and of peculiarity. is Other peculiarities left of the maxilla? The infraorbital margin of the with open suture. a peculiarity embracing the alveoli of the which are scarcely half the size of those on the opposite side. which. as seen in the resemblances above noted. in many respects. not well defined on the is below the level Indeed. H. at the incisor region. the nasal eminence is (a) is raised well above the floor of the nose.

in the region answering to the teeth. wide at the free margin cave and 1 1 mm. of the coast. . on the right side the advanced so as to form part of the outer wall of obliterated. A. 1752. Comparisons of the degree of angulation on the condyles of the lower jaw the degree of concealment of the last molar by the base of the coronoid process.. is noted to the the subject in the study of the Florida skulls. grade. variation in both the S. which now embrace many individuals. In varying degrees of development the prenasal fossa is present in thirty- nine per cent. as now comin the found to be 12 mm. pleted. thus showing that is of significance in determining number was seven in the former and fourteen in the latter. the process is In the study. The entire number of bones examined was twenty-two. the comparative study of the skull. as accurately shown in plate iv. the position of the mental foramen with respect to the teeth. The actual The Pyramidal Process The pyramidal process overlooked. in the coast. so far as I of the palatal bone in is a character which has been I know. but the number of lower jaws in the coast are so few as to make 3 results inadequate. The variation is probably due to pre- border I mature symphysal union. where reference made large size of the process in the Hawaiian form. The Lower In specimen No. left on the side it is excluded. have seen but one example similar to this in my examinations of crania. and just above the beginning of the inferior dental canal. N. of the cave series as opposed to twenty-four per cent. is On the right side the union between the ectal and ental portions lachrymal crest at the base the ductus ad nasmn : is Again. The other parts of the face present nothing unusual. The ramal peculiarity was confined to a foramen on the inner side of the base of the coronoid process. The position is shown by the arrow engraved on the figure. Jaw The body presents a convex lower the lower jaw presents an extraordinary body and the ramus.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS 42 composition of the ductus ad nasum. the peculiarities of the genial spine and crest were made in all examples.

following tables of measurements of the lower jaw will prove useof the specimens are unaccompanied with the skulls. growth of the body of the bone could be well seen in an Hawaiian skull The figured short goniosymphyseal length is by Dumoutier.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 34 HAWAIIAN SKULLS The in disposition for the condyloid process to be angulated is more marked the cave series than in the coast. Some CAVK. The ful. is present in three of the cave series. thus indicating a disposition for the body of the bone to be shortened. concealment of the third molar by the base of the coronoid process. . six examples being found in the former in and two only the latter. and in one only is the molar dispartial The tinctly in advance of the process. relative degree of It would be desirable to select a measure by which the fixed.

FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS 35 COAST. .

TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS Table correlating the Position of tal tJie Infraorbital Suture to Orbi- Measurements .

the inion . inflated) in the lower The disposition for the alisphenoid to unite with the parietal bone. or a farther in advance of this place near the bregma. It is deflected left in thirty-two per cent. and would tend to present a single curve (opisthioglabellar) from opisthion to the glabella. as a rule. . The frontosquamosal junction is found in two examples of cave crania and in one. on Florida skulls first I my memoir At noted the curves seen in the profile of that a well-developed skull is the brain-case. it can be said that it is in harmony with other facts. The to the nasal septum is straight. there are but eight oval skulls in the cave series and twenty-three rhombecephalic. of the coast.e. it is appears to have no connection with grade. facts a tendency for In which bear out the conclusion that high-grade people exhibit the nasal septum to be deflected to the left. The remaining curves are so few in number as not to be thought worthy .. In one cave and the left being in one coast cranium the junction is found on the right side. Yet in the cave series such a curve is present in twenty-three per cent. of the coast. for in the cave series in forty-two present per cent. as shown following statement : for the cave series nineteen per cent. we in the have a great preponderance of the coast grade over the cave. disposed to be swollen (i. of the cave skulls and in fifteen per cent. sight it would seem an expanded one. caste group. by a prominent inion this process. in both groups. Respecting the shape of the skull. or. when the skull is viewed from above. only. but of first muscular power. is nearly twice as large in the cave series as in the coast. being created by muscle traction. permitting the squamosal element made the subject of special scrutiny. whereas there are nineteen oval skulls in the coast series and thirteen rhombecephalic. is intellection. alisphenoidoparietal. best expressed in the grade. nevertheless. and for the coast series fifty-two per cent. while in the coast The next grade giabellar) is found in it is found in twenty-six per cent. is its absence. The basal aspect of the petrosal portion of the temporal bone. and only in three per cent. inio- interparietoglabellar) interrupted at the intertuberal portion of little the sagitta.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS zygoma is concealed. so the curve must be read not by the standard of which. of the coast . an interruption of the curve (opisthioinion inio. Thus.. in to join witli tlie frontal bone. When is over-prominent and yet the rest of the cranial curve (opisthioinion interparietal . as is it lies near the basilar process.

TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER
HAWAIIAN SKULLS

of expressing

by percentages.

It is

of interest to note, however, that but one

cave skull shows a depression at the lambda sufficiently marked to cause an
interruption of the profile curve, while three of this kind are found in the

coast series.
sity) a

In the coast series in one skull (No.
is

3,

?, Princeton Univer;

marked depression
:

found at the obelion, marking an opisthioinion

inio-obelial

obelial intertuberal curve,

which

is

of the lowest grade possible,

since

it

indicates a retarded expansion of both the occipital

squama and the

parietal bones.

The
3

glabella

is

slightly larger in the cave people, being 5

mm.

as against

mm.

in

diameter.

The
2O

junctions of the nasal bones with the frontal bone,

the maxilla, and premaxilla are as follows: with frontal bone, 3
series; with maxilla,

mm.

for

both

mm.
is

for the 3

cave and 19

mm.

for the coast; with pre-

maxilla,

4 mm.

for the cave

and

mm.

for the coast.
in

The

nose-root (radix)

9 mm. long

cave and 8

mm.

for the coast

;

the

angulation 83

of the former as against 82

of the latter.

The

salient

is

14
the

mm.

long

in the

cave and 12

mm.

in

the coast, with a salient of 35

in

former as against 41
uniformity
is

of the latter.

In

all

the crania, therefore, a singular

noted

in

the characters selected for comparison excepting the
is

nose

salient,

where the projection

more marked
is

in

the coast.
In the

The position of the mental foramen
cave series the foramen
is

subject to slight variation.

opposite the second premolar in four examples,

between the premolars molar in one.

in three,

and between the second premolar and

first

The genial spine
and
in

is

double as a
in

rule.

It is

present in nine cave bones
coast.
in

seven coast, and single
genial crest
is

one cave and two
in the

The
to have

developed

same way

both series and appears

little

significance.

The
Since the hyperbolic form
is

Hard
found
in

Palate
advanced stages of
civilization,
it is

natural to infer that the cave series
coast,
i.e.,

would show a higher percentage than the

eighty-nine per cent, as against eighty-five per cent.

The

para-

bolic form, on the other hand, is found in lower types, and the four per cent, of the cave as against fifteen per cent, of the coast was to be expected. 1\\e foramen lacerum medium, whether present or absent, is a study which

has interested me.

It is

closed in lower types both of quadrupeds and of

FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE
HAWAIIAN SKULLS

39

men.

The comparison here

is

rather against than in favor of the proposition
is

as stated, for the percentage of the closed foramina while small

confined to

the cave series.

The

spinous process of the sphenoid bone
is

when overlapping the

petroso-

advance from the juvenile expression, and all things remaining the same, from the primitive adult type. But the examination does not bear out this conclusion, for the cave series
sphenoidal suture
to indicate an

assumed by me

exhibits the overlapping in twenty-one per cent, as against twenty-seven per
cent, of the coast.

The
groups.

anterior nasal opening yields

some

interesting contrasts in the
series,

two
it

The high

incisor crest

is

found only in the cave
It is

where

exists in the proportion of six per cent.

absent in the coast
is

series.

On

the contrary, the absence of the crest, a sign of low grade,
in

more frequent

the cave than

in

the coast, as seen in the figure, sixty-eight per cent, of
fifty

the former as compared to the

per cent, of the

latter.
is

The temporal
harmony
five

line as
in

it

crosses the coronal suture in the coast series
is,

more uniform than

the cave series, and

therefore, an indication of the

of development existing between the frontal bone as

compared with

that of the parietal.

Such uniformity

is

indicated in the percentage, seventy-

per cent, of the coast as contrasted with the sixty-three per cent, of the

cave.

The lambdoidal
largely relate to the
in

suture near the asterion

is

determined by causes which
brain, as

volume of the return blood from the

shown

the position of the venous sinuses.
is

In a morphological sense the region
all tilings

of the asterion

a

weak

part of the skull, and,

remaining the same,
it

the sutures will close less firmly in the higher types, so
find forty-three per cent, of

is

reasonable to

harmonic suturation and but
fifty

in

the cave series as against

thirty-three per cent, in the coast,
in

per cent, of serrate suturation

the cave as against sixty-seven per cent, in the coast.

We

have found the

weaker of the two temporal muscles to be associated with the harmonic variety of suturation in specimen No. 1 104 (page 47) showing that the weaker
temporal muscle naturally correlates with luxury and the more sedentary
of the higher caste.
life

The
relation

skull-rest as

it

effects the occiput is of

importance

in

studying the

between the brain and the

skull.
in

The

skull rests on the occipital

bone well up from the foramen
but twenty per cent.
;

magnum

the coast series only, and here

it

rests in thirty-three

per cent, of the series as against

TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER
4
HAWAIIAN SKULLS

twenty-eight per cent, of the coast on the posterior border of the foramen

magnum, while
difference in the

it

rests

on the

occipital condyles in thirty-nine per cent, of the

cave as against twenty-seven per cent, of the coast, thus showing a marked

two groups, though

it is

difficult to

assign reasons for

it.

It

can be stated
the

in definite

terms that the lower the type of the Hawaiian skull
occipital

more convex and more depressed becomes the

bone

in the posi-

tion answering to the position of the cerebellar hemispheres.

The marginal process of
acter of sex.
I
if it

the malar bone has been accepted to be a char-

to ascertain

took observation on the presence or absence of the process might not also be a character of grade. The contrast of the
fifty-six

presence of the process of

per cent, in the cave series as opposed to
it is

sixty-two per cent, in the coast would indicate that
character.

disposed to be such a

The

sphenomaxillary fissure when admitting the malar bone into
is

its

com-

position expresses the fact that the bone

disposed to be large and the
If

temporal fossa at the region of the frontal

bone deep.

we

accept this

method
but

of reasoning,

we

are not surprised to find that the malar bone enters
it is

into the fissure in seventy-two per cent, of the cave series, while
in sixty-five

present
if

per cent, of the coast.

The

contrast

is

striking even
(see

the

above attempt

at explanation

be not accepted.

Froment

Henle's Anat-

omic) notes three hundred and seventy-five skulls in which in one hundred and five times the malar bone entered the fissure on both sides and eighty-five
times on one side.

The
coast.
It

suture trace

on the inner side of the malar bone

is

present in twenty-

cent, of the eight per cent., only, of the cave series, while in forty-seven per

will

be convenient to present some of the foregoing variations in
:

columns, as follows
Hard
Palate.

CAVE.

COAST.

.

.

.24,
.

89 per cent.

22, 85 per cent.
4,

Parabolic

.

.

i,

4 per cent.
7 per cent.

15 per cent.

(Hyperbolic U-shaped

.

.

.

2,

o

Foramen Lacerum Medium.
. . .
.

25, 83 per cent.
I,
4,
1

27,

87 per cent.

Closed

.

.

.

i

3 per cent.
3 per cent.

o
4,

(Open Nearly

closed

.

.

.

13 per cent.

The opening was

small in two examples.

The third molar was absent. . ." Conceptum Cerebellum Opisthion . 9. Not in Sphenomaxillary . 75 per cent. Marginal Process on Malar Bone. A.. . . 50 per cent. 53 per cent. "Skull-rest. . . aged twenty-one years. 9. 8. 37 per cent! 12. 26 per cent. 6. 27 per cent. but its space in the alveolar arch was reserved.. 65 per cent. 21 percent. the second right lower molar showed a supplemental denticle 10 mm. . 15. 28 per cent. 2092. (In No Fissure trace 8. 2. 17. N. the right second premolar had not been .. 44 per cent.23. . 6.. Not overlapping {Overlapping Nasal Vestibule.. . 2091. 27 per cent. 34 per 15. n. 32 per cent. 34 per cent. {Suture Bone . 10. S. 28 per cent. COAST. though the second permanent premolar had not taken its place. 50 per cent. 8. 10. 20. . {Macrolophic Analophic Temporal Ridge. 24. . 8. . 54 per cent. . 26 per cent. 78 per cent. . 23. 33 per cent. . The Teeth The A. 46 per cent. On the left side the tooth had been lost. 1 1. 72 per cent. 15. .FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS CAVE. .. . . . 12. n. 62 per cent. Microlophic . 33 per cent. o 8. .. Suture trace on Malar . 22. 73 per cent. Serrate {Harmonic . on Malar Bone 47 per cent. 68 per cent. Malar Bone. . . 67 per cent. Sphenomaxillary Fissure 21. 56 per cent. 28 per cent. 20 per cent. . 21. teeth exhibited much variation in size and anomaly. 9. . i Present \ Absent . Spinous Process. 22. 16. S. No. 20 per cent. . cent. 39 per . . cent.N. o 16. Interrupted . 65 per cent. Lambdoidal Suture.. 72 per cent. 1 Not interrupted . . 13.21. 19. ( . Condyloid Process Mastoid Process . . No. 6 per cent. jaw the second right deciduous molar remained in position. long on the buccal border posteriorly in the upper . 6.

N. In No. possessed a molar was present. A. The No. from side to side. The skull can be regarded as an example of retarded development. The body of the lower jaw was markedly convex on the lower border.. S. right side. It was composed of six large cusps. H. with which tooth functionally associated. The third upper molar left was not erupted.. The second and third upper molars were with protocone occupying the entire the metacone was rudimentary. In No. while they nodular third molar. while ing parts of the opposite side are flat. age twenty-five years. the third upper molar showed a supplemental cusp interposed on posterior border between metacone and hypocone. in- left upper premolar clined forward the canine. 1999. In a Princeton skull the third upper molar on both had not been erupted.. A. S.. 2092. assume. Effects of Disuse bones is alteration in the a statement accepted by all The establishment of and I the initial loss or tendency is of importance to study in every instance. . S. N. formed.. 2087. S. the left third molar was absent. within outward and 10 mm.. The left third molar resembled in form that of the pre. the No. U. I75 2 A. N. the third upper molar was very large. The second lower third lower molar. No. hypocone were rudimental and reduced were absent in the small to a mere posterior hem. while the hypopalatal aspect of the tooth cone was absent. the hypocone of the first molar extended forward back of the protocone in the second molar the metacone and sides was absent. and like this tooth retained an accessory opening to the outer supplemental cusp. S. or possibly may never have appeared.. The That disuse creates anatomists. the deciduous second premolar had been retained on the right side and but recently lost on the left. It appears to have been arrested in growth at about the thirteenth year. as in No. A. measuring 13 mm. 2094. A. The it is f-f. The genial spine was enormous and double. exhibited lower molars lateral upper incisor almost conical. first upper molars 433. The right exoccipital bone was smaller than the and de- The lower central incisors have been prematurely lost. N. The disposition for the the correspondright squama and parietal to be very convex is marked. when the second per- manent premolar should have made its appearance. A. N. 2089. 1105. though the space for third upper molar it had been reserved. both in the interest of the etiology . N. side of the S. The inferior dental canal. molar.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 42 HAWAIIAN SKULLS erupted. No.

84). The changes subsequent to their interval between the right premolars by moving the loss first premolar forward while having no influence upon the second. I believe it is tenable to associate this peculiar condition of the teeth with the following statement.. In two specimens only (Nos. 1117. 120. A. If the men deferred the operation. 2088. H. and Nos. but shaved their heads. that the following observation factors in the pathology of a in may be accepted as germane parative study of crania. Nos. 1117. N. In three specimens all the incisors were lost. D. series. burnt their bodies with sharp. of is the cave. It is evident. of the coast It evident that these losses had occurred at a time sufficiently early to permit the alveoli to be completely absorbed. The crown being removed. Ellis states The loss of a single front tooth sufficed an occasion of mourning. or all of the tipper incisor teeth were found wanting in nine speci1 namely. in one the centrals. an oppor- was taken by the women to do it for them while they slept. S. but the mutilations being repeated. U. In a lower jaw without skull (No. three speci- one tooth only in one all the teeth on the left side were wanting.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS of the variation in skull form. 1957. and knocked out their front teeth" is (p... though the root remained in the socket. 165). The natives of the Sandwich Islands were front teeth as a sign of in the habit of knocking out for the death some of the upper that a front tooth for mourning was broken off. S. 1773. The people not only wailed. This corre- . from the fact that more specimens of the premature loss of teeth are tunity found to the in the cave specimens than in the coast. H.. S. few men " were seen with an entire set of teeth (p. A. 1755. S. N. Alexander. of a chief- W. A. N. while the remaining teeth were scarcely at all worn. Dibbles. 2089. in the root. N. that the chiefs were subjected same mutilation as the lower class. and the sagittal suture remained open. as well as in the more restricted problems of a com- the influence of environment over the primary race. pointed sticks.) were the lost teeth to be accredited to age. in two the laterals. According to S. 1757. 1763. U. A. T/ic Loss of Upper Front in tlie determining Important Changes Shape of the Skull Teetli Some mens.) the right canine and the left incisor had increased the had been early lost. it was interesting to note the attempt on the part of the alveolus to cover mens showed loss of . and 2088. A similar account given by W. 1749.

squama The surface for contact of the semiarticular cartilage of the glenoid cavity was much smaller than on the right side. and the suture itself was open. and is associated with the left canine moving forward. The alveolus from the central incisor to the molar series was hard. while there was none on the right. and thin. without lower jaw. and were much larger than on the powerful than the right. the third molar had probably been lost posthumously.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 44- HAWA1IAN SKULLS sponds to the statement made in my memoir on Florida Crania. the teeth had been right. sharp. Specimen No. face all these conditions last On the right side of the were reversed. and no isolated translucent areas left were seen. part of the asterion into which the bone enters was provided half with harmonic sutures on the left side. 1221. were confined to the middle third. but that of the molar series was porose. On the right side the entire region of the the frontal was normally translucent. the individual had lost all the left upper teeth excepting the central incisor. male.. parietal Numerous that the details in the texture of the surfaces of the temporal fossae indicated left temporal muscle had been less The lobate. The suture between two parts of the maxilla in the infraorbital margin was rugose and elevated.. in which had been broken off close to the socket and was partly encysted bone. This hyperos- tosis usually seen in edentulous skulls gave the impression that the retention in position of the last upper molar had not been sufficient to prevent all the left side of the jaw undergoing the same change as though lost. On the right side these left side. which would correspond to loss of masticatory power on the left side of the head as compared with the right. at the same time several small areas on bone were translucent. The left external pterygoid plate left was much narrower than the The squama on the side was provided with numerous coarse denticles at the posterior half of the upper margin. the teeth being scarcely worn. H. The study of the cranium led me to believe that the loss of such an extensive series of teeth might have led to changes in the skull. while on the right they were coarsely left When the skull was examined by transmitted light the was seen to be more opaque. The face seen from in front exhibited osteophytes along the lines of the malomaxillary suture.' that the second premolar relates in the main to the molar series. . The following comparisons were accordingly instituted. The loss of the left incisors leaves an interval of but 7 mm. U. estimated age thirty years. The infraorbital foramen retained an osteo- phyte on the inner margin. A hyperostosis directly back of the molar on the as left side.

that of a male. since shows that they may appear under conditions of disuse. The parts above the alveolus no longer receiving the stimulus arising from impact and not yet entering into the senile state showed the effect of prolonged disuse. forty years of age. other respects the series intact. The specimen the right lower jaw exhibits a large mass of hyperostosis on the free surface of the right condyloid process. B. That absorption should go on in the maxilla of the left side is in full consonance with what is known of the laws controlling use and disuse.> fty* FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS 45 Making allowance for the difference the observer expects to find between the two sides of any skull. the contrasts noted above were of a kind and degree different from what is usually found. 6). * Several examples of hyperostosis of the condyles are described by J. 1104. aged about forty years . Diseased Action caiising Disuse. the harmonic suture left at the posterior part of the temporal fossa. had presumably appeared after the skull had side shows a number of characters due to disuse Notwithstanding that the disease become mature. show weakened temporal muscle. left The small size of the left external pterygoid plate. perforate in the centre. and notably on the corresponding side. the parietotemporal side .* which doubtless interfered with mastication. The infraorbital margin has a minute exostosis on ectomaxillary element at the suture the outer pterygoid plate is . the small impression general of the temporal all fossa. The presence it of the osteophytes on the disused side is of interest. The left zygomatic arch showed the Correlated with these effects of fracture with displacement of the fragments. the affected which are not noted upon the other. the lower border of the malar bone The specimen great contrast between the external pterygoid plates in the above is also a feature in a skull of the Princeton series (No. with resultant Changes in Skull-form The result of disuse are beautifully illustrated in No. Davis s . as shown in the great amount of wear of the molars and premolars. in The teeth on the right side are is lost or worn down to stumps . in this is instance not from loss of teeth but from disease of the jaw. and in my opinion should be associated with the gross changes in the upper jaw in the region of the teeth. line is more remote from the is lambda than on the opposite thin.

and the teeth on the corresponding side of the skull are not worn. of the University of Pennsylvania. In one specimen of the lower jaw. The asymmetry of the external pterygoid plates in is marked in a skull from a dissecting room. and was perforated at its base near the oval foramen. massive. of a nearly edentulous individual. U. indeed. in width. Cryer. The act of chewing. The changes were apparently the results of disuse following the inefficiency of the right mandibulosquamosal articu- . the left in my possession. The left maxillary sinus is open posteriorly and expanded anteriorly. H. and a relatively strong impression for the left temporal muscle. this statement even including the squamosa- The wear of the condyloid process is sometimes so great as to cause the expanded part normally articulating with the glenoid cavity to disappear. Such lower jaws really articulate with the neck of the bone. on the left The ascending process of side and 17 mm. condyle measured but 10 mm. In addition the extended to the spinous process. however. level of the coronoid it process being apparently elongated on the condyloid recedent so that represents a height from the alveolus of 33 mm. The left orbitosphenoidal septum is absorbed in part mously widened. the left external pterygoid plate is much smaller than the right. on the and the sphenomaxillary fissure enorthe malar bone measures 15 right. 1104. but is closed on the It is evident that a blow on the left zygoma had thrown an excess of right. from a dissecting room. which is thus adventitiously converted into a condyle. the muscular impression on this side of the skull.. a markedly dolicocephalic skull. worn away before the the left fortieth year. In No. the result of arthritis at the right condyloid process. in diameter. in length and 7 mm. labor in mastication on the teeth of the right side. They were.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 46 HAWAIIAN SKULLS conditions. In a second specimen the condyloid process had been worn away to the the beginning of the posterior dental canal . The right plate left measured 15 mm. had with prominent glabella a large outgrowth of bone. The skull was that of a nearly edentulous female whose sutures were parietal suture. a greatly reduced condyloid process of the lower jaw. the collection of Professor M. mm. closed. had strengthened From disuse the parts on side remained uniformly less developed than on the right. was accompanied with numerous minute changes in the corresponding half of the skull. and the left 2O mm. Coincident with the larger plate was obliteration of the articular eminence. H. The alisphenoidosqua- mosal suture remains open on the base of the skull.

the midtemporal crest 53 mm. N. on left. The . mm. as in No. from the sagitta on the right.. while. No people. on right 35 mm. Diseased Action Among due to the difficulties associated with craniology the changes of form. though is must be said that the tendency increased among the civilized.. pretty nearly to the amount of new bone deposited on the at its pedicle. narrower than the left a greater distance from the orbit to the alveolus at the side. in which similar outgrowths were noted is in the infraorbital region of the weaker side.. a skull of light texture and thin walls. right condyloid left process by reason of the old arthritis. H. however primitive they have been free from these pathological conditions. the right upper orbital margin was straight or nearly so. 34 X 38". from the same on the left. distant on the left mm. while no exostosis was seen on the left side. the distance being while on the left side it is but 66 mm. the greater coracoid height was on the right side.. U. 40 mm.. yet which showed large shelf-like projections of the superior semicircular line of the occipital bone. H. a difference which answers 71 mm. 1109. two sides were as follows: h right. S. A distinct though small exostosis was seen at the junction of the ectal and endal tributaries to the infraorbital margin. and the suggestion received that in the skulls generally the weaker or less well-nourished specimens are apt to exhibit the greater number of nodosities or 'osteophytic outgrowths. appear to prominent place. exhibited two small nodosities on the left side of the frontal bone in the temporal fossa. 35 X h 38". this tendency is shown even in the crests at borders of some muscular impressions. as it is 48 mm. While the greater measurement in the above enumeration was on the left side. distant from the lambda.. second molar on the right side as compared with the left. In addition to these the orbito- sphenoid was perforated I am of the opinion that the exostosis noted in the above specimen on the weaker side harmonized with the appearance in the specimen No. and the posterior part of the temporal right 41 where it was but 22 mm. U. 1761. thus indicating in low degree of development of the right temporal muscle.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS and are as follows: the right teeth less worn than the left. the right ramus of the lower jaw was 3 mm. holds a may it be. left. No. 1121. a difference of 19 . disease. lation. A. while the left was greatly inclined downward the orbital measurement on the . one being on the line of the closed coronal suture.

The The alisphenoid at the floor of the right level of the orbit was occupied by a large vacuity. H. with concomitant disposi- Two tion to superficial hyperostosis. as shown in the increased thickness of the cranial vault. were very light specimens. A suture lines were numerous. U. . In No. orbit exhibited a large vacuity near the infraorbital canal. 1112.. probably rheumatic. Among following : the appearances to be noted in the Hawaiian skulls are the defects in maxillae preosteoporosis ostitis and hyperostosis . facial effects of measles on the conformation of the bones. both towards the nasal chambers and towards the sphenomaxillary distended and porose. the teeth were much the age of the individual was not where the outer wall was convex posteriorly. Statements are here made more detail respect- ing these conditions. 1756. and the exostoses on the inner side of the lower jaw in the northern examples of man in groups than others . and the frontal and sphenoid bones in the temporal fossae were rugose. are of greater Gross variain probably pathological in frequency some may be named the auditory exostoses so among common among Peruvians and the islands of the South Seas. where the tuberosity was conspicuously over forty years. mature closure of sutures. in character. tions. and third molars were protruded from their sockets. minute exostoses. these America. and arthritis. and confined to the region of the face. The maxillary sinus on each side was inflated back of the malar process. . are familiarly seen in every osteological collection. The turbinated bones were perforated by numerous foramina. S.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 48 HAWAIIAN SKULLS determining the time of the closure of sutures. and exhibited the effects of interstitial absorption. and the second was co-ordinate. Nos. Osteoporosis A. the exostoses on the tympanic bones were conspicuous. 1756 the process of absorption was more diffuse. While fissure. It has been already noted (page xiii) that the cave skulls were disposed to osteoporosis. and had caused . disposition to hyperostosis Ossicles in the facial lost. 1112 the process was less developed than in No. In No. the inability of the base of the skull to resist flattening from the weight of the effects of malnutrition in superimposed head . the hyperostosis.. no matter of what people or of what grade. N. and 1756. The process for the superior oblique muscle was prolonged. while the coast skulls were in prone to effects of ostitis.

plates of the frontal The alisphenoid. teeth unworn. The only specimen possessing a lower jaw was No. the skull was light. the postglenoid process was rudimentary.. A. 1760 and 1751. and conspicuous exostoses were seen in the external auditory meatus. while on the right this cusp was rudimental. Maxillary tuberosities were greatly pitted and rugose. a similar absorptive area No. The sconce was marked in with numerous depressions in the same locations as in the specimen this region which deflected had given way. and orbital for bones were the locations in Hyperostoses were present the tympanic bone as numerous venous openings. S. N. the marginal hyperostosis for A remarkable nodule mm. The lambda was also the seat of a similar exposure. the outgrowths on the tympanic bone in the external auditory meatus. A. in width the origin of muscle at the occiput.. N. The condyloid process had undergone inflation and sub- sequent wear. at the lower orbital margin. 1749.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS 49 the outer plate of the parietal bone to give great extent on the left way and expose the diploe to a bone at the vertex. near the stephanion. In No. the inner wall of the right orbit had in great part description. S. the disposition to porosis was moderate in degree. exhibited the teeth distinctly protruded. while not over thirty years of age. in front of the tuber. about fifty years of age. and. given way.. 4 . The left side of the hard palate was remarkably and had the best developed teeth. 1751. basiocciptal. the second molar having the side of the corresponding tooth hypocone well developed. 1751. yet the tendency to exostosis marked. 1760. The frontal and sphenoid bones were distinctly rugose as they entered into the composition of the temporal fossae. was seen on the floor of the left orbit. and to a slight extent on the right bone near the coronal suture. 2094. The pyramidal processes were of great size (see page 31). The uncinate processes were placed transversely to the axis of the nasal chamber. as well as the floor along the line of the infraorbital canal. The sinuses of face were inflated. it entered into the com- position of the external auditory meatus. A. N. chiefly in the suture lines of the face. while detectable in Nos. No. While these outgrowths were so conspicuous. The bone was massive and exhibited a convex lower margin to the body. S. 1 1 at base was attached to the frontotemporal crest. The process of absorption shaded off. The teeth were scarcely prolonged. was not present in sufficient degree to demand detailed No. The specimen. This is noted in many places. yet the sagittal suture had disappeared.

coarsely lobate. give the impression that many of these skulls had been collected after the natives had become infected with syphilis. large. the coast series showed action. thirty-five. diseased. No. wide. the result of abrupt changes ing to the in ostitis. the presence of node-like swellings. Nasal bones compressed. skull. Ostitis of the at bones of the vertex. Coronal suture wide. apparent in the bones of the nasal chamber.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 50 HAWAIIAN SKULLS Ostitis Besides osteoporosis. After loss of molar teeth. left frontal on both sides. ostitis of frontal bone. Marked symmelrical convexity seen below No. . Nasal bones almost nil. many evidences of diseased Knowing it. Alveolar process diseased and prematurely absorbed. the skull of a in part destroyed. of the terrible devastation to which the natives were subcontact. due to the wearing away of the outer half of the process. No. The molars and second premolars and alveolus absorbed. a good example of a dolichocephalic with large prenasal lost. depression on bone apparently the seat of a syphilitic gumma. Central incisors . involving the nasal bones the sutures in the orbits closed. 1023. Excessive ostitis in right nasal chamber. it is jected after European not strange that the bones should in some sense record In No. instead of the customary absorption of alveolus a hyperostosis set in. fossa. Sharp and Libbey at Kipakai The only effect of inflammation being be free from syphilis. especially considering the degree of angulation. apparently from syphilitic ostitis. and open. Wormian bones A rudiment of transverse occipital suture present the frontotemporal crest. 2003. Much Age. low present. Hyperostosis of the Condyloid Process of the Lower Jaw retaining the Normal Division of the Articular Surface In i86/ 3 I described the variations in the form of the condyloid process. 1863. evidently syphilitic inflammation of childhood. probably post mortem. caries of the turbinals. 2000. stephanion. No. No. diseased.* appear to The specimens obtained by Messrs. Lambdoidal suture very large. Much ethmoidal suture broad and Front teeth knocked out. narrow. coarse. excepting that between the ethmoid lost and lachrymal bones. which are doubtless of inflammatory origin. and the tendency for the inner half (being rela* The following notes on crania which were collected left their after diseases of European origin had impression on the natives may prove of interest. bones and vomer were young woman. The contour of the sconce in many of the coast crania belong- Academy of Natural Sciences. probably from caries. 1957. 1860. the The superficies of the turbinated face were covered with a new growth from the periosteum.

U. the superior maxillae exhibited a peculiar stunting in the regions of the sinuses. The bones of the vertex and the interior of the nasal chamber showed the effects . 1 1 14. from this examination. 1749. in the main.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS 51 lively free from friction effects) to S. coast.. unis checked by pressure from an opposed bone. A. 1120. of the ethmoid bone. though the teeth were well formed. probably of syphilitic origin. though of the same kind going. Notwithstanding the confusion naturally incident to these combinations. A. H. U. In No.. that the exosparts of the canal. toses result. S. U. Nos. 1112. thus demonstrating that a pathological process is limited to the areas which have already been determined by physiological action. H. The anterior sur- No.. N..) No. 1860. the effects were less marked. 1749. aged eighteen as in the fore- years. aged about thirty years. possessed a peculiarity similar to the above. S. In seven specimens the exostosis was confined to the upper margin of the tympanic bone as it entered into the composition of the meatus. aged thirteen faces were deeply concave beneath the orbits. years.. Tympanic Exostosis Tympanic in the External Auditory Meatus exostosis was noted in twelve specimens. 1 124. Good examples are seen in Nos. less The conclusion that some bones continue to grow. See also page 46 for description of hyperostosis of the condyloid process changing the form of the skull. In specimen No. as outgrowths of the tympanic bone. (See description of this skull under the head of Premature Closure of Sutures. 1752. 1999. 1756. 1 124 and 1 1 14. extend upward and inward. of chronic inflammation. the inner and outer regions are clearly separated by an irregular fissure. H. showed the effect on the incisors and canines of an inflammation of the gums at a time before the teeth were erupted. Defects in the Maxilla In two cave specimens. In two examples only was the outgrowth in the form of elliptical swellings in adjacent It would appear. N. N. similar tendencies are seen in the styloid process Instances of and the perpendicular plate a tentative conclusion. at the condyloid process exhibits great wear on both same time indicating effects of diseased action. A. and Nos. the left inner and outer facets. The specimens were equally distributed between the cave and coast series.

suture from the In the inner two-thirds of the line all traces of the suture are lost. lambda 1 1 14. The obelional foramina are absent on both Measurements of the Skull Height parietal bones in No. but in other respects the skull seems normal. early obliteration of the suture is am of the opinion that this tendency to pathological. Bregmasquamosal Bregma-auditory i'5 . that of a youth about nineteen years of age. and at the asterion is is open. Left. IO 5 " " 15 '45 . in childhood. while the coast teen instances of the same. . Premature union of the sutures of the Hawaiian skull has been noted by B. is evident. 1114: Right. OBLITERATION OF RIGHT HALF OF THE LAMBDOIDAL SUTURE. was unable to give the condition of the suture individual. . .. On page 53 several instances are noted of the premature closure of the sutures of the orbit.. J.. Wormian left appearing at the asterial point... in it is seen that the closure of the suture tends to take place earlier I than other races. is which not seen on the The parieto-occipital suture is The loss of the right suture open throughout... accompanied by a depression on the right all side of the skull from the sagitta to the parietal eminence. in showed is thir- When the average age of the two series borne mind. and Bregmatic Bregmasquamosal Length Pterioasterial Length Coronal Length Lambdoidal Length . who gives brief descriptions of some of them.. right parieto-occipital remark- able for the disappearance of the to near the asterion.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER 52 HAWAIIAN SKULLS Premature Closure of The cave the Sutures series exhibited twelve instances (nearly one-half) of absolute or almost absolute closure of the sagittal suture. The is speci- men No. much weight I in ascertaining the age of the No connection between the state of the suture and the degree of tooth wear could be ascertained. U. 126 122 92 97 90 97 98 96 80 1 90 1 Sagittosquamosal Circumference over Tuber " 30 38. Davis. H. . The parietal bones retain the subacuminate eminence seen sides. a small left.. at least earlier than in the European. the skull being as In the outer third the suture position smooth as over the parietal eminence.

N. 10 mm. less on the mm. 695. and the interfrontal suture was open. and 124. longer. the skulls as numbered H. the measurement on the sagittoleft side. however. which was about thirteen years of age. The right than on the skull height is while the greater on the right 5 mm. A. often contrasts . H.. With the excep- tion of 1124. is excepting on the lambdoidal border. and the bregma-auditory circumference greater by 10 mm.. S. U. where the affected side circumference. The remaining 1 skulls (Nos.. more. can be compared. A.. all much the The measurements of the facial region were as follows : . S. The six-year molar was erupted in all. S. An Account of a Child's Skull whose Teeth exhibit the Effects of Measles on the Enamel : these Appearances being correlated -a'ifh Changes in the Facial Bones in Six skulls of children are not accounted for the above enumeration. and the interfrontal suture was closed. N. the skulls were from individuals barely twelve years of age. squamosal suture being 8 is bregmasquamosal side by 4 mm. 1680. N. for the general appearances of age were in same. Still. In two of these the six-year molar had not been erupted.. 2096.) will receive some notice.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS 53 The measurements The of the two parietal bones are in essentials the same. A. U.

The interior of the nose shows signs of inflammation. and all the single-rooted teeth are intervalled on the left side. while there is none on the right side. the deep recession of the anterior aspect of the body of the maxilla. I I have described a new graphic method of have endeavored to establish the proposition. and Asymmetry a small pteriotic bone being found on the left. It is fair to assume that the skull. the wide megaseme orbit. The central in- on the crowns near the cutting edges. what extent does the action of the exanthemata modify the skull in our before the people? The deformities in the Hawaiian child were impossible To own How many of the measles came to the community of which he was a part. so different from other Hawaiian crania of about the same age.e. narrow. was terribly devastating. yields the sequelae of a virulent type of the disease. that . the remaining singlerooted teeth are gibbous (i. The attack. caused by the operation of the law of transmission of acquired characters.TRANSACTIONS OF WAGNER HAWAIIAN SKULLS lying nearly parallel to the inner wall of the orbit. Reflecting upon these features I was lead to ask myself the question. A wide interval lies between the centrals. being confined to the right side. and the disappearance of the intermaxillomaxillary suture on the hard is seen in a prenasal fossa.. which has cisors are pitted characteristic impressions. certain kind is Yet precocity of a seen in the closure of the sutures in the infraorbital margin palate. produce a gradual alteration in the ethnic type which is unknown to the peoples to whom the exanthemata are also unknown ? Concluding Remarks In the study just completed collating measurements. under-developed facial region. abruptly convex at the base of the crowns posteriorly) : all the teeth are stunted. deformations of our own children's heads are due to the exanthemata whose To what ravages are familiar in the communities of which they are a part? extent do these diseases. the survivors exhibiting many evidences of the ordeal through which they had passed. until it other appearances above noted are probably the outcome of the It must be recalled that measles was unknown to the Hawaiians It was brought to them by the Europeans. an What cause can be given And why should the individual ? ? I for these features occurring in so oldest skull in a series of four it young show the smallest face proportions venture to believe that left is to be found in an attack of measles. all indi- cate a pinched.

Philadelphia. Amsterdam Verslagen. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 410. but to the study of the effects of nutritive and even morbid processes upon the skull form. 1867. 1827.. 18. ALEXANDER. 6. 1843. 4. DiHin. 11. DAVIS. Crania from the Mounds of the Journal John's River. Sandwich Islands. Philadelphia. W. 1884. St. Journal Anatomy and Physiology. page KI. page 218.S. TURNER. BERNARD. page 177.." methods of living. page 136. The Long Voyages of the Ancient Hawaiians.. FLOWER. xx.. J. ALLEN. ix. Recherches sur plusieurs Points 1854.MEKSOX... American Book 1891. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1896. page 43. 1892. xix. J. vol. B. London. 156. page . Voyage H. fol. WHITNEY. Report on Human Crania. THOMAS. 1893. Missionary Tour through Hawaii. 1837. 1861. Company. vol. May 18. xi. TURNER. DuMorxiKR. 17.. Akad. 1 6. 8. Osteological Catalogue. W. HARRISON. Voyage au Pole Sud (Astrolabe Anthropologie. 10. 2. C. 15. N. 12. Uber die Schadelform der Sandwich Insulaner. W. H. A Brief History of the Hawaiian People. x. Dental Cosmos. ALLEN. of 1859. SHELDON. CHAI-IX. and some degree to differences of mental strength in individuals. have suggested that some of the contrasts that obtain in the proportions of the face of the crania after European contact may be traced to the impress made upon the individual by the action of the exanthematous diseases. Challenger.r.LIS. page 62. Labainaluna. et Zelee).. d' Anatomic. HALBERTSMA. K. Dental Cosmos. FROMENT. 3.. Florida. page 75. No. M. 1893. Travels in the 1867. 1885. page 55. Thesaurus Craniorum. New Series. WM. Uber Schadel von Sandwich Insulaner Ethnologische Schriften. 1897. 4. 7.FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE HAWAIIAN SKULLS " in the differences between the crania called here the are not due to race but to cave and the coast crania. LITERATURE 1. London.M. vol.. RETZIUS. vol. 13.. 5. 9. Academy of Natural Sciences.s. I). DWIGHT. H. UHDE. J. vol. W. page 325. Paris.. The cave series represents the dominating I and superior type and the coast series the weak and conquered type. ALONZO. Proceedings Hawaiian Historical Society. W. i. 1864. plate 32. HARRISON.. F. 14.. I remain skull is of the opinion that the interest attached to the study of the human not confined to attempting to limit race. plates 1-3.

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