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3, March 2011

**A digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic logistic maps using a fuzzy controller
**

Mouad HAMRI #1 , Jilali Mikram #2 , Fouad Zinoun &3

#

Mathematics and computer science department, Science University of Rabat-Agdal 4 Avenue Ibn Battouta Rabat Morocco & Economical sciences and management department, University of Meknes Morocco

hamri.mouad@gmail.com 2 mikram@fsr.ac.ma 3 fouad.zinoun@gmail.com

1

Abstract—In this paper we will present a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic logistic maps and using fuzzy logic (FL-CM-EA). Many papers was published in the recent years about encryption algorithm using chaotic dynamical systems thanks to the set of very interesting properties guaranteed by these chaotic dynamical systems: high sensitivity to initial conditions, ergodicity, simplicity of implementation..., that can be used to conceive efﬁcient cryptosystems. The main idea of this paper is the usage of a fuzzy logic set of rules to control the next iteration of our proposed iterative mechanism using a set of logistic maps. An introduction to chaotic dynamical systems and logistic map is given followed by an introduction to fuzzy logic. A complete speciﬁcation of the proposed algorithm is presented with a set of security analysis tests that show the efﬁciency and the high security level of the algorithm.

and the quantum machines that can be a reality soon. Chaotic dynamical systems present a very important tool to build efﬁcient and secure cryptosystems thanks to their high sensitivity to initial conditions, their ergodicity propriety, their simplicity of implementation and also the very interesting execution time that help to have a real-time applications. In this paper we propose an encryption algorithms using not only one logistic map but a map of many logistic maps and the iterations are deﬁned using a set of fuzzy logic rules. The rest of this paper will be as follow: section 2 introduces chaotic dynamical systems and logistic map, section 3 introduces fuzzy logic, section 4 presents the proposed algorithm with some results, section 5 presents the security analysis tests and ﬁnally section 6 concludes this paper. II. C HAOTIC DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND LOGISTIC MAP Roughly speaking, a dynamical system ([1-4],[11-12]) consists of two ingredients: a rule which is described by a set of equations and specify how the system evolves and an initial condition from which the system starts. It can be deﬁned also as a system of equations describing the evolution of a mathematical model where the model is fully determined by a set of variables. The logistic map (that will be used in our algorithm) is a very famous discrete dynamical system used in many researches when dealing with dynamical systems and chaos. It is deﬁned on the set [0, 1] and can be written: xn+1 = rxn (1 − xn ) Where x0 represent the initial condition, n ∈ N and r is positive real number. In reality, there is no universal deﬁnition for chaotic dynamical systems. The following deﬁnition tries to deﬁne a chaotic dynamical system using three ingredients that almost everyone would agree on. Chaotic dynamical system: Let f : X → Y a function (X, Y ⊆ R). The dynamical system x = f (x) is said to be chaotic if the ˙ following proprieties are satisﬁed:

Keywords: cryptography, logistic map, fuzzy logic, image encryption, security analysis, dynamical systems, chaos theory. I. I NTRODUCTION Today the community network applications in the internet are been used by billions of people around the world and this usage rate is growing continuously. This implies that more and more amounts of information is being transmitted over the internet. The data being transmitted includes all kind of information format: text, audio, video, image and a lot of other special formats. Images are used widely in our daily life in almost our communications, these communications includes military communications, banks transactions and many other communications where the security is really mandatory. This lead to conclude that image security is a very important topic in our internet communication world. Many algorithm have been proposed in the last years to solve these security issues, using the classical encryption algorithms such as RSA or EL-Gamal or using the elliptic curves. The problem with the previous algorithm is that their security relies on the fact that it is not feasible with today’s machines to factorize a large number or to solve the discrete logarithm problem but this may not be true in the near future especially with the recent advances in machines performances

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

1- Sensitive dependance on initial conditions:∀β > 0, ∃ε > 0 there exists a point y0 ∈ X and k > 0, such that: | x0 − y0 |< β ⇒ | xk − yk |> ε. 2- Density of periodic orbits:The ensemble of periodic orbits: {x0 ∈ X, ∃k > 0, xk = x0 } is dense in X. 3- Deterministic: means that the system has no random or noisy inputs or parameters. The deﬁnition above is applied to both discrete and continuous dynamical systems. The logistic map is a chaotic dynamical system and presents a very high sensitivity to initial conditions for r between about 3.57 and 4 (approximatively). Fig.1 shows the bifurcation diagram of the logistic map.

For TS fuzzy rules and unlike Mandany fuzzy rules, TS fuzzy rules deﬁne the output variables as a function of the input variables. If we take the same example as before, a TS fuzzy rule can be described as follow: IF x1 in S1 and x2 in S1 THEN y1 = f (x1 , x2 ) and y2 = g(x1 , x2 ) Where f and g are two real functions of any type. In general, the steps followed to construct a fuzzy controller are: 1) Identifying and naming the fuzzy inputs and outputs. 2) Creating the the fuzzy membership functions. 3) Constructing the fuzzy rules (Mandany or TS rules). 4) Deﬁning the defuzziﬁcation process (convert fuzzy outputs to crisp outputs). The ﬁgure Fig.2 shows an example of a possible fuzzy controller.

Fig. 1.

Bifurcation diagram of the logistic map

III. F UZZY LOGIC In the 1960s, Lotﬁ Zadeh invented fuzzy logic [16,17], which combines the concepts of crisp logic and the Lukasiewicz sets by deﬁning graded membership. One of Zadehs main insights was that mathematics can be used to link language and human intelligence. Many concepts are better deﬁned by words than by mathematics, and fuzzy logic and its expression in fuzzy sets provide a discipline that can construct better models of reality. Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in the opposite of the crisp logic which is a two-valued logic (binary logic). Fuzzy logic involves linguistic variables with a truth value in the interval [0, 1], it involves also fuzzy sets and fuzzy inference. Every fuzzy model uses fuzzy rules which are linguistic ifthen statements. These rules are linking the inputs variables to the output variables, they simply deﬁne the control logic. Two major types of fuzzy rules exist: Mandany fuzzy rules and Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy rules. An example of a Mandany fuzzy rule for a fuzzy system with two inputs and two outputs can be described as follow: IF x1 in S1 and x2 in S1 THEN y1 in S3 and y2 in S4

Fig. 2.

Diagram of a fuzzy controller

In the next section, we will present our encryption algorithm and we will describe all the parameters of the used fuzzy controller. IV. T HE ALGORITHM The proposed algorithm (FL-CM-EA) takes as inputs a plain-image P and a 128 bits key K then generates as output the cipher-image C. The main idea of the algorithm was to use not only a simple logistic map to generate the encryption (decryption key) but to use what we have called ”fuzzy-logistic-map”, which is also a function from the interval [0, 1] to itself, using three fuzzy rules and three logistic map (we can use as many logistic maps and fuzzy rules as we want but in this paper we will use three).

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**(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
**

IT ER

If we call the three logistic maps LM1 , LM2 and LM3 then the fuzzy rules are as follow: 1) IF x IS M1 THEN FLM(x)=LM1 (x) = r1 x(1 − x) 2) IF x IS M2 THEN FLM(x)=LM2 (x) = r2 x(1 − x) 3) IF x IS M3 THEN FLM(x)=LM3 (x) = r3 x(1 − x) For the rest of this paper, we will use the following values: r1 = 3.95, r2 = 3.9 and r3 = 3.8. The fuzzy sets M1 , M2 and M3 membership functions f1 , f2 and f3 are deﬁned as follow: f1 (x) = f2 (x) = f3 (x) = −2x + 1 0 2x −2x + 2 0 2x − 1 if if if if if if

1 0≤x≤ 2 1 2 ≤x≤1

**– KFi =( l=1 F M L(i + l)2 ) ×256 mod 256. – Run the FLM generator and stop after IT ER.
**

•

0≤x≤ 1 2 1 2 ≤x≤1 0≤x≤ 1 2 1 2 ≤x≤1

•

•

**For the defuzziﬁcation process, we use a center average defuzziﬁer and the crisp value of FLM(x) is: F M L(x) =
**

3 i=1

µi LMi (x)

3 i=1

µi

Where µi represents the degree of membership of x in Mi . Before presenting the algorithm, the following notations are presented:

P K C Pi Pi (R, GorB) F LMi Li (x0 , N ) F plain-image 128 bits key cipher-image ith pixel of P Red, Green or Blue value of the pixel i fuzzy-logistic-map value after i iteration Value of the logistic map i starting from x0 after N iterations A map from the set of 32 bytes numbers to the interval [0, 1]

•

Step 3:Using the generated key, we will generate the image C as follow: – C0 (R) = (P0 (R) + KF0 ) mod 256. – C0 (G) = (P0 (G) + KF0 ) mod 256. – C0 (B) = (P0 (B) + KF0 ) mod 256. and: For i in [2, n]: – Ci (R) = (Pi (R) + KFi + Ci−1 (R)) mod 256. – Ci (G) = (Pi,j (G) + KFi,j + Ci−1 (G))) mod 256. – Ci (B) = (Pi,j (B) + KFi,j + Ci−1 (B))) mod 256. Step 4: We reverse the data of the image C : For i in [1, n]: – Ci = Cn−i+1 Step 5: ﬁnally we construct the cipher-image C by repeating the step 3 using the image C : – C0 (R) = (C0 (R) + KF0 ) mod 256. – C0 (G) = (C0 (G) + KF0 ) mod 256. – C0 (B) = (C0 (B) + KF0 ) mod 256. and: For i in [2, n]: – Ci (R) = (Ci (R) + KFi + Ci−1 (R)) mod 256. – Ci (G) = (Ci,j (G) + KFi,j + Ci−1 (G))) mod 256. – Ci (B) = (Ci,j (B) + KFi,j + Ci−1 (B))) mod 256. End

**The encryption algorithm description can be summarized as following:
**

• •

Begin: Step 1: We begin by generating an initial condition x0 ∈ [0, 1]: x0 = F (K). Step 2: In this step we generate a key vector KF of size n where n is the number of pixels of P using the function getKey: KF = getKey(x0 ). The function getKey is deﬁned as bellow: Run the FLM generator and stop after IT ER iterations (the initial value is x0 and IT ER is an iteration parameter). For i in [1, n]:

•

The decryption algorithm is identical to the encryption algorithm, it receives as inputs the cipher-image C and the 128 bits key K (the same used for the encryption) and returns as output the plain-image P. The only difference between the two algorithm is the step 3 and step 5 which are deﬁned as below for the decryption algorithm. • Step 3: – C0 (R) = (C0 (R) − KF0 ) mod 256. – C0 (G) = (C0 (G) − KF0 ) mod 256. – C0 (B) = (C0 (B) − KF0 ) mod 256. and: For i in [2, n]: – Ci (R) = (Ci (R) − KFi − Ci−1 (R)) mod 256. – Ci (G) = (Ci (G) − KFi − Ci−1 (G)) mod 256. – Ci (B) = (Ci (B) − KFi − Ci−1 (B)) mod 256. • Step 5: – P0 (R) = (C0 (R) − KF0 ) mod 256. – P0 (G) = (C0 (G) − KF0 ) mod 256. – P0 (B) = (C0 (B) − KF0 ) mod 256. and: For i in [2, n]: – Pi (R) = (Ci (R) − KFi − Ci−1 (R)) mod 256. – Pi (G) = (Ci (G) − KFi − Ci−1 (G)) mod 256. – Pi (B) = (Ci (B) − KFi − Ci−1 (B)) mod 256.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

In the next section, we will present the security analysis tests performed on our algorithm. V. S ECURITY ANALYSIS In this section we will discuss the security analysis of our algorithm such as key space analysis, sensitivity analysis (with respect to both the key and the plain-image) and ﬁnally statistical analysis as any robust encryption algorithm should resist these attacks. The computation was done using a PC with the following characteristics: 1,8GHz Core(TM) 2 Duo, 1.00 Go RAM and 120 Go hard-disk capacity. A. Key space analysis The used key for our algorithm is a 128 bits key which means that we have 2128 possibilities to generate a secret key. With such large key space, the encryption algorithm can be considered secured. In addition to that, the chaotic system that we are using to generate the cipher-image is highly sensitive to initial condition which will guarantee that having this large key space both key and plain-image attacks will not affect the security of the algorithm as we will see in the next sections. B. Sensitivity analysis An efﬁcient image encryption algorithm should be highly sensitive to the secret key and to the plaint-image, which means that a single bit change in the encryption key will lead to a very different cipher-image from the initial cipher-image and similarly, only a pixel change in the plaint-image should lead to a very different cipher-image from the initial cipherimage. We will present in this section the results obtained by changing one bit in the encryption key and one pixel in the plain-image and we will see the effects on the cipher-image. Before starting our analysis, we will introduce some famous statistical measures that we will use in the next sections. The ﬁrst measure that we will talk about is the statistical correlation between two vertically adjacent pixels, two horizontally adjacent pixels and two diagonally adjacent pixels. To compute this measure, we ﬁrst take randomly a set of adjacent pixels (vertically, horizontally or diagonally) from the image (let’s say 1000 pairs) then we calculate their correlation using the formulas: rxy = Where: 1 E[x] = N D[x] = 1 N

N

going to be this time :(C1 (i, j),C2 (i, j)). Other measures are going to be used to compare two images C1 and C2 as the Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR) deﬁned as below: i,j D(i, j) × 100% N CP R = n Where n is the images size (number of pixels) and:D(i, j) = 0 if C1 (i, j) = C2 (i, j) and D(i, j) = 1 otherwise. The Uniﬁed Average Changing Intensity (UACI) will be used as well and it is deﬁned as: C1 (i, j) − C2 (i, j) 1 × 100% U ACI = n i,j 255 Here C1 (i, j) and C1 (i, j) are grey-scale values of the images pixels. 1) Key sensitivity analysis: Key sensitivity is a required property to ensure the security of any image encryption algorithm against some brute-force attacks. To test the key sensitivity of the proposed algorithm, we have generated randomly an encryption key: ”0CDA03C2D734F06C48A33ECBE3178632” then we encrypted an original image P using this key to obtain the image C1. We then slightly modiﬁed the key by changing the most signiﬁcant bit to obtain: ”8CDA03C2D734F06C48A33ECBE3178632”, and using this key we’ve encrypted the same original P message the obtain image C2. Finally, we did the same as the last operation but changing the least signiﬁcant bit to obtain the key: ”0CDA03C2D734F06C48A33ECBE3178633” and using this last key we encrypted the original image P to obtain the image C3 (see ﬁgure Fig.3).

Fig. 3.

From the left to the right: original image P, C1, C2 and C3

cov(x, y) D(x) D(y)

N

We have calculated the correlation, the NCPR and the UACI of each two of the three cipher-images C1, C2 and C3 (Table I, II and III). For the obtained results we can see clearly that a negligible correlation exists among the three images even if they was produced using the same original image and with a slightly different keys. We can see also that the rate of change NPCR, the intensity of change UACI are really high,then we can conclude that our algorithm is very sensitive to encryption key change.

xi

i=1

(xi − E[x])2

i=1

cov(x, y) = E[(x − E[x])(y − E[y])] We will use also to compare two images C1 and C2 , their correlation deﬁned as above but the used pairs of pixels are

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Image 1 C1 C1 C2 Image 2 C2 C3 C3 Correlation -0.000291 0.000004 -0.001109

TABLE I C ORRELATION BETWEEN THE IMAGES C1, C2

AND C3 OBTAINED BY SLIGHTLY CHANGING THE ENCRYPTION KEY ( ONE BIT CHANGE )

Fig. 4. Image 1 C1 C1 C2 Image 2 C2 C3 C3 NCPR 99.6037% 99.6077% 99.6039%

The image P1 (left) and the image C1 (right)

TABLE II NCRP OF THE IMAGES C1, C2 AND C3

OBTAINED BY SLIGHTLY CHANGING THE ENCRYPTION KEY ( ONE BIT CHANGE )

Image 1 C1 C1 C2 UACI

Image 2 C2 C3 C3 TABLE III

UACI 49.8139% 49.7397% 49.8706%

Fig. 5.

The image P2 (left) and the image C2 (right)

OF THE IMAGES C1, C2 AND C3 OBTAINED BY SLIGHTLY CHANGING THE ENCRYPTION KEY ( ONE BIT CHANGE )

2) Plain-image sensitivity analysis: After studying the key sensitivity of the proposed image encryption algorithm, we will study now its plaint-image sensitivity. The algorithm should be also sensitive to any small change in the plaint-image which means that changing only one pixel in the plaint-image should lead to a very different cipher-image. This property will guarantee the security of the algorithm against plaint-image brute-force attacks. To test the sensitivity to plaint-image, we will take an original image (P1) then we will encrypted it (we call the cipher-image C1), and we will randomly change a pixel in the original message then will encrypt the image again (P2) to obtain a new cipher-image C2. We repeat this a last time again to obtain a new image (P3) and a third cipher-image C3 (we have used as encryption key:”0CDA03C2D734F06C48A33ECBE3178632”) (see Fig.4, Fig.5 and Fig.6) As we did for the previous section, we will calculate the correlation, the NPCR and the UACI between each two of the three cipher-images (Tables IV, V and VI). Again, the obtained results show that a negligible correlation exists between the three cipher-images and we can see also that the rate of change (NPCR) and the intensity of change UACI are really high. Form the previous results, we can conclude that our algorithm is very sensitive also to plain-image change. C. Statistical analysis After studying the security of the proposed algorithm against some brute-force attacks (key sensitivity and plainimage sensitivity), we will study in this section the security against statistical attacks. To perform this study, we will consider an original

Fig. 6.

The image P3 (left) and the image C3 (right)

Image 1 C1 C1 C2

Image 2 C2 C3 C3

Correlation -0.0840 -0.0192 -0.0377

TABLE IV C ORRELATION BETWEEN THE IMAGES C1, C2

AND C3 OBTAINED BY CHANGING ONLY ONE PIXEL OF THE ORIGINAL IMAGE

Image 1 C1 C1 C2

Image 2 C2 C3 C3

NCPR 99.6825% 99.8608% 99.8608%

TABLE V NCRP OF THE IMAGES C1, C2 AND C3 OBTAINED

BY BY CHANGING ONLY ONE PIXEL OF THE ORIGINAL IMAGE

Image 1 C1 C1 C2 UACI

Image 2 C2 C3 C3 TABLE VI

UACI 51.3027% 53.2280% 46.2083%

OF THE IMAGES C1, C2 AND C3 OBTAINED BY CHANGING ONLY ONE PIXEL OF THE ORIGINAL IMAGE

image P that will be encrypted to obtain a cipher-image C (we have used also as encryption key:”0CDA03C2D734F06C48A33ECBE3178632”). We then compare their histograms and compute for each image the values of its two vertically adjacent pixels correlation, two

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horizontally adjacent pixels correlation and two diagonally adjacent pixels correlation.

1) Histogram comparisons: Fig.7 and Fig.8, presents the histograms of the images P and C.

VI. C ONCLUSION In this paper we presented a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic logistic maps and using a fuzzy controller (FL-CM-EA). The introduction of the fuzzy controller helped to use a set of logistic maps instead of one logistic map and therefore increased the randomness of the generated inputs. We have tested also the robustness and efﬁciency of the proposed algorithm by performing a set of security analysis as the key space analysis, the key sensitivity and the plaint-image sensitivity analysis and some other statistical analysis as the histogram and the pixels adjacent correlation analysis and all the results demonstrated the high level of security of the proposed algorithm. R EFERENCES

Fig. 7.

The image P and its histogram

Fig. 8.

The image C and its histogram

We can see clearly that the histogram of the image C is almost uniform and very different from the histogram of the image P. This result conﬁrms that statistical attacks based on the histogram analysis can’t give any clue to break the algorithm as all the statistical information of the image P are lost after the encryption.

2) Adjacent pixels correlation comparisons: The last statistical analysis performed is the adjacent pixels correlation. We calculate for each image (P and C) the three adjacent pixels correlations: vertically, horizontally and diagonally. The table VII shows the obtained results.

Image P C

H Adj Corr 0.7773 -0.0055

V Adj Corr 0.8895 0.0093

D Adj Corr 0.7507 -0.0007

[1] V.I. Arnold, Ordinary Differential Equations (Springer, Berlin, 1977, 1992). [2] Huaguang Zhang, Derong Liu, Zhiliang Wang, Controlling Chaos: Suppression, Synchronization and Chaotiﬁcation (Springer, London, 2009). [3] James D. Meiss, Differential Dynamical Systems (SIAM 2007). [4] V.I. Arnold, Geometrical Methods in the Theory of Differential Equations (Springer, Berlin, 1988). [5] V.I. Arnold and D.V. Anosov, Dynamical Systems I (Springer, Berlin, 1988). [6] Yu. A. Mitropolsky and A.K. Lopatin, Nonlinear Mechanics, Groups and Symmetry (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1995). [7] Yu. N. Bibikov, Local Theory of Analytic Ordinary Differential Equations, Lecture Notes in Mathematics (Springer, Berlin, 1979). [8] A.D. Bruno, Local Methods in Nonlinear Differential Equations (Springer, Berlin, 1989). [9] V.I Arnold, Mathematical methods of classical mechanics, (2nd edition, Springer, 1989). [10] Bellman R., Stability theory of differential equations , (MGH, 1953). [11] R.C. Schmitt and K. Thompson, Nonlinear Analysis and Differential Equations, An Introduction (Aug 2000). [12] P. Hartman, Ordinary Differential Equations (John Wiley and Sons 1964) [13] George D.Birkhoff, Dynamical systems (American Mathematical Society 1991) [14] Floriane Anstett, Les systemes dynamiques chaotiques pour le chiffrement : synthese et cryptanalyse (These) (Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1) [15] A. Menezes, P. van Oorschot, and S. Vanstone Handbook of Applied Cryptography (CRC Press, 1996) [16] F. Martin McNeill, Ellen Thro, Fuzzy logic a practical approach (AP PROFESSIONAL, 1994) [17] Zadeh, L, Fuzzy sets, Information and Control (1965) [18] Kamyar Mehran, Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Modeling for Process Control (Newcastle University 2008) [19] Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, and Ossam S. Farag Allah, An efﬁcient Chaos-Based Feedback Stream cipher (ECBFSC) for Image Cryptosystems (SITIS 2006) [20] Mouad HAMRI, Jilali Mikram and Fouad Zinoun. Chaotic Hash Function Based on MD5 and SHA-1 Hash Algorithms (IJCSIS Vol. 8 No. 9 DEC 2010)

TABLE VII

VERTICALLY, HORIZONTALLY AND DIAGONALLY ADJACENT PIXELS CORRELATION OF THE IMAGES P AND C

From the obtained results, we can see clearly that the pixels of the plait-image P are strongly correlated while a negligible correlation exists between those of the cipher-image C. This result shows again that the proposed algorithm can be considered as secure against statistical attacks.

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In this paper we will present a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic logistic maps and using fuzzy logic (FL-CM-EA). Many papers was published in the recent years about encryption al...

In this paper we will present a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic logistic maps and using fuzzy logic (FL-CM-EA). Many papers was published in the recent years about encryption algorithm using chaotic dynamical systems thanks to the set of very interesting properties guaranteed by these chaotic dynamical systems: high sensitivity to initial conditions, ergodicity, simplicity of implementation..., that can be used to conceive efficient cryptosystems. The main idea of this paper is the usage of a fuzzy logic set of rules to control the next iteration of our proposed iterative mechanism using a set of logistic maps. An introduction to chaotic dynamical systems and logistic map is given followed by an introduction to fuzzy logic. A complete specification of the proposed algorithm is presented with a set of security analysis tests that show the efficiency and the high security level of the algorithm.

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